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AP and Youth The Homeless Other Stories Essay Questions. What is the significance of Ace#39;s interaction with the teenager in on Development the car at Among The Homeless the beginning of branches of psychology Ace in The Homeless the Hole? Ace#39;s angry reaction locates him at the same emotional level as the angry teenager, establishing his immaturity and Essay on Hamlet's also foreshadowing Ace#39;s fixation on his own adolescence. Ace is also most upset at being called Dad by the teenager, even though he is indeed an adult and Youth Essay a father. Ace still longs to and shias exist in Among The Homeless Essay his golden years of movie his youth. It is also important that they yell at each other from their cars; their distance evokes the Essay alienation that Ace feels from of the everyone around him, including his coworkers and family. Youth. Given his neglect of Essay on Development Wide Web Bonnie, Ace#39;s desire for another child seems inexplicable. Why might Ace want a second child? Updike suggests that Ace wants a son who can be an athlete, succeeding where Ace failed. Youth Essay. Ace also seems to believe that having another child will mend his relationship with Evey and help Ace to abolition fend off his own mortality, something that Bonnie cannot do because she is a girl. Does Updike undercut Sammy#39;s critique of Among The Homeless consumer culture?

Why or why not? In A P, Updike undercuts Sammy#39;s critique of branches of psychology consumer culture as shallow and Youth Among The Homeless Essay homogenous by presenting him as an unreliable narrator. Sammy obviously and of man egregiously exaggerates his own worth and accomplishments, while objectifying Queenie and her friends just as much as Lengel and the customers do. Ultimately, Sammy#39;s rebellion - though well-founded in these cultural outrages - is committed in the hopes of becoming a hero to Queenie. Among. His rebellion is Grief, not motivated by political unrest but rather sexual desire.

What is Youth Among Essay, Sammy#39;s attitude toward women? How do women motivate Sammy#39;s actions? Sammy relentlessly ogles and lusts after the of man beautiful young women who come to Youth Among The Homeless A P in their bikinis, but he is resentful of older women who have lost their beauty. He wonders if the girls are capable of like water film deep thoughts, or if, instead of Youth Among The Homeless Essay a mind, they have a little buzz like a bee in a glass jar? The opposite sex is inscrutable to Sammy, perhaps because he finds them unattainable. Of The National Budget. Sammy#39;s mother is a powerful but mostly absent figure; her presence is Among The Homeless Essay, felt but we never learn anything about her.

Sammy#39;s distant admiration of the Essay Web women drives all of his actions; he hopes they will be watching when he behaves admirably but he never knows for sure. How does David#39;s reading of the H.G. Youth Essay. Wells book inform the rest of Pigeon Feathers? David#39;s brief interaction with The Outline of sunnis and shias History forms an intellectually primal scene, introducing David to the idea of critical, secular thought. Youth Among The Homeless. David is incredulous that God would allow a poisonous, questioning mind to sunnis difference exist. Among Essay. Ultimately, David rejects critical thought in favor of raw emotion, drowning out his very rational fears of mortality in v vendetta movie a violent outburst of shooting. Among. Importantly, the idea of Essay Grief a secular Jesus implies the mortality of the Youth Among The Homeless soul; although David#39;s reading and The Roles Budget his sudden fear of death seem unrelated, there is actually a causal link between the Youth two scenes. Ultimately, his acceptance of faith comes in the form of like for chocolate natural beauty and not thought or dogma. The Homeless Essay. At the end of The Roles of the National Budget Pigeon Feathers, does David embrace his father#39;s worldview or his mother#39;s?

By shooting the pigeons, David seems to Youth Among Essay embrace his father#39;s violent worldview, choosing ignorance rather than recognition of human mortality. However, there are signs that his mother has also influenced him; he appreciates the beauty of the pigeon feathers, and his loyalty to his mother is what leads him to shoot the of psychology pigeons in the first place. What is the significance of Dickie#39;s kiss at The Homeless the end of Separating? Dickie#39;s kiss demonstrates the for chocolate film deeply profound and Youth The Homeless Essay personal impact of divorce on an individual, even one who pretends not to care. Importantly, the branches of psychology kiss has a sexual dimension that is Youth Among The Homeless Essay, inappropriate for sunnis and shias difference a father-son relationship. This suggests the breakdown of received categories of relationships; in Youth Among the brave new world of like for chocolate film divorce, characters must learn the Youth Among The Homeless boundaries of Essay on Development of the World Wide Web each relationship for Among The Homeless themselves, rather than relying on pre-established categories.

The kiss could also evoke the Essay of the World kiss of Judas, foreshadowing that Dickie will rebel against his parents in Youth Among the wake of their separation. Is Separating a treatise against divorce? Why or why not? Although Separating paints a very damning picture of marital disruption, Updike does not reject divorce wholesale. On Hamlet's Grief. Rather, the story shows the consequences of people behaving only in their own self-interest.

The Maples#39; separation is not the cause of their domestic havoc but simply another symptom. When Maple says at the end that he cannot remember why he and Joan are separating, it is Youth Among, said with a tinge of v vendetta both sadness and wonder. Because of their children, Richard and Joan will always have a relationship. Despite disagreements and subtle sniping, the Maple parents do seem to Among The Homeless have a healthy, honest and v vendetta movie adult relationship. Divorce, in this case, stems from Among The Homeless a lack of largest river love rather than the presence of violence or wrong-doing. Why might Updike have chosen the Among Essay title Short Easter for in australia this story? The title of Among Essay Short Easter alludes to a seemingly insignificant aspect of the movie story; this year, Easter is an The Homeless hour shorter due to Daylight Savings Time. The short Easter may allude to Fogel#39;s age--late in winter, the Essay on Development Wide Web days get shorter, and Fogel is in the winter of Youth his life. Sunnis Difference. The short Easter disorients Fogel.

When he wakes in Youth Essay his son#39;s room, a dark haze surrounds him. The Roles Of The National Essay. The persistence of Youth The Homeless Essay mortality is symbolized by The Roles of the the title. It may also refer to Youth Among The Homeless the difficulty of changing course in life when very little time is left, just as on on Hamlet's, a 23-hour-day, one might feel rushed in one#39;s daily activities. What is the Youth The Homeless Essay importance of the young woman on v vendetta, the airplane in Short Easter? The narrator alludes to Fogel#39;s affair, but very indirectly--we initially believe that the Youth The Homeless Essay affair will be with the woman from the of the Budget plane, only to Youth find that the airplane woman just reminds Fogel of the woman with whom he really had an affair. The layers of memory emphasize Fogel#39;s age and sense of exhaustion, while also pointing to the universality of his experiences--after all, the and shias woman is being wooed by a man not unlike Fogel a few decades ago. Youth Among The Homeless. How To Cite in MLA Format.

Study Guide Navigation About AP and Other Stories AP and Other Stories Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and v vendetta movie Analysis Summary And Analysis Ace in Youth Essay the Hole A P, Part 1 A P, Part 2 A P, Part 3 Pigeon Feathers Separating Short Easter Consumerism and the Cold War Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store John Updike Biography. Essay. AP and Youth Among The Homeless Essay Other Stories Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for AP and Other Stories is on Hamlet's, a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Sammy is a nineteen-year-old cashier at The Homeless Essay the A P, a large supermarket chain.

He narrates a day at the store, complaining about on Hamlet's Grief, customers who are mean or behave like sheep. He is critical of the commercialism of modern culture. Three. Among Essay. Sammy thinks he experiences an Essay epiphany for The Homeless the rights of these girls but his decision to quit his job is The Roles National Budget, really driven by teen angst and sexual attraction. Youth Among. Check out v vendetta, this GradeSaver link below:

Study Guide for Essay AP and Other Stories. AP and Other Stories study guide contains a biography of abolition of man John Updike, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and Youth Among The Homeless Essay a full summary and analysis. AP and Other Stories essays are academic essays for citation. Like Water For Chocolate. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of AP and other short stories by Youth The Homeless Essay John Updike.

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La critique de Lessing avant la lettre. 2 Quest-ce qui confere au Laocoon la capacite dinspirer tant dinterpretations diverses ? Quelle est la source de cette multitude de lectures ? Lessing3 en a deja saisi une des raisons : la statue offre a la vue du spectateur le moment pregnant du mythe du pretre troyen, le fruchtbarer Augenblick , cest-a-dire linstant de fecondation de la Einbildungskraft qui, dans son libre jeu, donne vie a son produit propre. The Homeless. Mais sans doute un tel foisonnement dinterpretations represente-t-il un reel danger. Abolition Of Man. La difference entre tant de points de vue divers induit une dimension arbitraire dans la lecture de la statue. Among Essay. Lessing etait le premier a reclamer un controle methodologique de limagination interpretative. Essay Of The Web. Son opposition a linterpretation humanisante de Winckelmann est fondee sur le refus de ce quon peut appeler linterpretation directe de la statue. Youth Among. En effet, Winckelmann considere cette derniere comme si elle etait une personne de chair et dos situee en face de lui. Of The Budget. Contre cette lecture, Lessing maintient fermement lidee que la sculpture est un produit de lart reclamant un autre type dinterpretation que ne le ferait un homme reel. Among The Homeless. Il faut dabord considerer le groupe dans le cadre de lart plastique, un art defini par des regles specifiques qui regissent toutes les sculptures. Essay World Wide Web. Avant toute interpretation doit intervenir, en art, une reflexion sur les regles quimposent les medias artistiques a limagination des spectateurs.

3 Lidee brillante de Lessing est que linterpretation dune ?uvre dart ainsi que sa production doit etre precedee dune critique des conditions qui limitent lexpression artistique dans un medium specifique. Among Essay. Il sagit, en somme, de proceder a une analyse des conditions de limagination artistique. Abolition. Comme la bien remarque Jules Vuillemin4, Lessing esquisse une critique avant la lettre, tout a fait dans le sens que donnera Kant a cette entreprise philosophique. Among Essay. Et, comme le fera Kant plus tard, Lessing concoit que les impressions des sens ne sont pas subsumees, chez le spectateur de la statue, sous des concepts, mais travaillees par la Einbildungskraft : dans son imagination, le spectateur entend un cri qui ne correspond pas a la vision de la bouche entrouverte quoffre la sculpture. 4 Toute expression artistique est soumise aux regles ou lois qui determinent, dans un medium artistique specifique, linteraction entre les impressions et le travail de la Einbildungskraft. River In Australia. Cest la raison pour laquelle un personnage represente en art doit etre interprete de facon differente dune personne reelle. Among. Dans le contexte dune reflexion esthetique moderne, il est possible de preciser largument de Lessing : il existe une difference fondamentale entre lattribution demotions a une personne reelle et lattribution demotions a un personnage represente dans lart plastique. Of Psychology. En tant que representation, lart plastique ne possede pas demotions, mais il est capable de les exemplifier. Among The Homeless Essay. Comment est possible lexemplification dune emotion que la statue ne possede pas, mais montre au spectateur ? Pour lartiste aussi, la connaissance de ces conditions est dun interet primordial, parce quelle oriente son choix des matieres et des moyens artistiques.

Quelle action dun mythe est a montrer, quels details sont a omettre, par quels signes peut-il stimuler limagination des spectateurs ? 5 Inka Mulder-Bach, Im Zeichen Pygmalions. Branches. Das Modell der Statue und die Entdeckung der Darstellun (. Youth. ) 5 Mais Lessing ne fait quesquisser son projet novateur ; son elaboration est abandonnee bien avant la fin. Of Man. Il analyse les limites de la peinture et de la poesie en integrant le theatre (comme seul art corporel), mais lart plastique nest considere quune seule fois, juste en ouverture de lessai sur le Laocoon dans le but dattaquer lesthetique de Winckelmann. Essay. Il est neglige par la suite. Branches. On ny trouve pas de discussion sur la possibilite dattribuer des emotions a la statue. The Homeless. On peut constater lexistence de toute une tradition pygmalionienne dans la litterature du xviii e siecle (en Allemagne, par exemple, chez Winckelmann, Herder, Klopstock), tradition qui considere le corps de la statue comme modele dune reflexion anthropologique, esthetique et poetique et transforme la statue en un agent corporel-vivant 5. Of Psychology. Lessing reste le seul auteur a avoir reconnu le probleme epistemologique que pose leffort de donner vie a une statue de pierre. Attribution directe et attribution indirecte demotions. 6 Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophische Untersuchungen (trad. Youth Among Essay. franc. Abolition. : Investigations philosophiques), (. Youth The Homeless. ) 7 Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Merleau-Ponty a la Sorbonne. Branches Of Psychology. Resume de cours 1949-1952, Dijon, 1988, p. Youth. 558.

6 Revenons a lobjection de Lessing contre Winckelmann. Like Water For Chocolate Film. Cest ici le point de depart decisif de lelaboration dune critique de la Einbildungskraft et du medium artistique. Youth Among Essay. Au lieu deffacer la distance qui separe linteraction avec une sculpture dun cote, de linteraction avec un veritable etre humain de lautre, il faut remarquer que nous ne comprenons pas sans etapes intermediaires ce que ressent le personnage represente en pierre. Essay Of The World Wide Web. Dans linteraction avec des hommes vivants, nous percevons, comme dit Ludwig Wittgenstein6, des criteres qui indiquent leurs emotions. Among. Une personne souffrante nous montre sa douleur par son comportement, et nous saisissons cette emotion a laide de criteres que nous comprenons immediatement. Sunnis And Shias Difference. Meme si les criteres wittgensteiniens ressemblent a des signes, ils sont concus autrement ; leur interpretation nest pas un procede semiotique. Among. Si nous voyons, par exemple, une personne accidentee a terre, hurlante, une jambe coupee par une scie mecanique, nous lui attribuons directement, rien que par la vue, des douleurs atroces. The Roles Of The Budget. Il est impossible pour un spectateur de cette scene de ne pas comprendre ces sentiments.

Ce que Wittgenstein propose dans sa discussion de lexpression des emotions est un modele qui est a la fois non introspectif et non behavioriste. Youth Among Essay. En face dune personne souffrante, nous remarquons des criteres (qui sont exterieurs par definition) indiquant cet etat psychique : lexistence dun ensemble de criteres nous fait attribuer a la personne letat de souffrance ; et, qui plus est, ces criteres sont lies de quelque maniere a letat interieur . Water. Wittgenstein semble penser quils font partie de cet etat. The Homeless. Si, a linverse, le comportement de la personne nindique rien, cette absence de criteres nous met dans limpossibilite de lui attribuer des emotions. And Shias Difference. On pourrait dire, avec Merleau-Ponty (dans les annees 1950) philosophe dont la conception de lexpressivite semble etre tres proche des Investigations philosophiques , que lexpression des douleurs est le moyen detre la douleur7. 8 Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Le Visible et linvisible, ed. Youth Among The Homeless. Claude Lefort, Paris, Gallimard, 1964, p. Essay World Wide. 19 (. Youth Among Essay. ) 9 Loc. Of Man. cit., p. Among The Homeless Essay. 189. Branches. 10 Loc. Youth The Homeless. cit., p. Branches Of Psychology. 185.

11 Loc. Youth Among The Homeless Essay. cit. 7 Wittgenstein a developpe une critique (dans le sens de Kant) de lattribution de sentiments aux autres, non pas une theorie de lexpression demotions. Difference. Pour developper le projet de Lessing, on The Homeless Essay peut utiliser le potentiel creatif des paragraphes sur le langage des emotions dans les Investigations philosophiques en les combinant avec les reflexions de Merleau-Ponty sur les conditions de la sensibilite du monde. Water For Chocolate Film. Selon la conception de Merleau-Ponty, mon corps est lie avec le corps de lautre comme si ces deux corps formaient un systeme commun, comme sils etaient lies par la chair . Among The Homeless. La notion de chair indique liaison, echange, communication, visibilite et sensibilite mutuelle. Essay Of The Web. La chair est lenroulement du visible sur le corps voyant, du tangible sur le corps touchant 8 : nous voyons lautre et sommes regardes par lui ; nous sentons lautre et nous nous sentons sentis. Among. Cette reversibilite definit la chair (. River In Australia. ) capable de nouer entre les corps des relations (. Among The Homeless. ) 9. Of Man. Il existe entre mon corps et celui de lautre une transitivite ou, comme Merleau-Ponty le dit egalement, une inter corporeite 10. Among The Homeless Essay. Mon corps comme chose visible est contenu dans le grand spectacle. Branches. (. Youth Among. ) Il y a insertion reciproque et entrelacs de lun dans lautre 11.

Mon corps se trouve avec lautre corps enveloppe par le meme tissu. 8 Les criteres qui, selon Wittgenstein, me sont montres par le comportement de lautre sont enveloppes dans une chair qui se trouve liee a notre sensibilite. The Roles Of The. Ce mouvement denrouler et detre enroule presuppose une relation de reversibilite entre le sujet et lobjet de la sensibilite. Among The Homeless Essay. Lobjet senti repond immediatement au sujet sentant, par une action directe dans la chair commune, le milieu qui donne vie a leurs emotions mutuelles. Film. Cest donc lexistence dune chair enveloppant le sujet et lobjet qui rend possible lattribution demotions a une personne personne qui nous fait voir les criteres de ces sentiments. 9 Est-il possible que des representations artistiques de personnages soient liees avec nous par une espece de chair ? Est-ce quil existe une relation d intercorporeite entre une ?uvre dart et le spectateur ? Cela est possible uniquement si notre chair ou le tissu setend jusqua lobjet et lenveloppe de notre sensibilite.

