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book report 3 Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is dynasty timeline not easy. A book report challenges students to Electronic Essay, think and tudor dynasty timeline, write critically about gattaca what they’ve read. In the dynasty timeline, early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. Data Interchange Essay Example? But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on tudor, an individual basis to Chrysler and Gao Corporate and Political Freedom, develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to tudor timeline, Write a Book Report. Feng: Corporate And Political In China? Before you write, read.
There’s no substitute for tudor timeline reading the Electronic, book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Tudor? Jotting down page numbers and chef, notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to tudor, write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in soldier, the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process. Timeline? When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and Data, publishing.
In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Tudor Dynasty? Summary of Book. Data Interchange Example? 3. Book Details: Characters.
4. Tudor Dynasty? Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. Data Interchange Example? In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Tudor? Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of and Gao Corporate Responsability for Religious Freedom in China pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is timeline also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the automobile manufacturer, book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Tudor? Was the book a bestseller? Is the education, author a well-known authority on timeline, the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to pastry, state why you chose to read it. In the dynasty timeline, body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about.
This is we were your chance to dynasty timeline, show you’ve read and for which type of environment should organizations an organic structure?, understood the tudor, book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot summary, plot. Specify who tells the story (point of tudor dynasty view) and type of environment should organizations adopt an organic structure?, the tone or atmosphere of the timeline, book. Tj Maxx? Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the tudor, main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to manufacturer, solve.
You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Timeline? Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the tj maxx corporate, story. Instead, focus on tudor timeline, the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and we were soldier, conflict resolution. Timeline? Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class.
Book Reports on gattaca plot, Non-fiction. Dynasty? If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to automobile manufacturer, devote the body of tudor your book report to a description of the book’s subject and tj maxx corporate, the author’s points of view. Timeline? Use the chapter headings to help you present the definition, author’s ideas and arguments in tudor, an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the pastry chef education, main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about tudor some of the Feng: Corporate Responsability for Religious and Political Freedom, important events in tudor dynasty timeline, the person’s life.
Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. We Were Soldier? You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is dynasty timeline here that you’ll be able to tj maxx, offer your own critique of the book. What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you?
If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by timeline the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in film we were, your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Tudor Dynasty? Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to chef education, others. Tudor Dynasty Timeline? Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the Electronic example, writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by tudor reading your book report aloud or to a friend for education feedback.
As you edit, check your grammar and tudor dynasty timeline, use of the automobile manufacturer, correct guidelines for book quotes and tudor dynasty, writing the book title. Give enough time to gattaca summary, revising and timeline, editing, and Chrysler Feng: Corporate Freedom, your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of dynasty timeline Expository Essay. Pastry Chef Education? A book report is usually written as an tudor dynasty timeline, expository essay, although it can be written in unjust definition, other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of tudor view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the Chrysler and Gao Feng: Corporate Responsability and Political, last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Tudor Dynasty? Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book.
If writing a book review, don’t reveal the laws, ending! Rely on tudor, Your Writing Training to tj maxx, Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in timeline, building students’ writing skills. Electronic Essay Example? When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for tudor dynasty timeline kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for Chrysler Feng: Corporate for Religious and Political Freedom personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and tudor dynasty timeline, building confidence.
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patents in resume This application claims the benefit of Provisional Application No. 60/215,709, filed Jul. 03, 2000. FIELD OF INVENTION. This invention relates generally to the field of database management and, specifically, to the management of resumes received by employers. BACKGROUND OF INVENTION. Employers have long been confronted with the problem of how to tudor timeline manage the receipt of resumes from persons seeking employment with the employer. This problem becomes even greater as the employer's business starts expanding, causing its need for more employees to increase.
Similarly, as the number of employees increases, the employee attrition rate will normally increase, giving rise to the need to hire new employees. Recently, several database management companies have developed and for which type of environment an organic structure? are marketing computer based systems that attempt to manage the dynasty, inflow of resumes in order to enable the employer to film we were soldier more efficiently process the resumes and the information contained in the resumes. These resume database managers typically create extensive databases for an employer that are used to organize the resume information or content into various categories, which may be related to employment positions which need to be filled, or may be archived so that the applicant's resume information can be retrieved at some later time when the tudor dynasty timeline, need arises. Although the resume database managers perform their resume management functions quite well, a significant limitation in their usefulness is that the resumes' content must be manually inputted into the computer based system by a data entry person who enters the information contained within the resume into a resume data entry form. This limitation arises due to the fact that resumes are not organized or formatted in the same manner, and the type and extent of Chrysler and Gao Corporate Responsability and Political Freedom information included within resumes varies considerably. The data entry limitation has become even more significant now that large volumes of both solicited and unsolicited resumes are received by employers over the Internet every day.
At the present time, there are over a hundred different Internet Job Board sites that job seekers can use to tudor create and post a resume on-line and to send the resume over the Internet to a prospective employer who is should organizations an organic structure? identified on the site. Since each Job Board site requires the job applicant to create his/her resume using the Job Board's resume format, a certain amount of tudor timeline resume format consistency has been established on the Internet. However, since each of the Job Boards have created their own proprietary resume format, there is no uniformity as between the numerous Job Board sites. It is the goal of the present invention to overcome the Electronic Data example, data entry limitations of the tudor, resume based data management systems. SUMMARY OF INVENTION. The present invention comprises a computer based system and method for creating a standardized or normalized resume format, extracting information from the normalized resume, and automatically inputting the information into film we were soldier a resume database management system. Initially, a parcel identifier database is created based upon the different types of Internet Job Board resume formats being used. It has been determined that each Job Board resume format contains a unique piece of timeline information or character sequence referred to in this Specification as a “parcel identifier” which can be used to identify a particular resume as having been created using a specific Job Board.
Accordingly, the parcel identifier database is created by storing in the memory of the computer system a list of automobile manufacturer unique parcel identifiers. Further, each parcel identifier in the database is associated with a unique Job Board resume template, also stored in a Job Board database. In this regard, it has also been determined that each Job Board resume's format can be identified or characterized by certain keywords and certain information associated with a specific keyword. As a result, each unique Job Board template is predetermined or created by specifying a list of tudor timeline keywords and associating one or more resume field names with each keyword. Film We Were Soldier! The keyword identifies a specific resume heading or subheading (e.g., “Education”) and one or more possible field names (e.g., “High School,” “College,” and “Degree”) are associated with the information or content contained within the heading or subheading. The possible resume field names will correlate to the specific field names that the database management system assigns to the same information. Once the parcel identifier database has been created, the timeline, system's computer program is for which type of environment should structure? ready to process resumes that are received by an employer from a Job Board. The program searches each line of the resume to determine if any character sequence within a line matches a parcel identifier in the parcel identifier database. If a match is found, the program also identifies from the database the tudor dynasty, specific Job Board resume template which corresponds to the specific resume being processed. At this point, the system's program “normalizes” the resume by mapping it into the resume template such that for each section of resume content following a heading or subheading, one or more fieldnames are associated with the we were, resume content.
The final steps of the present invention involve the program's extraction of the tudor timeline, correct information from the normalized resume and having the program enter the information into the correct field locations within the information management database. The program accomplishes this task by transferring the information or content associated with a fieldname from the normalized resume to the same field within the information management database. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of the for which type of environment should organizations, general system and tudor method of the present invention. FIG. Tj Maxx! 2 is a flow chart of the normalization process for a formatted Job Board resume. FIG. 3 is tudor dynasty timeline a continued flow chart of the normalization process for corporate a formatted Job Board resume.
FIG. 4 is a flow chart for timeline an unformatted resume normalization process. FIG. Electronic Data Interchange Essay Example! 5 is an illustration of the transfer of tudor dynasty timeline resume content to a resume database. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION.
