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Plus Size Model Ashley Graham Writes Essay On Being Healthy At Every Size. Pregnacy. Over the past few years we have been in the middle of chase netbanking, a body revolution. We#8217;ve seen the Essay about Teen, insane rise of plus size fashion thanks in large part to bpd examples plus size bloggers sticking their digital middle fingers at Essay Teen the rest of the industry clearly making a statement that they can give consumers what labels, designers and examples, brands often cannot. The slow diversification on Essay about Teen Pregnacy, the major runways of the utopian examples, world is also a huge signal that this is not just a fad or a trend, but an Teen, attitude shift in the way we are viewing bodies in our modern and global culture. Wilkes Memoir. Now that the Teen Pregnacy, industry is catching up to examples the rest of the world and Essay, realizing plus size fashion and Fluid and Electrolyte in Diabetic and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic in the Emergency, plus size models are not a smaller niche market (especially since 14-16 is the about Teen, average size of an American woman and therefore they could be considered the from, majority of consumers) there have been a handful of about Teen, models that are now making a name for themselves on the international fashion stage, on par with the other #8220;supers#8221; like Gisele, Adriana, Heidi, Tyra etc. And Hostility?. One of Teen, those stand-out names is Ashley Graham, the woman who Vogue credited as one of the people who have revolutionized fashion for the modern era. In an essay she wrote for and Defense Mechanism Essay The Edit online magazine, Ashley went into depth as to about Teen Pregnacy how her upbringing and body image have had a huge impact on how successful her career has been. Fluid And Electrolyte Management In Diabetic Ketoacidosis State Emergency Department. Ashley started modeling while she was in Essay about Pregnacy high school. Fluid Management Ketoacidosis. She was flown around the world on Essay about Pregnacy, jobs, and became the first model for Essays Jennifer Lopez#8217;s plus size range. She was a size 10. At age 17 she moved to New York, and despite being told she didn#8217;t look like an Teen, editorial model, she quickly began booking jobs at Fluid and Electrolyte and Hyperosmolar Emergency Department Vogue, Elle and Teen Pregnacy, other high fashion publications.

Her agency IMG played a huge part because not too long ago they decided to cause aggression and Hostility? Essays nix all their body categories and promote each model in the same manner. Essay About. Despite being a plus size model, she describes constantly being asked to gain or lose weight. At one point she gained 25 lbs, going up to bpd examples a size 18, but today she feels she is at Essay about Pregnacy her healthiest at size 14, and that is and Electrolyte in Diabetic State Department not because of an industry standard or an about Teen Pregnacy, agency mandate, it is what she feels is Memoir examples right for Essay about Teen her body. #8220;[It#8217;s] a size Ive maintained for the past eight years. Do Anabolic Steroids And Hostility?. Its not about Essay Teen Pregnacy conforming; its a size I feel good at. I am always being asked to gain or lose weight, but I am at utopian a point now where I dont care anymore. I love my body, I love my super-hourglass shape and about, I love showing it off,#8221; she says. One of the side effects smoking, reasons she gives for having such a strong sense of self-confidence is Essay her mom. From a young age she constantly told Ashley she was beautiful, but beyond that her mom was also setting a great example for her daughter about examples beauty. Essay About. #8220;My whole life she told me, You have to love who you are. You have an amazing personality, you have a great heart.

Just be who you are. I think being told I was beautiful by Wilkes Memoir Essay my mom made the difference. Teen. My mom never said, I feel so ugly, she never looked at marriage china her face and said, I need a lift. I never saw her looking at herself negatively and therefore I never looked at myself that way.#8221; In lieu of having a body positive role model around every girl growing up, Ashley believes this is where plus size models speaking positive messages into the world are crucial. For instance, she will says she will not lose 30 lbs all of Essay about Teen, a sudden and chase netbanking, claim how much happier she is, and she refuses to Essay Teen Pregnacy airbrush her photos on smoking, Instagram. #8220;I think that you can be healthy at any size and Essay Pregnacy, my goal is to Steroids aggression and Hostility? Essays help and about Pregnacy, educate women on aggression and Hostility? Essays, that. It doesnt matter if youre a size 2 or 22, you can be healthy as long as youre taking care of your body, working out, and telling yourself I love you instead of Essay Teen, taking in the negativity of beauty standards.#8221; In an marriage china, industry where there needs to about Teen Pregnacy be more options for chase women#8217;s sizes, and not all brands are willing to about do this, Ashley doesn#8217;t believe every label has to follow suit. Her idea about netbanking promoting positive body image goes beyond just a number on a label. Essay About Pregnacy. #8220;I dont think every store or designer has to make plus-size pieces, but I think if we get the majority on board to start thinking of bpd examples, a normal womans body, thats where the change is Essay Pregnacy going to be,#8221; she says. It#8217;s the chase, attitude that will make all the about Teen, difference, and chase, the media also needs to get on board with this. #8220;We need role models for young girls who say, Embrace your curves. Who cares that your body isnt perfect? Theres too much anorexia, obesity and suicide in this generation and nobody is addressing the issue.

Young girls dont have much to Essay about Pregnacy look at, curvy women are not on Fluid in Diabetic and Hyperosmolar State in the Emergency, covers of about, magazines, theyre not talked about on examples, social media as much as other celebrities,#8221; she said. #8220;There needs to Teen Pregnacy be more education in schools, because thats where eating disorders start. Bpd Examples. Its not just about Essay about Pregnacy being healthy; its also about loving who you are.#8221; Ashley believes words have power, just as much as representations we see in effects from smoking fashion, advertising and Teen Pregnacy, the media. Where these three areas have failed to provide the and Electrolyte Management in the Emergency Department, confidence and positivity for about Teen women to feel good about utopian examples themselves in Essay Teen Pregnacy their own bodies, bloggers, writers, artists, photographers and everyday people have stepped up to the plate and provided invaluable resources for other women, especially online. Do Anabolic Steroids Essays. Unfortunately we live in Essay about Pregnacy an age where we can#8217;t rely on Paul Memoir, the fashion world or even schools to Essay about send the right message. We have to find alternative sources, and Sigmund Mechanism, it has to Teen Pregnacy start from a young age. Do Anabolic Steroids Aggression And Hostility? Essays. #8220;I think people need a purpose and my purpose is helping women who dont love their bodies to embrace them. Having a purpose in life has made me feel like I am meant to about Pregnacy be here. Wilkes Essay. Im meant to spread the Essay, word and Sigmund Freud Mechanism, change beauty and body standards in Essay about Teen the fashion industry. And even outside the from, industry, in my whole community,#8221; she said. #8220;Things are happening, its exciting. Now is the time: people want to know about curvy women.

We are in the middle of Essay about Teen, a great conversation, and we still have years before we hit the peak, but this is the beginning of in ancient, a great adventure that is Essay Pregnacy going to chase go on and on, I really believe that. Curves are here to stay. Ashley was one of the international plus size models who formed a group in Essay 2014 called ALDA, where they go to schools and organizations to effects from smoking speak to women about body image in an attempt to Essay Teen shift attitudes toward a more inclusive definition. Bpd Examples. They are in about talks with the UN about examples doing a panel discussion, which gives you an idea how needed these messages are on Pregnacy, a bigger, more corporate and cause, institutional level. But underneath it all, at the ground level, it starts with an individual mindset, toward yourself, and Essay about, toward bodies in side smoking general. #8220;If you dont love who you are, you are never going to feel 100 percent satisfied in about Pregnacy life. Sigmund Freud. It all starts with you. Essay About. If you dont love you, nobody else is going to be able to.#8221;

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nyu essay 3 ideas Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of about Teen Pregnacy, your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. Fluid And Electrolyte Management In Diabetic Hyperglycaemic State In The Emergency. You have to Essay about defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to Fluid Management Ketoacidosis Department believe them. So you can't just say: My view is that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for about, P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to Paul Memoir Essay examples accomplish. It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on the table for Essay, consideration. Then it goes on to do one or two of the following:

Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for marriage in ancient china, the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to Teen the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by Management and Hyperosmolar in the, their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for Essay Pregnacy, the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of utopian, your own position. Teen Pregnacy. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to and Electrolyte in Diabetic and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State in the Emergency persuade such an audience. Essay. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it.

People very often attempt to chase netbanking accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of Essay about, this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to Paul Wilkes Memoir Essay establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Teen. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and chase netbanking that you're able to think critically about about Teen Pregnacy, it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to human thought. There will be plenty of time for marriage in ancient, that later on. Essay Pregnacy. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to cause aggression and Hostility? Essays other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground.

But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and Teen start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is marriage in ancient china important to Essay think about these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention.

It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an outline is at least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the cause and Hostility? writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Essay About Pregnacy. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two. Then you should come back to it and Do Anabolic Steroids aggression and Hostility? Essays rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. Teen Pregnacy. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point? Are parts of Do Anabolic aggression Essays, your draft unclear or confusing to them?

All of Essay about Pregnacy, this takes time. So you should start working on your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about chase, this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and Pregnacy write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. Wilkes Essay. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for Essay, a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it.

So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of utopian examples, your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Essay Teen Pregnacy. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. Chase. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the Essay structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by.

Before I say what is Wilkes Memoir Essay examples wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Pregnacy. Further support for chase, this claim comes from. About Teen. For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P.

My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because.

Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of X's replies to cause Essays my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to Pregnacy believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says.

However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is? You want it to utopian examples be just as easy in Teen, your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in Wilkes Memoir examples, doubt about whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of Essay about Teen, your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both.

We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about bpd examples, a given topic, trying to Teen Pregnacy show how learned and intelligent you are. Wilkes Memoir Examples. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out everything else. Essay Pregnacy. It is always better to concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to Do Anabolic Steroids cause Essays cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the about Teen central problem or question you wish to address at utopian the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is Essay Teen a problem. Be sure that everything you write is and Electrolyte in Diabetic and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic Department relevant to that central problem. Essay Teen Pregnacy. In addition, be sure to marriage say in the paper how it is relevant.

Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to about Pregnacy be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in utopian, the first place. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the Teen topic much thought in Wilkes Essay examples, advance.

This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of about Teen Pregnacy, examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for Paul Wilkes, explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. Essay About Teen Pregnacy. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and chase you want to assert the Teen claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. Examples. It will also make a big difference to Essay about Teen Pregnacy how persuasive the rest of your argument is.

By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is examples a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to Teen kill a fetus. For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on what the in ancient author means by person.

The author should be explicit about about, how he is chase using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to Essay Teen Pregnacy use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. Fluid In Diabetic And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic. You just have to Essay about Teen make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of rational thought and chase netbanking self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and about chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only chase, call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it.

And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for about, the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and then switch to talking about bpd examples, Plato's view of the soul, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to about Teen be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the handouts on Management Ketoacidosis Emergency, Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Essay About Pregnacy. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them.

You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for Wilkes Memoir Essay, instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like. About Teen. Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the same meaning.

Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them?

Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Utopian. Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of Essay about, somebody else's position or argument. You have to chase get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the Essay about other humanities.) A lot of the utopian work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right.

You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and Teen so you haven't yet fully understood why the netbanking view's proponents are attracted to Essay about it. Cause Essays. Try harder to figure out Essay about Teen Pregnacy what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination.

Try to figure out Paul Wilkes Memoir examples what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of Pregnacy, X is Fluid and Electrolyte in Diabetic and Hyperosmolar in the Department a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on Pregnacy, a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to chase tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though.

You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Essay About Teen. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on aggression and Hostility?, to do. Sometimes you'll need to Essay about Teen Pregnacy argue for your interpretation of X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. It is Paul Wilkes Memoir permissible for you to about Teen discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of Do Anabolic cause and Hostility?, that view in Pregnacy, the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of netbanking, some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. About Teen Pregnacy. (Be sure to specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly.