Dans cette relation, l?uvre perd son autonomie dobjet et est integree dans le tissu sensible qui lie le sujet avec le monde, mais agit en retour sur le contemplateur. 12 Jacques Lacan, Les quatre concepts de la psychanalyse. Among Essay. Le seminaire. Branches. Livre XI, ed. Youth Among Essay. par Jacques-Ala (. Water For Chocolate. ) 13 Loc. The Homeless Essay. cit. 10 Dans le domaine de la peinture, on The Roles Essay trouve cette relation entre le spectateur et le tableau quil contemple. Youth Among Essay. Son origine est precisement le manque qui caracterise la peinture : un tableau ne contient pas lobjet represente sous sa forme materielle. On Development Of The. Ce que nous voyons, ce sont juste des taches de couleurs nous produisons par lactivite de notre imagination un semblant de chair qui rend la chose representee visible et sensible. The Homeless Essay. (. River. ) Dans le tableau, toujours se manifeste quelque chose du regard , ecrit Jacques Lacan, qui, tout en critiquant Merleau-Ponty, eclaire, dans le contexte de sa theorie psychanalytique du desir, le rapport de reversibilite entre spectateur et tableau12. Youth Among The Homeless Essay. Cest le regard du spectateur qui etablit la relation reciproque avec le tableau et construit une espece decran imaginaire entre lui-meme et limage.

Sur cet ecran, il projette ce quil desire voir. The Roles National Essay. Son desir est suscite par le peintre, qui donc prepare en quelque sorte la creation de la chair : Le peintre, a celui qui doit etre devant son tableau, donne quelque chose qui, dans toute une partie au moins de la peinture, pourrait se resumer ainsi Tu veux regarder ? Eh bien, vois donc ca ! Il donne quelque chose en pature a l?il, mais il invite celui auquel le tableau est presente a deposer la son regard. Among The Homeless Essay. 13. Essay Wide. Cest par laction de mon regard que mon imagination cree un semblant de chair , une espece de peau imaginaire qui me met en contact sensible avec les personnages vus sur le tableau. 11 L?uvre plastique, par contre tri-dimensionnelle et aux corps reels , ne permet pas cette operation. The Homeless. Celle-ci est rendue impossible par la presence corporelle des symboles figuratifs. Water For Chocolate Film. La sculpture et moi, nous ne sommes pas enveloppes par une peau commune ; ma chair ne sent pas la statue de la meme facon quelle sent un personnage peint.

Lart plastique, en regle generale, ne montre pas un semblant de peau humaine. Youth Essay. Autant la peinture fait appel a limagination du spectateur pour etablir une relation avec le personnage represente, autant lart plastique est surdetermine et fait intervenir limagination a un autre stade de la contemplation. In Australia. La aussi il y a desir, mais pas desir de produire une image, puisque la statue me donne son image (ce que le tableau ne fait pas). Youth Among Essay. Il y a desir dintervenir, de creer un contact physique, de toucher la sculpture (comme le decrit Herder, dans La Plastique). 14 Simon Richter (cf. The Roles Essay. n. Essay. 2, p. Abolition. 237) a bien raison de donner a ces narrations le titre Aesthetics of Youth Among The Homeless (. Branches Of Psychology. ) 12 Quand on Youth Essay considere les descriptions de la statue du Laocoon dans la litterature allemande du xviii e siecle (chez Winckelmann, Goethe, Herder, Moritz et meme Lessing), on of the National remarque quelles procedent toutes par narration. The Homeless. Les poetes racontent des recits sur le Laocoon comme sils etaient impliques dans une action commune avec leur heros. Branches Of Psychology. En effet, dans le domaine de lart plastique, lattribution de sentiments a un personnage represente fonctionne sur le mode de la narration. Youth Essay. Le contemplateur forme un recit qui est stimule, voire provoque par des signes montres par la representation plastique. Of The Essay. Les auteurs allemands racontent surtout des recits theatraux ; ils inventent, en ajoutant les dimensions du temps et de la causalite, des contextes dramatiques. Youth Among The Homeless Essay. Ils placent la souffrance et la qualite esthetique du Laocoon au centre de leurs narrations ; ce sont des recits de lesthetique de la douleur14.

Dans leurs narrations, ils parlent presque exclusivement des traits de la figure de Laocoon ; quand ils mentionnent des details corporels, cest uniquement dans le but de souligner la description du visage. 13 Dans la presente analyse, jen suis arrive au point ou la cause de la multitude des interpretations du Laocoon est devenue claire, ainsi que celle de leurs divergences : la statue, en tant qu?uvre dart plastique, ne permet pas lattribution directe demotions. Difference. Les grands auteurs allemands du xviii e siecle placent la douleur du pretre au centre de leurs descriptions, et ils se sentent en droit de le faire parce quils ont tous invente une narration du sort de Laocoon. Among. Or Lessing avait deja demontre que ce procede est arbitraire parce quil neglige les conditions du travail de la Einbildungskraft. Essay Of The World Wide Web. Ce quil faut faire, si lon suit la ligne de sa critique, cest etablir une description de la statue sans y ajouter, au moins dans la premiere phase de lanalyse, delements narratifs. The Homeless Essay. Dans le paragraphe suivant, je tenterai une telle entreprise une description de la statue qui nattribue pas demotions au Laocoon represente. River. Le seul recit quil est permis de citer est le cadre narratif, le mythe du pretre troyen. Youth Among The Homeless Essay. Le concept de moment pregnant peut encore une fois rendre de precieux services. 15 Cest Bernard Andreae qui a formule cette reflexion lors de la discussion durant le colloque Lao (. Essay Of The. ) 14 Le groupe du Laocoon donne une image intense de mouvements divers : il montre trois personnages dans differentes positions corporelles qui representent les stades pregnants de trois types daction. Youth The Homeless. On peut le lire dans les deux sens (gauche-droite, droite-gauche) et du centre vers les deux cotes, mais le spectacle se presente uniquement au spectateur qui se tient en face du groupe15. Essay Of The World. Le fils de gauche est deja plus ou moins mort, celui de droite essaie de sechapper ; Laocoon, entre les deux, est encore en vie, mais, comme nous le verrons, sa representation vehicule un double message ; elle est empreinte dambiguite.

16 Il est comparable a celui de la statue en bronze dAttale II (Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Kun (. Youth The Homeless. ) 15 Dans laxe central et vertical, on of the National voit deux centres daction, deux bouches ouvertes : la bouche de Laocoon et la gueule du serpent, la bouche du pretre annonciateur du malheur a venir et la morsure mortelle qui punit. Youth The Homeless Essay. Par cette composition est exprimee une tension entre le domaine humain et le domaine animal. Branches Of Psychology. Elle trouve un equivalent dans un autre element marquant de la sculpture du pere, dans larc qui se dessine le long du torse de Laocoon. Youth Among. Quand on of psychology le continue vers le haut, on Among The Homeless Essay aboutit a la bouche ; vers le bas on abolition arrive, en passant par le nombril, au sexe. Youth The Homeless Essay. La bouche est ouverte comme chez un mourant, mais le sexe delivre le message contraire cest le sexe dun homme bien en vie, pas du tout celui dun mourant, qui est represente ordinairement comme organe flasque et inanime16. River In Australia. Le groupe est donc compose par un mort, un agent mythique fameux et un futur enfui (le deuxieme fils). 16 Laocoon est debout dans une posture a la fois dynamique et solide, exprimant la robustesse physique, tendu comme un arc et en meme temps fige sur place (il ne saute pas), dans une pose didentite et de fidelite a lui-meme. Youth The Homeless. Le mouvement des serpents montre une maniere dagir opposee. Of Psychology. Cest un glissement tout en courbes, un mouvement enroulant, jaillissant : le contraire de la ligne droite, une metaphore de la non-identite.

Parmi les oppositions entre elements sculpturaux, la tension entre le corps et la tete de Laocoon est la plus marquee. Essay. La determination et le dynamisme du corps sont contrebalances par lindetermination et la perte de vie exprimee par le visage. Of Man. On peut observer tout un faisceau de differences systematiques : le corps parait jeune ; la tete est celle dun homme vieux. les muscles regorgent de tension et de force ; la tete indique la perte de fonctions vitales. le corps possede une constitution dathlete ; la tete correspond a la vocation sacerdotale de Laocoon. le corps est un symbole de vie ; la tete exprime la mort. le corps presente des traits triomphants ; la tete presente la marque de lhomme puni.

17 Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Grundung Roms, Mainz, Philipp von Zabem, 1988, p. Essay. 168. Essay On Development Of The World Wide. 18 Loc. Among Essay. cit., p. Of Man. 168 sq. 17 Face a ces contradictions apparentes, le contemplateur se trouve precipite dans un etat dindecision et de doute face aux interpretations simples. Youth Among The Homeless Essay. On ne saisit pas lunite de la statue si on abolition la lit comme exprimant une serie doppositions dans le sens du structuralisme. Youth. Il sagit plutot dune rencontre de styles differents. Largest. Bernard Andreae a bien remarque que dans la composition des personnages du groupe entier le pere et les deux fils se distinguent dun point de vue stylistique trois types totalement differents qui creent une parente avec trois manieres de representation differentes et qui, malgre leurs origines disparates, sunissent dans un tout inseparable 17. Among The Homeless. Le createur du groupe etait impregne des grandes ?uvres dart et des compositions de groupes qui ornaient les centres hellenistiques 18.

18 Quand on like considere la seule sculpture de Laocoon, on Youth Among The Homeless trouve deux codes de representation, deux logiques et deux mythologies differentes. Abolition. A premiere vue, ces deux codes ne semblent pas aller ensemble. Youth The Homeless Essay. Ils semblent meme se contredire. Of Psychology. Mais ici aussi lartiste organise une rencontre de styles dorigines differentes. Youth The Homeless. Confrontation dabord, mais union harmonieuse ensuite, dans une composition qui fait oublier que ses modeles proviennent de contextes divers. River. Dans le regard du contemplateur se produit, malgre la tension des deux parties disparates de la statue, un effet unifiant.

Ce contemplateur est donc en droit de se demander par quel moyen le tout, au lieu de tomber en pieces, tient ensemble. 19 Cf. Youth The Homeless. Nelson Goodman, Languages of in australia Art, Indianapolis, Hackett, 1968. 19 Lunite se construit dabord par les muscles, muscles de Laocoon et muscles des serpents. Youth Among The Homeless Essay. Le groupe donne en effet limpression dune image musculaire. Essay On Development Of The Web. Les muscles de Laocoon sont saillants, ils font leffet dune planche anatomique ; pour reprendre le langage des specialistes du culte des muscles, les culturistes, ils sont definis . Among The Homeless. Les corps des serpents forment un seul muscle, maintes fois courbe, non defini . Of Psychology. Contrairement a cette foule de signes univoques, limage quoffre la tete se presente comme sous-determinee (fig. The Homeless Essay. 1, p. Sunnis Difference. 56).

Contre la conviction des grands interpretes du Laocoon au xviii e siecle, on Youth The Homeless doit constater que cette tete ne traduit pas de sentiment determine. Of The Wide. Au contraire, labsence de signes distinctifs semble indiquer la perte de determination. Youth Among The Homeless Essay. Les auteurs allemands fondent leurs descriptions des douleurs atroces de Laocoon sur des narrations qui inspirent des sentiments de compassion et de pitie en faveur du pretre souffrant. Sunnis And Shias. Leffet pygmalionien quils evoquent par leurs recits cree une relation spontanee et emotionnelle avec le personnage de marbre. The Homeless. Mais il importe au contraire dattirer lattention sur le fait que le Laocoon nexprime pas detat psychique et que lattribution de la douleur provient de strategies narratives choisies par les interpretes. The Roles National. Si lon se contente dune description sans effets psychologisants, on Among ne constate pas que la tete traduise des emotions. Sunnis Difference. Avec Nelson Goodman19, on Youth Among The Homeless Essay peut dire effectivement que la statue exemplifie un certain sentiment.

Mais l exemplification se refere a des caracteristiques de la representation et non au personnage represente. National Budget Essay. Au lieu dexprimer des douleurs, elle montre letat non distinctif, la perte de contours de la figure, et denote un sentiment qui correspond a une telle decomposition. The Homeless. Je caracteriserai cette emotion dans la quatrieme partie de cet article. 20 Dans ce contexte, il est interessant de se rappeler la these de Winckelmann selon laquelle la ho (. National. ) 20 Les oppositions qui marquent la composition du groupe du Laocoon forment un champ de forces. Youth Among. A linterieur de ce champ se developpe un jeu de forces antagonistes qui resiste a toute interpretation univoque. Like Water. Les deux manieres differentes de composer dun cote le corps et de lautre le visage ne peuvent etre effacees par aucune interpretation : le corps se trouve dans une posture dynamique de pouvoir, le visage indique que le controle et la determination sont sur le point de sevanouir.

Mais il y a encore quelques restes de vie, une derniere resistance, soutenue par les qualites athletiques du corps. Youth The Homeless. Cest le corps agonal qui est la derniere ressource dans lhomme agonisant. Sunnis And Shias. La tension entre la force et la perte de determination indique letat du mourant heroique, comme chez le geant Alkyoneus dans la frise de Pergame (fig. Youth The Homeless Essay. 1) : letat ou tous les traits personnels commencent a fuir le visage, fuite qui commence par la bouche et qui va emporter successivement les forces de tous les membres du corps. River. Le moment pregnant engendre la mort du heros20. 21 Meme Lessing ne tire pas les consequences necessaires quil a pourtant preparees dans sa refutatio (. Youth Among. ) 21 Dans les interpretations des auteurs du xviii e siecle se produit un effet quon peut decrire ainsi : le visage non determine, siege de lame, recoit ses caracteristiques du corps surdetermine21. River In Australia. Un visage vide stimule le desir du contemplateur dinventer un recit qui remplisse la scene de sens et qui la rende ainsi comprehensible. Fig. Youth. 1 Groupe dAthena et dAlkyoneus, frise orientale de lautel de Pergame, Berlin, Pergamonmuseum. 22 Linvention de recits autour du Laocoon ne releve pas du domaine strictement allemand. Essay World Wide Web. Un excellen (. Youth Among. ) 22 Il nest pas surprenant que les poetes allemands se soient sentis appeles a faire preuve de leur talent poietique22.

Mais ils melent les caracteristiques du visage et du corps au lieu de les separer soigneusement. Branches Of Psychology. Ce quils manquent de saisir, cest le jeu entre le vide de la figure et la plenitude du corps, qui est en meme temps un jeu entre les forces a la fois presentes et absentes du personnage jeu que lon retrouve dans lidentite de lhomme Laocoon qui, tout en restant le meme, devient un autre, un mort. Among. La statue le montre encore parmi nous, appartenant a notre monde des vivants, le visage partant deja vers un ailleurs. Essay Of The World Web. Elle est la representation dun etre humain qui sefface en restant parmi nous, ou qui perd la vie en nous laissant le souvenir de sa presence. 23 Au cours de cette analyse, jai donc mis au jour trois raisons susceptibles dexpliquer les problemes dinterpretation suscites par le groupe.

1 / Lattribution demotions a lart plastique nest pas directe, mais se fait par lintermediaire de narrations. The Homeless Essay. 2 / Les narrations classiques ne sont pas attentives aux codes de representation qui se rencontrent dans la statue de Laocoon. Of The National Budget. 3 / Celle-ci est caracterisee par lunion de deux strategies totalement differentes. Among. Ce quil nous reste donc a faire, cest de trouver lorigine de ces deux strategies et de proposer une interpretation de leur unification. 23 Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Kunst von Pergamon.

Die Hybris der Giganten, loc. Essay On Development Web. cit. Youth The Homeless. ;cf. World Wide Web. en pa (. Youth The Homeless Essay. ) 24 Je me refere au mythe populaire de Laocoon qui trouva la mort lorsquil mit en garde les Troyens c (. Of The National Budget Essay. ) 25 B. The Homeless. Andreae montre en particulier la proximite stylistique entre lAntisthene de Phyromachos et le (. Abolition. ) 24 Bernard Andreae indique la concordance typologique de la tete de Laocoon avec les tetes des geants de la frise de Pergame, en particulier avec celle dAlkyoneus23. Youth Among The Homeless. Dans sa comparaison des deux ?uvres dart, il considere uniquement les tetes du Laocoon et de ses modeles possibles. Branches Of Psychology. Mais si on Among The Homeless Essay attire lattention sur les postures des figures, le corps de Laocoon me parait tout a fait different de celui du geant. Water For Chocolate Film. La meme difference se retrouve entre les themes des deux ?uvres. The Homeless Essay. Le mythe du Laocoon repose sur renonciation dun savoir, dune connaissance interdite du temps futur, communiquee contre la volonte des dieux une hybris 24.

Laocoon se revolte contre les dieux par son action : dire la verite sur le sort de sa cite. Difference. Ce parti pris inconditionnel en faveur de la revelation de la verite contre la soumission aux ordres des dieux presente une parente avec des philosophes antiques. Youth Among. Comme la montre Andreae, les philosophes les plus celebres de lAntiquite Socrate, Platon, Antisthene, Epicure, Zenon se trouvent presents dans la composition de la tete de Laocoon par le fait que leurs portraits figuraient parmi les modeles de la statue de Laocoon25. 26 Une douleur intense causerait une contraction de ce groupe musculaire. 25 Revenons au corps de Laocoon.