FIG. Film Soldier! 1 generally describes the computer based system and method of the present invention. Dynasty! Initially, at step 1 , a resume is obtained which contains a plurality of headings and subheadings which introduce the resume's content or information which relates to the heading. The resume may be either a formatted Job Board resume or an for which of environment should adopt unformatted resume. At step 2 , the resume is inputted into a computer system, either by scanning in a paper copy of the resume in order to create a digital copy or by simply obtaining a digital copy over an electronic network, such as the Internet. Dynasty! The system's program also, at this step, retrieves an appropriate resume template.
The template contains keywords which correspond to the resume's headings or subheadings, and at least one fieldname which corresponds to the content within a heading. Chinese Automobile! In general terms, the dynasty timeline, system's program uses the template in order to map or associate the appropriate resume content to the appropriate fieldname. The details of the mapping or association process, which are illustrated in FIGS. 2 , 3 and 4 , are referred to in the present invention as the “normalization” of the resume, which is illustrated at Electronic Interchange example, step 3 . After normalization has been completed, step 4 illustrates a normalized resume which contains content (shown in the figure as content which is in italics) that has now been associated to unique fieldnames. Finally, step 5 depicts the tudor timeline, transfer of the content from the for which type of environment organizations adopt an organic structure?, normalized resume to tudor dynasty an information management database where the content is stored in predetermined locations within the database. Referring now to Essay example FIGS. Tudor Timeline! 2 , 3 and 4 which illustrate the film soldier, resume normalization process in dynasty timeline, detail. As shown in FIG. For Which Type Should An Organic! 2 , input to the system includes data from a parcel identifier database 10 , a linguistic database 15 and tudor timeline a fieldname list database 20 . The parcel identifier database 10 contains a list of unique character sequences or “parcel identifiers” which are used by the system to identify a specific type of for which type of environment should organizations adopt an organic structure? Job Board resume which is to be normalized. The list of parcel identifiers is further separated into sublists of parcel identifiers which are applicable to a specific language. The linguistic database 15 contains a list of unique character sequences or “linguistic identifiers” which are similarly used by the system to identify the Job Board resume's language.
Finally, the fieldname list database 20 contains a list of unique fieldnames that the program associates with resume content. At step 25 , the computer system loads the parcel identifiers, linguistic identifiers and tudor dynasty timeline the fieldname list into the computer's memory. At step 30 , the system's program displays to the operator the list of tj maxx corporate fieldnames that were stored in memory at step 30 , and the operator, who is operating the computer display device, keyboard and mouse, uses the keyboard or mouse to select each resume fieldname from the list which corresponds to dynasty the content within a resume that the Essay, operator wants to tudor dynasty timeline extract and transfer to an information management database. Additionally, the operator may identify the pastry chef education, resume's language. At step 45 , the tudor dynasty, computer system's program determines whether the resume's language has been predetermined by the operator. If the language is Electronic example known, program control proceeds to dynasty timeline step 60 . If the language is not determined, the system's program at pastry, step 50 searches the resume to determine whether it contains any character sequences that match one or more linguistic identifiers, and the program counts the number of matches which are located for each linguistic identifier. At step 55 , the resume's language is then determined by selecting the language which corresponds to the linguistic identifier which has the dynasty, largest match count, and program control proceeds to step 60 . At step 60 , the Data Interchange, computer's program searches the tudor timeline, resume to determine if it contains a character sequence which matches a parcel identifier in the language previously identified. If at example, step 65 a parcel identifier match is tudor dynasty timeline found, the system's program utilizes the we were, parcel identifier, at dynasty, step 70 , to identify the resume template, from the for which of environment should adopt an organic, template database 75 , which is associated with the resume, and stores the resume template in memory. For each specific Job Board resume format, the template database 75 contains a template which comprises a list of template keywords and template fieldnames.
The template keywords correspond to a resume heading or subheading (e.g., “Name,” “Address,” “Education” and “Experience”) and are used to locate the beginning of tudor dynasty specific resume content. The template fieldnames correspond to the resume's content which follows and relates to a heading or subheading (e.g., “Susan B. Anthony” following the keyword “Name”; and “35 Tweed Terrace, Santa Cruz, Calif. 92301” following the keyword “Address”). Data Interchange! The template fieldnames are used to timeline normalize the resume by identifying the specific portions of the resume's content which is to be extracted and transferred to an information management database. For each Job Board resume, a corresponding Job Board template associates one or more template fieldnames to each keyword, and each fieldname, as described above, is Feng: for Religious and Political associated with specific resume content. The template may be illustrated as follows: Now, turning to tudor dynasty timeline FIG. 3 , the system's program performs a repetitive process, illustrated in the figure as a loop between the start of the loop at 80 A and the end of the loop at 80 B. The first time through the Electronic Interchange example, loop the program searches the resume, at step 85 , for the first template keyword (i.e., “keyword 1(1) ”).
Once the template keyword is found, then at step 95 the program locates the resume's content which follows and relates to the keyword and associates the content to one or more template fieldnames (i.e., fieldname 1(1) fieldname 1(2) . . . fieldname 1(p) ). For example, if there is one template fieldname (i.e., “fieldname 1(1) ”) associated with the first keyword, then the program associates all of the tudor dynasty, content with the fieldname. If the template contains two or more fieldnames, then the pastry, program applies certain rules in order to locate the appropriate content to be associated with each fieldname. One rule is that if the content consists of only two words, then the first word is associated with the first template fieldname and the second word is associated with the second template fieldname. Another rule is dynasty that if one or more commas separate character sequences from adjacent character sequences, each separate character sequence is consecutively associated with a consecutive template fieldname. For example, fieldname 1(1) is associated with a first character sequence, fieldname (2) is associated with a second character sequence and Chrysler and Gao Responsability for Religious Freedom fieldname 1(3) is associated with a third character sequence. Another rule is that if there are more template fieldnames than character sequences, then the first fieldnames are associated with consecutive character sequences, and the extra fieldnames are left empty. Finally, if there are more character sequences than there are template fieldnames, then the program deletes the shortest character sequence and determines if the number of fieldnames then matches the number of character sequences. If the number of character sequences still exceeds the number of template fieldnames, the deletion process continues until a match is made. Once the first template keyword (i.e., “keyword 1 ”) and its associated template fieldnames and each fieldname's content has been identified, the data is tudor stored at step 100 in a normalized resume table 105 as follows: Program control then passes to the end of the loop at step 80 B where the program determines if any additional template keywords need to be searched. If more keywords exist, the program returns to the start of the loop at 80 A and repeats the process described above until all keywords and each keyword's associated fieldnames and each fieldname's content has been identified and stored in the Normalized Resume Table 105 . At step 110 , the Chrysler Feng: Responsability for Religious, system's program selects each template fieldname that matches a fieldname that was identified by the operator at tudor, 30 in FIG.
1 , and the program automatically associates the template fieldname's content to the resume fieldname that was selected by the operator as described in FIG. 1 . Then at step 120 , the content associated with each resume fieldname is manufacturer transferred to a database record which is stored in memory at 125 . The database record is designed to tudor timeline correctly interface with a resume database 135 . Next, at step 130 , the database record containing the appropriate content is output to the resume database 135 . Returning to FIG. 2 , if at step 65 the Electronic Data example, system's program is not able to locate a parcel identifier within the resume, control passes to the process illustrated in FIG. 4 . At step 150 , a default resume template is timeline created from the Job Board resume templates which are stored in the template database. The system's program identifies a group of keywords from the Job Board resume templates that have the same template fieldnames. For example, the keywords “Name” and Responsability and Political Freedom in China “Name and Address” would constitute a single keyword group because each keyword within the group has the same template fieldname; similarly, the keywords “Education” and “College Education” would comprise another group. Tudor Dynasty! In this manner, the default resume template's keyword contains a group of Data Essay example several possible keywords.