It is seldom necessary to Steroids quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. About. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. Chase Netbanking. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. Teen Pregnacy. And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the cause Essays quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to Essay Pregnacy give some examples to illustrate the author's point.

If necessary, you may want to distinguish the author's claim from bpd examples, other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to Essay about explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to Paul Memoir Essay examples the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. About Teen Pregnacy. By ideas I mean the faint images of these in thinking and reasoning. Here's an example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. Bpd Examples. The difference is in how much force and Essay Pregnacy liveliness they have in utopian examples, our thoughts and consciousness.

The perceptions with the about most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the utopian faint images of our thinking and reasoning. Essay About Pregnacy. There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the Paul Memoir Essay examples author understands the text. In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in Essay, his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the marriage meaning of the text.

In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. Essay About Teen Pregnacy. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and examples liveliness in about Teen, our thoughts. Bpd Examples. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the same. Essay About Teen Pregnacy. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage.

A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the aggression and Hostility? following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. Essay Teen Pregnacy. He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at Paul examples it. It is not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis. It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to Essay hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing.

So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to chase netbanking them all. Essay Teen. You can leave some questions unanswered at Do Anabolic cause aggression Essays the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on Essay about Teen Pregnacy, purpose . Marriage In Ancient. And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and relevant to the issue at Essay Teen hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of chase, understanding the view.

Explain why it's not clear which of about Teen Pregnacy, these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and marriage in ancient you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be. You may come up with some objection to about Teen your view to which you have no good answer. Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to Steroids aggression Essays figure out why you can't fix it.

It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. Essay Teen Pregnacy. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to china be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is Essay about not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the in ancient china 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument.

However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the Pregnacy argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in establishing P. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of Paul examples, how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for Essay Teen, P. P might still be true, for chase netbanking, all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it.

As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. About. Make sure every sentence in marriage, your draft does useful work.

Get rid of any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and about Teen you have the room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in in ancient china, your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you.

It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to Essay about Teen Pregnacy say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is bpd examples a form of murder. About Teen. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean.

But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to marriage in ancient say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to Teen the structure of your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to marriage in ancient china work on the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for Essay about, that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is.

It has to and Electrolyte in Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State be obvious to Essay Teen your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and bpd examples advice. Essay About Teen. I encourage you to do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to and Electrolyte in Diabetic Ketoacidosis Hyperglycaemic State in the Department understand it.

Your paragraphs and Pregnacy your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at all to someone else. Another good way to chase netbanking check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out Essay loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on Do Anabolic Steroids and Hostility? Essays, writing many drafts of your paper. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the about Teen following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Wilkes Memoir Essay Examples. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as.

Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. Essay About Pregnacy. They record the way words are used in Fluid and Electrolyte in Diabetic and Hyperosmolar in the Department, everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the Essay about easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive. For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on china, Mary 's leg before she could get out of the Essay about way), and Essay examples the like.

You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an Essay Pregnacy argument that. ). Don't worry about using the Management in Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State in the Emergency Department verb is or to be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the Pregnacy papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves.

Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of cause aggression Essays, those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper. And don't turn in your only Teen Pregnacy, copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.)

You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about? How good are the aggression arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion.

In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about Pregnacy, what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in Do Anabolic cause aggression Essays, your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are?

Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of Essay Teen, your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and marriage easy to Essay about Pregnacy understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by Do Anabolic cause aggression and Hostility?, this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example?

Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the Essay about Teen Pregnacy need for bpd examples, them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from Essay about Teen, A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to Wilkes Essay examples make in a debate about whether B is true. Essay. Or something else of that sort.

These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of Fluid and Electrolyte Management in Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar State, engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to Essay Teen Pregnacy comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to examples go beyond the specific errors and Essay problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on. Fluid Management Ketoacidosis Hyperglycaemic In The Emergency Department. You can only correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in Pregnacy, your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on chase, it to construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in Teen, unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to improve the netbanking whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to the next grade level. Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that.

Most often, you won't have the Teen opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the chase netbanking draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of about, it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to utopian distribute printed copies).

It's all in the public good.

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The beating of Rodney King: the dynamics of backfire. Published in Critical Criminology, Volume 13, Number 3, 2005, pp. 307-326. A revised and expanded version of this article appears as a chapter in Brian Martin, Justice Ignited: The Dynamics of Backfire (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2007), pp. 43-64. The 1991 beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles police provides rich case material in how an attack perceived as unjust can backfire. Drawing on nonviolence theory, an original framework is developed to analyze attacks as potential backfires that are usually, but not always, inhibited.

Attackers can use a variety of methods to inhibit backfires, including covering up the about Teen Pregnacy attack, devaluing the target, reinterpreting the events, using official channels, and using intimidation and bribery. Writings on the Rodney King beating include evidence on the use of chase netbanking, each of these methods. Studying the Essay about Pregnacy backfire process offers improved understanding on how to oppose unjust attacks. Not long after midnight on March 3, 1991, Rodney King was beaten by officers of the Los Angeles Police Department. King was hit by two high-voltage tasers and then struck dozens of times by and Electrolyte in the Emergency metal batons, as well as being kicked, over a period of several minutes.

More than 20 police were present at the beating, which was illuminated by Essay Teen floodlights from a police helicopter hovering overhead. This event probably would have become just another arrest statistic except for the fact that a portion of the incident was captured on videotape by an observer, George Holliday. After the video was screened on Paul Wilkes Essay examples television, the Rodney King beating became the most well-known case of police use of force in history, with serious adverse effects for the police. About Pregnacy. The reputation of the LAPD took a battering, as the force was widely perceived to be tolerant of brutality. There were vociferous calls for LAPD Chief Daryl Gates to resign. The four officers directly involved in the beating were charged with assault and brought to trial. Aggression Essays. Media attention was intense over the following months, with thousands of newspaper articles published as well as extensive coverage by electronic media. Morale in the LAPD was seriously damaged (Cannon 1999; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993, pp. 1-22). The King beating is an ideal case study for social analysis given the great amount of Essay about Teen, documentation of the bpd examples incident and the subsequent media coverage, trials, and riots. Among the studies undertaken are assessments of the context of racism and social control (Gooding-Williams 1993a), examination of the discursive practices of professionals, namely the police (Goodwin 1994), narrative analysis of media stories about the beating (Jacobs 1996, 2000), and study of the about Teen effects of the beating on public opinion about and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State Department, racial discrimination (Sigelman et al.

1997). Here, the King beating is analyzed using an original framework: the dynamics of backfire. If the beating is conceptualized as an Essay about, attack on King, then it is reasonable to say that the attack backfired: it recoiled adversely on the attackers. That the beating ended up being damaging to the police has been attested by observers of diverse persuasions (e.g., Cannon 1999, p. 228; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993, p. 10) and confirmed by research (Lasley 1994). Examples. Beyond the existence of a backfire effect, though, is the question of what processes either inhibit or promote backfire. To gain insight into the dynamics of backfire, it is valuable to look at other attacks, even though they appear on the surface to be qualitatively different from a police beating. By examining violent assaults are made on peaceful protesters, such as the Sharpeville massacre in South Africa in 1960 and the Dili massacre in East Timor in 1991, it is Essay possible to perceive five principal means by which attackers can inhibit a backfire effect: covering up the Wilkes Memoir attack; devaluing the target; reinterpreting the events; using official channels to Teen Pregnacy give the appearance of justice; using intimidation and Do Anabolic cause aggression and Hostility? Essays bribery.

Challengers can augment the backfire effect by countering these five methods of inhibition, for about Pregnacy example by exposing the bpd examples attack. Backfire analysis is built on the assumption that reality is socially constructed (Berger and Luckmann 1966). Although the video of the King beating has often been assumed to be self-explanatory, in practice it must be interpreted (Butler 1993, p. 17; Gooding-Williams 1993b, p. 165). Defenders of the about Teen police interpreted the events as a fully justified use of force. Reactions to the King beating were part of a struggle over perceptions of reality and what to do in response to those perceptions. In some cases virtually everyone agrees that police use of force was justified; other cases are highly contested. Due to its prominence and the high level of and Electrolyte Management Ketoacidosis Hyperglycaemic State in the Department, disputation, the King beating provides exceptionally rich case material for examination. The analysis here is also compatible with, but different from, the political process model of Ross (2000) for police violence.

This model, consisting of the stages of media initiation, arousal, reaction, and outcomes, is descriptive of about, what can happen after a public case of chase netbanking, police violence; backfire analysis draws attention to tactics used by those who stand to gain or lose from outrage over police violence. In the next section, several historical examples are used to illustrate the five main methods for limiting or amplifying backfire. Subsequent sections apply this framework to the King beating, drawing especially on evidence from a number of books, written from distinctively different perspectives, about the Essay about Teen beating. This analysis shows that the framework of backfire is quite fruitful in placing a range of apparently diverse phenomena into a unified picture. In 1960, about a hundred black South Africans were killed when white police in the township of Sharpeville opened fire on an unarmed crowd protesting against the restrictive pass laws (Frankel 2001).

What became known as the Sharpeville massacre was disastrous for the South African regime, greatly reducing its credibility as a democratic state and leading to a huge upsurge in international solidarity action. On November 12, 1991, hundreds of chase, people were killed when Indonesian troops opened fire on a peaceful protest at a funeral in Dili, the capital of Indonesian-occupied East Timor (McMillan 1992). A British filmmaker with the pseudonym Max Stahl managed to capture the massacre on film and smuggle the tape out of the country. Shown on about television internationally, the so-called Dili massacre had a galvanizing effect on international support for in ancient the East Timor liberation movement. East Timor gained independence less than a decade later, largely through nonviolent struggle (Fukuda 2000). These are two prominent examples of massacres that backfired. Essay About Teen. In each case, official violence that was intended to crush opposition instead had the opposite effect, namely stimulating more resistance. Gene Sharp, the world's leading nonviolence researcher, developed the bpd examples concept of political jiu-jitsu, a term that makes an analogy to the sport of jiu-jitsu, in which the Essay about Pregnacy opponent's strength and force are turned against them (Sharp 1973, pp.

657-703). Do Anabolic And Hostility? Essays. Political jiu-jitsu occurs when violence used against about Pregnacy, nonviolent opponents generates outrage and netbanking rebounds against Essay about Pregnacy, the aggressor. The attack can lead to greater support for the challengers among third parties, among some members of the Do Anabolic Steroids cause aggression and Hostility? Essays attacker group, and among what Sharp calls the grievance group, namely those with potential affinity with the target of the attack. He is careful to about Pregnacy point out that not all violent attacks lead to political jiu-jitsu; context is Paul Wilkes Essay examples important, as is the configuration of forces and tactics used in Pregnacy the struggle. Sharp's case studies and analysis provide strong support for the view that some attacks can be counterproductive. He restricts his attention to violent assaults on Do Anabolic and Hostility? nonviolent protesters, but it is about Teen Pregnacy reasonable to presume that the same dynamics can apply to any attack that is seen as unjust or disproportionate. King was certainly not a nonviolent activist - he was speeding, fled police in a high-speed chase, and resisted arrest - but his beating was widely perceived as unjust or disproportionate to chase anything King had done to the police. This is compatible with the view that there are recurrent moral codes that, in nearly every culture, lead people to respond against perceived injustice, except when strong inhibiting factors are present (Moore 1978, pp. 3-48). This is also compatible with Durkheim's views on norm violation, with the qualification that the norm violation in the sort of cases covered here is by authorities rather than deviant individuals.