Cest un corps qui se redresse, dynamique, plein de force, mais calme, aux muscles definis, dominateur et domine par sa propre volonte un corps qui ne se courbe pas ou qui ne sursaute pas sous leffet dune morsure. Abolition. La lecture selon laquelle il secroule sous la douleur est dementie par tous les details anatomiques. The Homeless Essay. Les muscles abdominaux sont rentres26 par laction des muscles dorsaux qui redressent son torse en hauteur. Fig. Sunnis. 2 Le groupe du Laocoon Vue de dos. 27 Cf. Among The Homeless. Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Grundung Roms, loc. Water For Chocolate. cit., p. Youth Among Essay. 211.

26 Lultime confirmation quil sagit de la representation dun beau corps et non de celle dun corps souffrant est donnee par la vue arriere du groupe27 (fig. Abolition Of Man. 2). Youth. Le corps de Laocoon est montre comme une source de force, capable de proteger par les muscles, les ligaments, la chair ferme et les os durs, son savoir et son role sacrificiel. Water For Chocolate. Sa surface garde son integrite, elle ne laisse voir aucun signe de blessure, de sang ou de fracture. Youth The Homeless. Laocoon triomphe de son sort. Abolition Of Man. Sa position rappelle plutot une posture de triomphe, qui permet au sculpteur de presenter une musculature bien developpee.

28 Jean-Pierre Vernant, Lindividu, la mort, lamour. Youth Among The Homeless. Soi-meme et lautre en Grece ancienne, Paris, G (. Sunnis. ) 29 Loc. Youth The Homeless Essay. cit., p. Largest River In Australia. 60, dapres Nicole Loraux, Hebe et Andreia : deux versions de la mort du combattant (. Among The Homeless Essay. ) 30 Loc. Sunnis And Shias Difference. cit., p. Among The Homeless Essay. 59. Abolition. 31 Loc. Youth Essay. cit., p. Abolition. 60, J.-P. Youth Among Essay. Vernant dapres N. Sunnis And Shias. Loraux. Among The Homeless. 32 Loc. Branches. cit. The Homeless. 33 Loc. Of Man. cit., p. Youth The Homeless Essay. 84. 27 Les deux codes de representation du corps et de la tete ne sont pas realistes, mais mythologiques : la tete rappelle les portraits des philosophes, le corps celui dun guerrier triomphant. Largest River. On peut reduire lopposition entre les codes representatifs en sinspirant de la mythologie de la belle mort, telle que Jean-Pierre Vernant la decrite : selon la conception grecque de la mort, un etre humain, quand il meurt, perd la face en meme temps que la vie 28. Among. Quand il sagit de la mort dun heros, le trepas saccomplit sous le signe de hebe , comme ecrit Vernant29 en citant Nicole Loraux. River. Le mot hebe signale en grec cette periode de la vie ou lon se sent en etat de se surpasser, ou le succes, la reussite, le kudos, semblent attaches a vos pas, associes a vos entreprises, plus prosaiquement, ou lon est en pleine possession de ses forces.

Force physique dabord (. The Homeless Essay. ). Sunnis. Posseder l hebe, cest reunir en sa personne toutes les qualites qui font le guerrier accompli 30. Essay. Meme si le guerrier nest plus jeune et loin de posseder la force qui le caracterisait au temps de sa gloire physique, il conquiert l hebe au moment precis ou il la perd (. Abolition. ) 31. Youth Essay. Hebe est le mot de la jeunesse perdue et pleuree, mais par la meme exaltee 32. For Chocolate Film. Cela nest vrai que pour lelite des heros. Among. Cest dans la mort que le heros obtient leclat de lextreme existence, le rayonnement de la vie une vie qui, pour saccomplir et se sublimer, doit dabord se perdre, qui pour saffirmer a jamais doit disparaitre du monde visible et se transmuer en gloire dans la rememoration poetique 33. 28 La tete de Laocoon est celle dun homme mourant ; le corps, par contre, presente tous les signes qui caracterisent (selon Vernant) la representation de la belle mort dans la tradition grecque, les signes de lheroisme, de la gloire et de la continuation de la vie dans le mythe. National Budget. Laocoon est un homme sacrifie et (dans la version populaire du mythe au moins) un heros de la verite, un revolte contre les dieux et un fidele a son peuple. Youth The Homeless. Mais il nest pas un Zarathoustra, car les dieux ne sont pas morts, comme le montre bien, au contraire, sa punition. Sunnis Difference. Saisi a travers la perspective des dieux, Laocoon est un pretre infidele. Among The Homeless. Dans la vision des hommes, il a ete sacrifie pour leur avenir, la fondation de Rome par Enee, cette nouvelle Troie qui conservera le sacrifice de Laocoon comme un de ses mythes fondateurs. Largest River. Tandis que son corps montre sa revolte contre les dieux sous un jour glorieux, son visage montre la punition de facon pathetique : la mort dun insoumis, dun challenger, dun parent des geants immortalises dans la frise de Pergame.

29 Comparons cette gloire avec celle dun autre condamne a mort celebre, Socrate. Essay. La peine capitale est executee dans les deux cas. The Roles National. Socrate sadministre le poison lui-meme, de son propre gre. The Homeless Essay. Il se couche a terre et attend que la mort prenne lentement, a partir des pieds, possession de son corps. Of The Budget. La vie disparait graduellement ; au moment ultime, lame sechappe de la bouche de son corps immobilise. Essay. Cest le corps qui se perd, mais lame invisible reste intacte et monte dans les hauteurs pour circuler autour des idees eternelles du vrai, du bon et du beau. Sunnis Difference. La peine de Laocoon est executee par les suppots de la vengeance des dieux, des etres courbes, poisseux, appartenant a la categorie des basses creatures, qui senroulent autour de son corps et ceux de ses fils, les membres masculins de sa famille. Among Essay. Il supporte moralement et physiquement sa peine mourant, il glorifie son nom par son corps. In Australia. Ce quil a fait, il devait le faire pour sa cite, contre les dieux, une obligation sociale de citoyennete par fidelite envers les hommes, contre son obligation sacerdotale. Youth. Son drame assurera lavenir de la cite de Troie par la fondation de Rome.

Lui, il naurait pas sacrifie ses fils, comme Agamemnon la fait avec Iphigenie. Abolition. Sa mort se deroule selon un processus oppose a lagonie de Socrate. Youth Among The Homeless Essay. Elle commence a partir de la figure ; cest ici que les dieux lui arrachent lame en la transformant en chaos informe, en detruisant la conscience. Essay On Development Wide Web. Ses yeux ont perdu le regard ; ils ne repondent plus a ceux qui le regardent. The Homeless Essay. Mais lartiste a capte le moment precis de basculement entre identite et perte de lidentite, moment ou Laocoon nest plus une personne distincte, mais garde, par sa resistance, son humanite. Of Man. Cest cette ultime lutte pour son appartenance au genre humain qui lui confere sa dignite. 30 Laocoon accepte la sentence et la punition. Youth The Homeless Essay. Ce quil doit donner, cest sa vie.

Et il loffre de facon triomphante. Of Psychology. Son corps est, au moment de mourir, en guerre avec les dieux. Among. Comme le constate Vernant, la mort heroique est la condition de la survie en gloire dans la memoire des hommes 34. Sunnis And Shias Difference. La belle mort de Laocoon nest pas celle du guerrier, larme a la main, mais celle de lhomme sacrifie. The Homeless. Celui qui le regarde dans son etat de mourant peut entendre, dans son imagination, quil parle entre la vie et la mort a la memoire des vivants. Largest In Australia. La memoire collective va retenir sa parole dhomme qui accepte la mort et qui sacrifie sa vie a sa cite. The Homeless Essay. Cest une parole non dite, une prophetie livree par sa bouche entrouverte, donnee a la memoire des vivants. The Roles Of The National. Telle quelle est representee, la tete de Laocoon est au-dela de toute expression definie ; elle est donc placee sous le signe de considerations qui depassent lesthetique. The Homeless. Louverture de la bouche a un autre sens que celui deviter limpression de laideur. Water For Chocolate. Elle laisse echapper lame et le pneuma, lelement aerien qui transporte le recit de son propre personnage, le mythe de sa personne.

Cest au contemplateur de la statue de le capter et de le garder dans sa memoire. 1 Jopere une distinction entre deux formes grammaticales : quand je me refere a la statue et au Laocoon represente, je parlerai du Laocoon avec larticle defini. Youth Among The Homeless. Dans le cas ou je fais reference au personnage, jutilise Laocoon comme nom propre. 2 Lanalyse de Simon Richter Laocoons Body and and shias difference the Aesthetics of Youth Among The Homeless Pain se clot sur ces mots : The readings of of man Winckelmann, Lessing, Herder, Moritz, and Youth Among The Homeless Essay Goethe have produced multiple images of the branches of psychology, Laocoon. Youth Among The Homeless. The castrato, the abolition of man, crucified Christ, the Youth, animal in like for chocolate Hallers clinic, the Among, victim of film rape or torture : these are the Among The Homeless, radically unclassical counterparts of the branches, Laocoon, riveted together through pain (Simon Richter, Laocoons Body and Youth Among the Aesthetics of and shias difference Pain.

Winckelmann, Lessing, Herder, Moritz, Goethe, Detroit, Wayne State University Press 1992, p. Youth Among Essay. 190). 3 Cf. Abolition. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Werke 1766-1769, ed. Among. par Wilfried Barner, Frankfurt a. The Roles Of The National Budget. M., Bibliothek deutscher Klassiker, 1990. 4 Jules Vuillemin, Bemerkungen uber Lessings Laokoon , in Youth Gunter Gebauer (ed.), Das Laokoon-Projekt. Abolition Of Man. Plane einer semiotischen Asthetik, Stuttgart, Metzler, 1984, p. The Homeless. 167-182. 5 Inka Mulder-Bach, Im Zeichen Pygmalions. Abolition. Das Modell der Statue und die Entdeckung der Darstellung im 18. Youth Essay. Jahrhundert, Munchen, Fink, 1998, p. Like Water For Chocolate Film. 15. 6 Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophische Untersuchungen (trad. Among The Homeless Essay. franc. Branches. : Investigations philosophiques), in Among The Homeless Schriften, Frankfurt a. Sunnis And Shias. M., Suhrkamp, 1960. 7 Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Merleau-Ponty a la Sorbonne. Among The Homeless. Resume de cours 1949-1952, Dijon, 1988, p. In Australia. 558.

8 Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Le Visible et linvisible, ed. Among. Claude Lefort, Paris, Gallimard, 1964, p. Sunnis And Shias Difference. 191. 12 Jacques Lacan, Les quatre concepts de la psychanalyse. Youth Among The Homeless. Le seminaire. Branches Of Psychology. Livre XI, ed. Among The Homeless Essay. par Jacques-Alain Miller, Paris, Le Seuil, 1973, p. Of The World Web. 116. 14 Simon Richter (cf. Youth Among. n. Branches. 2, p. Among Essay. 237) a bien raison de donner a ces narrations le titre Aesthetics of Essay on Development Wide pain . Among The Homeless Essay. Un autre question est cependant de savoir si ce titre rend justice a la statue du Laocoon. 15 Cest Bernard Andreae qui a formule cette reflexion lors de la discussion durant le colloque Laocoon. The Roles National Budget Essay. Histoire et reception a Paris (Ecole normale superieure, EPHE et Institut historique allemand), les 29-30 avril 2002. 16 Il est comparable a celui de la statue en bronze dAttale II (Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Kunst von Pergamon.

Die Hybris der Giganten, Frankfurt, Fischer, 1991, p. Among The Homeless. 57). Abolition. Le fait quaucun observateur du xviii e siecle, pas meme Winckelmann, nait ete attentif a un signe aussi important dans les statues dhommes nus ne peut pas sexpliquer par une attitude pudique, mais doit etre mis au compte dun aveuglement partiel du a une interpretation preconcue. 17 Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Grundung Roms, Mainz, Philipp von Zabem, 1988, p. Among Essay. 168. 19 Cf. Abolition. Nelson Goodman, Languages of Youth The Homeless Essay Art, Indianapolis, Hackett, 1968. 20 Dans ce contexte, il est interessant de se rappeler la these de Winckelmann selon laquelle la hohe Schonheit est la qualite de la Unbezeichnung (S. In Australia. Richter, loc. Among. cit., p. Of The National Budget Essay. 56), qui a donc une certaine proximite avec la mort. 21 Meme Lessing ne tire pas les consequences necessaires quil a pourtant preparees dans sa refutation de linterpretation moralisante de Winckelmann ; comme les autres auteurs, il suit la strategie dinterpretation psychologisante. 22 Linvention de recits autour du Laocoon ne releve pas du domaine strictement allemand.

Un excellent exemple de linterpretabilite de la statue par des recits psychologisants et personnalises se trouve chez Kierkegaard : Was ist ein Dichter ? Ein unglucklicher Mensch, der tiefe Qualen in Among seinem Herzen birgt, dessen Lippen aber so geformt sind, da?, indem der Seufzer und der Schrei uber sie ausstromen, sie klingen wie eine schone Musik. Of The National Budget Essay. (. Youth Among Essay. ) Und die Menschen scharen sich um den Dichter und sagen zu ihm : Singe bald wieder ; das hei?t : mochten doch neue Leiden deine Seele martern, und mochten doch die Lippen so geformt bleiben wie bisher ; denn der Schrei wurde uns blo? angstigen, die Musik aber, die ist lieblich. Like Film. Und die Rezensenten treten hinzu, die sagen : Ganz recht, so soll es sein nach den Regeln der Asthetik (Soren Kierkegaard, 246 Entweder-Oder, Munchen, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 5 1998, p. Youth. 27). 23 Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Kunst von Pergamon. Sunnis Difference. Die Hybris der Giganten, loc. Youth Essay. cit. Of Psychology. ;cf. Among The Homeless Essay. en particulier les chapitres Vorbilder , p. The Roles Of The National Budget Essay. 16-21, et Phyromachos und das Philosophenbildnis , p. The Homeless. 36-41. 24 Je me refere au mythe populaire de Laocoon qui trouva la mort lorsquil mit en garde les Troyens contre le cheval que les Grecs avaient laisse devant leur cite. Essay World Wide. Il existe bien dautres elaborations du mythe, mais le pretre apparait toujours comme la victime des dieux. The Homeless. Si on abolition adopte une autre version du mythe, on Among The Homeless deplace les accents de mon interpretation ; on Essay on Development of the World Wide Web ne parlerait peut-etre pas de hybris. Youth Among Essay. Mais dans toutes les variantes du mythe, la mort de Laocoon possede un cote heroique.

Ce qui importe pour mon interpretation, cest quil presente lunion dun homme mourant et dun heros. 25 B. Of The National Budget Essay. Andreae montre en particulier la proximite stylistique entre lAntisthene de Phyromachos et le Laocoon, loc. Essay. cit., p. Branches Of Psychology. 52-54. 26 Une douleur intense causerait une contraction de ce groupe musculaire. 27 Cf. Youth The Homeless Essay. Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Grundung Roms, loc. Sunnis. cit., p. Youth Among. 211. 28 Jean-Pierre Vernant, Lindividu, la mort, lamour. Largest In Australia. Soi-meme et lautre en Grece ancienne, Paris, Gallimard, 1989, p. Among The Homeless Essay. 33. 29 Loc. Abolition Of Man. cit., p. The Homeless. 60, dapres Nicole Loraux, Hebe et Andreia : deux versions de la mort du combattant athenien, in largest river in australia Ancient Society, VI (1975), p. Youth The Homeless. 1-31. 31 Loc. Like For Chocolate. cit., p. Among Essay. 60, J.-P. Abolition Of Man. Vernant dapres N. Youth Among. Loraux.

Gunter Gebauer , Le corps du Laocoon , Revue germanique internationale , 19 | 2003, 237-250. Gunter Gebauer , Le corps du Laocoon , Revue germanique internationale [En ligne], 19 | 2003, mis en ligne le 22 septembre 2011, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. The Roles Of The National Budget Essay. URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/rgi.955. Professeur a la Freie Universitat de Berlin. Tous droits reserves. Reinhart Koselleck 24 | 2016. La phenomenologie de lesprit 23 | 2016. La pedagogie allemande dans lespace francophone 22 | 2015. La part etrangere des musees 20 | 2014. Geographies entre France et Allemagne.

La romanistique allemande 18 | 2013. Schelling. Youth Among. Le temps du systeme, un systeme des temps 17 | 2013. Lhermeneutique litteraire et son histoire. River In Australia. Peter Szondi 16 | 2012. Archeologies mediterraneennes 15 | 2012. Ernst Cassirer 14 | 2011. La philologie allemande, figures de pensee 13 | 2011. Phenomenologie allemande, phenomenologie francaise 12 | 2010.

La fabrique internationale de la science 11 | 2010. Villes baltiques 10 | 2009. LAnthropologie allemande entre philosophie et sciences 9 | 2009. Haskala et Aufklarung 8 | 2008. Theologies politiques du Vormarz 7 | 2008. Itineraires orientalistes 6 | 2007.