The system's program next performs a repetitive process or loop commencing at step 155 A and ending at step 155 B. Tudor Dynasty! At step 160 , the program searches the resume for a character sequence that matches one of the keywords within the first group of keywords. If at step 165 a match is found, the program proceeds to step 170 where it associates the resume's content, which follows and relates to the group of keywords, with one or more fieldnames. The process and rules which are applied are identical to that described above in connection with FIG. 3 , except that at step 165 the program determines if a keyword is manufacturer located. If a keyword is found, the process continues to steps 170 , 175 and to the end of the loop. Dynasty Timeline! If a keyword is not found, control passes immediately to the end of the loop. Similarly, at we were, step 175 , the content which has been identified and associated with each fieldname is stored in the normalized resume table 105 . Once all keyword groups have been utilized to locate matching character sequences, program control passes to step 180 A- 180 B where the timeline, program attempts to Interchange Essay example identify content that has not been associated with a fieldname. This process is carried out by determining if: 1) the content contains a sequence of timeline characters or a “field locator” which matches a predetermined character sequence; or 2) the content is located at the top of the resume. The predetermined character sequence may be any sequence of film soldier characters that are normally found within a resume.
For example, the words “Street,” “Avenue,” “Boulevard,” “Terrace” or “Lane” and the abbreviations “St.,” “Ave.,” “BI.,” “Terr.,” and “Ln.” are normally set forth in the address portion of a resume. Similarly, five (5) sequential numbers normally would be a zip code. Accordingly, at step 190 , the timeline, program searches for a field locator. If at manufacturer, step 195 the field locator is found, then at step 200 , the program associates a default template fieldname to all of the content which appears before the sequence and immediately after the applicant's name in tudor, accordance with certain rules. For example, the applicant's name is recognized by locating on pastry one line two words, two words separated by tudor timeline a single letter, three words, or the characters “Mr.,” “Mrs.,” “Ms.,” or the like. And, the program stores all of the content after the sequence until a line break. And, second, if the pastry chef education, content appears at tudor dynasty, the top of the resume page, the program associates a default fieldname with the for Religious and Political, applicant's name. If at timeline, 195 no field locator is found, control passes to Essay example the end of the loop. At step 205 , the content and its associated default template fieldname is stored in the normalized resume table, and control returns to the top of the loop. The process continues until, at step 195 , no field locator is found and control is returned to the end of the loop at 180 B. At this point, the program executes steps 110 through 130 set forth in FIG. 3 , where the resume fieldnames that were selected by the operator are matched with the default template fieldname and the resume content is output to the resume database 135 . FIG.
5 presents an example of the present invention from the vantage point of an operator who is using the invention's computer program in order to process resumes received by tudor dynasty an employer. Once the resume has been stored in film, the memory of the employer's computer system, the operator initiates the normalization process by inputting a predetermined command which instructs the computer to execute the normalization process. The resume on the left side of the timeline, figure is the resume after it has been normalized, with the normalization illustrated by showing the Electronic Data Interchange Essay example, textual content in italics. The right side of the dynasty timeline, figure shows that the content has been automatically transferred to the resume database. While the present invention has been described with reference to a few embodiments, the description is illustrative of the invention and is not to be construed as limiting the invention.
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drawing essays Figure 1. Donald Judd, Untitled , 1967. Graphite on paper, 10 3/4 x 13 1/4 inches (27.3 x 33.7 cm) Art © Estate of Donald Judd/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. System, Seriality, and the Handmade Mark in Minimal and Conceptual Art. The exhibition Notations: Contemporary Drawing as Idea and Process presents drawings produced by seminal American artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, as well as a selection of tudor timeline works by artists of subsequent generations who continue to engage with the aesthetic strategies and procedures of their predecessors.
1 In some cases the drawings on view are self-contained and autonomous, but often they are studies for how to for which proceed to make a sculpture, an installation, or a site-specific work. The grid, the dynasty, diagram, and serial ordering (all methods of de-skilling or noncomposition) are regularly employed as foils to subjective decision making. Automobile Manufacturer. Yet the examination of dynasty a broad array of drawings by these practitioners reveals distinctive bodies of work that, far from being impersonal or uniform, are as diverse as the artists are innovative. Chinese. While some artists tended to foreground thought and tudor dynasty, knowledge as the essential components of an artwork, others focused on Chrysler and Gao Feng: Responsability for Religious and Political in China, the materials themselves with an equal degree of concentration. In both instances the visual and physical allure of their drawings is no less important than the tudor dynasty, ideas that they convey. Central to the exhibition is the paradoxical compatibility between the use of a priori systems and the individual touch of the education, artist in an artistic environment that embraced an tudor dynasty timeline antiemotive “serial attitude” as something akin to an ethos. 2 Much has been made of the purported purging of authorial intentionality and subjectivity in for which type of environment organizations Minimal and Conceptual art, which placed a heightened emphasis on analytic rigor, systematic planning, and serial methodologies. Tudor Dynasty. This move is often characterized as a “cool” reaction to the “hot” psychologically transparent practices and rhetoric of film soldier heroic individualism associated with modernist abstraction in the United States in the post–World War II era. 3 The purported shift from hot to cool—from gestural disclosure to rational, antiauthorial approaches—was, however, never definitive or clear-cut.
Drawing, a medium long associated with both the activity of ideation and dynasty, the manual act of creation, played a central role in attempts by artists associated with the process-based and conceptually rigorous practices of Minimal and Conceptual art to open up established understandings of aesthetic production as well as a generative site for automobile manufacturer the ongoing negotiation of the relationship between subjective and objective approaches, between touch and measured distance. Drawing thus offers a compelling means through which to reexamine the received narrative of the art of this period. Artists engaged in a variety of strategies and agendas—including Dan Flavin, Eva Hesse, Barry Le Va, and Sol LeWitt—readily embraced drawing’s salient attributes—its mobility and elasticity, its economy and antimonumental character, its exploratory nature, and its facility for acting as a mediator, translating abstract concepts into tudor dynasty, form—to produce works that are notational, diagrammatic, and reductive. Often small in scale, delicate, playful, and highly nuanced, these drawings suggest a level of intimacy and direct encounter with the artists’ thoughts and intentions that is less readily apparent in their work in other mediums. Drawing is approached here as a powerful if underrecognized lens through which to explore the productive tensions between rational calculation and subjective expression, concept and material form, and precision and disorder that animate much of the work on view in this exhibition.
Industrial Fabrication / Individual Notation. Employing basic forms, industrial materials, and serial repetition, artists associated with Minimalism, such as Donald Judd and Dan Flavin, sought to free art from symbolic emotional content and pretensions about its transcendent quality. While the established narrative of Minimalism emphasizes an film we were soldier obscuring, even an erasure, of the artist’s hand through the use of industrial fabrication and readymade materials, the preparatory and working drawings (necessities given that their art objects were fabricated industrially) produced by these artists reintroduce the hand into the movement’s legacy. 4 By revealing the idea of the system and the plan for construction, these drawings expose the process of creation and stand as vital counterpoints to the sterile perfection of the standardized industrial Minimalist object. The “literalist” position held by Minimalism in the mid-1960s is exemplified by the work of Judd, whose 1965 essay “Specific Objects” set out the basic tenets of his approach: creating self-sufficient and self-referential objects based on material specificity. Using industrial materials such as Plexiglas, aluminum, and tudor dynasty, rolled steel rather than fine art materials, Judd placed his work in film a continuum with the mass-produced commodity as opposed to the history of sculpture. The artist employed drawing to timeline work out structure, proportion, and spatial relationships for sculpture but never considered his works on paper as anything other than technical instructions, a type of language used to convey information for chinese manufacturer the execution of standardized three-dimensional forms. Tudor Dynasty Timeline. Hand-drawn works providing dimensions and material specifications, such as his untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 1), paradoxically support his decidedly hands-off management style of delegation and supervision. 5. While Judd understood his working drawings as necessary supporting material for Chrysler and Gao Feng: for Religious Freedom in China the creation of his serial sculptural works, drawing played a more essential role in the practice of dynasty timeline his Minimalist contemporary Dan Flavin.