I have introduced the term backfire to refer to the reaction against attacks that are perceived to be unjust or disproportionate; in essence, backfire is a generalization of Sharp's political jiu-jitsu beyond the category of nonviolent action. Sharp focuses on political jiu-jitsu as an observed phenomenon. Teen. Taking a cue from Moore's (1978) discussion of factors that can inhibit reactions against injustice, it is possible to look for factors that inhibit outrage. One obvious way to inhibit outrage is to hide the attack. The Dili massacre might have received relatively little attention except for the presence of Western journalists and a film that was smuggled out of the country. Do Anabolic Steroids Aggression And Hostility? Essays. The Indonesian military, after attacking and occupying East Timor in Essay Pregnacy 1975, had cut off virtually all external communication, thereby reducing awareness of human rights abuses. In 1991, a more liberal policy allowed Western journalists to enter East Timor, setting the stage for exposure of the Dili massacre. A second way to inhibit outrage is to devalue the target. In the case of the in Diabetic State in the Emergency Department Sharpeville massacre, South African police blamed the event on agitators in the crowd, a view adopted by many white South Africans, for whom blacks were seen as inherently inferior. Outrage against the massacre was far greater internationally and among black South Africans than among white South Africans. The commander-in-chief of the Essay Teen Indonesian armed forces denigrated Dili protesters as scum and delinquents who must be shot (McMillan 1992, p. 162).

A third way to minimize outrage is to reinterpret the events. Even the most brutal attack against a defenseless victim is Fluid Management in Diabetic Hyperglycaemic State in the Emergency Department not self-explanatory: all social phenomena are socially constructed and hence require interpretation. South African authorities claimed that the large crowd at Sharpeville was threatening the Teen safety of police, whereas other observers detected a more playful atmosphere. In some cases, authorities lie blatantly about events, but in others the attackers and their supporters may genuinely believe an interpretation that justifies the attack. Bpd Examples. For a reinterpretation of events to inhibit outrage, truth and truthfulness are less important than the persuasiveness of competing interpretations. A fourth way to reduce outrage is to use official channels to give the appearance that justice is being done. Following the Sharpeville massacre, the South African government set up a commission of Essay Pregnacy, inquiry to investigate. Fluid And Electrolyte Management In Diabetic State Emergency Department. The aim was to reassure supporters of the government that democratic ways had not been jettisoned. There was a risk that an official inquiry might come up with damaging findings and make matters worse, so a pliant commissioner was sought, but not one who would be so subservient as to lose all credibility (Frankel 2001, p. 188).

After the Dili massacre, there was an official Indonesian investigation that greatly underestimated the number of casualties but did lead to removal of some officials from their posts. International pressure prompted the Indonesian government to prosecute a few members of the security forces for their role in the massacre; however, their sentences were light (Kohen 1999, pp. 170-71). A fifth way to inhibit the expression of outrage is to intimidate or bribe targets, participants, and witnesses. After the Sharpeville massacre, police went through the township arresting anyone involved in organizing the protest.

So effective was intimidation that very few eyewitnesses to the massacre were willing to testify at the commission of inquiry. More generally, potential defectors among the attackers, such as among police or troops who carry out massacres, are commonly deterred by Essay the implicit or explicit threat of reprisals. Similarly, those who toe the line, such as tame officials who ignore or approve an atrocity, often can look forward to career advantages. In the bpd examples tradition of developing grounded theory, I discovered and elaborated these five ways to inhibit outrage by looking at a range of cases, especially at Pregnacy detailed accounts such as Frankel (2001) and at a range of case studies from different fields (Jansen and Martin 2004; Martin 2004; Martin and Wright 2003). Nevertheless, there is a certain logic in Do Anabolic Steroids cause and Hostility? the classification. About. The backfire process can be conceptualized as an event that leads to a perception of a target being attacked unjustly which in turn leads to action. Chase Netbanking. Each of the methods of inhibition engages with a different facet of this process, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. A schematic portrayal of backfire dynamics, with each of five methods of inhibition linked to facets of the Essay about backfire process. Method 1, cover-up, deals with access to information, potentially preventing any perception occurring.

Method 2, devaluation of the target, deals with psychology, especially attitudes about just desert, that affect perception of injustice. Method 3, reinterpretation, deals with knowledge, meaning, and narrative, again affecting perception of chase netbanking, injustice. Pregnacy. Method 4, official channels, deals with justice as formally administered, affecting the reaction to injustice. Method 5, intimidation and bribery, deals with the exercise of power, typically affecting willingness to take action against injustice. The five-method classification has limitations. The methods, in practice, are not fully independent. Netbanking. For example, intimidation can be used to promote cover-up; devaluing the target could be considered to be a facet of reinterpreting the events. Essay Teen Pregnacy. Some of the methods can be subdivided. For example, the utopian examples method of cover-up can be applied to the very existence of an attack, just to the participation of certain parties in the attack, or to the use of intimidation. Any classification scheme is bound to have shortcomings.

The test of this scheme is whether it facilitates understanding of new cases, especially those in Teen entirely different domains. There are correspondences between the five methods for inhibiting public outrage over bpd examples, injustice and psychological mechanisms by which individuals disengage from responsibility for their actions. Bandura (1986, pp. 375-389) lists a number of such psychological mechanisms, such as dehumanizing the victim, euphemistic labeling, and misconstruing the Teen Pregnacy consequences, that can be mapped on the methods of inhibition. Cause And Hostility?. Similarly, Sykes and Matza (1957) list five techniques of neutralization, again as psychological mechanisms for justifying deviant behavior. Of these, denial of responsibility and Essay about Pregnacy denial of injury can be categorized as methods of reinterpretation; denial of the victim and condemnation of the condemners can be categorized as methods of marriage in ancient, devaluation; and appeal to Essay Pregnacy higher loyalties can be categorized as an attempt to replace official channels. In Ancient China. Note that the techniques of about Teen, neutralization apply to deviant individuals whereas the methods for Fluid Management Ketoacidosis in the Emergency Department inhibiting outrage are applied here to Essay deviant authorities. With this prelude, it is now appropriate to look more closely at the King beating.

This will be done by in ancient china examining in some detail each of the five methods of inhibiting outrage, presenting evidence, especially from partisan books about the beating, that illustrates features of the Essay about Teen struggle over reactions to the beating. This is utopian not an attempt to tell the story of the King beating, much less to determine what really happened. Despite the Teen existence of the videotape, the meaning of the events remains contested. The aim here is to show how attackers and their supporters used a variety of methods that inhibited backfire and how critics of the beating countered these methods. The defining feature of the bpd examples King beating is the availability of a videotape recording the event. As noted by numerous commentators, without the videotape, the Essay about beating would have been unlikely to come to chase netbanking public attention (Ogletree et al. Essay. 1995, p. 6; Omi and Winant 1993, p. 97; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993, pp.

3, 190). Cover-up, as a means to inhibit backfire, failed spectacularly in chase netbanking King case. Nevertheless, evidence of cover-ups can be found in the King saga. But first it is worth noting that the usual scenario for cases of police brutality and Essay other misconduct is examples no publicity and little or no negative consequences for police (Ross 2000, p. 199). For example, in about Teen the 1988 Dalton Avenue incident, 80 Los Angeles police trashed four apartments, destroying property and spraying graffiti, and, according to witnesses, beat many people, but this received little media attention (Lawrence 2000, p. 67). Chase. An investigation into police misconduct in the US, stimulated by Teen the King beating, stated: Many cases of police misconduct take place out of the public eye. Often, there are no witnesses to the incident other than police officers and the victim of the misconduct, and thus no one to utopian corroborate the complainant's account. Representatives of Teen Pregnacy, community organizations and legal agencies described the difficulty of pursuing complaints against utopian examples, the police, particularly in the absence of witnesses. Essay Teen Pregnacy. Both police and civilians agreed that, if it comes down to a citizen's word against an officer's story, the police version controls. In the vast majority of cases involving one civilian and one officer the complaint is not sustained. (Ogletree et al.

1995, pp. 60-61). Some of the reported cases of police brutality are far more serious than the King beating and bpd examples seem to have less justification. About Teen Pregnacy. They include beatings without pretext, torture, and killings, some apparently premeditated (Ogletree et al. 1995; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993). From the point of view of Wilkes examples, targets and witnesses of Essay Teen Pregnacy, such cases, cover-up is central to reducing a backlash. The basic means of cover-up is police lying about what happened: Far too many officers lie with impunity about the conduct of a defendant, about what they were able to observe, and about whether proper procedures were followed (Ogletree et al. 1995, p. 57). Other police often know that their colleagues are lying but decline or refuse to speak out against them. This so-called code of silence - sometimes called the blue wall of silence - is a form of police loyalty that inadvertently can sanction abuse (Ogletree et al. 1995, pp.

72-76; Quinn 2005; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993, pp. 108-112). The code of silence was a feature of the examples Los Angeles Police, like many other forces. As described by the Christopher Commission, set up in response to the King beating, the code of silence consists of one simple rule: an officer does not provide adverse information against a fellow officer (Christopher et al. 1991, p. 168). The code of silence is part of the culture of about Teen, many police departments, but it is also enforced by reprisals against those who speak out, as described later in the section on and Electrolyte Management in Diabetic and Hyperosmolar State intimidation. Of crucial importance in Essay the cover-up or exposure of police misconduct is the role of the media. In the conventional social science view of the news, the official dominance model, officials are the primary definers of events. Consequently, most police use-of-force incidents are never mentioned in Management in Diabetic Ketoacidosis Hyperglycaemic the news, and even those that are covered typically receive only cursory treatment, with the official versions of Teen, events predominating (Lawrence 2000, pp.

28-29). In most cases journalists do not even find out about police use-of-force incidents, and Management in Diabetic Ketoacidosis Hyperglycaemic Emergency Department many cases do not conform to usual news values. For example, only a minority of police shootings in the U.S. are reported (p. Pregnacy. 29). The interaction of official lying, the police code of silence, police public relations techniques, and the orientation of utopian, most news to official sources operates to minimize attention to most cases of alleged police brutality.

These processes serve, in effect, as means of cover-up. Regina Lawrence (2000), in her highly sophisticated analysis of media treatment of police use of force, argues that a few exceptional events break through the usual elite-oriented framing of news. The King beating is the Teen Pregnacy most prominent example of an alternative, event-driven media treatment of police use of force. She argues that three factors combined to in ancient china make the beating into about an agenda-setting event: the video, a dramatic political struggle between LAPD Chief Daryl Gates and Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley, and public reaction (Lawrence 2000, pp. 62-85). Though the King beating is the most dramatic exception to the usual pattern of bpd examples, cover-up, nonetheless there are some instances of attempted cover-up in its story. George Holliday, who made the video of the Teen beating, rang the local police station saying he had witnessed a police beating, intending to offer the utopian examples video.

However, the Essay Teen Pregnacy desk officer expressed no interest in what Holliday had to say, nor did the officer record a complaint. Fluid Management Ketoacidosis Department. Given this official unconcern, Holliday offered the Essay about Teen tape to KTLA, a television station in Los Angeles (Christopher 1991, p. 11; Owens 1994, p. 56). In retrospect, it is possible to say that had the officer taken Holliday's call seriously and obtained the videotape, then destroyed it and claimed to have lost it, the scale of the backfire might have been dramatically reduced if not eliminated. Paul King, Rodney King's brother, attempted to make a complaint, but was given the brush-off. Indeed, Paul King was inappropriately asked whether he himself had ever been in trouble (Christopher 1991, p. 10; Owens 1994, p. Steroids Cause. 39). About Teen Pregnacy. But for Paul Wilkes Memoir Essay the videotape, no complaint about police misconduct might have been recorded. When police use violence, they commonly blame deviant, violent suspects (Lawrence 2000, pp. About Pregnacy. 14, 37, 179). Chase. The beating of Essay Teen Pregnacy, King was more likely to generate outrage if King was perceived as innocent, indeed exemplary, not only during his encounter with the Los Angeles police on bpd examples March 3, 1991, but also before and after.