Neokantisme et sciences morales 5 | 2007. Shakespeare vu d'Allemagne et de France des Lumieres au romantisme 4 | 2006. Esthetiques de lAufklarung 3 | 2006. L'Allemagne des linguistes russes 1-2 | 2005. Philhellenismes et transferts culturels dans l'Europe du XIXe siecle. Friedrich Schiller.

La modernite dun classique 21 | 2004. Lhorizon anthropologique des transferts culturels 20 | 2003. Herder et les Lumieres 19 | 2003. Le laocoon : histoire et reception 18 | 2002. Trieb : tendance, instinct, pulsion 17 | 2002. References juives et identites scientifiques en Allemagne 16 | 2001.

Entre classicisme et romantisme, autour de 1800 15 | 2001. Hegel : droit, histoire, societe 14 | 2000. Sigmund Freud 13 | 2000. Ecrire lhistoire de lart 12 | 1999. Goethe cosmopolite 11 | 1999.

Nietzsche moraliste 10 | 1998. Histoire culturelle 9 | 1998. Heinrich Heine. Youth Among Essay. Poesie et histoire 8 | 1997. Theorie de la litterature 7 | 1997. Le paysage en France et en Allemagne autour de 1800 6 | 1996. Kant : philosophie de lhistoire 5 | 1996.

Germanite, judaite, alterite 4 | 1995. Le miroir allemand 3 | 1995. La crise des Lumieres 2 | 1994. Histoire et theories de lart 1 | 1994. Europe Centrale Mitteleuropa. ISSN electronique 1775-3988.

Informations Titre : Revue germanique internationale En bref : Revue consacree a la litterature, la philosophie, la sociologie, lhistoire culturelle, lhistoire de lart des pays de langue allemande.

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2009 UVA Darden MBA Admissions Chat with Sara Neher. Please feel free to let us know if you would like to be informed of future chats by sending e-mail to We would also be interested in knowing if you would prefer a different format or different topics. Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 12:00:47 PM) Hello. My name is Linda Abraham. The Homeless Essay. I am the founder of and the moderator of of the Budget Essay todays chat. First I want to Among, welcome all applicants to the chat today, and I want to congratulate you for taking the abolition, time to The Homeless Essay, learn more about UVAs Dardens Business School. It is of the Wide Web, critical to your decision process and your admission chances that you know as much as you can about the schools you are applying to. Being here today allows you to Youth Essay, ask experts about this top business school.

I also want to welcome the great team Darden has assembled to answer your questions today: Sara Neher - Director of MBA Admissions Arielle Myhre - Assistant Director of Marketing and Admissions - Arielle is an in australia Assistant Director of Marketing and Among Admissions at the University of Virginia Darden School of Business. She hosts the Darden Admissions News Blog, writes the branches of psychology, monthly Admissions newsletter, plans prospective student receptions, and works on various online marketing efforts. Youth. Jamala Massenburg - Darden Student, Class of 2009 - Originally from the Washington DC area, Jamala is and shias difference, currently a Second Year student at the Darden School of Business. Youth Among The Homeless Essay. Jamala graduated from the University of branches Virginia in 2001 with a degree in Electrical Engineering. Youth The Homeless. Upon graduation she went to work for Ford Motor Company in sunnis and shias difference Dearborn, MI for 6 years as a product design engineer. Youth Among The Homeless Essay. There she was given the sunnis and shias difference, opportunity to complete a Masters in systems engineering from the University of Michigan. After graduating from Darden this year, she will be relocating to Boston, MA to begin a career as a consultant in the health care industry with ZS Associates. Bill Gray -Darden Student, Class of 2009 - Bill is a Second Year student at the Darden School of Business. Youth Among The Homeless. He received his undergraduate degree in electrical engineering from the University of Michigan. Branches. His professional experience includes working at a biomedical device startup as an electrical engineer, consulting to local businesses on a part time basis with Graymatter Computing, and Youth Among consulting to of man, automotive companies as an associate with PRTM Management Consulting.

After graduating from Darden this year, Bill will continue as an associate in PRTM's automotive practice. Cameron Miller -Darden Student, Class of Among The Homeless 2009- Cameron grew up in sunnis Richmond, VA and is currently a Second Year student at the Darden School of Business. Cameron completed her undergraduate degree at Wake Forest University in Among The Homeless Essay North Carolina, majoring in English Literature with a minor in Economics. After graduating in 2001, Cameron moved to San Francisco to pursue a career in Brand Advertising, working on accounts such as Visa, Nike, and Difference. Although not yet committed to a full time job, Cameron plans to move back to the San Francisco Bay Area to Youth Essay, work in of man Marketing and Corporate Sustainability. Thanks to everyone for joining. ThirdRoundApplicant (Feb 26, 2009 12:05:02 PM) Sara: Is the Youth Among Essay, third round this year the round of death as well? I just found out of the National Budget more about the Darden program via various professors and Among The Homeless Essay students, regarding the advantages of the case study methodology. World Wide. Should I still apply?

Enea (Feb 26, 2009 12:05:28 PM) Arielle: Are there any scholarships or financial aid available to international students? Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 12:06:07 PM) Bill, Cameron and Jamala, why did you choose Darden? Gretchen (Feb 26, 2009 12:06:30 PM) Arielle, are admissions way up this year? Is it much harder to get in?

ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:06:41 PM) Enea, Yes, there are many scholarships available to Youth, international students. Please visit the Financial Aid webpage for more information. Of The National Essay. Regarding loans, please watch Sara Neher's recent video blog for an update. SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:06:48 PM) Third Round Applicant. Thanks for joining us today and for considering applying in Youth Essay Round 3. Round 3 is like, definitely the smallest round of The Homeless applicants, and as such, the smallest number of admits. BUT, it is not the round of abolition of man death.

People get in every year in round 3. Youth Among The Homeless. You do need to be clear about why you are applying in round 3 - tell us in of man the Additional Comments section of the The Homeless, application. mags (Feb 26, 2009 12:07:04 PM) Sara: How does it look for Essay on Development World Web, Round 1 waitlisted students? How many people were accepted from the waitlist last year? JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:07:24 PM) Linda, I choose Darden for two main reasons: One: The case method. Among The Homeless Essay. I felt coming in that I had a weakness in National public speaking expressing my opinion, so I felt it would be good place to help with my development. Youth The Homeless. The second reason was I felt it was the best fit for me. Darden is a very collaborative culture, students work together and The Roles National Budget learn from each other, exam reviews are student led, even though we are graded on curve. The small class size means that I know just about all of my classmates and have formed lasting friendships. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:08:13 PM) Gretchen: Applications are up in Youth The Homeless Essay some areas and and shias down in others. It will not be any more difficult to get in this year. ThirdRoundApplicant (Feb 26, 2009 12:08:20 PM) Jamala, as an alumnus from the UVA Engineering school, did you feel that you were a natural at the case study methodology?

I graduated from the Systems Engineering department and I can definitely draw parallels to the case study methodology since we did a lot of it in E-school. Did being a former UVA alum add weight to your application? mags (Feb 26, 2009 12:08:39 PM) Arielle: How are Darden students finding the job market this year? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:08:54 PM) Mags, Round 1 waitlisted applicants should know that their files will be considered again in March as we make Round 2 decisions. Last year, several people got in at that time. We consider them again in Round 3 and some people got in then as well. I don't know yet about how it will go this year. AB (Feb 26, 2009 12:08:56 PM) Hi Sara, thanks for Youth The Homeless, extending this opportunity. Abolition Of Man. Could you throw some light on the current status of Youth Among The Homeless interview invites for R2?

SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:10:13 PM) AB, the majority of interview invites have gone out for Round 2. However, a few are going out today and invitations could continue to go out up until the decision release date. In Round 1, we did make interview invitations all the way through the round. CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:10:33 PM) Linda, I chose Darden for a few reasons: Having lived in the San Francisco / Bay Area for six years, I was interested to coming back to the East Coast for school. I loved the small, tight knit community of Darden and Charlottesville; Also, having been in the working world for six years, I knew that I wanted a case method program rather than a lecture-based learning environment because of the of psychology, class engagement and high-energy approach to learning; Finally, I am extremely interested in Social Responsibility and Ethical businesses practices - Darden has always been known for their Ethics program and they have continued to expand their offerings in sustainability and social responsibility. eva (Feb 26, 2009 12:10:34 PM) Sara: MBA admissions are mostly based on experiences. What do you think about the Youth Among The Homeless, students who want to largest in australia, continue to the graduate school right after their undergrad? They basically will not have any work experience at all. Can such student still be considered?

Can they still apply for an MBA in Darden? BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:10:40 PM) Linda, I choose Darden for a combination of the school's reputation, learning method, class size, class profile (distribution of Youth Among The Homeless undergraduate degrees), and city size. My search started with the traditional rankings and branches I then factored in these other considerations. It took me some time to figure out Among what was most important to me personally, and visiting schools was a big help. I was impressed by some schools from their marketing material and of the Web then had a completely different reaction when visiting the campus. Visiting Darden helped me sort though some of my own questions on what to consider. JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:10:49 PM) ThirdRoundApplicant: I found that the Youth Essay, case method gives you a lot of information and it is up to you to figure out what is important.

I feel that the studies of engineering helped with that. As for being an alumnus of UVA, yes having come here before did play a role, as I knew I would enjoy the abolition of man, area and the program, but had to weigh that with deciding if I wanted a different location. In the end, I went with the school that I felt had the best fit and would address my goals. I found that the second time around has been a very different experience. The Homeless Essay. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:11:43 PM) Mags, the job market is a more challenging environment this year, but we are keeping pace with our peer schools. To learn about Essay of the World Web, some of the Among The Homeless Essay, resources that our Career Development Center offers and to learn about The Roles Budget, what this department is Essay, doing in this economy, please watch a recent video blog from Sara Neher. nickpez (Feb 26, 2009 12:11:44 PM) I have a question for any of the current students. Of Man. Does Darden participate in grade disclosure with potential employers, and if so, do you at all feel that it hurts the collaborative nature of the program? Vishy (Feb 26, 2009 12:11:47 PM) Hi Arielle.

Can you throw some light on the important factors for admission to Darden? Is international experience necessary for an Indian and other international applicants ? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:13:15 PM) Eva, We do have some students who come directly from undergrad. Youth Among Essay. Admission to business school is based on your leadership ability and potential, your intelligence, and your work experience. Of The Wide Web. The first two you can have at Among Essay any age. The third, a college applicant can have via internships, strong extra-curricular activities, etc. Plus - there is no downside to applying.

If you don't get in for chocolate now, we will give you feedback over the summer on how to improve your chances in the future. Youth The Homeless. mags (Feb 26, 2009 12:13:19 PM) Sara: When will waitlisted students find out Essay on Development of the Wide more information? Do they find out Youth Among The Homeless Essay if they are still waitlisted or accepted on March 25th and May 2nd along with all the other R2 and R3 candidates? Lunel (Feb 26, 2009 12:13:26 PM) Jamal: How has the case study method helped your weakness in abolition public speaking expressing your opinion, as you mentioned earlier? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:14:51 PM) Mags, waitlisted students will only get specific information about their status if they are admitted. Otherwise, you will get some regular communication from us starting this week. You can check out a recent video blog on the topic for more info as well. Youth The Homeless. ThirdRoundApplicant (Feb 26, 2009 12:14:58 PM) Sara: I am already pointing out abolition a weakness in the additional comments section and word limit is 150 words.

I would feel very limited in explaining my reasons to apply in Round 3. Is there any other way I can accomplish this? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:15:00 PM) Vishy, important factors for admission to The Homeless Essay, Darden include: Academics, work experience, personal qualities and Essay on Development of the Web characteristics. International experience is important for all students (including international applicants). We also look for evidence of leadership experience and an interest in your community. eva (Feb 26, 2009 12:15:16 PM) Arielle: What are the scholarship criteria for Essay, international students? JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:15:47 PM) Lunel: It proved me with an environment of support and trust, where I could experiment with expressing myself. I've learned how to word my thoughts and opinions in ways that are both respectful and insightful. Through the branches, process, I also learned that I know more than I think I do and that my thoughts and ideas are just as valid as everyone else's. For me, it has been a break-out two years! BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:16:03 PM) Nickpez, Darden has a policy not to disclose grades. Recruiters in Youth The Homeless Essay some of the really competitive industries ask for grades and of the students have to make a personal decision on The Homeless Essay, if it makes sense to share their grades.

In this case, the abolition of man, decision rests with the individual student. Among The Homeless. SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:16:05 PM) 3rd Round, the branches, Additional Comments section should be used with bullet points -it is not an essay. Just tell us what we need to Youth Among The Homeless Essay, know in the most concise way possible. A few sentences are sufficient. Of Man. Sarah (Feb 26, 2009 12:16:22 PM) Sara: If you applied in round two, when is the latest that you will be contacted for an interview? And if you are not contacted, does that mean that you did not get in? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:17:12 PM) Eva, scholarship criteria is the Youth Among The Homeless Essay, same for all students (U.S. and The Roles of the Budget Essay international), but there are some country-specific scholarships, as well as ones focused on entrepreneurship and innovation. Among Essay. SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:17:24 PM) Sarah, the latest you can be contacted for an interview is March 25.

And yes, you cannot be admitted without an interview - although the of psychology, interview might have happened in a prior year if you are a re-applicant. Youth Essay. Sarah (Feb 26, 2009 12:18:19 PM) Sara: What are the opportunities for studying abroad; are there a lot of options to do this? mags (Feb 26, 2009 12:18:40 PM) For the grad students: What do you like most and least about of the National, living in Charlottesville? Lunel (Feb 26, 2009 12:19:23 PM) Arielle: I'm still in the exploratory process of Essay choosing schools that are the correct match for me, and I'm interested in visiting Darden. Budget. How would I execute the Youth Among Essay, visiting process and what is The Roles, involved in Among The Homeless a campus visit? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:20:23 PM) Sarah, there are lots of opportunities for study abroad - from of psychology a semester or quarter at one of our partner schools to a one-week trip with a faculty member over spring break (global business experiences). ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:20:41 PM) Dan (Feb 26, 2009 12:20:44 PM) Sara: How is the current economical situation affecting graduates? I guess job offers are not as good in salaries and numbers as previous years. CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:21:19 PM) NickPez, per Bill's answer, Darden's policy holds for MOST of the Youth The Homeless Essay, situations. For this reason, grades do not create a competitive environment in sunnis and shias difference the classroom. Also, more important than what interviewers ask is that the collaborative community Darden cultivates through our Learning Teams, Sections, and all around social nature of the Darden School.

JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:21:55 PM) Sarah: In response to your question about Youth Among The Homeless, studying abroad, I and of psychology 29 of my classmates will be leaving next week to go to China for 2 weeks. There we will have the Youth The Homeless Essay, opportunity to visit companies as well as take in the culture. River In Australia. Other students are going to: Bahrain, Barcelona, Sweden, Argentina and Brazil, j ust to name a few of the locations. jbdpk (Feb 26, 2009 12:22:40 PM) Hi Arielle: If we get an Among Essay interview invitation for the 2nd Round, how much time will we get to attend it on-campus? I believe we are too close to decision time-line. Wilson (Feb 26, 2009 12:23:04 PM) Bill, Jamala and Cameron, it looks like you all came to Budget Essay, Darden from large cities. How did you like the The Homeless Essay, change in environment?

Also, do you feel the of the National Essay, small-town setting impacted your job/internship search? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:23:14 PM) Dan, it is really too early to tell about salaries and offers for this year, but our second years are doing quite well in the job market. We had all of the The Homeless Essay, top banks (that are left) and sunnis and shias all of the top consulting firms, plus even stronger showings from previous years, in Among manufacturing and marketing. Great jobs are out there, companies are just slower to confirm this year - offers are still coming in now! For more information, consult our employment report on our career development center website.

Jenn Ash (Feb 26, 2009 12:23:26 PM) Sara: Can you explain how you bucket applicants throughout the process? When you are comparing two applications, do you group the consultants, southeast, young prospects, internationals or creatives? How do you divide the group to get an accurate perspective? Which stacks have the greatest number of applicants? BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:24:13 PM) Sarah, last year, I participated in the Mexico City GBE, which was led by Professor Rodriguez.

We attended classes with the MBA students at IPADA business school and river in australia visited local businesses. Youth Among The Homeless. One part of the program that impressed me was the time we spent with the Darden professor. He attended all the events and went to dinner with us every night. Of The Essay. JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:24:57 PM) Mags: Best think about Charlottesville is the ability to go out and Youth do outdoor activities (45 minutes for skiing, hiking, etc), and at the same time enjoy some city aspects such as (shopping, concerts, dining out). Least favorite thing is the airport! Get used to small planes! CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:25:09 PM) Sarah, I am also taking advantage of the water for chocolate film, GBEs at Youth Among The Homeless Darden.

These are Global Business Experiences that Jamala mentioned above. There are also opportunities to Essay on Development of the World Web, study abroad for quarters and semesters. As most things at Darden, if a student has an interest in something, you can propose it to the school and make it happen. Youth Among The Homeless. We currently have. 6 classmates who are studying in sunnis India this quarter. Other classmates of Youth Among The Homeless mine have spent parts of like water for chocolate their second year in France, Japan, Argentina, and other areas of Youth Among their interest. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:25:16 PM) Jbdpk, if you receive an invitation to interview, you will have 10 days to schedule your interview. If you schedule your interview after the decision deadline, we will do our best to get a decision to you soon after your interview. National Budget Essay. Manas Das (Feb 26, 2009 12:25:31 PM) Arielle: I know that the admission committee considers the application in totality.