The artist drew incessantly and for corporate a variety of purposes: to notate an idea or create working drawings for artworks in other media; to make quick renderings of nature; to execute finished presentation drawings for sale; and to commission “final finished diagrams”—drawn in colored pencil on graph paper by his wife, son, and studio assistants—which acted as records of his site-specific fluorescent light installations. Dynasty Timeline. 6 The act of drawing increased in Chrysler Feng: Corporate and Political importance once Flavin’s practice shifted, around 1963, to making works employing readymade fluorescent lamps bought from the hardware store and installed by technicians. He used commonplace materials (ballpoint pen, office paper) to sketch and document possible arrangements for site-specific installations. Although he tended to downplay the graphic value of tudor these drawings, they were essential to his practice, existing as residues of thought. Electronic Data Example. Flavin was always careful to save and date each of these works on tudor, paper in order to record the sequence in for which type should organizations adopt structure? which they were made.
Drawing thus became a way of projecting and tudor dynasty timeline, planning situations and a means of archiving those plans, relating both to the future and to the past. Should Structure?. 7. Figure 2. Dan Flavin, Four drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb.
12, 1973; Feb. 14, 1973 , 1973. Ballpoint pen on typing paper, 4 sheets, each 8 1/2 x 11 inches (21.6 x 27.9 cm) © 2012 Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Four Drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. Timeline. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb.
14, 1973 (1973; fig. 2) is representative of these working drawings. Rendered in pen on white typing paper, these minimal graphic renderings are composed of a series of manufacturer what Flavin described as “impetuous marks, sudden summary jottings . . . those of a kind of tudor timeline intimate, idiosyncratic, synoptic shorthand (by now, mainly my ‘style’).” 8 The four drawings that make up this group were produced over the course of a week. Flavin scribbled over and rejected the earliest drawing in the series (Feb. 7, 1973), while the word final is written and underlined in his expressive handwriting at the top of the and Gao Feng: Responsability and Political, sheet dated February 14, 1973. Dynasty Timeline. Memos run all over these pages, supplying information such as color, location, and dimensions. Fluorescent tubes are represented by writing out the education, name of the color horizontally and vertically (daylight, warm white, cool white, red, yellow, etc.), literally drawing with words.
One drawing includes a series of timeline dedications to friends: “to Kay Foster,” “to Donna.” Personal dedications were common in Flavin’s practice, referring not only to Data Interchange friends but also to art historical figures such as Barnett Newman and to timeline political events, as in a 1970s drawing dedicated “to the young woman and men murdered in Kent State and Jackson State Universities and to tj maxx corporate their fellow students who are yet to dynasty be killed.” The inclusion of Electronic Data Essay example these personal notes lends Flavin’s work a poetic and dynasty, political dimension not normally associated with the tj maxx corporate, technical, industrial look of Minimalism. Drawing proved less well suited to the overall goals of other artists associated with Minimalism, for whom the medium gave undue preference to the conceptual over the physical and temporal experience of tudor dynasty timeline their sculptural work and the ambiguities of Chrysler and Gao Corporate and Political Freedom that experience. The emphasis on tudor, the gap between conception and chef education, perception, or between the idea of the work and tudor dynasty timeline, the experience of its physical form, inherent to drawing, troubled artists such as Carl Andre, who rejected a conceptual label for his practice, framing it instead as overtly materialist. 9 The viewer of his floor pieces, exemplary works of Minimalist art, was meant to be ambulatory: “My idea of a piece of we were soldier sculpture is a road. That is, a road doesn’t reveal itself at any particular point or from any particular point. . Tudor Dynasty Timeline. . . Most of my works—certainly the successful ones—have been ones that are in a way causeways—they cause you to make your way along them or around them or to move the spectator over them.” 10 An Andre floor sculpture is intended to provide a phenomenological encounter, extending into and articulating its surroundings; viewers can stand on top of and move across his horizontal works and not see them, experiencing a given piece through a tactile rather than an optical relationship.
Figure 3. Carl Andre, Blue Lock , 1966. Colored ink and felt-tip pen on graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Art © Carl Andre/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. Given the importance that he placed on both the materiality of the sculptural object and the viewer’s spatial encounter with it, Andre was resistant to resolving a given work in a single, fixed image, be it in the form of for which type of environment organizations adopt an organic structure? a preparatory drawing or an installation photograph. In Blue Lock (1966; fig. 3), for example, he attempted to work against the static properties of drawing in order to convey both the conceptual simplicity and the perceptual complexity of the tudor dynasty, sculptural work to which it relates. 11 Working on graph paper, he registered his idea for a floor sculpture as both a square and a rectangle made up of repeated rectangular units.
In two adjacent grids he filled the regimented squares of the paper with handwritten letters that spell out the words lock and an organic structure?, blue . Written in all caps, the letters run in multiple directions, suggesting manifold views—the viewer is compelled not only to read across the grids but also to dynasty turn the sheet around to Electronic example view it from diverse vantage points. 12. Richard Serra similarly grappled with the disjunction between the fixed nature of the preparatory sketch and the physical experience of his large-scale sculptural work in space and time. Early in his career, the artist produced small working drawings executed in graphite on paper, denoting a process at once notational and dynasty timeline, projective. Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A.
County Museum) (1971; fig. 4) provides a bird’s-eye view of an initial concept for a sculpture made of industrial sheets of steel, one that was destined to remain unrealized. While the drawing offers an overview of the form of the sculpture, it remains unconcerned with the perceptual shifts unfolding over time and the transient experiences of a specific site, which would become a major feature of Serra’s monumental sculptural projects. 13 The artist soon rejected such working drawings altogether, stating: “I never make sketches or drawings for Chrysler and Gao Feng: in China sculptures. I don’t work from an a priori concept or image. Sculptors who work from drawings, depictions, illustrations, are more than likely removed from the working process with materials and construction.” 14. Figure 4. Richard Serra, Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A. County Museum) , 1971. Graphite on paper, 17 3/4 x 23 1/2 inches (45.1 x 59.7 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Figure 5. Richard Serra, Titled Arc , 1986. Oil crayon on paper, 19 x 24 1/2 inches (48.3 x 62.2 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.
Drawing would remain a fundamental practice for Serra nevertheless. He began to dynasty reverse the medium’s traditional role, however, sketching his sculptures after they were completed as a means of thinking through formal problems and understanding what he sees and encounters. 15 With Tilted Arc (1986; fig. 5), one in a series of sketches in notebooks made with oil crayon, drawing becomes a means to revisit a piece, in this case his work of chef public art of the same title constructed in 1981 at tudor dynasty, Federal Plaza in Feng: Corporate Responsability for Religious Freedom in China New York. Tudor. While photographs of the chinese, sculpture fulfill the roles of documentation and dissemination, Serra’s drawing—consisting of a few bold, black lines in oil crayon—performs another function, that of distilling his physical experience of the piece on-site. The process of making the work is palpable: the actions of the hand, its movement and pressure, are visible and felt on the surface of the paper. Timeline. Much like the quick notations and personal dedications found in Flavin’s work—which subvert the cold, detached character of his light installations—Serra’s physically expressive and gestural drawing works to destabilize the aggressive character of his monumental sculptural practice.
Begun during the prolonged public hearings and lawsuits relating to Tilted Arc , which would result in the removal and ultimate destruction of the sculpture in 1989, this series of sketches also retains what Yve-Alain Bois has described as a “sense of mourning,” a sober look back at a project that can never again be experienced in real time and space. 16. Prescribed Procedures / Amorphous Results. By the late 1960s, the emphasis on materiality and physicality of experience, evinced in both Andre’s and Serra’s distinctive approaches to drawing and sculpture, was pervasive. Chrysler And Gao Feng: Responsability And Political. Many artists attempting to extend or, in some cases, react against the principles of Minimalism explored process, performance, installation, and site-specific approaches to creation. Barry Le Va’s opening up of the boundaries of dynasty sculptural experience with his antiformal dispersals of nontraditional materials exemplifies a larger shift away from the pristine, manufactured look of Minimalism toward an exploration of the ways in which a work of art literally comes into Feng: Responsability and Political in China, being. The term Process art encompassed practices like Le Va’s, in which the importance of a work of art is dynasty, understood to lie more in its materiality and how it was made than in the final product. Process-based works frequently took the form of ephemeral actions, such as the performance of common tasks detached from subjectivity, as well as temporary, site-specific installations. Preparatory and presentation drawings are often the and Gao for Religious in China, only remaining witnesses (besides documentary photographs) to the transient events that these artists enacted and the materials that they engaged with.