In many news reports of the beating, King was described as a black motorist, with the implication that he had been doing nothing wrong (Cannon 1999, p. 82). Others, though, emphasized King's shortcomings and transgressions, thereby devaluing him as a person and reducing backfire. The officer in charge of King's arrest was Sergeant Stacey Koon, who with the support of journalist Robert Deitz wrote a book about the affair (Koon 1992). A few years later, Deitz (1996) wrote his own book, again focusing on Koon's role. Tom Owens, in contrast, was a former LAPD officer who became an investigator for prosecutions of police for misconduct. He was hired as investigator for King's initial legal team. His book (Owens 1994) gives a very different perspective. Each of these authors pays attention to the characters of both King and Koon, as well as the other indicted police officers.

As might be expected, Koon's and Deitz's books are far more derogatory of King. Koon was proud of the arrest; he considered it a model arrest and was initially pleased that it had been videotaped. In subsequent trials he justified every blow to about Teen Pregnacy King as appropriate and carried out marriage in ancient china according to Teen official procedures. He is also forthright in mentioning a critical perspective on King. The force we used was well within the guidelines of the and Electrolyte and Hyperosmolar State Department Los Angeles Police Department; I'd made sure of that. Essay About. And I was proud of my officers, proud of the professionalism they'd shown in subduing a really monster guy, a felony evader seen committing numerous serious traffic violations. And subduing this guy without the deadly force that all too often accompanies the arrest of a PCP-dusted felony suspect. (Koon 1992, p. 21). Deitz (1996, pp.

31-60) wrote about matters of character, lauding Koon's sterling record, giving extensive attention to King's failings, and claiming that King was treated with kid gloves by the police and courts because he was so well known through the Steroids and Hostility? Essays video. Owens (1994) gives an entirely different perspective. He describes various attempts to smear King by associating him with crimes or by framing him. Essay About Teen Pregnacy. On March 28, 1991, Los Angeles media reported that King was being investigated for two robberies early in the year, with the victims being shown photos of King by officers from the Foothills Division, where key police involved in the beating had worked (p. 103). Owens collected evidence that cleared King, concluding that the episode was a set up by the LAPD meant to mitigate [sic] King's image, detract from his credibility and integrity, make the four cops look good by making King look bad (p.

105). Owens spends some time in his book telling of his personal interactions with King. While Owens certainly does not idolize King - he tells of King's crimes and impulsive and dangerous behavior - he does describe good sides to King, for example King spontaneously spending time with a group of kids, encouraging them to get an education and buying them ice creams (p. Marriage China. 151). Owens concludes that King is neither a hardened criminal nor a saint, but just a man (p. 152). In humanizing King, Owens counters others' denigration. In the Essay about Teen first trial, King did not testify, making it easier for the defense to demonize him; in chase the second trial, he did testify, making him more human to the jury (Cannon 1999, pp. 427-28).

There is no doubt that King is an easy target for denigration, given his limited literacy, his arrest and prison record, and his penchant for drinking and fast driving. In a 1992 article in Vanity Fair, King's failings are recounted, along with criticisms of his lawyer and Essay about Teen others cashing in on the Rodney King trade (Boyer 1992). In an article about yet another arrest of King on August 27, 2003, Horowitz (2003) defends the netbanking LAPD, criticizes liberals, and denigrates King, calling him a self-destructive lout, a pathetic bum, and a reckless criminal. The struggle over the meaning of the beating, including the Essay Teen Pregnacy reputation of the target, thus continues long after the Paul Wilkes Memoir examples event. If backfire can result from a perceived injustice, then an effective way to counter it is to convince people that what happened was not actually what it seemed. In the case of King, most people perceived a brutal police beating of an outnumbered and defenseless man. Police countered this with a different story: that King was a powerful and potentially dangerous threat to the police and that they had followed procedures in Essay Teen arresting him. Stacey Koon, in charge of the arrest, said that the LAPD policy had been followed throughout.

The policy specifies a series of options, with escalating use of force: presence; verbalization; commands; firm grips; pain compliance; impact techniques; and deadly force (Skolnick and Fyfe 1993, pp. Fluid Management In Diabetic Ketoacidosis Hyperglycaemic State. 37-42). On the night of March 3, 1991, police went through the stages of presence, verbalization, and commands, but King did not acquiesce. Koon ordered a swarm: four officers each grabbed one of about Teen Pregnacy, King's arms or legs, but he threw them off. Then Koon used two tasers, whose high-voltage shocks normally bring down the target, but King, unlike most people hit with tasers, was not subdued; he made a charge at officer Powell. Koon believed that King had superhuman strength due to being dusted with the drug PCP. Next on the list of force options was impact techniques. Koon instructed two officers to chase use their batons on King; policy insists that there be occasional pauses between strikes to observe whether the suspect is complying, in which case a lower-force option can be adopted. But, said Koon, King did not adopt the fully prone position demanded by Essay Pregnacy the police; the beating continued until he did. Koon said that the examples arrest was undoubtedly brutal, but it followed procedure (Koon 1992, pp.

25-52; see also Deitz 1996, pp. 61-91). Because the police adopt force options in Essay Pregnacy response to the suspect's behavior, the police attribute their own actions to chase the suspect. Koon claimed that I had been in charge of the officers, but Rodney King had been in charge of the Teen situation (p. Utopian. 45). This theme of King being in about Pregnacy charge was used by the defense throughout the trials and nicely captures the reinterpretation involved. Normally, in charge implies having power or authority, which the police certainly had during the arrest. By portraying King as being in bpd examples charge - validly so, from the Essay Teen perspective of police use-of-force options - the responsibility for the beating was attributed to King. More generally, the defense tried to make King the focus of attention, not the police (Geller and Hemenway 1997, p. 186). In the initial Simi Valley trial, the jurors accepted the police framing of events, finding the four officers on trial not guilty (Osborne 1992). The police thus blamed King for his own beating, whereas most viewers of the video blamed the police.

But the police has multiple meanings: it could mean the four police directly involved in the arrest, the 20 or so other police at the scene who did not intervene, the Los Angeles police force generally, the LAPD as an organizational entity, or LAPD top officials - especially chief Daryl Gates - who were formally responsible for policies, training, and discipline. The popular and political response to the beating opened some divisions between these groups. Gates (1992, p. 316) referred to the beating as an aberration, blaming the Fluid Management Ketoacidosis Hyperglycaemic State Emergency Department individual officers. The Christopher Commission took a more structural view, examining police attitudes, complaint procedures, and official tolerance of brutality, concluding that The problem of excessive force in the LAPD is fundamentally a problem of supervision, management, and leadership (Christopher et al. 1991, p. 32).

Koon blamed not only King but also LAPD managers, especially Gates, as self-interested bureaucrats who protected themselves at the expense of street cops (Koon 1992, pp. 105-9). Some commentators agreed: Cannon (1999, p. 107) noted that because there had been other events equivalent to the King beating, the problem was systemic. One way to reduce the popular outcry from injustice is to refer the matter to official bodies or experts that have a reputation for Essay Teen being independent and fair; commissions of inquiry are commonly set up after prominent incidents of police violence (Ross 2000, pp. 6, 38-44). Memoir Examples. If people believe that justice will be done, they are less likely to Essay about Pregnacy take matters into their own hands; for example, they will be less likely to join a protest group or take direct action. The King beating was seen by many as a blatant injustice, leading to demands and expectations that justice be done, with a range of possibilities for obtaining justice expressed, including penalties for bpd examples the police involved in the beating, resignation of police chief Gates, reform of the police to Pregnacy reduce brutality and penalize its perpetrators, and new policies to redress the economic and chase netbanking political disadvantage of about Teen Pregnacy, poor minority inner-city communities in Los Angeles and elsewhere. The meaning of justice in part depended on whether a person saw the beating as an isolated incident or as a symptom of systemic problems, and on which of the marriage multiple publics the person was a member (Jacobs 2000). Within days of the Essay Pregnacy screening of the Holliday video, a grand jury was formed to look into the beating. This was followed by initiation of an FBI investigation and by the indictment of chase, four Los Angeles police officers (Cannon 1999).

These uses of formal procedures focused on the police involved in the beating, but pressure was intense for more sweeping reforms. Calls for chief Gates to resign reflected an assumption that new policies would be implemented. At the end of March 1991, Gates formed a commission to investigate the beating; at the same time, mayor Tom Bradley also formed one. Essay About Teen Pregnacy. By agreement of the Fluid Management Hyperglycaemic State in the Department two bodies, they combined to form the Christopher Commission, which carried out a thorough investigation in a matter of months, reporting in early July (Cannon 1999). The commission did not examine the culpability of individual officers for the beating, which was a matter for the courts, but instead reported on Essay about Teen systemic problems in the LAPD: the use of excessive force, racism and bias, police culture, recruitment and training, complaint systems, and formal structures for control of the police department and its chief. The commission's report (Christopher et al. 1991) was seen by many as a largely sound and Wilkes examples far-sighted document which, if its recommendations were implemented, would transform the police (Cannon 1999, pp. 121-47). (In contrast, Gates (1992, pp. 347-51) was very critical of the report.) This was quite different from some official reports that essentially whitewash the problems.

After release of the report, pressure mounted on Gates to resign; eventually he announced he would step down in 1992. Attracting far more attention was the trial of the police officers directly involved in the beating (Cannon 1999). All four were charged with assault by force and with unnecessarily beating a person under color of authority, Koon and Powell with submitting a false police report, and Essay about Teen Pregnacy Koon with being an accessory after the fact (Geller and Hemenway 1997, pp. 164-165, 316-317). Marriage. Nearly everyone - the Teen public, journalists, lawyers, and the defendants - expected a guilty verdict on at least some of the charges. Hence, news of the verdict of not guilty for all four officers acted like a shock wave through the country and especially through South Central Los Angeles. The massive riot that ensued can be attributed, in part, to utopian outrage over justice denied or, in other words, to Essay about an extension of the original backfire over the King beating. On the third day of the riots, President George Bush addressed the nation on bpd examples television and virtually promised federal prosecution of the acquitted police officers . the Essay about Pregnacy president and the attorney general felt the prosecutions were politically imperative (Cannon 1999, p. 374; see also Deitz 1996, pp. 96-98). According to Cannon, the government's goal was preventing far-reaching investigations into police conduct and marriage china defusing the concerns of civil rights activists (p.

375). Teen. Enormous government resources were poured into the federal trial of the same four officers; with a different venue and jury composition, plus enormous pressures on the jurors to reach a guilty verdict to prevent further riots, the result was that two of the four officers were found guilty and sent to prison. The system appeared to work and this time no riots or disturbances occurred (Cannon 1999). The two criminal prosecutions of the four officers received saturation media coverage; far less media attention was given to bpd examples system reform in Teen Pregnacy the LAPD. In part this reflects news values that give priority to personalities and conflict. The net effect was to Do Anabolic Steroids aggression personalize the provision of justice and divert attention away from system reform. To point to the role of official channels in reducing backfire is not to reject official channels, especially when they can bring about real change. The point here is about Teen Pregnacy that official channels can be used, cynically or inadvertently, to reduce backfire from a perceived injustice. The media are offered a ritual of normalization in which problems are identified but then handed off to officials to resolve (Lawrence 2000, p. 113). In terms of narrative analysis, the government's initiatives in setting up a commission and holding trials served to retain a romantic narrative - with the in ancient china government as hero (Jacobs 1996, p. 1252). Police abuses are often accompanied by intimidation: the victim may be threatened or arrested.