But is it mandatory that an applicant must demonstrate academic potential in either the GPA or GMAT? For example, is it true that a not so good GPA must be compensated by a very high GMAT? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:26:20 PM) Jenn Ash, we honestly do not bucket' the applications as a whole. Each application is judged on its own merits - holistically and after several readings by several members of the admissions committee. As we are deciding about the Essay, final few offers and who to and shias difference, put on the waitlist, only at that point might we compare people by industry, country/state, or undergrad. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:27:03 PM) Manas, we need to see academic strength somewhere on your application - this could be your GMAT, GPA or classes you've taken after graduation.

Dan (Feb 26, 2009 12:27:28 PM) Sara: I'm from Spain and The Homeless I have applied for Round 2. So far, I have received no news yet about the interview. Once I get a response, does the interview have to be conducted before the 2nd of March deadline, or it has some flexibility? CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:27:57 PM) Mags: Another great thing about C-ville is the cost! It is a relatively inexpensive place to live - especially if you have been in a major city for the last few years. I live in a big house (3 roommates) with a huge kitchen and pay less than $600 per month (my share). Also, there are fantastic restaurants for branches of psychology, such a small town. Among. This, coupled with the gorgeous views of the Blue Ridge Mountains, makes Charlottesville a fantastic place to of the Wide Web, live! JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:28:38 PM) Wilson: I love the Among The Homeless Essay, small town environment. Coming from a major city, I knew that I wanted to go somewhere to Essay, concentrate on Youth The Homeless Essay, my studies and not have distractions for getting to know my fellow classmates.

Bigger cities are 1-2 hours away so I have the of man, opportunity to spend time socializing with other Dardenites. I didn't feel that the Youth Essay, location impacted my recruiting, most major corporations recruit here. And for Essay Wide Web, those that do not, I have found alumni to be helpful with providing insight into pursuing off-grounds opportunities. David (Feb 26, 2009 12:28:56 PM) Current students: What would you say is the strongest program at Youth Among The Homeless Darden? Did you know that before you started?

How did you find out? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:30:14 PM) Dan, overseas, our interviews are usually conducted by our alumni. if you get invited, you will have 10 days to schedule something with an alumnus who contacts you. Like For Chocolate Film. Preferably, you will complete the interview a few days before March 25 and Youth Among The Homeless Essay that way we can still release the decision on time. If it takes longer than that, we will notify you of The Roles of the National Budget Essay a final decision a few days after the Youth Among Essay, interview takes place. We do our best to and shias, have a quick turnaround on these. BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:31:15 PM) Wilson, I came from Detroit and moving to Charlottesville was a nice change of pace. First, it's warmer here during the Among The Homeless, winter and the town doesn't get much snow. Everyone in this town is very nice and the smaller community feel means my wife and I constantly run into people we know.

One of the big advantages of moving to Charlottesville is river, that I got to know my classmates. In large cities, people often already have a social network or people they know and Among tend to do less with the student body. At Darden, we come to Charlottesville knowing almost no one and then spend most of our social time with fellow MBA students. The small city is a huge factor in helping our class bond together. As for Essay Wide Web, recruiting, all the Essay, big firms make the trip down.

There are three or four direct daily flights to Charlottesville from New York and also direct flights to The Roles of the National Budget Essay, several other airports. Richmond is another option and is about an hour away. Sam McIntosh (Feb 26, 2009 12:32:00 PM) Hello from Among The Homeless Austin, Texas! I have a question for branches, any of the current Darden students. Darden has a reputation for placing a lot of importance on ethical behavior. As a student, does that emphasis manifest itself on Youth Essay, campus? If so, can you give an example? Thank you. SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:32:39 PM) After June 1, unsuccessful applicants can request feedback. A member of the The Roles of the, Admissions Committee will review your file and respond with information specific to you.

I will tell you though, that the most common feedback points are: More progression/leadership in the workplace, English-speaking ability, and Proof of The Homeless quantitative ability (better GMAT, take accounting/statistics, etc.). Branches. JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:32:47 PM) David: To clarify, we do not have majors, so to speak, as a general management program. I have found that this provides the ability to take a wide range of courses. The best part is that the Essay, faculty has found ways to make it integrated so that while you may be taking Operations, you learn how Marketing and Finance also play a role. River In Australia. I personally have enjoyed the courses in Ethics and Negotiations. Among The Homeless Essay. I found out about different classes from other students -- last year we held sessions with first years to talk about the sunnis and shias difference, different class options and I found that really helpful for understanding what I would get out of each class. Also, there are some professors that I really enjoy, so I take whatever classes they are teaching.

ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:33:27 PM) CapeTown, The Darden experience is transformative for Youth Among The Homeless, many reasons. The case method requires that students are highly-engaged in the classroom environment. You must read the cases the day before class, meet with your learning team, and participate in class discussions. And Shias Difference. The classroom environment allows you to Among, test out abolition your ideas and strengthen your communication skills. The Darden experience is also transformative because you will be surrounded by Among a diverse and abolition of man talented group of The Homeless Essay students for two years, where you will be able to share ideas and learn new perspectives. Lastly, students at Darden are also committed to Essay on Development World Web, enhancing student life by being involved in many of the student organizations.

Wilson (Feb 26, 2009 12:33:36 PM) Arielle: What kind of work experience is the Darden admissions committee looking for in their MBA candidates? David (Feb 26, 2009 12:34:18 PM) Sara: I feel my application is limited on Youth Among The Homeless, community involvement, primarily because of limited opportunities (no large 3,000+ city in 40+ miles). Can involvement in groups within my current employer supplement this section (workplace improvement teams, Green teams, etc.)? CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:34:20 PM) Wilson: I have loved the small-town aspect of Charlottesville because it is a great place to be a student.

While there are many things to do, there are not the distractions of a larger city. Most people that come to Darden are new to the area, so it creates this very social, tight-knit group of classmates that quickly become close friends from all over the country and world. I would not have wanted it any other way. Essay On Development World. As for the recruiting aspect, there are many companies who rely on Among The Homeless Essay, recruiting Darden talent each year. These companies visit Darden grounds many times a year for recruiting, speaking, and like water for chocolate other networking events. For those companies who do not come to Darden, most are acquainted with our name and talent. These folks are quick to Youth Among The Homeless Essay, answer phone calls and respond to emails to Essay on Development of the World Web, begin a networking process that ignite recruiting from an off-grounds perspective. The Homeless Essay. I am moving to San Francisco, California after graduation and have been delighted by the response I received from branches California-based companies. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:34:49 PM) Wilson, we are looking for a range of work experiences in candidates.

We are also looking for Among, leadership experience. The Roles Budget Essay. Miguel Garcia (Feb 26, 2009 12:35:29 PM) Arielle: I have decided to postpone my MBA applications until next fall because I would like to gain more experience in my new position. Among The Homeless Essay. Will there be any admissions changes for 2010 applicants? Also, is there any difference between the on Development World Web, Consortium application and the direct Darden application? Dan (Feb 26, 2009 12:35:37 PM) Thank you Arielle! nickpez (Feb 26, 2009 12:36:37 PM) Cameron and Bill, thank you. Youth Essay. Jay (Feb 26, 2009 12:36:53 PM) Jamal: Are there any opportunities to go to East Africa? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:37:14 PM) David, we look at all aspects of abolition your work experience, and don't forget, your recommenders will tell us a lot as well - about your potential. Youth Among The Homeless Essay. None of sunnis and shias that is Essay, dependent on abolition, your firm size or location. Workplace improvement projects and work in the green space can absolutely supplement. Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 12:37:55 PM) Sarah -- This is an emailed question: I have completed my Production Engineering from the Pune University, India, in First Class with Distinction (highest grade one can receive). I have progressed from Second class (54%) to Higher Second class (57%) to First Class (60%) to The Homeless Essay, First class with Distinction (68%) in four years of engineering respectively.

If you analyze this performance purely in Essay on Development of the World terms of percentage then it may look grim but if you look through grades (First class, etc) it looks progressive and above average. Although the percentage looks lackluster, I was consistently in Top-15 in Essay my class (of 80 students) considering the level of of psychology difficulty of course. 1-How does Darden look through such profiles in analyzing the Youth Among Essay, Academic Potential? Do they consider pure percentage or Grades/ class obtained? 2-Should I mention (or explain as done above) the progressive trend in the optional essay? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:37:55 PM)

Miguel - yes, there will be new essays next year and we are moving to a new application system. The Consortium application allows you to apply to multiple schools at once, so it is different from the direct Darden application. Vishy (Feb 26, 2009 12:38:37 PM) Hi Arielle: Is age an important factor in recruitment especially for The Roles National Budget Essay, consulting/financial services? Can an experience of Essay 5+ years and age of 30+ be seen as a disadvantage for these careers given that most firms would take people for their MT programs? JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:38:41 PM) Jay: Right now, I do not believe there are opportunities to go to East Africa.

Prior to this year, there was a trip to South Africa, and although that was not planned again for like water, this year, I believe will be coming back next year. Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 12:38:58 PM) Bill, Cameron and Jamala, what do you like best at Darden? What would you like to Youth The Homeless, see improved? Sarah (Feb 26, 2009 12:39:44 PM) Ok, thank you for the response about the study abroad. Dan (Feb 26, 2009 12:39:47 PM) SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:40:18 PM) Linda, in response to the emailed questions- We are always looking for Wide Web, potential in both school and Youth The Homeless work experience. The Roles National Budget Essay. What you have done toward the end of your tenure is more important than what you did at the beginning. If you are concerned about how something might be perceived - then yes, explain it in The Homeless Essay the Additional Comments section - but use bullet points, don't write another essay. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:40:24 PM) Vishy, we have people going into these industries at age 25 and at age 35, so I do not think that age is river in australia, a large factor. Dan (Feb 26, 2009 12:40:41 PM) Sara: Although GBE is open to first and second year students, some others are restricted to second year students depending on the location.

Why is Youth Among, that? Is it recommendable to take GBE on the second year when one has gained more experience? BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:41:48 PM) CapeTown_ZA, it's difficult to describe a transformative experience as it transforms so many aspects. Darden has dramatically changed my perspective on business and society. Right now I'm taking a managerial psychology course that has caused me to think about water for chocolate film, my interpersonal communications in Youth a totally different way. The broad business foundations presented through close to 600 cases over abolition of man, two years has given me a whole different perspective on industries and the role of business in Among Essay society. From a technical skills perspective, I now know all about journal entries, WACC, CAPM, market segmentation, and all sorts of branches of psychology other great business stuff. More importantly, the The Homeless, case method helped me put all these tools in context so that I know what tool is appropriate for the situation. JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:42:20 PM) Candidates: The best thing about Darden aside from of the Essay my classmates is the faculty.

They are so dedicated to Among, teaching, I haven't had one who did not have time to of man, answer my questions. In addition, they seek to know you as a person. I have been to many of their houses for dinner and The Homeless Essay met their families. Some of abolition our professors even complain that we don't come to them enough! CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:42:51 PM) Sam: Ethics is a huge part of the Darden experience. Not only is it woven into the fabric of many class discussions, it is also paramount in the essence of the Honor System that allows students to take all exams on Youth Among The Homeless Essay, our own time and at branches home. A sort of Youth Among The Homeless Essay silly example is river, that I left my wallet in a classroom one time only to Youth The Homeless Essay, look in The Roles Budget Essay my mailbox where a student had delivered it, everything still inside. Youth Among. I have also left sunglasses in the library, only to abolition of man, find them at the front desk the next day. Most students keep their bags (with laptops) hanging around the halls because there is no concern that anyone will mess with it. As for the more moral side of ethics, I believe it is Youth Among The Homeless, present every day in the pro-active arguments and water for chocolate film open-minded discussions that happen in and out Youth Among The Homeless of the abolition, classroom.

My classmates challenge me to become a better thinking problem-solver and Essay leader every day - that is why I came here and in australia believe that Darden has prepared me for the many challenges that I will face in my future. SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:42:59 PM) The only reason some GBEs are restricted is Youth Essay, because sometimes the dates overlap with first year exams. Second year exams are completely flexible, so they do not conflict. Also, the second years sometimes fill up the water film, GBEs before first years get a chance. Some students do them in both years - it is a great way to get to know a smaller group of students and faculty in Among The Homeless Essay a deeper way. ThirdRoundApplicant (Feb 26, 2009 12:43:09 PM)

Sara: How are these study abroad locations selected? I have a very specific goal in mind for economies of Eastern Europe. How can I visit that with my fellow students at Darden? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:44:08 PM) We are committed to having an river in australia international loan program for international students, without a U.S. co-signer. Sara Neher recently did two video blogs about this topic. (2nd Video Blog) lecheman (Feb 26, 2009 12:44:13 PM) Arielle: How many job opportunities abroad are available at Darden? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:45:52 PM) 3rd Round, the Essay, study abroad locations are chosen based on abolition of man, the schools we want to Youth Among The Homeless, partner with by the Tayloe Murphy International Center. You can find more information online about Tayloe. Our Associate Dean for International Affairs, Peter Rodriguez, directs the strategy there. If you are interested in Essay Wide Web a school that is not currently a partner, you can talk with Peter about it.

There are forms to get it approved and it is not impossible - not as easy as when there is a partnership, but maybe you can help a partnership get started! SHoward (Feb 26, 2009 12:45:59 PM) Sara: With the Youth The Homeless, average age of 28, does it hurt your chance of admission if you're slightly closer to of the, 40. How does age weigh in Among The Homeless Essay the admissions process? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:47:00 PM) Lecheman, please review our employment report for stats on where are students have found jobs in sunnis and shias difference the past: There is also an Assistant Director of International Programs and Opportunities in Youth the Career Development Center that helps students find jobs abroad, as well as help international students find jobs in the U.S. Guest (Feb 26, 2009 12:47:08 PM) Arielle: Does Darden offer any feedback in case of river in australia rejection? JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:47:14 PM) Linda: To answer the improvement question, I feel that Darden could improve upon the relationship with both the Undergraduate schools and other professional schools. I am currently in a seminar with students from the Medical and Law schools, which I have enjoyed. They bring a whole new perspective. There are not many opportunities such as these and I would like to see more of these in the future.

BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:47:34 PM) Jay, in Youth The Homeless addition to the structured GBEs and Exchange Student programs, there are several opportunities for abolition, independent work abroad. For example, one of my classmates is doing a research project in Youth Among The Homeless Essay Africa next quarter. Also, one of my learning team members is river in australia, just finishing up a Darden business project in a rural Indian city. CapeTown_ZA (Feb 26, 2009 12:48:01 PM) Thank you Arielle. eva (Feb 26, 2009 12:48:20 PM) To any current student - How expensive is the place to Youth, live off-campus? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:48:39 PM) Gloria, our average GMAT was 693 last year. The breakdowns of the sunnis and shias, GMAT also matter.

Jenn Ash (Feb 26, 2009 12:48:44 PM) Arielle: What are your thoughts on the pre-MBA programs that Stanford, Chicago, and Essay Vanderbilt offer? These are month long MBA foundation programs that offer classes and overviews in abolition of man the 9 core areas coupled with lectures. Essay. Do you view an applicant with this on their application more positively? Especially if they attend a school as reputable as Stanford or Chicago? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:48:51 PM) SHoward, age does not matter in the admissions process.

What matters is what you have done in your job. The younger you are in your career, the less we will expect you to have done (so you can really blow us away if you have accomplished a lot). Applicants with more experience will have to show us what they have done with that time, why they have been satisfied with where they have been thus far, what they want to do with an MBA at this point. Candidates that are looking for of man, advancement in their current career are often better suited to our part-time program - MBA for Executives. Among The Homeless Essay. Gretchen (Feb 26, 2009 12:48:54 PM) Sara: If you are an engineer, do you think it is necessary to have some courses or experiences in the humanities? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:49:07 PM) Guest, Darden offers feedback in the summer, if requested. Lunel (Feb 26, 2009 12:49:25 PM) Arielle: In reference to river in australia, studying abroad, are the Youth The Homeless, participants of in australia GBE involved in any case study method competition or have the opportunity to apply their MBA learning in The Homeless actual companies?

ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:50:12 PM) The middle 80% of the Class of 2010 scored between 650-750 on the GMAT. Water For Chocolate. CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:50:34 PM) Eva: I think the range is Youth Among Essay, $400 - $800 depending on abolition of man, whether you want to live with roommates or single. There are many different options here - apartments, apartment complexes, lofts, or houses- all for rent. Some folks choose to buy. This is much cheaper than any larger cities in the US. ThirdRoundApplicant (Feb 26, 2009 12:51:03 PM)

And don't forget: Darden's faculty has consistently been ranked number 1! JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:51:31 PM) Eva: Cost of living in Charlottesville is much lower than major cities. I live 10 minutes from Darden, so I drive in. I share a 3- bedroom, 3- bathroom with 2 other Darden students and only pay $525. It's in a new complex, complete with luxury clubhouse. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:51:48 PM) Lunel, the GBEs involve visits to Among The Homeless, companies. Sunnis And Shias Difference. Case competitions are separate, but there are many opportunities to Essay, be involved in river in australia these.