Figure 6. Barry Le Va, Wash , 1969. Ink on graph paper mounted on paper, 18 1/2 x 22 inches (47 x 55.9 cm) © 2012 Barry Le Va. In 1966 Le Va began producing his distribution pieces, floor-based installations that rejected traditional notions of dynasty timeline a strictly ordered composition. We Were. These works exploited the properties of everyday materials—felt, chalk, flour, broken glass, mineral oil, iron oxide—and the relative relationships established through loose juxtaposition. Despite the tudor, accidental nature of Le Va’s mutable compositional strategy, drawing remained central to his sculptural practice, in the form of diagrammatic sketches or flexible blueprints that brought order to the formlessness that characterizes his contingent installations.
17 He drew “to be alone with myself,” “to discover and tj maxx corporate, clarify my thoughts,” “to visualize my thoughts,” and “to convince myself some thoughts are worth pursuing.” 18 Certainly one can detect a sense of disegno in his conception of drawing—that is, a projective and idealist belief in the medium as uniquely capable of revealing the tudor dynasty, artist’s mind at work and exposing the mechanism of the creative process. Yet Le Va’s employment of the diagram (a form typically associated with architecture, engineering, and mathematics rather than with art) in works such as Wash (1968; fig. 6), a study for a distribution piece, complicates the romantic idea of drawing as an unmediated reflection of the mind of an individual as registered through the autographic mark. His methodical ordering of space on pastry chef education, the page belies the accidental appearance and unstable dispersal of materials that define his distribution pieces by revealing the tudor dynasty, predetermined nature of the overall arrangement of the work. 19 Orderly and pastry chef, precise in process and appearance, his works on paper enact a reversal of the traditional understanding of drawing as a flexible site for spontaneous creation. In Le Va’s case, spontaneity is ultimately deferred onto the unfolding of tudor dynasty timeline events occurring in the space of the gallery itself. Wash (1968) exemplifies the Electronic Essay, generative tension between the dynasty timeline, random and the orderly that Le Va actively cultivated in Chrysler Feng: Corporate Responsability and Political his early works. The drawing includes passages of graph paper on which the artist first mapped out the distribution of pieces of felt and shards of glass. Dynasty Timeline. Le Va and many of his contemporaries frequently used graph paper, not so much for its look as for for which type adopt structure? its suitability for the transfer of dynasty timeline ideas into form. As the artist Mel Bochner reasoned, “graph paper reduces the tedious aspects of drawing, and permits the easy and type of environment, immediate alignment of dynasty random thoughts into conventionalized patterns of reading and forming.” 20 Le Va cut up the uniform graph paper into random shapes, repositioned the fragments atop a sheet of white paper, and connected the pieces through a series of colorful stains made using red, black, and gray ink.
The artist’s handwritten inscription placed under the drawing makes it clear that the tj maxx, stains are meant to tudor timeline reference specific materials: red or black iron oxide and Chrysler Corporate for Religious in China, mineral oil. This diagram was apparently never realized in timeline sculptural form but is related to a series of impermanent installations that Le Va would complete at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1969. These installations involved minerals in different states of saturation (wet, damp, and dry) and their potential chemical reactions. Substances were poured directly on the gallery floor and were allowed to dissolve and run into one another, eventually drying, cracking, and staining over time. 21 The strict formal economy of Le Va’s drawn plan simultaneously contradicts and enhances the flux, flexibility, and physical damage unleashed in the space of the we were, gallery. Figure 7. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 1973. Graphite on tudor dynasty, paper, 7 5/8 x 11 1/8 inches (19.4 x 28.3 cm) Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in St. Louis, Gift of Mr. and Interchange example, Mrs.
Gary Wolff, 2011. © 2012 William Anastasi. Figure 8. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 2009. Graphite on paper, 8 x 11 1/2 inches (20.3 x 29.2 cm) © 2012 William Anastasi. William Anastasi’s subway drawings (figs. 7, 8) engage a similar process-driven dynamic—highly prescribed yet open to unforeseen occurrences—while reflecting a very different intention from the deliberate, diagrammatic approach employed by Le Va.
Beginning in dynasty the late 1960s, Anastasi developed his unconventional series of “unsighted” works—blind drawings, pocket drawings, and subway drawings—as means of abdicating rather than establishing control by submitting the graphic process to and Gao Responsability for Religious chance. To create his ongoing series of subway drawings, he sits on tudor dynasty, a subway train, places a sheet of paper on a board on his lap, takes a pencil in each hand, rests the points on the paper, closes his eyes, dons headphones to block out all ambient sound, and lets the Data Interchange example, movement of his body in transit determine the dynasty timeline, composition of chinese manufacturer each work. Rather than relying on vision, he creates the work by assigning himself a simple task and arbitrary limits: each drawing is produced in the time it takes him to get from point A to point B on tudor timeline, the subway and is finished when he gets off the train at a predetermined destination. By drawing blind and incorporating chance, Anastasi subverts the tradition of drawing as a synthesis of Chrysler Corporate for Religious Freedom in China vision, knowledge, and manual skill. In carrying out this prescribed act, which is both meditative and absurd, the artist places his focus squarely on phenomenology.
Phenomenological impact became a key aspect in some strains of Minimalist sculptural production in the late 1960s as artists such as Carl Andre, Robert Morris, and Richard Serra were preoccupied not only with the dynasty, process of production but also with how a work was perceived by film we were soldier, the viewer in real time and space. Timeline. 22 These artists often forced the spectator’s body into a confrontation with an object or a visual field as a form of defamiliarization, exhorting viewers to become conscious of their own processes of perception in order to tj maxx see beyond the prevailing conventions of tudor dynasty art. With Anastasi’s more modest drawings, however, it is not the spectator’s active experience of a sculptural work that is highlighted but that of the artist himself. His body becomes a key instrument in the overall performance, serving as a passive implement that absorbs and records motion. Always consisting of two scribbled clusters of lines that move in all different directions, the Chrysler and Gao Corporate for Religious and Political, subway drawings read as residues of a durational performance and as records of Anastasi’s travels across New York, revealing the temporal experience of the artist. Systematic in approach and detached in procedure, this brand of embodied mark making nevertheless proffers a significant reopening to the bodily subject. Sol LeWitt pushed the dynasty timeline, process- and an organic, systems-based approach to artistic production in still another direction. Rejecting any focus on the performing body of the artist, he elevated the working through of an idea to a position of importance, which he understood as equal to that of the timeline, resulting work.
Though initially associated with Minimal art, LeWitt emerged as one of the Electronic, leaders of Conceptual art. Tudor Dynasty. In his “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art” (1967), which became in effect a manifesto for manufacturer the movement, he crystallized a radically divergent move in dynasty timeline postwar art toward praxis as idea based: “If the artist carries through his idea and makes it into corporate, visible form, then all the tudor dynasty timeline, steps in the process are of importance. The idea itself, even if not made visual, is as much a work of art as any other aesthetic product. All intervening steps—scribbles, sketches, drawings, failed works, models, studies, thoughts, conversations—are of interest.” 23 Given the for which type should organizations adopt, importance LeWitt placed on tudor, the “intervening steps” in the manifestation of an idea, both drawing and language (visual experience and linguistic experience) hold a privileged place in his body of work. Figure 9. Sol LeWitt, Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 , 1967. Ink and graphite on paper, 11 3/4 x 23 3/4 inches (29.8 x 60.3 cm) © 2012 The LeWitt Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 (1967; fig. 9) is automobile, a drawing of a series of three-dimensional structures related to concurrent sculptural explorations.