Far too frequently, the citizen who has just been subjected to police abuse is then arrested and charged with a variety of crimes (Ogletree et al. 1995, p. 42). Sometimes witnesses are charged as well. Many people are afraid to complain about police abuses, fearing retaliation and lack of response, hence complaints are made about only some incidents. Police discourage complaints by resisting the Essay about Pregnacy filing of them, by harassing the complainant, by making threats, and by making arrests. For example, In Virginia Beach, an NAACP attorney was arrested and prosecuted for trespass when he went to chase netbanking the police station to Essay Teen file a complaint about Paul Essay, police misconduct toward an NAACP observer at a major disturbance (p. 56).

Police may also sue citizens who they allege are making false allegations about police misconduct, an example of Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participations (SLAPPs) (Pring and Canan 1996). Most of this intimidation by police is made more effective by being behind the scenes; cover-up and about Teen intimidation go hand in hand. Bribery is another tool to limit backfire. When citizens sue police over alleged misconduct, the result is bpd examples often a settlement in which the citizen receives a pay-out but in return signs a confidentiality agreement that restricts public comment on the case. Evidence about intimidation and bribery can be hard to obtain, given the about Pregnacy reluctance of targeted individuals to talk and the interest of the police in keeping the issue quiet. In the King case, the most extensive account of Fluid and Electrolyte in the Department, intimidation is given by Tom Owens (1994), the former LAPD officer who became an investigator for King's legal team. It seemed every time someone on our side became publicly known, confidential information about that person's background surfaced. Within two days of appearing at a press conference, a doctor who had initially scheduled various specialists to work with King became the Essay about target of a minor scandal. Confidential information about an alleged past problem of the doctor's - an Fluid and Electrolyte Management in Diabetic and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State, overbilling to an insurance company - was leaked to the media 'from an informed source.' As quickly as the smear was out, the doctor resigned from the team. (p.

32). Owens tracked down quite a number of witnesses to the beating of King, most of whom were reluctant to comment, much less testify, due to fear of Teen, reprisals (pp. Chase Netbanking. 93-94, 99-101, 112). Freddie G, one of the two passengers in about Teen Pregnacy King's car during the chase before the beating, was killed a few months later in a car crash. Owens spoke to witnesses who said the car was run off the road (p. 119). Police and others who spoke out critically about the LAPD and chief Gates suffered threats and harassment (pp. 182-87, 249). Police use-of-force experts were highly reluctant to testify at the trials of the four officers: the police code of bpd examples, silence was backed up by Teen Pregnacy reprisals, especially ostracism (pp. 186-87).

Alan Yochelson, one of the prosecuting attorneys in the first trial, told Owens: . we talked to any number of other force and Paul Wilkes examples policy experts, who told us the Essay Teen video showed excessive force. Clearly, there was excessive force on that video, but none of them would go on the record. They said it would end careers. Paul Wilkes. (p. 266). Lou Cannon (1999), in his mammoth account of the King beating and its aftermath, reports some of the same findings as Owens. Cannon recounts how LAPD use-of-force experts refused to testify at the Simi Valley trial. Fred Nichols, who had testified to Essay Teen excessive force at the grand jury, did everything possible to avoid testifying in court, including resisting a subpoena by claiming to suffer stress (pp. 237-38). In the second, federal, trial, LAPD use-of-force expert Mark Conta testified for the prosecution and was subsequently ostracized by fellow officers; Koon called him a whore (pp.

416-17). [Note added after publication: Conta's wife says that he was not ostracized: some people were initially mad at him, but most officers respected him for telling the truth. Kathy Conta, personal communication, 13 June 2006.] One of the four officers involved in the beating, Theodore Briseno, testified against his fellow officers. Management In Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic Emergency Department. He was labeled Benedict Briseno; the LAPD later instigated an investigation of Essay Teen, Briseno for perjury (p. 598). As noted, intimidation is difficult to marriage in ancient document, but even more so is bribery. Were police who adhered to the code of silence and refused to testify against fellow officers rewarded with collegial support, better assignments, or promotions? The processes involved are often unconscious, so producing documentation is extremely difficult. Bribery may be too strong a word to describe the process of rewarding those who do not speak out about an injustice.

The King beating offers an Teen, exceptionally rich and vivid case study showing how what is perceived as an attack can backfire. Steroids Cause And Hostility? Essays. The video enabled this particular beating to break through the media's usual reporting of official interpretations of police use of force, generating widespread outrage, and triggering a major political struggle and crisis of legitimacy. The case provides ample evidence of five methods for about inhibiting outrage: covering up the attack; devaluing the target; reinterpreting the events; using official channels; and using intimidation. This evidence shows that the backfire model, developed out of the study of violent attacks on nonviolent protesters, can usefully be applied to police use of force. Cover-up is a highly potent technique of inhibiting outrage. This suggests that reformers and activists should devote attention to means of Do Anabolic Steroids Essays, exposing abuses. Skolnick and Fyfe (1993, p. 266) adopt openness as a key principle of police reform, arguing that we should routinely videotape police conduct during those occasions where propensity to excessive force are most likely to occur: high-speed chases, interrogations, protests, and Essay Pregnacy riots, a recommendation endorsed by Ross (2000, p. Utopian. 126), though it is important to remember that all videotapes are open to manipulation and interpretation. Other means of challenging cover-ups are to Essay Teen Pregnacy support investigative journalism and examples encourage whistleblowers, something especially challenging and important for police departments where the code of silence reigns.

Devaluing or stigmatizing the target is a familiar technique; it is now commonplace to hear activists called terrorists, a generic term of abuse. More long-standing is devaluation of groups such as people with disabilities, ethnic minorities, the poor, the unemployed, and people with criminal records (Ryan 1972; Wolfensberger 1972). Opposing devaluation is Essay about Teen not easy. Those who are concerned about utopian, justice to all, regardless of status or stigma, need to be aware of techniques of Essay about Teen Pregnacy, devaluation, to be prepared to expose it, and to argue that everyone deserves to be treated with dignity and Memoir Essay fairness. Struggles over about, interpretations of events are a central feature of communication, from Wilkes, news to Pregnacy gossip, so it is not surprising that interpretation struggles are central to backfire dynamics. What is important to note is that interpretation struggles can persist long after an bpd examples, apparently uncontestable documentation such as the Holliday video. News stories and interpersonal communications - from Essay Pregnacy, backyard conversations to chatrooms - are all part of interpretation struggles, which can carry on for months, years, or decades.

For many activists, participation in protests seems more real and substantial than writing a letter to Steroids aggression and Hostility? the editor; looking at backfires suggests that interpretation struggles can be as crucial to the impact of social action as the immediate action itself. Official channels such as courts are often seen as vehicles for providing justice. Analysis of backfire dynamics leads to a rather different view: official channels can be potent tools for dissipating popular outrage against about, injustice. The implication for activists is that official channels should only be used with care, including advance investigation of their effectiveness. Someone studying the fate of complaints against and Electrolyte Management and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic Emergency Department, the police - nearly all of which exonerate the police of any wrongdoing - might conclude that it would be far more effective to write a letter to the newspaper, circulate a leaflet, or call a meeting. As argued by Lawrence (2000), mobilization of popular concern is a key reason why the King beating received such intense media coverage. Finally, intimidation and bribery can be potent tools for about Teen Pregnacy inhibiting backfire, but they are seldom studied. Police brutality is Ketoacidosis State in the often accompanied by Essay about threats and arrests of the Memoir Essay victims, a process that has strong links with cover-ups. About Teen Pregnacy. More widely, many activists and movements have been targeted for harassment and disruption, but there is relatively little written on how to deal with this (Glick 1989). Preparation is crucial, as is refusal to be intimidated and willingness to expose threats and attacks. There is much more to learn about backfire dynamics by looking at individual cases, both where backfire occurs and where it is largely inhibited.

It is marriage worth looking at Teen Pregnacy backfire in bpd examples a range of arenas, including censorship seen as an Essay about Teen Pregnacy, attack on in ancient free speech (Jansen and Pregnacy Martin 2004), torture (Martin and Wright 2003), terrorism, war (Martin 2004), and genocide. Steroids Cause Aggression Essays. By comparing diverse cases, insights can be gained about common characteristics and Pregnacy idiosyncratic features. Studying backfire dynamics thus can lead to ideas on how to promote action to deal with injustice. I thank Don Eldridge, Jeff Ross, Barbara Sims, and examples an anonymous reviewer for valuable comments on drafts of about Pregnacy, this paper and Fluid and Electrolyte Management in Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic Truda Gray, David Hess, Hannah Lendon, George Matheson, David Mercer, and Essay about Teen Pregnacy Greg Scott for Do Anabolic cause aggression Essays helpful discussions. This research was supported by about the Australian Research Council. Bandura, Albert. 1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Berger, Peter L., and Thomas Luckmann.

1966. The Social Construction of Steroids cause aggression and Hostility? Essays, Reality. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Boyer, Peter J. About. 1992. The Selling of Rodney King, Vanity Fair (June):78-82, 158-61. Butler, Judith. 1993. Endangered/Endangering: Schematic Racism and White Paranoia.

Pp. 15-22 in Reading Rodney King/Reading Urban Uprising, edited by Robert Gooding-Williams. New York: Routledge. Cannon, Lou. 1999. Official Negligence: How Rodney King and the Riots Changed Los Angeles and the LAPD.

Boulder, CO: Westview. Christopher, Warren, et al. 1991. Fluid And Electrolyte In Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar State Emergency Department. Report of the Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department. Teen. Los Angeles: Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department. Deitz, Robert. 1996. Willful Injustice: A Post-O.J.

Look at Rodney King, American Justice, and Wilkes Memoir examples Trial by Race. Washington, DC: Regnery. Frankel, Philip. 2001. An Ordinary Atrocity: Sharpeville and its Massacre. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Fukuda, Chisako M. 2000. Peace through Nonviolent Action: The East Timorese Resistance Movement's Strategy for Engagement. Pacifica Review 12(1):17-31.

Gates, Daryl F. with Diane K. Shah. 1992. Chief: My Life in the LAPD. About Teen Pregnacy. New York: Bantam. Geller, Laurence H. and Peter Hemenway. 1997. Last Chance for in ancient china Justice: The Juror's Lonely Quest.

Dallas: NCDS Press. Glick, Brian. 1989. War at Essay Teen Home: Covert Action against U.S. Fluid And Electrolyte In Diabetic Hyperglycaemic Emergency. Activists and What We Can Do about It. Boston: South End Press. Gooding-Williams, Robert, ed. 1993a. Essay. Reading Rodney King/Reading Urban Uprising. New York: Routledge. Gooding-Williams, Robert, 1993b. In Diabetic State In The Department. 'Look, a Negro!' Pp.

157-77 in Reading Rodney King/Reading Urban Uprising, edited by Robert Gooding-Williams. New York: Routledge. Goodwin, Charles. 1994. Professional Vision. Essay Teen. American Anthropologist 96(3):606-33. Jacobs, Ronald N. 1996. Civil Society and Crisis: Culture, Discourse, and the Rodney King Beating. American Journal of Sociology 101(5):1238-72.

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1992. Bpd Examples. Presumed Guilty: The Tragedy of the Rodney King Affair. Washington, DC: Regnery. Lasley, J. R. 1994. The Impact of the Teen Rodney King Incident on Citizen Attitudes toward Police. Examples. Policing and Society 3:245-55. Lawrence, Regina G. 2000.

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The Los Angeles 'Race Riot' and Contemporary U.S. Politics. Pp. Teen Pregnacy. 97-114 in Reading Rodney King/Reading Urban Uprising, edited by Robert Gooding-Williams. New York: Routledge. Osborne, D. M. 1992. Reaching for in ancient Doubt. American Lawyer (September): 62. Owens, Tom with Rod Browning. 1994. Lying Eyes: The Truth behind the about Teen Corruption and Brutality of the chase netbanking LAPD and the Beating of Rodney King.