Di (Feb 26, 2009 12:52:01 PM) Arielle: How can a Round 3 applicant stand out from Essay applicants of the for chocolate, previous two rounds? What haven't you seen? I am not trying to tailor my application to that thought, but would like to know what do the admissions think? KGY (Feb 26, 2009 12:52:51 PM) Jamala, Cameron, and Bill: Darden is viewed as an Youth Among Essay academically rigorous school. Like Water Film. Do first year students get enough opportunities to participate extra-curricular activities? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:54:08 PM) Alex, we recommend visiting Darden while class is in session (September-April). June is a lovely time to visit Charlottesville, but there will not be as much activity on the Darden Grounds since students will be away on internships. SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:54:14 PM) Di, be yourself. Don't try to stand out from the other rounds - those are done at Youth Among The Homeless the point that we will read your file. What I want to know is largest river in australia, what you will specifically add to our classroom and to our community.

Show me your best! Arigato (Feb 26, 2009 12:54:19 PM) Sara: I apologize if this has been discussed earlier. Could you please discuss the waitlist process? Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 12:54:34 PM) Please also provide a few tips for The Homeless Essay, waitlisted applicants. Of Man. BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:54:49 PM) Gretchen, Jamala and I both have automotive engineering backgrounds. Personally, I had very limited courses in The Homeless humanities and never took an English class in water for chocolate undergrad. Youth Among Essay. As long as your essays and on Development interviews exhibit some 'humanities' type skills you should be fine. I'm thinking about writing and communication skills in Youth Essay addition to river, some demonstration of involvement outside of a pure engineering setting (i.e., community involvement, something entrepreneurial, etc.) SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:55:52 PM) Jenn Ash, Pre-mba programs can be good additions to a file - especially if you have a non-quantitative background/undergrad. However, they are not necessary by any means, and Youth The Homeless Essay I care more about Essay of the World Wide, what you learned than where you learned it. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:56:10 PM) JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:56:21 PM) KGY: As a first year, there is an abundance of Among Essay opportunities to get involved. While first years do not take on leadership roles (President or VP) in many of the like water film, clubs, there are elected offices in many (Social Chairs, Liaisons, Student Admissions).

In addition, each student section elects their leadership team for their group. Other activities include: Sports clubs, and participating in various club activities. CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:56:50 PM) KGY: The First Year is rigorous (and highly rewarding)! However, there is definitely time for extra-curricular activities. Darden has sort of a work hard / play hard mentality. There are many clubs that are organizing outdoor, social, and community-outreach opportunities throughout the year. Darden likes well-rounded students who are good at balancing their time and managing their priorities. To this point, most of the Essay, students here find time to like for chocolate film, work and get involved.

It is a wonderful community where we all rely on each other to Essay, succeed in all endeavors. For Chocolate Film. Miguel Garcia (Feb 26, 2009 12:57:35 PM) Arielle, does applying through the Consortium affect one's chances in anyway? sox (Feb 26, 2009 12:57:46 PM) Sara: How much weight does the interview hold? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:57:52 PM) Vinicio (Feb 26, 2009 12:58:20 PM) Students: Hola from Costa Rica. I am applying to the Ph.D. Program. Essay. Do the MBA students have any interaction with PhD students? Lessons, events, housemates? Or are these very different worlds? KGY (Feb 26, 2009 12:58:37 PM) Arielle: What does Darden look for in re-applicants?

Are re-applicants viewed differently at Darden? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:00:19 PM) Sox, the interview is certainly important, but one of the main things we are looking for is for it to be consistent with the rest of your application - your essays and recommendations. Is the interview a genuine representation of yourself? jtk (Feb 26, 2009 1:00:23 PM) Sara: What does Darden offer in the entrepreneurship realm (both course offerings and Essay Wide exposure to resources for entrepreneurs)? I am interested both in starting businesses and working with investors and startup companies. I do have experience starting, growing, and Youth The Homeless Essay selling a tech business in addition to (currently) being a Wall St. lawyer, so I have a skill set that I am looking to augment, rather than starting from scratch. JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:00:34 PM)

Vinicio: All of our classes are taught by abolition of man the professors, so we don't have classes with PhD students. The PhD program is a very small program and people only The Homeless enter once every 4 years so it is a very small community. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:00:37 PM) KCY, for re-applicants, we are looking to see for Essay on Development World Wide Web, some area of growth in your application. We evaluate re-applicants with the same criteria as first-time applicants. Lunel (Feb 26, 2009 1:00:47 PM) Arielle: In reference to leadership experience, what if a candidate has not progress upwardly work-wise, but has strong, solid, work experience and The Homeless Essay is actively involved in his or her community, has taken active roles within the The Roles of the Essay, community and is looking for the MBA experience to enhance his or her skill set in order to obtain that career upward mobility? How is The Homeless Essay, that applicant viewed by the Adcom?

Sam McIntosh (Feb 26, 2009 1:00:58 PM) ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:01:49 PM) KGY (Feb 26, 2009 1:02:39 PM) Jamala and Bill: I am interested in a consulting career post MBA. What are some of the distinguishing opportunities that Darden provides to students to establish a career in consulting? Jay (Feb 26, 2009 1:02:42 PM) Thank you Jamal and Bill Gray! ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:03:20 PM) Lunel, if you have not progressed upwardly work-wise, we will look for of the Wide Web, leadership and management experience in other areas of your life, such as community involvement. SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:03:58 PM) Jtk, we have tremendous opportunities available in Among Essay entrepreneurship - both as part of the curriculum and Essay on Development of the supplemental. The extra pieces are the business case and plan competitions and our incubator. If you already have your idea, you can spend the summer in our incubator, getting paid to work on Among Essay, your own business, rather than in a traditional internship. You will get faculty and alumni advice and the chance to present to largest, our group of Among The Homeless angel investors. The possibilities are endless and you join the process at any point in the spectrum.

Arielle posted a link to branches, the page on Among, our website that discusses it. Gloria (Feb 26, 2009 1:04:42 PM) Arielle: Does taking multiple GMAT matter to the application? ThirdRoundApplicant (Feb 26, 2009 1:04:56 PM) Sara: If you have a specific goal in mind in a specific industry, how does a GM degree at largest in australia Darden supplement that goal? JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:05:23 PM) KGY: I found that the consulting club was excellent for providing opportunities for case practice with both first and Youth Among The Homeless Essay second year students. They set up times and rooms for us to sign up and practice with each other. In addition, the career center brought in a professional just to on Development of the Wide Web, give case interviews and provide feedback. The club also does a good job of bringing in speakers from consulting companies to talk about Youth, their jobs, and provide insight to the interview process. eva (Feb 26, 2009 1:05:50 PM) Thank you Jamala! ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:06:08 PM) Gloria, if you take the GMAT two or maybe three times, that's fine, but if you take it four or more times, that will draw attention. We will consider your highest GMAT score. Like For Chocolate Film. eva (Feb 26, 2009 1:06:13 PM) Is it possible to stay connected with any current student at Darden for further queries?

SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:06:24 PM) The important thing to keep in mind about Darden is that the Among The Homeless, core/required curriculum is just the first year. In the abolition, second year, you take 100% electives and can shape a second-year program geared to anything you desire. The Homeless Essay. BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:06:38 PM) KGY, it's everything we get involved in that makes our program rigorous. Academics alone typically account for less than 40 hours of work per water for chocolate film week. We tend to be go-getters and therefore fill up our schedules with activities like starting a club, applying to 10 companies, and Among Essay doing all sorts of other things (i.e., this chat) that seem rigorous as a whole. Essay Web. nickpez (Feb 26, 2009 1:06:53 PM) To any of the current students, what type of recreational facilities are available to you on campus, and are they UVA-wide facilities or Darden-specific? Thanks. CapeTown_ZA (Feb 26, 2009 1:07:18 PM) Hi Sarah. Do you think the current credit crunch is affecting the school in any way?

I'd like to The Homeless Essay, hear your thoughts if you feel an MBA has lost any of its shine due to the turmoil in the global financial markets. Thank you. Miguel Garcia (Feb 26, 2009 1:07:41 PM) Thank you Arielle! CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:09:01 PM) Perf: The Darden Marketing program is focused on two areas - Brand Management and Analytics. Because Darden is a General Management school, we prepare students well for The Roles National Budget, the Brand Management role within large Brand companies like JJ, General Mills, and PepsiCo -- where leadership, management, and Youth Essay analytical skills are highly necessary. Water For Chocolate Film. As for Among The Homeless, clubs, we have a strong Marketing Club that helps with career search and preparation as well as networking and social events. We have Sports Entertainment courses in the second year and there is a Sports Entertainment Club. We also have alumni who are working for companies like the NFL.

SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:09:30 PM) CapeTown, the for chocolate film, current crisis is certainly affecting our students and alumni with their personal finances (as it is The Homeless, everyone in abolition of man the world I think), but it has not affected the school in any way. We have been affected by the drop in the stock market, but not in any way that students will see. We have significant cash reserves and The Homeless resources to largest in australia, make it through this short-term blip. Among Essay. Plus, having a world-renowned finance professor as your dean couldn't be more perfect at times like this! KGY (Feb 26, 2009 1:09:36 PM) Sara, can you give some examples of what sort of contribution you expect from your students in the community? JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:10:18 PM) Nickpez: You have access to all of the gyms and facilities at the University. There is a gym directly next to on Development World Web, Darden that many students take advantage of called North Grounds, where there is Youth The Homeless, basketball, racquetball, studios, etc.

Also, you can take classes in everything from learning to branches of psychology, swim, to break dancing. The Homeless Essay. I am currently taking Tae Kwon Do twice a week at one of the gyms. All facilities are shared with the branches, overall University, but very well equipped. KGY (Feb 26, 2009 1:10:28 PM) Sara, are there any tips that you would like to provide for re-applicants? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:10:56 PM) KGY, review everything and try to Among The Homeless Essay, improve anything you think could be improved! SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:11:18 PM) Thomas Jefferson founded the University of Virginia with the principle of student self-governance. Like Water Film. We do expect a lot from our students - but that is Youth, part of branches our practical education. Students organize and run all of the clubs, activities and conferences and therefore have great, real examples to share in their interviews. Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 1:11:34 PM) Thank you again all for The Homeless, participating today.

Special thanks to water for chocolate, Sara, Arielle, Bill, Cameron and Jamala for joining us today. We look forward to seeing you at future chats, and here is a list of the Youth Essay, upcoming scheduled chats: If you would like to automatically receive notices about these MBA admissions chats and other MBA admissions events, please subscribe to our MBA event list. Please check the website for additional details. Like Film. Have a great day! Good luck with your applications! SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:12:09 PM) JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:12:18 PM) Good luck to you all! ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:12:30 PM) eva (Feb 26, 2009 1:13:33 PM) Dan (Feb 26, 2009 1:13:39 PM) Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 1:13:46 PM) You are all most welcome. If you enjoyed the The Homeless Essay, chat- please vote for me - as a Leading Mom in Business in a contest sponsored by StartUp Nation and Ladies Who Launch.

Sarah (Feb 26, 2009 1:13:53 PM) Thank you - this session was very informative. ThirdRoundApplicant (Feb 26, 2009 1:13:56 PM) CapeTown_ZA (Feb 26, 2009 1:13:58 PM) Jay (Feb 26, 2009 1:14:29 PM) Thank you everyone! This chat was very insightful. Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 1:15:00 PM) For those who did not receive a response to questions posted today or have further inquiries, Darden has graciously provided two options to submit questions: Please visit either their Student and Alumni Ambassadors webpage, or pose questions to the Admissions Office through the Darden Admissions News Blog.

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Essay on Monopoly Market | Micro Economics. In this essay we will discuss about monopoly market. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Monopoly 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly 3. Monopoly Price Determination 4. Degree of Monopoly Power Its Measure 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination 6. Types of Price Discrimination 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination and Other Details. Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Essay on the Sources and Types of Monopoly Essay on Monopoly Price Determination Essay on the Degree of Monopoly Power Its Measure Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination Essay on the Types of Price Discrimination Essay on The Homeless Essay the Conditions for Price Discrimination Essay on National the Benefits of Price Discrimination Essay on the Harms of Price Discrimination Essay on Control and Regulation of Monopoly. Monopoly is a market situation in which there is only one seller of a product with barriers to entry of others. The product has no close substitutes. Among The Homeless! In the words of Salvatore, Monopoly is the form of market organisation in which there is a single fir m selling a commodity for which there are no close substitutes. The cross elasticity of demand with every other product is very low.

This means that no other firms produce a similar product. Thus, the monopoly firm is of psychology itself an industry and the monopolist faces the Youth Among Essay, industry demand curve. The demand curve for his product is, therefore, relatively stable and of the National Budget Essay, slopes downward to the right, given the tastes and incomes of his customers. It means that more of the Youth Essay, product can be sold at a lower price than at a higher price. He is a price-maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. However, it does not mean that he can set both price and output. He can do either of the two things. His price is determined by his demand curve, once he selects his output level.

Or, once he sets the price for largest his product, his output is determined by what consumers will take at that price. In any situation, the ultimate aim of the monopolist is to have maximum profits. Essay # 2. Sources and The Homeless, Types of Monopoly : Monopoly may arise from a number of sources and is of The Roles National Budget Essay various types: First, grant of a patent right to a firm by the government to make, use or sell its own invention. Second, control of Among The Homeless a strategic raw material for an exclusive production process. Third, a natural monopoly enjoyed by a firm when it supplies the entire market at a lower unit cost due to increasing economies of sunnis difference scale, just as in the supply of Essay electricity, gas, etc. Fourth, government may grant exclusive right to a private firm to operate under its regulation. Such privately owned and government regulated monopolies are mostly in public utilities and are called legal monopolies such as in transport, communications, etc. Fifth, there may be government owned and regulated monopolies such as postal services, water and abolition of man, sewer systems of municipal corporations, etc. Sixth, government may grant licence to a sole firm and protect it to exclude foreign rivals. Seventh, the sole manufacturer of a product may adopt a limit pricing policy in order to prevent the entry of Among The Homeless Essay new firms.

Essay # 3. Monopoly Price Determination : We study the determination of monopoly price in the short-run and the long-run. The analysis of the determination of the price, output and profits under monopoly is based on the following assumptions: (1) There is of the one seller or producer of a homogeneous product. (2) There are no close substitutes for the product. (3) There is pure competition in the factor market so that the price of each input he buys is given to him. (4) The monopolist is a rational being who aims at maximum profit with the minimum of costs. (5) There are many buyers on the demand side but none is in a position to influence the price of the product by his individual actions. Thus the price of the Among Essay, product is Essay of the World Wide Web given for the consumer. (6) The monopolist does not charge discriminating price. He treats all consumers alike and charges a uniform price for his product.

(7) The monopoly price is uncontrolled. There are no restrictions on the power of the monopolist. (8) There is no threat of entry of other firms. Price and Output Determination : Given these assumptions, the price, output and profits under monopoly are determined by the forces of demand and supply. Youth Among The Homeless! The monopolist has complete control over like water for chocolate, the supply of the product. He is also a price- maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. Among The Homeless Essay! But he cannot fix the and shias difference, price and Youth Essay, output simultaneously.

Either he can fix the abolition, price and leave the output to be determined by the customer demand at that price. Among The Homeless! Or, he can fix the output to be produced and leave the Budget Essay, price to be determined by the consumer demand for his product. Thus, whatever price he fixes and whatever output he decides to produce is Youth Among The Homeless determined by the conditions of demand. The demand curve faced by a monopolist is definite and is downward sloping to the right. It is his average revenue curve (AR). Its corresponding marginal revenue curve (MR) is in australia also downward sloping and lies below it. But the manner and Youth Among The Homeless Essay, extent to which the monopolist will be able to influence price or output will depend upon the elasticity of demand for his product.

If the demand for his product is highly elastic, he can sell more by a small reduction in price. If, on the other hand, the demand is less elastic, the tendency will be to raise the on Development World Wide, price and profit more by selling less. Given the demand for Youth Among Essay his product, the monopolist can select the most profitable output against this demand. His cost of production may be rising, falling or constant. Whatever the nature of the cost curves- straight line, convex or concavethe monopoly equilibrium will take place at a point where the marginal revenue equals marginal cost i.e. ?R /?Q = ?C /?Q. The monopolist maximises his profits at the price where the difference between total revenue and total costs is the maximum i.e. Max ? = TR-TC. In other words, the monopolist gains the maximum when he equates marginal revenue ( MR) to of the National Essay marginal cost (MC).

He may do this either by estimating the demand price and the cost of producing various outputs or by a process of trial and error. Geometrically speaking, the Youth The Homeless Essay, point of monopoly equilibrium is one where the MC curve cuts the MR curve from below or from the left, and a perpendicular from abolition of man it to the AR curve determines price. It implies that. Price MC = MR. In fact, monopoly price = MC E/E-1. AR (Price) = MR MC E/E-1 and MC = MR. Monopoly Price = MC E/E-1. Thus monopoly price is a function of the MC and the elasticity of demand. We discuss below the determination of monopoly price in the short period and the long period.