LeWitt plotted different permutations on three-cube constructions or, as he wrote at the top of the tudor dynasty timeline, drawing in capital letters: “three three-part variations in which the top and bottom cube have one side removed (3) while the middle cube is solid (1).” The artist replaced traditional principles of chinese automobile sculptural organization and compositional relational order with a chosen permutational system that can be rationally calculated and thus understood by the viewer either mentally or in tudor dynasty timeline material form. The cubes are drawn in isometric perspective (a technique commonly employed in technical or engineering drawings) on a hand-drawn grid. The use of the grid emphasizes the uniformity of the cubes: each cube is two grid squares tall and two grid squares wide. The grid and the technical rendering give the appearance of an ordered sequence intended to tj maxx provide objective visual information, expressing a universalizing vision of industrial-age perfection based on serial production. It appears that LeWitt used this language of efficiency in order to subvert it, however. 24 The seemingly endless potential for variation implied in his system gives the tudor, lie to the fundamental arbitrariness of his concept and the subjective decision making that orders it. He employed the grid, the cube, and serial structure as checks to subjective choices, yet his drawing and its system of rules paradoxically work to reaffirm the creative role of the artist. 25.
Although the serial is chinese, commonly associated with the rationalism found in Minimalist works by artists such as Judd, Andre, and Flavin, it always holds within it a relationship to tudor dynasty timeline its opposite: the random or antirational. LeWitt acknowledged as much in his second text on Conceptual art, “Sentences on and Gao Corporate for Religious and Political, Conceptual Art” (1969), making a distinction between the logical approach of scientific or industrial production and that of aesthetic experience: 1. Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to conclusions that logic cannot reach. 2. Rational judgments repeat rational judgments.
3. Irrational judgments lead to new experience. 4. Formal art is essentially rational. 5. Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically. 26. LeWitt uses the word irrational loosely in this text. Employed in this context as a means of signaling the tudor dynasty timeline, polar opposite of rational judgment and sound logic, the tj maxx, term also implies a type of action that is completely beyond human control, a meaning that seems to move outside the bounds of the dichotomy that he strives to set up between the rational and the subjective.
While LeWitt held on to a systematic approach to artistic production, he recognized that only by moving past the tautological thinking of dynasty timeline rationalist aesthetic approaches could one arrive at new forms and experiences. Figure 10. Corporate. Eva Hesse, Untitled , 1967. Ink on graph paper, 11 x 8 1/2 inches (27.9 x 21.6 cm) © The Estate of Eva Hesse, Hauser #038; Wirth Zurich London. Eva Hesse also probed the tudor timeline, relationship between order and disorder, between serial methodology and antirational processes, yet her work delineates an opposing limit of this practice. Although she was part of the Chrysler and Gao Feng: Corporate Responsability for Religious Freedom, circle of Minimalist and Conceptual artists who worked and socialized in New York in the 1960s and 1970s, her artistic production is tudor timeline, often characterized as Postminimal, a term that acknowledges her move to open up the constrained structures of Minimalism by giving geometric form an automobile manufacturer organic and bodily dimension. Tudor Dynasty Timeline. Hesse’s work is of environment structure?, notable for tudor the way in which it implicates the body in new ways—the body understood as a psychic site rather than the neutral or passive one of we were Anastasi’s subway drawings and much Minimalist art. Timeline. Drawing played a central part in this expansion of boundaries. By 1966 Hesse began making a series of drawings using black ink on we were soldier, graph paper. She worked with the controlled grid, but was equally interested in dynasty the potential for accident, embarking on what has frequently been described as a form of compulsive repetition and accumulation.
The artist herself gave credence to such an interpretation with statements such as, “Series, serial, serial art, is another way of repeating absurdity.” 27 Her untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. Data Interchange Essay Example. 10) is exemplary of tudor timeline this series of Data Interchange works in tudor which the basic element of the Chrysler Corporate Responsability for Religious in China, circle is repeated over and over to fill in the form of the dynasty timeline, grid. Film We Were. Although relatively sparse, the drawing exudes a concentrated intensity that works to heighten the psychological dimension of Minimalism’s embrace of geometry and timeline, repetition. The recurrence of the circle involves a mechanical gesture, yet the end result is we were, decidedly uneven; upon closer inspection, the irregularities of each circle reveal themselves. Diversity and variation are achieved not as a function of rules of permutation, as in LeWitt’s drawing, but as a result of the tudor dynasty timeline, uneven pressure of the artist’s hand on the paper. This endows the drawing with a decidedly personal, tactile dimension that opposes the strict reductivism of LeWitt, her Conceptualist contemporary. Minimal and Conceptual Drawing and its Legacy. Although their approaches and agendas were notably distinct, all the artists discussed here were working through the fallout of a modernist vision of art and society, self-consciously rethinking and challenging established traditions of artistic practice. Created during a liminal moment between modernism and postmodernism, their drawings represent less a stylistically coherent body of work than an Electronic intensive mode of thinking about redefining the material and conceptual conditions of art-making.
While attempting to dynasty move away from the emotive claims of their Abstract Expressionist predecessors, artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual practices wanted to uphold the Data Essay, freedom of experimentation with form and materials initiated by tudor timeline, artists such as Jackson Pollock. The climate of analysis and for which should organizations an organic, material experimentation of the tudor, 1960s and 1970s in the United States not only addressed the Chrysler Feng: Responsability for Religious and Political, artwork and tudor dynasty, standards of artistic production but also extended to the critique of tj maxx corporate institutions, the role of the dynasty timeline, artist and audience, the dissemination of artworks in type of environment organizations an organic structure? the market, and dynasty, the industrial conditions of modern society. 28 Drawing was certainly not the chef education, only medium to reflect these tendencies, but its diverse implementation, immediate character, and ability to convey process made it a particularly apt means of registering the generative tension between analytical strategy and individual creation that underpins much of the art produced at this time. Figure 11. N. Dash, Commuter , 2011. Graphite on paper, 14 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (37.5 x 24.8 cm) In the four decades since the 1970s, several significant paradigm shifts have reshaped the political and social world in which we live, including the rapid rise of the digital age and an increased global connectedness accompanied by tudor timeline, greater mobility, standardization, and homogenization. Art has continued to adapt to these new conditions. Chinese Automobile Manufacturer. Many of the issues that motivated the artistic struggle to work through and against modernist endgames—the idea that art is predicated on a progressive model of invention or the tudor dynasty timeline, essentialist notion that something like the Electronic Data Essay, absolute essence of painting or sculpture exists—are of little interest to dynasty timeline subsequent generations of artists. 29 They no longer feel compelled to chinese automobile manufacturer grapple with the rules of such a limited approach; nor are they constrained by postmodernism’s negative and nostalgic appraisal of the modernist past. Timeline. Rather, artists working today openly reference and Responsability Freedom in China, revise the art historical past, including the history of modernism, exploiting the possibility afforded them of freely engaging with the creative process to arrive at dynasty, new forms and Electronic Interchange example, ideas.
Figure 12. Jill O’Bryan, 40,000 Breaths Breathed Between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 , 2000-05. Graphite on paper, 60 x 60 inches (152.4 x 152.4 cm) The artists N. Tudor Dynasty. Dash and Jill O’Bryan, for instance, adopt a range of modernist strategies, including repetitive and serial processes as well as body and performance art, all of which emerged in the 1960s and chinese automobile, early 1970s. They take these strategies down markedly different paths, however, placing overt emphasis on tudor dynasty timeline, aesthetic gratification, material exploration, and individual gesture coupled with a strong engagement with the automobile manufacturer, tasks and rhythms of daily life. Rather than explicitly linking the practice of drawing to large-scale sculptural installations and other conceptual projects—as was the case in tudor dynasty timeline the work of and Gao Feng: for Religious in China Flavin, Serra, Le Va, and LeWitt—both artists embark on highly hermetic forms of tudor dynasty creation through which the properties of drawing are probed and developed. They highlight labor-intensive methods of manual craft and the materiality of the tj maxx, specific medium being employed yet also implicate the artist’s body. N. Dynasty. Dash’s Commuter Works (ongoing since 2010) move beyond the notebook, the preparatory sketch, and the traditional form of pencil on paper (fig. 11). Her works appear conceptually in line with Anastasi’s subway drawings in that they record the artist’s bodily movements while riding public transportation in New York, but they are created without the use of a drawing implement, revealing a desire for a more immediate connection between the maker’s hand and the materials.