New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. Pring, George W. and Penelope Canan. 1996. SLAPPs: Getting Sued for Speaking Out. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Quinn, Michael W. 2005. About Pregnacy. Walking with the Devil: The Police Code of Silence. Minneapolis, MN: Quinn and Associates. Ross, Jeffrey Ian.

2000. Marriage In Ancient China. Making News of Police Violence: A Comparative Study of about, Toronto and New York City. Westport, CT: Praeger. Ryan, William. 1972. Blaming the Victim. New York: Vintage. Sharp, Gene. 1973. The Politics of Do Anabolic Steroids aggression Essays, Nonviolent Action.

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Above the Law: Police and the Excessive Use of Force. New York: Free Press. Sykes, Gresham M. and Essay about Teen David Matza. 1957. Techniques of Neutralization: A Theory of Delinquency.

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act essay formulas ACT English Cheat Sheet Sentence Patterns (Look at the punctuation in Teen Pregnacy, each ACT choice as well as the words to china, choose the correct answer.) ( I ntroductory words, phrases, and subordinate clauses are followed by a comma and then a c omplete s entence .) _______CS_____________, and __________CS_____________. Essay Teen! (A comma followed by a FANBOYS word for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so must have a c omplete s entence on marriage in ancient china either side of it.) (A semicolon needs a c omplete s entence on either side of it.) (A colon needs a c omplete s entence before it and a list or explanation after it. Essay About! _____________words, clause, or sentence afterthought. Paul Essay Examples! _______________ words interrupting words rest of sentence. (A dash signals an interruption in ideas or an afterthought. Sometimes a pair of dashes is used (like parentheses) to add information or a thought into the middle of a sentence. Dont separate your subject from your verb with a comma. Wrong (unnecessary comma): Bill Gates , was the richest man in Essay about Teen Pregnacy, the world. In Ancient China! Correct (no comma): Bill Gates was the richest man in the world. Essay About! Dont separate your verb from the rest of the sentence with a comma. Wrong (unnecessary comma): Chocolate may be , the worlds perfect food. Correct (no comma): Chocolate may be the worlds perfect food. Dont separate your preposition from the rest of the china sentence with a comma. Wrong (unnecessary comma): Chocolates as well as , other flavors of candy have been enjoyed for years. Essay Pregnacy! Correct (no comma): Chocolate as well as other flavors of candy have been enjoyed for years.

Do use a comma before (NOT AFTER) a FANBOYS word ( for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so ) if it is followed by a complete sentence. Paul Wilkes Essay! Wrong (missing comma): Bill went to school and Tom went home all by himself. Wrong (misplaced comma): Bill went to school and , Tom went home all by himself. Correct (comma correctly used): Bill went to school , and Tom went home all by himself. Do use a comma to separate three or more items in a list. Wrong (missing commas): Bill bought apples pears oranges and Essay about Pregnacy grapes . Correct (commas correctly used): Bill bought apples , pears , oranges , and grapes . Paul Wilkes! Do use a comma to separate three or more phrases in a list. Wrong (missing commas): Bill looked for his wallet under the Essay about Teen Pregnacy chair cushion in chase, his nightstand drawer and in his car . Correct (commas correctly used): Bill looked for his wallet under the chair cushion , in Essay about Teen Pregnacy, his nightstand drawer , and in his car . Do use a comma to separate three or more clauses in Fluid and Electrolyte in the, a list. Wrong (missing commas): Bill looked everywhere for his wallet: he peered under the chair cushion he went through his nightstand drawer and he searched in his car . Correct (commas correctly used): Bill looked everywhere for his wallet: he peered under the about Teen Pregnacy chair cushion , he went through his nightstand drawer , and he searched in his car . Chase! Do use a comma or commas to separate introductory or parenthetical phrases . Wrong (missing comma or commas): After eating Bill watched television. Bill tired after eating watched television. Bill a lonely man wished he had some friends. Correct (commas correctly used): After eating , Bill watched television.

Bill , tired after eating , watched television. Bill , a lonely man , wished he had some friends. Essay Teen! Use an apostrophe to show ownership or to combine a subject and its verb. Do NOT use an Do Anabolic cause apostrophe to about Pregnacy, make a noun plural. (Toms book, hes, toysNOT toys ) The word its only Fluid and Electrolyte in Diabetic Hyperglycaemic State, uses an apostrophe if the term means it is (its tail; its too late). For a singular noun, add and apostrophe and the letter s (Bills book, monkeys paw, Chriss backpack). For a plural noun ending in s , just add an apostrophe (the Sperrys house, the monkeys bananas). For a plural noun that does not end in the letter s , add an apostrophe and the letter s (mens jackets, geeses droppings). Use a semicolon to join together sentences when they are closely related (use in place of a comma and its accompanying FANBOYS word.) Bill went to school , but Tom stayed home.

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Dashes, Comma Pairs, Parentheses. Do Anabolic Cause Aggression Essays! All of these punctuation marks set off information which is not needed in a sentence to make a complete, understandable sentence. Essay Pregnacy! Bill Gates loved computershe still doesand he uses the money he made from working with them to examples, help others. Dashes set off abrupt breaks in thoughts and can be a complete sentence inside another sentence. Bill Gates, one of the richest men in the world, uses his money to about Teen, help others. Comma pairs set off information that refers back to or renames the Fluid in Diabetic Ketoacidosis State in the Emergency subject. Bill Gates (one of the richest men in Essay about Teen, the world) uses his money to help others.

Parentheses enclose informative information or an Fluid Management in Diabetic and Hyperosmolar State Emergency Department explanation inside another sentence. Parentheses can enclose one sentence inside another sentence. Adjective or Adverb? Adjectives add information to nouns; adverbs add to verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Essay! The most common error that people make is to Paul Wilkes Essay examples, not use an adverb when answering the question how , but they also make errors when choosing between good and well , and when choosing whether to use an adjective or adverb after sensory verbs.

The following examples come from Essay About Teen! Rule 1. Generally, if a word answers the question how , it is an adverb. If it can have an Memoir -ly added to it, place it there. Essay About Teen! Slow does not answer how , so no -ly is marriage in ancient attached. Slow is an adjective here. About! Fast answers the question how , so it is an adverb . But fast never has an -ly attached to it.

Rule 2. Marriage China! A special -ly rule applies when four of the senses - taste , smell , look , feel - are the verbs. Do NOT ask if these senses answer the question how to determine if -ly should be attached. Instead, ask if the sense verb is being used actively . If so, use the -ly . Essay Teen! Do the roses actively smell with noses? No, so no -ly . Netbanking! Did the about Pregnacy woman actively look with eyes or are we describing her appearance? We are only describing appearance, so no -ly . The woman looked angry/ angrily at the paint splotches. Here the woman did actively look with eyes, so the -ly is added. Paul Wilkes Memoir! She is NOT feeling with fingers, so no -ly. Describes your odor, not how you smell with your nose, so follow with the adjective.

You smell well for someone with a cold. You are actively smelling with a nose here, so follow with the adverb. Rule 4. When referring to health, use well rather than good . Teen! NOTE: Use good with feel when you are not referring to health. Examples! Example: I feel good about my decision to learn Spanish. Comparative and Superlative Adjectives. About Teen Pregnacy! When making comparisons, writers must use the correct form of adjectives . Comparative adjectives compare two things. Superlative adjectives compare three or more things. Writers use the suffixes - er and - est to form most comparatives and superlatives , although - ier and -iest is marriage china used when a two-syllable adjective ends in y (happier and happiest); otherwise writers use more and most when an adjective has more than one syllable. He bought more food than his brother did. About! (Notice that the Paul Wilkes examples word than (not then ) is used to make comparisons.) Sam bought the most food in the neighborhood.

A pronoun is a word that substitutes for another word. An antecedent is the word that the pronoun refers back to. Sometimes people think everyone and everybody feel plural, but these words are always singular and Essay Teen Pregnacy take a singular verb . Remember that if a word has one or body in marriage china, it, then it uses the same verb as the Essay about Teen word he would use . Subject - Verb Agreement. Chase Netbanking! Sometimes people think everyone and everybody feel plural, but these words are always singular and take a singular verb . Remember that if a word has one or body in it, then it uses the same verb as the word he would use . Example: Everyone is here. (You would say, He is here , so you know NOT to use are .) Either and neither are also singular if they are not accompanied by the FANBOYS words or or nor . Here and There are NEVER subjects, so writers must look for the real subject of the sentence by turning it around. Then they can make the subject and verb match. Wrong: Heres Tom and Joe now! Correct: Here are Tom and Joe now! (Turn the sentence around to Pregnacy, easily choose the right verb: Tom and marriage in ancient Joe now are here.) You must find the subject and verb of each sentence that you must evaluate to determine if it agrees in number with the subject. Wrong: The few times that I have yelled at my sister has made me feel ashamed of myself. Essay Pregnacy! Correct: The few times that I have yelled at my sister have made me feel ashamed of myself. Explanation: Although the word sister is singular, it is not the subject.

To make subject and verb agree, we must say times have , NOT has . Complete or Incomplete Sentence? Choosing correct punctuation requires writers to know when sentences are complete. An example is utopian examples when a writer needs to choose between a comma and a semicolon. Words which end in ing create phrases, not complete sentences: Wrong: Being angry; she left the room. Essay Teen! (A semicolon must have a complete sentence on each side.) Correct: She was angry; she left the room. (The semicolon has a complete sentence on each side.) Correct: Since she was angry, she left the Do Anabolic cause aggression Essays room. (A subordinate clause which begins a sentence is separated from the Essay Pregnacy independent clause with a comma.) Writers create run-ons by leaving out Do Anabolic Steroids aggression and Hostility?, periods or by using a comma when a period is needed. Essay About Teen! Wrong: Sally was angry she left the room. Examples! (There are two sentences. There should be a period.) Wrong: Sally was angry, she left the room. (There are two sentences. The comma should be a period.) Many questions on the ACT check your understanding of parallel structure . Parallel structure occurs when writers properly create sentences so that each part of the sentence has the same grammatical structure. Wrong: I like to eat chili and drinking soft drinks.

Correct: I like to eat chili and to Essay about, drink soft drinks. The first example is wrong because the chase netbanking verbs are not in the same form. Wrong: I would eat chili, drink soft drinks, and would talk to my friends. Correct: I would eat chili, drink soft drinks, and talk to my friends. Again, the first example is wrong because the verbs are not in about, the same form. Redundancies occur when repetitious expressions are used. free gift (A gift is free.

The word free is chase netbanking not needed.) advance warning (A warning is given in advance. The word advance is not needed.) Wordiness occurs when writers use more words than necessary to make their point. The ACT checks your ability to about Teen, recognize clear, concise sentence structure. And Electrolyte Management In Diabetic Hyperglycaemic Emergency Department! Short is good ! Wordy: The student is a pupil who is unhappy because of the Essay Pregnacy fact that the lesson bores her. Do Anabolic Aggression And Hostility? Essays! (17 words) Correctly revised : The student is Essay Teen unhappy because she is bpd examples bored. (8 words) Word Choice (Malapropisms) A malapropism occurs when a writer uses the wrong word in a sentence and about Teen therefore the in ancient sentence makes no sense. This can be humorous, but NOT when the writer is trying to about Pregnacy, pass a test or get a job. Wrong: I pledge a lettuce to Fluid Management and Hyperosmolar State in the Emergency, the flag. Correct: I pledge allegiance to the flag. Wrong: I will dissolve the problem.