(A) Short-Run Monopoly Equilibrium : In the short-run, the monopoly firm attains equilibrium when its profits are maximised or losses are minimised. Like the Among Essay, competitive equilibrium, this analysis can also he discussed in terms of the total revenue-total cost approach and the marginal revenue-cost approach. Total Revenue-Cost Approach: In Figure 1. TC is the total cost curve showing a constant rise in Essay the total costs as output increases. TR is the total revenue curve which goes on rising to begin with, then flattens and later on slopes downward, showing fall in The Homeless Essay total receipts after a given point. The monopolist will maximise his profits at that output where the difference between TR and TC is the greatest.

This will be the level at which the slopes of TR and TC curves equal. Accordingly, P is the equilibrium point as determined by the tangents at branches of psychology points P and T on the TR and TC curves respectively. A and The Homeless Essay, are the break-even points where TR = TC. To the left of A and right of B, the monopolist is incurring losses because TC TR. Thus his maximum profits will be PT and he will sell OM output at MP Price.

Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach: In the in australia, short-run, the Among Essay, monopolist can change the price as well as the quantity of the product. Abolition! If he intends producing more, he can do so by increasing the Youth Among The Homeless Essay, use of variable inputs. He may start two shifts of production; hire more labour, raw materials, etc. But he cannot change his fixed plant and equipment. On the other hand, if he wants to restrict his output, he may dispense with certain workers, work for of psychology less hours and use less of the variable factors. In any case, his price cannot be below the average variable costs. It implies that he can continue to incur losses during the short period so long as he covers his average variable cost (AVC) of production. Price is determined when (1) P SMC = MR, and (2) The SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. It is at this equilibrium point that profits are maximised or losses are minimised. In Figure 2, SAC and SMC are the short-run average and marginal revenue curves respectively.

AVC is the average variable cost curve. D/AR is the demand curve (the average revenue curve) whose corresponding mar­ginal revenue curve is MR. Among Essay! The short-run monopoly equilibrium is at point E where the SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. The monopolist sells OM output at MP (=OB) price. The price MP, being above the short-run average cost MA, the abolition, monopolist earns AP profits per unit of output.

Thus total monopoly profits are AP ? CA= CAPB. In Figure 3, the short-run equilibrium of the monopolist is shown when he earns only normal profits. The equality of SMC curve and MR curve at point E determines OM output which is sold at MP Price. Since the SAC curve is Among The Homeless Essay tangent to the AR curve at this level of output, the monopolist earns normal profits. The monopolist knows that any level of output other than OM would bring losses because the SAC curve would be higher than the Essay on Development Wide, AR curve. Figure 4 shows a short-run situation in Youth Essay which the monopolist incurs losses. As usual, the equilibrium point E is determined by the equality of SMC and MR. But the monopoly price MP, as fixed by demand conditions, does not cover the short-run average costs of production PA. Largest River In Australia! It just covers the average variable costs MP, represented by the tangency of the demand curve D and the AVC curve at point P. PA is Among The Homeless Essay thus per unit loss which the monopolist incurs. Total losses are equal to BP x PA = BPAC.

In this figure, P is the shut­down point for abolition this firm. Youth The Homeless! If the market demand conditions lower the price from MP downward, the monopolist will temporarily stop production. Difference! His firm will close down. (B) Long-Run Monopoly Equilibrium: In the long-run, the Youth Among The Homeless Essay, monopolist can remain in business only for chocolate film, if he is able to earn super-normal profits.

If he was incurring losses in Youth Among The Homeless Essay the short-run, he has enough time to make changes in his existing plant in the long- run so as to maximise his profits. Branches! With entry of Youth Among The Homeless Essay new firms ruled out, he can install a plant which gives him maximum profits. The scale of his plant depends upon the position of the The Roles Essay, demand (AR) curve and its corresponding MR curve. The most profitable level of output is at the point where the LMC curve intersects the MR curve from below and the SMC curve passes through this point. Further, the SAC curve must be tangent to the LAC curve at this level of output.

Suppose in the long-run, the monopolist installs an efficient plant represented by the curve SAC 1 and SMC 1 in Figure 5. On this plant, the long-run profits are the maximum at Youth Among The Homeless Essay the output OM where LMC = MR at point E. Since at this level the short-run average cost curve SAC 1 is tangent to the LAC curve at Point A, the SMC 1 curve is also equal to the LMC curve and to the MR curve (SMC 1 = LMC =MR) at the equilibrium point E. Thus when the monopoly firm is in long-run equilibrium, it is also in short- run equilibrium. By changing its scale of plant in the long-run, the monopolist charges the price OB (=MP), sells the output OM and earns BPAC monopoly profits. However this plant is less than the optimum size because the monopoly firm is not producing at the lowest point L of the The Roles of the National, LAC curve. It has some excess capacity. Among! It is not in a position to take full advantage of the of man, economies of scale due to the small size of the market for his product.

Essay # 4. Degree of Monopoly Power Its Measure: In monopoly, the monopolist is Youth Among able to abolition of man earn monopoly profit by his superior bargaining power. He is in a better position to exploit the market to his advantage. He gains more by putting restraints on his actual and potential competitors. Thus monopoly power refers to the restraints imposed over his competitors by the monopolist through his price-output policies.

There are two important methods of monopoly power: First, the difference between marginal cost and price. Since in Monopoly, the marginal cost is always less than the price, the greater the difference between the two, the larger is the monopoly power. Second, the difference between monopoly super-normal profits and competitive super-normal profits is also considered as the measure of monopoly power. The greater the difference between the two, the larger is the degree of monopoly. However, economists have given other measures of monopoly power.

We discuss a few. But no method is regarded as perfect. One of the earliest methods to measure monopoly power is Youth Among The Homeless expressed by Prof. Abba P. Lerner in like water for chocolate terms of the bargaining strength. The difference between price and marginal cost is the measure of the degree of monopoly power. If P is price and MC the marginal cost, the formula for measuring the degree of monopoly power is P-MC/P. A sellers monopoly power depends upon his ability to sell his product at a price much above his marginal cost. The larger the gap between price and Among The Homeless Essay, marginal cost, the greater is the like, monopoly power.

A competitive seller has no monopoly power at all, because under perfect competition P = MC. In all cases, the above formula will give zero. But in the case of overproduction, MC may exceed price and Among The Homeless, the index will have a negative value. Moreover, if the seller is a monopolist, the difference between price and marginal cost is always there. The index of monopoly power will, therefore, vary between zero and unity. For instance, if P is Rs.4 and MC Rs.2 the index of monopoly power will be 1/2 i.e. (4-2)/4. It is, however, not easy for a seller to raise the price of his product in order to increase his bargaining price. The attempt to of man raise profits by Youth Among The Homeless Essay a price rise may be neutralized by the reduction in his sales resulting from raising the price. Therefore, the degree of monopoly power is measured in terms of the elasticity of like for chocolate demand and the formula is:

Degree of The Homeless Essay monopoly power (DMP) = (P MC)/ P. For profit maximisation, MC = MR, and the formula becomes. DMP= or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, By substituting MR = P E-1/E in the above equation, DMP= (P-P E-1/E)/P = P- PE +P/E/P = PE- PE+P/EP = 1/E. Or the inverse of the elasticity of The Roles National demand, P/P-MR. Lerners measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where AC and MC curves are the firms average and marginal cost curves, while D and MR are its demand and marginal revenue curves.

The monopolist firm maximizes its profit at point E where MC = MR. It produces OM output and Among, sells it at MP Price. The ratio PEIPM is termed as the degree of monopoly power. The degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the P-MR elasticity of demand i.e., P-MR/P. In Figure 6, P is equal to PM while MR is equal to EM. Rewrite the formula, The formula indicates that the degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the The Roles of the Budget, price elasticity of Among Essay demand E. Branches! The lower is the price elasticity of demand the greater is the degree of monopoly power. The higher the elasticity, lower the monopoly power. If, for instance, price elasticity of demand is 2, the degree of monopoly power will be one-half. On the Youth The Homeless Essay, other hand, the and shias difference, elasticity coefficient of 1/2 will indicate a monopoly power of 2. Though interesting, this measure of monopoly power has many limitations.

First, monopoly power does not depend exclusively on the difference between price and cost. It also depends on the restriction of output by the monopolist seller. The index showing the degree of monopoly may be equal in Youth The Homeless the case of two firms. But one may have under utilisation on its existing plant and equipment while the other may show underinvestment. The above formula fails to explain these important aspects of monopoly power. Secondly, the Lerner formula is incapable of measuring non-price competition. Again the The Roles Essay, index of monopoly power may be the same in case of two firms. But one firm may be engaged in intensive non-price competition than the other firm. It may thus be selling a large quantity of its product. Lerners formula does not throw any light on this aspect of the Youth The Homeless Essay, problem.

Thirdly, even the case of absolute monopoly power is difficult to branches explain in terms of The Homeless Essay this formula. The price elasticity of demand measures income and substitution effects of a change in price on consumers demand. But under absolute monopoly where competition is absent, the substitution effect is zero and the income effect is the only effect. Thus the price elasticity of demand under monopoly measures only the income effect which may be negative or positive. The main flaw in Lerners measure is that it does not attach any definite coefficient of elasticity to the degree of monopoly power. Fourthly, Lerners measure is essentially static. It does not reveal whether the Budget, level of Youth Among marginal cost is due to superior technology or the result of branches of psychology obsolete methods of production. Lastly, the Lerner measure is affected by changes over time in Youth Among the ratio of capital to labour in an industry. Despite these limitations, economists like Dunlop and Kalecki used this index to Budget measure the degree of monopoly power.

The former used this in the case of selected industries and the latter for the whole economy. Prof. Robert Triffin has improved upon Lerners measure by suggesting price cross-elasticity instead of price elasticity of demand. Price cross-elasticity of demand measures the Among Essay, degree of substitution between the Wide, products of Among two firms when a change in the price of largest in australia one firms product affects the demand for the others product. When the cross-elasticity of demand between the Among Essay, product of of man one firm and Youth The Homeless Essay, of all other firms is zero, the reciprocal of cross-elasticity would be infinity and on Development Web, the firm would have absolute monopoly power. According to Triffin, under pure monopoly, the cross-elasticity of demand is zero and the monopolist takes advantage of absolute monopoly power.

On the other hand, cross-elasticity is Youth The Homeless infinite under perfect competition and the firms monopoly power is zero. First, like Lerners measure, the branches of psychology, Triffin measure is unsuitable for practical purposes. Pure monopoly like pure competition is unreal. Secondly, it is not possible to find out a definite coefficient of cross-elasticity of demand in the case of any firm. Thirdly, the method of measuring monopoly power in terms of cross-elasticity of demand is not correct because its coefficient is zero both under pure monopoly and pure competition.

But monopoly power is found under pure monopoly rather than under pure competition. Prof. J.S. Bain suggests the size of super-normal profit as the degree of monopoly power. The Homeless! He uses the divergence between price and average cost as the measure of monopoly power. Under perfect competition, super-normal profits are competed away with the entry of new firms in largest river the industry. So the degree of monopoly power is zero when competition is pure. It is, therefore, under monopoly with no threat of The Homeless entry of new firms that monopoly profits are the largest and the degree of monopoly power the absolute.

The degree of monopoly power will, however, be small where the threat of new entrants exists. Thus the degree of monopoly power is measured by the size of super-normal profits. The greater the strength of the seller, the larger profits he will earn without any threat of new entrants. The Bain measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where the monopoly firm produces OM output and The Roles National, sells it at MP Price. The difference between price and average cost (AC) is PC at OM per unit of output. Thus A PC are the super-normal profits which measure monopoly power. But this measure is Essay also not free from shortcomings. First, it is difficult to estimate the net income accruing to a firm. It depends upon the extent of its amortization of the cost of of man fixed factors. Secondly, there are other difficulties, like the deduction of interest and wages of Youth Among Essay management from the firms net income in order to river in australia calculate its profits. Thirdly, all profits accruing to a firm are not monopoly profits.

Firms, whether competitive or monopolistic, often earn windfall profits when demand and cost conditions change. They, therefore, need to be deducted from total net profits to arrive at pure monopoly profits. Lastly, excess profits may be due to monopolistic selling practices, monopolistic buying practices, or the result of increase in efficiency, newer manufacturing techniques and Youth Among The Homeless, expert man­agement. Prof. Rothschild measures the degree of monopoly power as the ratio of the slope of a firms demand curve to the slope of the of psychology, industry demand curve. Among! In Figure 7, dd represents the de­mand curve of a firm which is elastic than the industry demand curve DD. Thus. DMP=Slope of dd/Slope of DD= (KL/KR)/(KN/KR) = KL/KN. Since under pure competition the demand curve of a firm is horizontal, the Rothschild index equals zero. Under pure monopoly there being no difference between firm and sunnis and shias difference, industry, this index equals unity.

Therefore, the degree of monopoly power exists between zero and unity. The Rothschild measure of the degree of monopoly power is vaguer than the other measures. First, it is not possible to estimate the exact shape of the demand curve for the relevant output range. Second, this index requires that all competitors keep their prices constant or they readjust their prices so as to keep them identical with the price being charged by the monopolist. Lastly, this measure is based exclusively on demand factors and neglects supply and Youth Essay, cost conditions. Essay # 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination: Price discrimination means, charging different prices from different customers or for like for chocolate film different units of the same product. In the words of Joan Robinson: The act of selling the same article, produced under single control at different prices to different buyers is known as price discrimination. Price discrimination is possible when the monopolist sells in different markets in such a way that it is not possible to transfer any unit of the commodity from the cheap market to the dearer market. Price discrimination is, however, not possible under perfect competition, even if the two markets could be kept separate. Since the market demand in each market is perfectly elastic, every seller would try to sell in The Homeless Essay that market in which he could get the highest price.

Competition would make the price equal in both the markets. Thus price discrimination is possible only when markets are imperfect. Essay # 6. Types of Price Discrimination: Price discrimination is of many types: Firstly, it may be personal based on the income of the The Roles, customer. For example, doctors and Youth The Homeless, lawyers charge different fees from on Development World Wide different customers on the basis of their incomes. Youth The Homeless Essay! Higher fees are charged to rich persons and lower to the poor. Secondly, price discrimination may be based on the nature of the product. Largest River In Australia! Paperback is cheaper than the deluxe edition of the same book, for the former is bought by the majority of readers, and The Homeless, the latter by libraries. Unbranded products, like open tea, are sold at lower prices than branded products like Brooke Bond or Tata tea. Economy size tooth pastes are relatively cheaper than ordinary-sized tooth pastes.

In the branches of psychology, case of services too, price discrimination is practiced when off-season rates of hotels at hill stations are very low as compared to the peak season. Dry-cleaning firms charge for two while they clean three clothes during off-season; whereas they charge more for quick service in Youth Essay peak season. Thirdly, price discrimination is also related to the age, sex and branches of psychology, status of the The Homeless, customers. Barbers charge less for childrens haircuts. Certain cinema halls in small towns in India admit ladies only at lower rates. Military personnel in uniform are admitted at concessional rates in certain cinema houses. Fourthly, discrimination is of psychology also based on the time of service. Youth The Homeless Essay! Cinema houses at certain places, like New Delhi, charge half the rates in the morning show than in the afternoon shows. Fifthly, there is geographical or local discrimination when a monopolist sells in one market at a higher price than in difference the other market. Lastly, discrimination may he based on the use of the product.

Railways charge different rates for different compartments or for different services. Less is Among The Homeless charged for the transportation of coal than for bales of cloth on largest in australia the same route. State power boards charge low rates for Youth The Homeless Essay industrial use than for of psychology domestic consumption of electricity. Essay # 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination: For price discrimination to exist the following conditions must be satisfied: Price discrimination is Youth Among possible when there is some degree of market imperfection. The individual seller is able to divide and keep his market into separate parts only of man, if it is imperfect. Customers do not move readily from one market to the other because of ignorance or inertia. (2) Agreement between Rival Sellers: Price discrimination also takes place when the seller of Among The Homeless Essay a commodity is water for chocolate a monopolist or when rivals enter into an agreement for the sale of the Youth Among, product at different prices to sunnis and shias difference different customers.

This is Youth The Homeless usually possible in water film the sale of direct services. A single surgeon may charge a high fee for an operation from Essay a rich patient and a relatively low fee from largest river a poor patient. Lawyers charge from their clients in proportion to the degree of risk or amount of money involved in a law suit. Price discrimination is Youth Among The Homeless possible in the case of services because there is no possibility of resale. (3) Geographical or Tariff Barriers: Discrimination may occur on geographical grounds. The monopolist may discriminate between home and foreign buyers by selling at a lower price in the foreign market than in the domestic market. This type of abolition of man discrimination is known as dumping. It can only be successful if the Among The Homeless, commodities sold abroad can be prevented from being returned to the home country by tariff restrictions. Sometimes transport costs are so high that they act as a safeguard against the return of dumped goods. Discrimination is possible when buyers need the same service in connec­tion with differentiated products.

Railways charge different rates for the transport of coal and copper. For they know that it is physically impossible for a copper merchant to convert copper into branches coal for the purpose of transporting it cheaper. It also applies to discrimination based on Youth Among The Homeless Essay age, sex, status and branches of psychology, income of buyers of services. For instance, a rich man cannot become poor for Youth Essay the sake of getting cheap medical facilities. Discrimination also occurs when small manufacturers sell goods made to like for chocolate film order. They charge different rates to different buyers depending upon the intensity of their demand for the product. Shoe makers and Among The Homeless, tailors charge a high price for the same variety from sunnis and shias those customers who want them earlier than others. For the same variety of shoes and Among, clothes, different buyers are also charged different prices because individual buyers are not in a position to know the of man, price being charged to others.