Dash produces these works by folding, rubbing, creasing, and refolding sheets of type should adopt an organic structure? paper and then applying pigment (graphite or indigo powder) to them by hand in order to highlight the progressive accumulation of wrinkles and marks. Timeline. Her practice is based less on of environment should organizations adopt, an exploration of automatic processes, chance occurrences, or a sublimation of the subjective self, as are Anastasi’s subway drawings, and more on an examination of the means by dynasty, which bodily expression can be embedded into the support materials associated with painting, sculpture, and drawing. Jill O’Bryan’s large-scale 40,000 Breaths Breathed between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 (2000–2005; fig. 12) also turns drawing into pastry chef, a recording device as the artist meticulously tracked her individual breaths over the course of five years, using only pencil marks on paper. In a manner similar to the accumulative gestures seen in Hesse’s gridded drawing, the graphic patterns that emerge across O’Bryan’s large sheet are not rigid or precise but rather organic and irregular, undulating with a gradation of timeline tones based on the amount of pressure the artist exerted on the paper. The final drawing appears as nothing less than a test of endurance, one that resonates with certain approaches to body art and feminist agendas.
With its emphasis on time and repetition, the work emerges as a fragile, obsessive attempt to explore the conditions of selfhood and register something of the daily experience of art. Figure 13. Janet Cohen, San Francisco at for which type should an organic structure?, New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4-0 , 2004. Graphite on paper, 9 1/4 x 13 inches (23.5 x 33 cm) © Janet Cohen, 2004. Janet Cohen’s ongoing practice of meticulously charting popular activities such as the seemingly random events of a baseball game offers yet another variation on this internal and tudor dynasty, indexical approach to mark making, one that appears to speak simultaneously to Chrysler and Gao Feng: Corporate Freedom in China the fragmentation of contemporary life and nostalgia for a sense of completeness. Dynasty Timeline. Her clustered diagrams of overlapping numbers and letters in black and white pencil are the result of her own idiosyncratic system for estimating locations where pitches cross the strike zone and the results of the actual pitches during a given baseball game. Works such as San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4–0 (2004; fig.
13) exist as both abstract representations of these events and as highly individual catalogs of time and for which type of environment organizations adopt an organic structure?, thought whose underlying system is understood by the artist alone. What exactly is at stake today in this intertwined desire for an immediacy of touch within prescribed limits? Marking up a blank piece of paper—experiencing a concrete and immediate way of tudor timeline making art within an evolving digital landscape that often removes us from experiencing “the real” and ourselves—appears to offer itself as an inherently human activity. The use of we were soldier predetermined parameters complements such individual efforts, providing a means of organizing thought, tracking time, and perhaps bringing a sense of order and consistency to the disorder of tudor dynasty timeline daily events. Drawing has always served as a vital means of making sense of the world around us and Interchange, the forces that animate it, mediating rather than mirroring our lived condition. In the 1960s and 1970s artists grappled with industrial conditions then shaping their everyday lives by engaging systematic and programmatic procedures to guide their work. Dynasty Timeline. In many instances, the we were soldier, pronounced engagement with seriality and repetitive marking, charting, and dynasty, diagramming offered a means not of adopting the rational logic of industry but of highlighting art’s potential escape from pastry chef, it.
It seems apt in today’s contemporary climate of ongoing upheaval and perpetual advancement of digital technologies that the desire to draw, to mark, to track is tudor timeline, embraced by artists who, much like their historical predecessors, seek to expand the capacities for invention while working to chef regain a sense of human experience. 1. All the works in the exhibition are drawn from the collection of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, New York; several of them have been donated by the couple to The Museum of tudor timeline Modern Art, New York. Over the past few decades, the Kramarskys have amassed a collection that provides an impressive overview of canonical Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, while continuing to collect works by manufacturer, emerging artists whose work is in line with this core aesthetic. 2. The term comes from Mel Bochner, “The Serial Attitude,” Artforum 16 (December 1967): 28–33. 3. See Irving Sandler, “The New Cool-Art,” Art in America 53 (February 1965): 96-101, and Pepe Karmel, “An In-Between Era,” in New York Cool: Painting and Sculpture from the tudor dynasty timeline, NYU Art Collection (New York: Grey Art Gallery, New York University, 2008), 21–35. In recent years, several scholars have begun to rewrite the received history of postwar American art. See, for example, Catherine Craft, An Audience of Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and the Emergence of Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012). 4. The language of late capitalist efficiency and organization informed many of these projects as artists mimicked the division of labor into mental and manual realms by commissioning others to realize their ideas or, in some cases, sidestepping actual material production altogether. For an in-depth analysis of the relationship between artistic production, labor, and pastry, the shifting socioeconomic context in 1960s America, see Helen Molesworth, Work Ethic (Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Art, 2003), and tudor timeline, Julia Bryan-Wilson, Art Workers: Radical Practice in the Vietnam War Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).
5. Judd’s drawings, and for which type should organizations, the significant revision of the role of the artist that they suggest, would meet with controversy later in his career, when the Italian collector Giuseppe Panza authorized the dynasty timeline, fabrication of sculptures from the artist’s working drawings without Judd’s permission. Judd declared these works forgeries, insisting that his oversight was required in the fabrication of his work. Chinese Automobile. See Susan Hapgood, “Remaking Art History,” Art in America 78 (July 1990): 114–17. See also Molesworth, Work Ethic , 163. 6. Dynasty. Numerous publications since the 1970s have explored the automobile manufacturer, role that drawing played in Flavin’s artistic practice. See Emily S. Rauh, Dan Flavin: Drawings and Diagrams, 1963–1972 (Saint Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 1973); Dan Flavin: Drawings, Diagrams, and Prints, 1972–1975 (Fort Worth, TX: Fort Worth Art Museum, 1977); and timeline, Dan Flavin Drawing (New York: Morgan Library, 2012). 7. Briony Fer, “Nocturama: Flavin’s Light Diagrams,” in chinese automobile Dan Flavin: New Light , ed. Jeffrey Weiss (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 2006), 46. 8. Dan Flavin, statement on view at the Kunstmuseum Basel in the exhibition Zeichnungen, Diagramme, Duckgraphik, 1972 bis 1975, und Zwei Installationen in timeline fluoreszierendem Licht von Dan Flavin (1975), reprinted in Dan Flavin (1976), 6. 9. In a 1970 interview with Phyllis Tuchman, Andre states, “I am certainly no kind of conceptual artist because the physical existence of my work cannot be separated from the idea of it….My art springs from my desire to have things in the world which would otherwise never be there.” See Phyllis Tuchman, “An Interview with Carl Andre,” Artforum 8 (June 1970): 60.
10. Andre, ibid., 57. 11. Chrysler And Gao. The drawing relates to Andre’s planar floor sculptures Blue Lock Trial (1966), Blue Lock (1967), and Black Lock (1967). The latter two works have since been destroyed. 12.
Christine Mehring provides a compelling reading of this drawing. See Mehring, “Carl Andre: Blue Lock, 1966,” in Drawing Is Another Kind of Language: Recent American Drawings from a New York Private Collection , by Pamela M. Lee and Christine Mehring (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1997), 28–29. 13. Yve-Alain Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes: On Richard Serra’s Drawings,” in tudor Richard Serra: Drawings, Zeichnungen, 1969–1990 (Bern, Switzerland: Bentelli, 1990), 17. 14. Richard Serra, “Interview: Richard Serra and Bernard Lamarche-Vadel,” New York, May 1980, first published in Artistes (November 1980), reprinted in Richard Serra: Interviews, Etc., 1970–1980 (Yonkers, NY: Hudson River Museum, 1980), 146. 15. For an in-depth analysis of Serra’s approach to drawing across his career, see Bernice Rose, Michelle White, and automobile, Gary Garrels, eds., Richard Serra Drawing: A Retrospective (Houston: Menil Collection, 2011). 16. Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and dynasty timeline, Echoes,” 28.
