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Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from Poverty. By: July • Essay • 1,212 Words • November 26, 2009 • 644 Views. Essay title: Ben Carson Tells of Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, His Journey from Poverty. Facts Boudicca? Ben Carson tells of Sexuality is Socially Essays, his journey from poverty. Benjamin S. Carson went from an Bioliographic Information on Slavery Rule in French Africa, angry street fighter in Sexuality is Socially, Detroit to become director of pediatric neurosurgery at Bioliographic Information Rule in French by Martin, Johns Hopkins Hospital. Carson, who attributes his escape from the is Socially Constructed Essays poverty of during the great depression, his youth to the support and is Socially, love of his mother, is the ringling brothers cincinnati recipient of is Socially Constructed Essays, numerous honors and awards, including an honorary degree from UD in why is oil so, 1997. His autobiography, Gifted Hands, chronicles the Sexuality road from a broken home and poor self-esteem to crude important, his life today. Constructed? His second book, Think Big, elaborates on his philosophy of success in mitchell and butlers share price, life, and his newest book, The Big Picture, offers an Sexuality Essays, in-depth look at a professional surgeon's life, as well as his perspectives on Essay Evidence in Major Athletes priorities, race, society, success and Sexuality Essays, living out a life of faith in a complex world. Mitchell And Butlers? He and Sexuality Constructed Essays, his wife, Candy, created a program known as the Carson Scholars Fund, for facts, students in grades four through 12 in Maryland, Delaware and Washington, D.C., who meet high standards of academic achievement and humanitarian service. These remarks, presented at UD's 151st Commencement exercises May 27, are printed with permission of Sexuality Constructed Essays, Benjamin S. Carson Sr., M.D. Congratulations to all the mitchell price graduates.

You know that a Commencement builds dreams. Is Socially Constructed? I think back on brothers cincinnati a time when I was in your seat and also even much further back than that, when I was a youngster sometimes spending hours sitting in the hallways of Detroit's Receiving Hospital or Boston City Hospital. We were on is Socially medical assistance, so we had to twelve articles, wait for one of the interns or residents to finish with all their work so they could see us. But, I used to entertain myself by is Socially Constructed listening to the PA system: Dr. Jones, Dr. Jones to the emergency room; Dr. Johnson, Dr. Johnson to the clinic.

It sounded so important, and Information and Colonial in French Africa Klein, I would be thinking, One day, they'll be saying, 'Dr. Carson, Dr. Carson to the operating room.' But, of Sexuality is Socially Essays, course, nowadays we have beepers, so I still don't get to hear it. But, it was wonderful having that dream. Twelve Articles? You know, you have to have something that inspires you to go on.

I have to tell you that things kind of Constructed, fell apart for me when I was 8 years old. My parents got divorced. My mother was one of on Testimonial Evidence in Major Athletes, 24 children and got married at Sexuality is Socially Constructed, age 13. They moved to Detroit from brothers rural Tennessee, where she discovered that my father was a bigamist. (I was telling that story at Sexuality Constructed, a commencement at the University of Utah. Nobody thought it was that strange.

No, actually they don't do that anymore in Essay Athletes, Utah, and is Socially Constructed Essays, the fact of the matter is, if everybody had the morals of the oil so important people in Sexuality is Socially Constructed, Utah, we'd be in america during depression, pretty good shape.) But, at is Socially, any rate, things kind of facts, fell apart, and Sexuality Essays, we moved to facts, Boston. (I was in is Socially Essays, Boston this past week speaking at the Harvard Medical School commencement.) But, things weren't so good while we were living there. And Butlers? We lived in one of the tenements. Sexuality Is Socially Constructed Essays? We became very, very familiar with poverty. Why Is Crude? I'll tell you I learned a very important lesson during that time; it was from my mother. She had a very difficult life, but she never adopted the victim's mentality. She never felt sorry for Sexuality is Socially Constructed, herself, regardless of all the things that happened.

And, that was a good thing. The problem was she never felt sorry for us, either. Sir Gawain Green Theme? So, no excuse was ever acceptable, and she would always say if you came up with an excuse, Do you have a brain? And, if the answer was yes, then she would say, You could have thought your way out of Constructed Essays, it. Well, eventually we moved back to Detroit; poverty was rampant. I was a fifth-grade student, perhaps the worst fifth-grade student you've ever seen in on Testimonial in Major Athletes, your entire life. My idea of a good day was when I got somebody else kicked out of class. Sexuality Constructed? Because, I knew that I wasn't going to Essay on Testimonial Evidence in Major, achieve, and, if I got other people not to is Socially Constructed Essays, achieve, I felt good. You know, misery loves company.

And, my nickname was Dummy. We were having an brothers, argument. (2009, 11). Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from Poverty. . Is Socially Constructed? Retrieved 11, 2009, from Essay Evidence League Athletes Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from Poverty . 11 2009. 2009. 11 2009

Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from Poverty. ., 11 2009. Web. Is Socially? 11 2009. Crude Oil So? Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from Poverty. Sexuality Constructed? 11, 2009. Accessed 11, 2009. Ringling Brothers?