(6) Artificial Difference between Goods: A monopolist may create artificial difference by presenting the same commodity in different quantities. He may present it under different names and labels, one for the rich and snobbish buyers and Youth Essay, the other for Essay on Development of the Wide Web the ordinary. Thus he may charge different prices for substantially the same product. A washing soap manufacturer may wrap a small quantity of the soap, give it a separate name and charge a higher price. He may sell it at Rs.20 per kg. as against Rs.18 for Youth Among the unwrapped soap. (7) Differences in Demand Elasticity: For price discrimination, the demand in the separate markets must be considerably different. Different prices can be charged in separate markets based on differences of The Roles elasticity of demand.

Low price is charged where demand is Youth Among more elastic and high price in the market with a less elastic demand. (4) Price Determination under Monopoly Discrimination: Price discrimination occurs when the monopolist divides the for chocolate, buyers of his commodity or service into two or more groups and charges a different price to each group. We take the case of a monopolist who sells his commodity in two separate markets. This analysis is Youth The Homeless based on the following conditions: (i) The aim of the monopolist is to maximise his profits. On Development World! He, therefore, produces that output at which his marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Since he sells in two separate markets, he adjusts the quantity such wise in each market that marginal revenues in both markets are equal. Given the Youth, marginal cost of producing the commodity, the most profitable monopoly output will be determined at a point where the combined marginal revenue of both the markets equals the marginal cost.

Or, monopoly profit = MR 1 = MR 2 = MC. On Development Of The World Wide Web! If the marginal revenue is greater in market (one) than in market 2 (two), the monopolist will sell less to market 2 and shift this quantity to market 1. This will tend to raise the price in market 2 and lower it in market 1 up to a point where marginal revenues in the two markets are equal. (ii) The number of buyers in each market is very large and there is perfect competition among them. (iii) There is no possibility of Among Essay resale from one market to the other. (iv) The monopolists demand curve in each market is downward sloping which implies that his monopoly in selling the commodity is well established in the two markets. (v) Lastly, the most important condition for price discrimination is that the World Web, elasticities of demand in the two markets must be different. It means that the price charged in each market must be different from the other. The price will be high in the market with the Youth, less elastic demand and low in the market with the high elastic demand. In the words of Joan Robinson: The sub-markets will be arranged in ascending order of of man their elasticities, the highest price being charged in the least elastic market and the lowest price in the most elastic market.

Figure 8 illustrates price and output determination under price discrimination. The monopolist sells his product in two markets, 1 and Essay, 2. Market 1 has high elastic demand for the product and market 2 has low elastic demand. Accordingly, the branches of psychology, demand curve in market 1 is D 1 and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR 1 and in market 2 the corresponding curves are D 2 and MR 2 . Panel of the figure shows MR T , the total marginal revenue curve, drawn by the lateral summation of MR 1 , and MR 2 , curves, and MC is the marginal cost curve. The point of intersection between the MR T and MC curves at The Homeless E determines the equilibrium level of output OQ T . The monopolist divides this output between the branches, two markets by equating the marginal cost Q T E with the Youth, marginal revenue of each market. To equal the marginal costs Q T E with MR, and MR, draw a line EA parallel to the horizontal axis. It cuts MR, at E, and MR, at E 2 which become equilibrium points for the sale of branches of psychology output in The Homeless Essay each market. Thus, the quantity sold in market 1 is OQ, and in market 2 it is OQ 2 , so that OQ 1 + OQ 2 equal the total output OQ T . The price in the highly elastic (foreign) market is Q, P, and in the less elastic (domestic) market Q 2 P 2 and Q 2 P 2 Q 1 P 1 Total profits earned by the discriminating monopolist are MEC. We may conclude that under price discrimination the and shias difference, monopolist sells his product in two separate markets with different elasticities of Youth demand so that he maximises his profits when he sells more at a lower price in the foreign market with elastic demand and sells less at a higher price in abolition of man domestic market with less elastic demand. It follows that when marginal revenues equal and prices differ in the two markets, price discrimination is possible and Among, profitable. (5) Dumping: International Price Discrimination:

Dumping is international price discrimination in which an exporter firm sells a portion of Budget Essay its output in a foreign market at a very low price and the remaining output at a high price in the home market. The home market is controlled or protected and the foreign market is free or open. Heberler defines dumping as: The sale of goods abroad at a price which is lower than the selling price of the same goods at the same time and in Youth Among The Homeless the same circumstances at home, taming account of differences in transport costs. The analysis of price-output determination under dumping assumes that: (a) Total output is not fixed, it can be varied; (b) Marginal revenues must be equal in the two markets, and. (c) The foreign market is perfectly competitive and the home market is monopolistic, so that the demand curve facing the monopolistic in the foreign market is perfectly elastic and in the home market less elastic. Given, the above assumptions, price, output will be determined by the equality of the total marginal revenue curve and the marginal cost curve of branches producing the commodity. Figure 9 illustrates price-output determination under dumping. The foreign market demand curve faced by the monopolist is the horizontal line PD F which is Youth Among Essay also the MR curve because the foreign market is assumed to be perfectly elastic. The demand curve in of man the home market with a less elastic demand for the product is the downward sloping curve D H and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR^ The lateral summation of the MR H and PD curves leads to the formation of TRED F as the combined marginal revenue curve.

In order to determine the quantity of the Youth Among Essay, product to be produced by the monopolist, we take the marginal cost curve MC which cuts the combined marginal revenue curve TRED F from branches of psychology below at Among The Homeless point E. Thus OF output will be produced for sale in the two markets. Since EF is the marginal cost, equilibrium in the domestic market will be established at point R where the marginal cost EF equals the MR H curve. Now OH quantity will be sold at HM price in the home market and the remaining quantity HF will be sold in the foreign market at OP price. Thus the monopolist sells more in the foreign market with the more elastic demand at a low price and The Roles National Budget Essay, less in the home market with the Youth Among The Homeless, less elastic demand at a high price. His total profits are TREC. Essay # 8. And Shias Difference! Benefits of Price Discrimination: Pigou and Among, John Robinson have analysed the circumstances under which price discrimination is harmful or beneficial to society. In many cases where there is perfect competition or simple monopoly, production of of psychology a certain commodity is not possible because its average cost curve lies above its demand (AR) curve. But under price discrimination the Youth Among The Homeless Essay, average cost curve is likely to be below the average revenue curve at some point.

Thus, if there were no discrimination, society would be deprived of the use of certain commodities and services. As emphasised by Mrs. Robinson: It may happen, for instance, that a railway would not be built, or a country doctor would not set up in practice, if discrimination were forbidden. From the point of view of society, it is only necessary that the concern should make sufficient profits to sunnis difference maintain the efficiency of the plant, and not a profit which would have been sufficient to justify the Youth The Homeless, original investment. If a doctor charges a uniform fee to all his patients, his income may be so low as to induce him to largest leave his private practice and join some hospital. The community is thus deprived of Youth Essay his services in the particular area where he is practising. If, however, he charges more fee to largest in australia his rich patients than to the ordinarily, his income is likely to be so high as to induce him to stay in that area.

Similarly, the existence of Youth Among The Homeless Essay railways depends upon their charging higher rates to some customers than to others in the same train. If discrimination occurs under conditions of like for chocolate film falling average costs, it is actually beneficial to consumers because it results in larger output for the market. This is illustrated in Figure 10 where D is the average revenue curve of the discriminating monopolist and d/MR is the Youth Among Essay, ordinary demand curve which becomes the MR curve to the discriminator. The average cost curve AC lies above the market demand curve d throughout its length. So no production is possible at any price on the ordinary d curve.

But production is possible under price discrimination because the demand curve D of the discriminating monopolist lies above the downward sloping portion of the AC curve. Equilibrium is established at E where MC = MR and the output OQ is produced and sold at QP price and the discriminator g earns RP profits per unit of Essay output. Price discrimination is justified if it helps in promoting economic welfare. Governments usually permit or even encourage price discrimination if it leads to the production of some public utility service, such as telephone, telegraph, or rail transportation. In public utility services, the higher income groups are charged higher prices and the funds so collected may be used to subsidies the goods meant for the poor. Price discrimination is also beneficial to society for it helps in reducing inequalities of personal incomes when higher prices or fees are charged to the rich than to the poor. In public utility services, the higher price charged to the higher income groups serves as a tool for income redistribution because the government may use these funds to subsidies the lower income groups. Thus price discrimination helps in promoting social warfare. Price discrimination is not only beneficial but is also justified when a country sells a commodity cheaper abroad than at home. If a foreign market is elastic, more will be sold at Youth The Homeless a lower price. It means expansion in output, the of the Budget Essay, use of larger resources of the economy, more employment and Youth, income to the community.

Price discrimination of this type proves particularly useful if the and shias, industry obeys the law of Essay decreasing costs. Branches Of Psychology! It implies the realisation of Youth Among larger economies of scale, lowering of branches of psychology costs and prices to the home market also. It is possible that without price discrimination the commodity would not have been produced at all. In that case, had it been imported from abroad, it would have cost the economy more both in pecuniary and real terms. Some of the countrys resources being used for the production of this commodity would have remained idle and instead of receiving income from abroad, its wealth would have floated to the other country. May be, economies of scales could be realised only when the The Homeless Essay, monopolist started producing for the foreign market.

Hence price discrimination is justified. Essay # 9. Of Man! Harms of Price Discrimination : Price discrimination is, however, harmful to Youth The Homeless society when it leads to largest river mal-distribution of resources as between different uses with the result that output, employment and income are not maximised. It may lead to the diversion of The Homeless resources from their socially optimal uses. It leads to exploitation when people are made to pay higher prices for smaller quantities. Even on international plane when price discrimination takes to form of dumping, it. Essay On Development Of The World Wide Web! Deliberately shatters the economy of the other country by undercutting the foreign producers and Youth, forcing them to close their business.

Such discrimination is highly undesirable. Essay # 10. Control and Regulation of Monopoly: There are three methods of controlling and The Roles National Budget, regulating monopoly : First, government may adopt anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. Second, government may either run natural monopolies directly or regulate monopolies by imposing price ceilings. Third, government may regulate monopolies through taxation. Besides, there are certain fears that prevent the monopolist from charging a very high price in order to earn large super-normal profits. They are discussed as under. (1) Fear of Potential Rivals. The fear of Youth Essay potential competitors may prevent a monopolist to charge a very high price to his customers.

If he sets a vary high price, he will earn large super-normal profits. Attracted by these monopoly profits, new entrants may force themselves into the monopolised industry. The monopolist, being averse to the entry of new firms, would prefer to charge a reasonable price and thus earn only a modest profit. (2) Fear of abolition of man Government Regulation. The same consideration applies to Among The Homeless potential government regula­tion.

The monopolist is well aware that charging unusually high prices or earning abnormal profits would attract the attention of the government. Rather than risk government regulation, he may voluntarily fix a low price, and earn less monopoly profit. (3) Fear of Nationalisation. The fear of nationalisation also prevents the monopolist to wield an absolute monopoly power. If the product or service which the monopolist provides is abolition a public utility service, there is every likelihood of the state taking over the monopoly organisation in public interest.

This consideration may prevent the monopolist from charging too high a price. (4) Fear of Public Reaction. The monopolist is also aware of public reaction if he charges a very high price and earns huge profits. Voices may be raised against the monopoly firm in parliament to press for anti- monopoly legislation. (5) Fear of Boycott. People may even boycott the use of monopolised service and start their own service instead. For instance, if in a big city taxi operators combine to charge high rates, people may boycott taxi service and even start operating their own services by forming a cooperative society. Naturally, such a fear compels monopoly firms to charge reasonable prices and earn only nominal profits.

(6) Fear of Substitutes. Then there is the fear of substitutes. In fact, the fear of substitutes is the most potent factor which prevents monopoly firms from charging very high prices and thereby earn super-normal profits. The monopoly product has some substitute though it is Youth Among Essay not a close substitute. Therefore, the fear of the emergence of very close substitutes is always uppermost in the mind of the monopolist which acts as a restraint on The Roles National Essay his absolute power. (7) Differences in Elasticities of Demand.

The differences in Among The Homeless Essay the short-and long-run elasticities of demand for the monopoly product also limit monopoly power. In the and shias difference, short-run, the monopolist can charge a very high price because customers take time to Youth Essay adjust their habits, tastes and incomes to some other substitutes. The demand for the monopoly product is, therefore, less elastic in the short-run. National! But in the long-run, the fear of public opinion, emergence of substitutes, government regulations, etc. will force the monopolist to set a low price. He will view his demand curve as elastic, and sell more at a low price. (i) Control of Youth Among Monopoly through Legislation: Government tries to control monopoly by anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. These measures tend to: (i) Remove restrictive trade practices and fixation of largest river in australia high prices; (ii) Reduce the Youth Among The Homeless, incidence of market-sharing agreements; (Hi) Remove unfair competition; (iv) Restrict the control of very large share of the market; (v) Prevent unfair price discrimination; (vi) Restrict mergers in order to avoid market domination; and. (vii) Prohibit exclusive agreements between the producer and retailer to the detriment of other traders. (ii) Control of Monopoly through Price Regulation:

We now take the case where the Essay on Development of the Wide, government feels that monopoly price is very high and tries to bring it down by Among Essay price regulation. To regulate monopoly, the government imposes price ceiling so that monopoly price should be near or equal to competitive price. This is done when the government appoints a regulating authority or commission which fixes a price for of the the monopoly product below the monopoly price, thereby increasing output and lowering the price for the consumer. This is illustrated in Among The Homeless Figure 11. Before the regulation of for chocolate film monopoly price, the monopolist is making PF x OM profits by selling OM output at MP (=OA) price. Among The Homeless Essay! Suppose the state regulatory authority sets the maximum price QK (=OB) at the competitive level.

The new demand curve facing the monopolist becomes BKD. Its corresponding MR curve becomes BKHMR. Now the monopolist behaves as a perfectly competitive producer. And Shias Difference! He produces and Youth The Homeless, sells OQ output at point where the MC curve cuts the BKHMR curve from below. As a result of price regulation, the monopolist increases his output to OQ from OM. In Australia! He still makes super- normal profits equal to KG x OQ that are smaller than the monopoly profits (PF x OM) at the unregulated price MP.

If the price regulatory authority fixes the monopoly price WS equal to the average cost where the AC curve cuts the D/AR curve at point S, the monopolist would be able to place a greater quan­tity of output OW in The Homeless Essay the market. At this level, the monopolist would earn only normal profits. Sunnis And Shias Difference! In such a situation, the monopolist would continue to produce so long as he is getting a fair return on his capital investment. But the regulatory authority cannot force him to increase output beyond OW because the monopolist would not be operating at a loss. (iii) Control of Monopoly through Taxation: Taxation is another way of controlling monopoly power. The tax may be levied lump-sum without any regard to the output of the monopolist. Or, it may be proportional to the output, the amount of tax rising with the increase in output. By levying a lump-sum tax, the government can reduce or even eliminate monopoly profits without affecting either the price or output of the product. A lump-sum tax imposed on the monopoly firm is shown in Figure 12 where AC and MC are the average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax is levied. The monopolist earns APRT super-normal profits by selling OM product at Youth MP Price.

The imposition of the lump-sum tax is, in Wide fact, a fixed cost to the monopoly firm because it is independent of output. Youth Among Essay! It, therefore, raises the average cost by the amount of the tax TC so that the AC curve shifts upward as AC ] but the marginal cost remains unaffected. So the imposition of a lump-sum tax has the water for chocolate, effect of reducing monopoly profit from APRT to Youth Among Essay APBC. Branches! The entire burden of the tax will be borne by the monopolist himself. He cannot shift any part of Among The Homeless Essay it to branches his customers at any stage by raising the price and reducing output. Youth The Homeless Essay! Since the monopolists marginal cost curve and the marginal revenue curve remain unaffected by the tax imposition, any change in of man the existing price- output combination would only lead to Youth The Homeless Essay losses. The government can also reduce monopoly profits by levying a specific or a per unit tax on the monopolists product. A per unit tax on monopoly output has the effect of shifting both the average and marginal cost curves upward by the amount of the tax.

Figure 13 illustrates this case. AC and MC are the monopoly firms average cost and branches, marginal cost curves before the tax imposition. It earns BPGK monopoly profits by selling OM quantity of the product at UP price. Suppose a the government levies a specific tax which being a variable cost to the monopoly firm tends to shift the cost curves upward to AC 1 and MC 1 . The monopolists new equilibrium point is E 1 where the MC 1 curve cuts the MR curve. The new price is M 1 P 1 MP (the old price) and the output is OM 1 OM (the original output). In this case, the monopolist is able to shift a part of the tax burden to consumers in the form of higher price and a smaller output of the Among Essay, product. Since the monopolist has to bear a portion of the tax burden him, his profits are also reduced from BPGK to RP 1 CF. Such a tax does not help in abolition regulating monopoly price and output. For the higher, the demand elasticity of tax, the higher the price for the product and the lower the output. The ultimate loss will be borne by the public rather than by the monopolist. Welcome to!

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