Correct: I will solve the problem. Wrong: His point that it would be better to about Pregnacy, go to bpd examples, England than Spain was mute because he had no passport, so he couldnt go anywhere. Correct: His point that it would be better to go to about Teen Pregnacy, England than Spain was moot because he had no passport, so he couldnt go anywhere. Sources: Worksheets, textbooks, Internet sites (information collected over Memoir, a period of twenty years and the result of studying numerous practice tests)

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don quixote essays By Sir Walter Alexander Raleigh (1861-1922). 1. A Spanish knight, about fifty years of age, who lived in great poverty in a village of Essay Teen Pregnacy La Mancha, gave himself up so entirely to reading the romances of chivalry, of which he had a large collection, that in Steroids aggression and Hostility? Essays, the end they turned his brain, and nothing would satisfy him but that he must ride abroad on his old horse, armed with spear and helmet, a knight-errant, to encounter all adventures, and to redress the innumerable wrongs of the world. Essay Teen. He induced a neighbour of his, a poor and Wilkes Essay examples, ignorant peasant called Sancho Panza, mounted on a very good ass, to accompany him as squire. The knight saw the world only in the mirror of his beloved romances; he mistook inns for enchanted castles, windmills for giants, and Essay Pregnacy, country wenches for exiled princesses. His high spirit and his courage never failed him, but his illusions led him into endless trouble. In the name of justice and chivalry he intruded himself on all whom he met, and assaulted all whom he took to be making an oppressive or discourteous use of power. He and his poor squire were beaten, trounced, cheated, and ridiculed on Ketoacidosis Hyperglycaemic State Emergency Department all hands, until in the end, by Teen Pregnacy, the kindliness of bpd examples his old friends in the village, and with the help of some new friends who had been touched by the amiable and generous character of his illusions, the knight was cured of his whimsies and was led back to his home in about Teen Pregnacy, the village, there to die. That is the story of Don Quixote: it seems a slight framework for what, without much extravagance, may be called the wisest and most splendid book in the world.

It is an old man's book; there is in it all the wisdom of a fiery heart that has learned patience. Shakespeare and Cervantes died on utopian the same day, but if Cervantes had died at the same age as Shakespeare we should have had no Don Quixote. Shakespeare himself has written nothing so full of the diverse stuff of experience, so quietly and steadily illuminated by Essay Teen Pregnacy, gentle wisdom, so open-eyed in discerning the strength of the world; and Shakespeare himself is not more courageous in championing the rights of the gallant heart. Suppose the Governor of Barataria had been called on to decide the cause between these two great authors. His judgments were often wonderfully simple and obvious. Perhaps he would have ruled that whereas Shakespeare died at the age of fifty-two and Cervantes lived seventeen years longer, a man shall give his days and nights to Wilkes Memoir examples, the study of Shakespeare until he is older than ever Shakespeare was, and then, for the solace of his later years, shall pass on to the Pregnacy graver school of Cervantes. Not every man lives longer than Shakespeare; and, of those who do, not every man masters the aggression and Hostility? Essays art and craft of growing older with the passage of years, so that, by this rule, the Spanish gentleman would have a much smaller circle of intimates than the High Bailiff's son of Essay Pregnacy Stratford.

And so he has; yet his world-wide popularity is none the less assured. He has always attracted, and will always attract, a great company of bpd examples readers who take a simple and legitimate delight in the comic distresses of the deluded Don, in the tricks put upon him, in the woeful absurdity of his appearance, in the many love-stories and love-songs that he hears, in the variety of the characters that he meets, in the wealth of the incidents and events that spring up, a joyous crop, wherever he sets his foot, and not least, perhaps, in the beatings, poundings, scratchings, and tumblings in the mire that are his daily portion. That is to say, those who care little or nothing for Don Quixote may yet take pleasure in the life that is in his book; and his book is full of life. We have no very ample record of the life experience of Cervantes, which are distilled in this, his greatest book. We know that he was a soldier, and fought against the Turks at about, Lepanto, where his left hand was maimed for life; that he was made prisoner some years later by the Moors, and suffered five years' captivity at Algiers; that he attempted with others to escape, and and Electrolyte in Diabetic Hyperglycaemic State Emergency, when discovered and cross-examined took the whole responsibility on himself; that at Essay Teen, last he was ransomed by the efforts of his family and friends, and returned to Spain, there to live as best he could the life of a poor man of letters, with intermittent Government employ, for thirty-six more years. He wrote sonnets and plays, pawned his family's goods, and Do Anabolic Steroids cause aggression and Hostility?, was well acquainted with the Essay about inside of prisons. Utopian. He published the First Part of Don Quixote in Teen, 1605 - that is to say, in his fifty-eighth year - and thenceforward enjoyed a high reputation, though his poverty continued. In 1615 the Second Part of Don Quixote appeared, wherein the author makes delightful play with the First Part by treating it as a book well known to all the characters of the story. In the bpd examples following year he died, clothed in the Franciscan habit, and was buried in the convent of the Barefooted Trinitarian Nuns in Essay Teen Pregnacy, Madrid.

No stone marks his grave, but his spirit still wanders the world in the person of the finest gentleman of all the realms of fact and fable, who still maintains in discourse with all whom he meets that the thing of which the world has most need is knights-errant, to do honour to women, to fight for the cause of the oppressed, and to right the wrong. This, then, gentlemen, he may still be heard saying, it is to be a knight-errant, and what I have spoken of is the order of chivalry, in the which, as I have already said, I, though a sinner, have made profession; the same which these famous knights profess do I profess; and that is why I am travelling through these deserts and solitary places, in quest of adventures, with deliberate resolve to offer my arm and my person to the most dangerous adventure which fortune may present, in aid of the weak and needy. And the world is still incredulous and dazed. By these words which he uttered, says the author in brief comment on the foregoing speech, the travellers were quite convinced that Don Quixote was out of his wits. It has often been said, and is still sometimes repeated by good students of Cervantes, that his main object in writing Don Quixote was to put an end to the influence of the romances of bpd examples chivalry. It is true that these romances were the fashionable reading of his age, that many of them were trash, and that some of them were pernicious trash. It is true also that the Teen very scheme of his book lends itself to a scathing exposure of their weaknesses, and that the moral is pointed in the scene of the Inquisition of the aggression Essays Books, where the priest, the barber, the housekeeper, and the niece destroy the greater part of his library by fire. But how came it that Cervantes knew the about Teen Pregnacy romances so well, and dwelt on some of their incidents in such loving detail? Moreover, it is worth noting that not a few of them are excluded by name from the Paul Wilkes examples general condemnation. Amadis of Gaul is spared, because it is the best of all book of the kind.

Equal praise is given to Essay, Palmerin of England; while of bpd examples Triante the White the priest himself declares that it is a treasure of delight and a mine of pastime. Essay About Pregnacy. Truly, I declare to you, gossip, that in its style this is the best book in the world. Here the Do Anabolic cause and Hostility? knights eat and sleep, and die in their beds, and make their wills before they die, with other things in which the rest of the books of this kind are wanting. But even stronger evidence of the esteem that Cervantes felt for the best of the romances is to Essay about Teen, be found in marriage in ancient, his habit of linking their names with the poems of Homer and Virgil. So, in Teen, the course of instructions given by Don Quixote to Sancho Panza, while they dwelt in chase netbanking, the wilds of the Sierra Morena, Ulysses is cited as the model of prudence and patience, Aeneas as the greatest of pious sons and Essay about Teen, expert captains, and Amadis as the pole star, the morning star, the sun of Do Anabolic Steroids cause and Hostility? Essays valiant and enamoured knights, whom all we have to copy, who do battle under the banner of love and chivalry. Essay Teen. It would indeed be a strange thing if a book which is so brave an exercise of the creative imagination were mainly destructive in its aim, and deserved no higher honour than a scavenger. The truth is that the book is so many-sided that all kinds of tastes and beliefs can find their warrant in it. The soul of it is an Wilkes Memoir Essay irony so profound that but few of its readers have explored it to the depths. It is like a mine, deep below deep; and much good treasure is to about Teen, be found at Do Anabolic Steroids aggression and Hostility? Essays, the more easily accessible levels. All irony cirticises the imperfect ideas and theories of mankind, not by substituting for Essay about them other ideas and other theories, less imperfect, but by placing the aggression and Hostility? facts of life, in mute comment, alongside of the Pregnacy theories. The Ruler of the World is the great master of irony; and man has been permitted to share some part of his enjoyment in the purifying power of fact.

The weaker and more querulous members of the race commonly try to enlist the facts in the service of their pet ideas. A grave and deep spirit like Cervantes knows that the examples facts will endure no such servitude. They will not take orders from those who call for their verdict, nor will they be content to speak only when they are asked to speak. They intrude suddenly, in the most amazing and irrelevant fashion, on the carefully ordered plans of humanity. They cannot be explained away, and many a man who thought to have guarded himself against surprise has been surprised by love and death. Every one sees the irony of Don Quixote in its first degree, and enjoys it in its more obvious forms. This absurd old gentleman, who tries to Pregnacy, put his antiquated ideas into action in a busy, selfish, prosy world, is a figure of Do Anabolic cause aggression and Hostility? fun even to the meanest intelligence. Essay Teen Pregnacy. But, with more thought, there comes a check to our frivolity. And Hostility? Essays. Is not all virtue and Teen, all goodness in the same case as Don Quixote? Does the author, after all, mean to say that the world is Management and Hyperosmolar in the right, and that those who try to better it are wrong?

If that is what he means, how is it that at every step of our journey we come to like the Don better, until in the end we can hardly put a limit to our love and about Teen, reverence for him? Is it possible that the criticism is double-edged, and that what we are celebrating with our laughter is the failure of the world? A wonderful thing in Cervantes' handling of his story is his absolute honesty and candour. In Ancient. He does not mince matters. His world behaves as the world may be expected to behave when its daily interests are violently disordered by a lunatic. Failure upon failure dogs the Essay about Teen Pregnacy steps of bpd examples poor Don Quixote, and he has no popularity to redeem his material disasters.

He who writes of me, says the Don pensively, in his discussion with the bachelor Sampson, will please very few; and the only comfort the bachelor can find for him is that the number of fools is infinite, and about, that the First Part of his adventures has delighted them all. As an example of bpd examples Cervantes's treatment take one of the earliest of Essay about Pregnacy these adventures, the rescue of the boy Andres from the chase hands of Pregnacy his oppressor. In Ancient China. As he rode away from the inn, on the first day of his knighthood, while yet he was unfurnished with a squire, Don Quixote heard cries of Essay about Teen Pregnacy complaint from a thicket near by. He thanked Heaven for giving him so early an opportunity of service, and chase, turned his horse aside to where he found a farmer beating a boy. Don Quixote, with all knightly formality, called the farmer a coward, and challenged him to a single combat. The farmer, terrified by the strange apparition, explained that the boy was his servant and by gross carelessness had lost sheep for him at the rate of one a day. The matter was at last settled by the farmer liberating the boy and promising to pay him in full his arrears of wages; whereupon the knight rode away, well pleased. Then the farmer tied up the boy again, and beat him more severely than ever, till at Pregnacy, the last he loosed him, and told him to go and netbanking, seek redress from his champion.

So the boy departed sobbing, and his master stayed behind laughing, and after this manner did the valorous Don Quixote right that wrong. Later on, when the Essay Pregnacy knight and his squire are in the wilds, with the chase netbanking company whom chance has gathered around them, the boy appears again, and about Pregnacy, Don Quixote narrates the story of his deliverance as an illustration of the benefits conferred on chase the world by knight-errantry. All that your worship says is true, replies the Essay Pregnacy lad, but the end of the and Electrolyte Management business was very much the about contrary of what your worship imagines. How contrary? said Don Quixote. Did he not pay thee, then? He not only did not pay me, said the boy, but as soon as your worship had got outside the wood, and we were alone, he tied me again to the same tree, and marriage in ancient china, gave me so many lashes that he left me flayed like St. Bartholomew; and at every lash he gave me, he uttered some jest or scoff, to make a mock of your worship; and if I had not felt so much pain, I would have laughed at what he said. Essay About Teen. For all this your worship is to blame, because if you had held on chase your way, and had not meddled with other people's business, my master would have been content to give me a dozen or two lashes, and Essay about Teen Pregnacy, afterwards he would have released me and Do Anabolic aggression and Hostility? Essays, paid me what he owed. But as your worship insulted him and called him bad names, his anger was kindled, and about Teen, as he could not avenge himself on you, he left fly the tempest on me. Don Quixote sadly admits his error, and confesses that he ought to have remembered that no churl keeps the word he gives if he finds that it does not suit him to keep it.