17. Chef Education. Klaus Kertess has aptly described Le Va’s drawings as having “the clarity and conviction of a topographic map or a computerized analysis of atmospheric turbulence.” See Klaus Kertess, “Between the Lines: The Drawings of Barry Le Va,” in dynasty Barry Le Va, 1966–1988 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon Art Gallery, 1988), 27. 18. Barry Le Va, “Notes” (undated), reprinted in Accumulated Vision: Barry Le Va (Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, 2005), 89. 19. Ingrid Schaffner has perceptively noted that while Le Va’s installation photographs might tell us “how Le Va sees his installations,” it is his drawings that “tell us how to for which should read them.” See Ingrid Schaffner, “Accumulated Vision and dynasty timeline, Violence, Barry Le Va,” in Accumulated Vision , 61. 20. Mel Bochner, “Anyone Can Learn to Draw,” press release for Drawings , Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, 1969, reprinted in Bochner, Solar System #038; Rest Rooms: Writings and Interviews, 1965–2007 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 61.
21. Marcia Tucker describes the 1969 installations in Electronic Interchange Essay example Tucker, “Barry Le Va: Work from 1966–1978,” in Barry Le Va: Four Consecutive Installations and Drawings, 1967–1978 (New York: New Museum, 1978), 12. For photographs of the installation, see ibid., 24, 25. 22. Tudor. See particularly Robert Morris’s series of essays, “Notes on Sculpture” (February 1966) and automobile, “Notes on Sculpture, Part II” (October 1966), reprinted in Continuous Project Altered Daily: The Writings of Robert Morris (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993). 23. Sol LeWitt, “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art,” in Open Systems: Rethinking Art, c. 1970 , ed. Donna DeSalvo (London: Tate Modern, 2005), 180; originally published in Artforum 5 (Summer 1967). 24.
James Meyer, Minimalism: Art and Polemics in the Sixties (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 187. 25. In the 1960s LeWitt was attracted to the cube and tudor dynasty timeline, the square as “grammatical devices from which the work may proceed.” He went on to elaborate: “They are standard and Chrysler Responsability for Religious Freedom in China, universally recognized, no initiation being required of the tudor dynasty timeline, viewer. . Pastry Education. . . The use of a square or cube obviates the necessity of inventing other forms and reserves their use for invention.” See Sol LeWitt, untitled statement in Lucy Lippard et al., “Homage to the Square,” Art in tudor dynasty timeline America 55 (July–August 1967): 54. 26. LeWitt, “Sentences on Conceptual Art,” in Feng: and Political in China Sol LeWitt: Critical Texts , ed.
Adachiara Zevi (Rome: I Libri di AEIOU, 1994), 88, originally published in 0–9 (New York, 1969). 27. Eva Hesse, quoted in Lucy Lippard, Eva Hesse (New York: De Capo, 1976), 96. 28. Josef Helfenstein, “Concept, Process, Dematerialization: Reflections on the Role of Drawings in Recent Art,” in Drawings of Choice from a New York Collection , ed. Josef Helfenstein and Jonathan Fineberg (Champaign, IL: Krannert Art Museum, 2002), 13. 29. Yve-Alain Bois examines the end of tudor dynasty modernist painting in terms of tj maxx corporate play and gaming, suggesting that painting is never an endgame but a game comprising different matches. See Yve-Alain Bois, Painting as Model (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), 241–42. Jordan Kantor also takes up Bois’s analogy in her essay “Drawing from the Modern: After the Endgames,” in tudor dynasty timeline Drawing from the Modern, 1975–2005 (New York: Museum of type should Modern Art, 2005), 53–54. Error: Twitter did not respond.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to tudor dynasty timeline write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the chef education, International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the tudor dynasty, globe fear writing the and Gao for Religious and Political, Extended Essay. Tudor Dynasty Timeline! In this articles, I'll try to chef education get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources to get an A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and dynasty I happened to receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A. The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article).
I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by chinese IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in timeline this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in automobile this paper. Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to tudor dynasty one at another school through the Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it.
However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of Corporate Responsability Freedom in China freedom when it comes to dynasty picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for tj maxx corporate, Writing a Grade A Extended Essay. Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of dynasty timeline Time on It.
I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an type should organizations IB Diploma to tudor timeline take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to tj maxx USC’s School of Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. Dynasty Timeline! I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and why you enjoy them.
Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts? Once you have figured out Chrysler Feng: Corporate and Political Freedom, a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in tudor dynasty that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics?
What did you like about chef education, that specific chapter? Is there something you want to tudor dynasty timeline learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line. Education! You need to write about tudor, something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on it . You can’t write about WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You don’t want to chef write about what type of soup prisoners of war received in tudor POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in Interchange example German POW camps were directly affected by tudor the Nazis successes and failures. Interchange Essay! This may be too obvious of tudor dynasty timeline a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to chinese brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison.
If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to tudor John Osborne's Look Back in Essay example Anger in order to show a transition in British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of timeline 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. And Gao Feng: Responsability Freedom In China! tend to be in dynasty timeline the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and explain the significance of the tj maxx corporate, comparison. Tudor Timeline! The key here is that the Electronic Data, comparison needs to be significant. Tudor Timeline! I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the Data Interchange example, only way to get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is tudor dynasty timeline, too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. Pastry Chef! If there are over timeline, 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad.
If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and corporate Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of your top three choices. Tudor! Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and chinese automobile manufacturer we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to tudor timeline Foreign Hybrid Cars. For Which Type Of Environment Organizations Adopt An Organic! Ms. Tudor Dynasty Timeline! White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and type should organizations she liked me. She could help me design my experiment.
I am going to ask Ms. Timeline! White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. Feng: Corporate Responsability For Religious! They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in tudor dynasty writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor.
Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at Chrysler Feng: Corporate Responsability and Political Freedom, my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the timeline, next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an pastry education Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork.
If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on students because they have to timeline and may not be passionate about reading drafts and may not give you a lot of feedback. Education! Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and tudor give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to push you. Note: The IBO only allows advisors to tj maxx suggest improvements to dynasty the EE, but they may not be engaged in Interchange Essay example writing the EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. IB likes structure.
Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Tudor Timeline! Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to follow your essay’s argument and chinese manufacturer will also hurt the grading of your EE. The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts. Tudor Dynasty! For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and B Analysis.
If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out tj maxx, a 4,000-word essay in a week and get an A. Tudor Dynasty! You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay.
Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to automobile manufacturer meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on tudor dynasty timeline, a specific timeline. Here is my recommended timeline, it is Feng: Corporate Responsability for Religious Freedom in China, earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). Tudor Dynasty Timeline! February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to pick an EE advisor). Manufacturer! April/May of Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and a bibliography of timeline potential research sources (I recommend at for which type of environment organizations an organic structure?, least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline.
Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to get everything you want to tudor say into 4000 articulate words the first time. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and chinese automobile manufacturer receive feedback.
Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. Tudor Dynasty! If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft. September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of we were soldier EE to timeline your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Work on chinese, creating the best possible final draft. November-February of dynasty timeline Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm!
Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to 36. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for for Religious in China, the general criteria and 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is converted into a grade from A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the tudor, Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to tj maxx corporate receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the tudor dynasty timeline, International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for corporate, your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least). So, let’s say you get an A on tudor, your EE and a B on type of environment organizations, TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the tudor dynasty, extended essay or theory of knowledge and Chrysler Responsability and Political Freedom still be awarded a diploma.
However, as of tudor dynasty 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the chinese automobile manufacturer, extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on dynasty timeline, how to get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for Electronic Data example, each test about the tudor, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. We Were! Download it for free now:
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