But he promises Andres that he will yet see him righted; and with that he boy's terror awakes. For the love of God, sir knight-errant, he says, if you meet me again, and see me being cut to pieces, do not rescue me, nor help me, but leave me to my pain; for, however great it be, it cannot be greater than will come to me from the help of your worship - whom, with all the Fluid Management in Diabetic Ketoacidosis in the Emergency knights-errant ever born into the world, may God confound! With that he ran away, and Don Quixote stood very much abashed by his story, so that the rest of the company had to take great care that they did not laugh outright and Essay Pregnacy, put him to netbanking, confusion. At no point in the story does Cervantes permit the reader to forget that the righter of wrongs must not look in this world for either success or praise. The indignities heaped upon that gentle and heroic soul almost revolt the reader, as Charles Lamb remarked. He is beaten and kicked; he has his teeth knocked out, and consoles himself with the about Teen Pregnacy thought that these hardships are incident to his profession; his face is all bedaubed with mud, and bpd examples, he answers with grave politeness to the mocks of those who deride him. When he stands sentry on the back of his horse at the inn, to guard the sleepers, the Pregnacy stable wench, Maritornes, gets him to Do Anabolic aggression, reach up his hand to an upper window, or rather a round hole in the wall of the hayloft, whereupon she slips a running noose over his wrist and ties the rope firmly to a bar within the loft.

In this posture, and in continual danger of being hung by the arm if his horse should move away, he stands till dawn, when four travellers knock at the gate of the inn. He at once challenges them for their discourtesy in disturbing the slumbers of those whom he is guarding. Even the Duke and the Duchess, who feel kindly to Don Quixote and Essay Teen Pregnacy, take him under their care, are quite ready to play rough practical jokes on him. It is while he is their guest that his face is all scratched and clawed by aggression Essays, frightened cats turned loose in his bedroom at night. His friends in the village were kinder than this, but they, to get him home, carried him through the country in a latticed cage on poles, like a wild beast, for the admiration of the populace; and Essay about Pregnacy, he bethought himself, As I am a new knight in the world, and the first that hath revived the forgotten exercise of chivalry, these are newly invented forms of enchantment.

His spirit rises superior to all his misfortunes, and his mind remains as serene as a cloudless sky. But Don Quixote, it may be objected, is mad. Wilkes Memoir. Here the irony of Cervantes finds a deeper level. Don Quixote is a high-minded idealist, who sees all things by the light of Essay about his own lofty preconceptions. Chase Netbanking. To him every woman is Essay about Teen beautiful and adorable; everything that is said to him is worthy to be heard with attention and respect; every community of men, even the casual assemblage of lodgers at an inn, is a society founded on strict rules of mutual consideration and esteem. Utopian. He shapes his behaviour in accordance with these ideas, and is laughed at Essay, for his pains. But he has a squire, Sancho Panza, who is a realist and loves food and sleep, who sees the world as it is, by the light of common day.

Sancho, it might be supposed, is sane, and supplies a sure standard whereby to measure his master's deviations from the normal. Not at all; Sancho, in his own way, is as mad as his master. If the one is betrayed by fantasy, the other is betrayed, with as ludicrous a result, by common sense. In Ancient China. The thing is well seen in about Teen, the question of the island, the government of chase which is to be entrusted to Sancho when Don Quixote comes into his kingdom. Essay About Pregnacy. Sancho, though he would have seen through the pretenses of any merely corrupt bargainer, recognises at once that his master is disinterested and truthful, and he believes all he hears about the island. He spends much thought on the scheme, and passes many criticisms on it. Examples. Sometimes he protests that he is quite unfit for Essay Pregnacy the position of a governor, and in ancient china, that his wife would cut a poor figure as a governor's lady. At other times he vehemently asserts that many men of much less ability than himself are governors, and eat every day off silver plate. Then he hears that, if an island should not come to hand, he is to be rewarded with a slice of a continent, and at once he stipulates that his domain shall be situated on the coast, so that he may put his subjects to a profitable use by selling them into slavery. It is not a gloss upon Cervantes to say that Sancho is mad; the suggestion is made, with significant repetition, in the book itself.

As the Lord liveth, says the barber, addressing the squire, I begin to think that thou oughtest to keep him company in the cage, and that thou art as much enchanted as he. In an about evil day wast thou impregnated with his promises, and it was a sorrowful hour when the island of china thy longings entered thy skull. So these two, in the opinion of the neighbours, are both mad, yet most of the wisdom of the book is theirs, and when neither of them is talking, the book falls into mere commonplace. Essay Pregnacy. And this also is many times recognised and commented on in the book itself. And Electrolyte Management In Diabetic And Hyperosmolar State. Sometimes it is the knight, and sometimes the squire, whose conversation makes the hearers marvel that one who talks with so much wisdom, justice, and about Teen, discernment should act so foolishly. Certainly the book is a paradise of delightful discourse wherein all topics are handled and are presented in a new guise. The dramatic setting, which is the meaning of the book, is never forgotten; yet the things said are so good that when they are taken out of their setting they shine still, though with diminished splendour. What could be better than Don Quixote's treatment of the question of bpd examples lineage, when he is considering his future claim to marry the beautiful daughter of a Christian or paynim King?

There are two kinds of Essay about Pregnacy lineage, he remarks. The difference is this - that some were what they are not, and others are what they were not; and when the examples thing is looked into I might prove to be one of those who had a great and Essay about Pregnacy, famous origin, with which the King, my father-in-law who is to be, must be content. Or what could be wiser than Sancho's account of his resignation of the governorship? Yesterday morning I left the island as I found it, with the same streets, houses, and tiles which they had when I went there. I have borrowed nothing of nobody, nor mixed myself up with the making of china profits, and though I thought to make some profitable laws, I did not make any of them, for I was afraid they would not be kept, which would be just the same as if they had never been made. Many of those who come across the pair in the course of their wanderings fall under the fascination of their talk. Not only so, but the world of imagination in which the Essay about Teen Pregnacy two wanderers live proves so attractive, the infection of their ideas is so strong, that, long before the end of the story is reached, a motley company of people, from the Wilkes Memoir Duke and Duchess down to the villagers, have set their own business aside in Essay Teen Pregnacy, order to take part in the make-believe, and to be the persons of utopian Don Quixote's dream. There was never any Kingdom of about Barataria; but the hearts of all who knew him were set on seeing how Sancho would comport himself in the office of Do Anabolic Steroids cause Essays Governor, so the Duke lent a village for the purpose, and it was put in Essay, order and chase, furnished with officers of State for Essay Teen the part that it had to play.

In this way some of the fancies of the talkers almost struggle into existence, and the dream of Don Quixote makes the happiness it does not find. Nothing in the story is more touching than the chase steadily growing attachment and mutual admiration of the knight and the squire. Essay About Pregnacy. Each deeply respects the wisdom of the other, though Don Quixote, whose taste in speech is courtly, many times complains of Sancho's swarm of proverbs. Each is influenced by the other; the knight insists on treating the squire with the courtesies due to netbanking, an equal, and Pregnacy, poor Sancho, in Do Anabolic cause aggression and Hostility?, the end, declares that not all the governments of the world shall tempt him away from the service of his beloved master. What, then, are we to think, and what does their creator think, of those two mad- men, whose lips drop wisdom? Mark you, Sancho, said Don Quixote, there are two kinds of beauty - one of the soul, and Essay, another of the body. That of the Fluid in Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar State Emergency soul excelleth in knowledge, in modesty, in fine conduct, in liberality and Essay about Pregnacy, good breeding; and marriage, all these virtues are found in, and may belong to, an ugly man. I see full well, Sancho, that I am not beautiful, but I know also that I am not deformed, and it is Teen Pregnacy enough for a man of honour to Memoir Essay examples, be no monster; he may be well loved, if he possesses those gifts of soul which I have mentioned. Sometimes, at the height of his frenzy, the knight seems almost inspired. So, when the shepherds have entertained him, he offers, by way of Essay Pregnacy thanks, to cause and Hostility? Essays, maintain against all comers the fame and beauty of the shepherdesses, and utters his wonderful little speech on gratitude: For the Essay about Teen Pregnacy most part, he who received is inferior to him who gives; and hence God is above all, because he is, above all, the great giver; and the gifts of netbanking man cannot be equal to those of Essay about Teen Pregnacy God, for there is an infinite distance between them; and the narrowness and insufficiency of the gifts of man is eked out by gratitude. There cannot be too much of this kind of madness.

Well may Don Antonio cry out on the bachelor Sampson, who dresses himself as the Knight of the Silver Moon and overthrows Don Quixote in fight: O sir, may God forgive you the wrong you have done to bpd examples, all the world in desiring to make a sane man of the most gracious madman that the world contains! Do you not perceive that the profit which shall come from the Essay about Pregnacy healing of Don Quixote can never be equal to the pleasure which is caused by his ecstasies? What if the world itself is mad, not with the ecstasy of Don Quixote, nor with the thrifty madness of Sancho, but with a flat kind of madness, a makeshift compromise between faith and doubt? All men have a vein of and Electrolyte in Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Quixotry somewhere in their nature. They can be counted on, in most things, to follow the beaten path of interest and custom, till suddenly there comes along some question on which they refuse to appeal to interest; they take their stand on principle, and are adamant. All men know in themselves the mood of Sancho, when he says: I have heard the Essay about Teen preachers preach that we should love our Lord for himself alone, without being moved to Paul Memoir examples, it by the hope of glory or the fear of pain; but, for my own part, I would love him for what he is able to do for me. These two moods, the mood of Quixote and the mood of Sancho, seem to divide between them most of the splendours and most of the comforts of human life. Teen. It is rare to find either mood in its perfection. A man who should consistently indulge in himself the mood of the unregenerate Sancho would be a rogue, though, if he preserved good temper in his doings, he would be a pleasant rogue.

The man who should maintain in himself the mood of Quixote would be something very like a saint. The saints of the Church Militant would find no puzzle and no obscurity in cause aggression and Hostility?, the character of the Essay about Teen Pregnacy Knight of La Mancha. Some of them, perhaps, would understand better that Don Quixote understood, that the marriage full record of his doings, compiled by Cervantes, is Essay about Pregnacy both a tribute to the saintly character, and a criticism of it. They certainly could not fail to discover the religious kernel of the book, as the world, in the easy confidence of its own superiority, has failed to discover it. They would know that whoso loseth his life shall save it; they would not find it difficult to understand how Don Quixote, and, in Paul Wilkes Memoir, his own degree, Sancho, was willing to be a fool, that he, and the world with him, might be made wise.

Above, all, they would appreciate the more squalid misadventures of Don Quixote, for, unlike the public, which recognises the about Pregnacy saint by his aureole, they would know, none better, that the way they have chosen is the way of contempt, and that Christianity was nursed in a manger. -- Sir Walter Raleigh (1861-1922). 1 Sir Walter Alexander Raleigh (1861-1922) was a professor of in ancient china English Literature at Essay Pregnacy, Liverpool, Glasgow and at bpd examples, Oxford from 1904. Among his novels: The English Novel (1894), Milton (1900), Wordsworth (1903), and Shakespeare (1907).