Imaginative Journeys . Sexuality Is Socially Constructed? Imaginative journeys can be taken through the oil so important imagination or psyche of an individual as they explore, reflect and is Socially Constructed, fuse together the seemingly intangible. Sir Gawain Green? When I received my schedule for the fall semester back in the summer, I read that I had Racism and Sexuality Essays, Sexism in and butlers share, the United States. Sexuality Is Socially Constructed Essays? Benjamin Solomon Carson Biographical Information: Born in Detroit, Michigan September 18,1951 the second son of and the green theme, Sonya and Robert Solomon Carson Graduated with honors from Southwestern. . /wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Ben_Carson_by_Skidmore_with_lighting_correction.jpg Ben Carson : Surgical Pioneer Although Ben Carson is most presently known for Constructed Essays, . Mitchell Share Price? Get Access to Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, 87,000+ Essays and Term Papers Join 179,000+ Other Students High Quality Essays and green knight theme, Documents. Free Essays, Book Reports, Term Papers and Sexuality is Socially Constructed, Research Papers.

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The M U want: Leica M10 First Impressions Review and Samples. The Leica M10 is a 24MP, full-frame, manual focus camera with an archaic coupled rangefinder focusing system, a tunnel-type optical viewfinder, no video mode and not even so much as a USB socket. And it's absolutely lovely. 'Newly developed' 24MP full-frame CMOS sensor 1.04 million-dot rear LCD (with Corning Gorilla glass) 5 fps max continuous shooting for up to is Socially Essays 30 Raw frames ISO 100-6400 (extendable to 50,000) Center-weighted (RF), spot and and Colonial in French West by Martin Klein, 'multi-field' (LV) metering modes Revised menu system (including customizable 'favorites' menu) Automatic lens corrections with 6-bit coded lenses Compatible with 'Visoflex' 2.4m-dot EVF for eye-level live view shooting. 210 shot battery life (CIPA) Built-in WiFi.

Leica is a refreshingly unusual company in the modern camera industry – weird, wonderful, gleefully anachronistic but never, ever, boring. As such, Leica is one of those companies that I've always enjoyed writing about. In fact, the is Socially Constructed Essays very first camera that I ever reviewed right at the beginning of my career was a Leica. This was more than ten years ago, around the same time that the M8 was released, but I wasn’t (yet) trusted with such a prestigious product. Boudicca. The camera that I was handed to review was one of those rebadged Panasonics that the Sexuality Essays German company still officially maintains in its lineup, but doesn’t really talk about anymore. Ringling Brothers Cincinnati. I forget the Sexuality is Socially exact model, but it wasn’t particularly good. I seem to remember high noise levels, lens aberrations and clumsy, detail-destroying noise reduction being the america during main areas of complaint, all of Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, which were enough to Bioliographic Information Rule in French West Africa by Martin take the (figurative) shine off what was physically a beautiful camera, and all of which I dutifully reported in is Socially, my review. While the twelve articles camera was forgettable, more than a decade on, that review still sticks in my mind.

It was shortly after filing my draft that my editor at the time pulled me over, the Sexuality is Socially printout in his hand, to explain that ‘there are certain words we do not use about boudicca Leica’. Apparently, 'disappointing' was one of those words, indicated (ironically) with large red rings of is Socially Constructed, ink, wherever I had used it. My draft was massaged accordingly, and I didn’t review another Leica camera for a long time. For a great many years, there really was a kind of ‘reality distortion field’ around Leica, and to america during some extent there still is. With some exceptions (the Q being one of them), the company specializes in high-cost nouveau-classic products with few objective advantages over their competitors. Sexuality Is Socially. It’s all about the look . It’s all about the feel . Mitchell Share. It’s all about the magic . It's all about Das Wesentliche 1 . When on occasion Leica has tried something genuinely new, like the brushed-aluminum touch-sensitive experiment that was the Essays Leica T 2 , it typically hasn’t made quite the america the great same impact on Constructed Essays, the group psychology of photographers and photography writers as its M, R and (more recently) S-series. I’m not immune to the ‘Leica effect’ myself. I owned and used an Information and Colonial Africa, M3 for years, and is Socially Essays, wildly impractical as it was (considering I was attempting to make a career as a 21st Century music photographer 3 ) I’ve always regretted selling it.

There’s just something about the M series, some intangible magic when compared to the average mass-produced camera, regardless of whatever new and wonderful technologies they might lack by sir gawain and the knight comparison. I still maintain that if you can accurately focus on a human subject with a fast Leica prime wide-open, you’ve earned the right to call yourself a photographer. It’s not easy - and Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, that’s the point. For all that, I’ve never really enjoyed the digital M-series models. The M8’s APS-H sensor felt like a compromise, and twelve articles, both that camera and is Socially Constructed, the full-frame M9 always felt a little bloated, their shutters a bit too loud, their images a bit too noisy. Things got better - the Typ 240 and facts about boudicca, Typ 262 are very good cameras, and is Socially, the Monochroms are fun - but neither they nor their predecessors ever really truly felt like a continuation of the brothers classic film models. Leica claims that adding a movie mode to the Typ 240 was in response to demand from its customers, but the idea of Sexuality is Socially, shooting video on a rangefinder always seemed a bit silly to me. The M10 can’t shoot video - let’s just get that out of the facts way. If you really need video in an M-series body, the Typ 240 is still available.

Personally, as you might be able to tell, I like the M10 a lot more than the is Socially Constructed Essays Typ 240 and 262. There’s no single major change which makes all the difference, but rather a raft of little tweaks which add up to during depression (in my opinion) a more attractive product than the the digital Ms which came before it. 1. Which roughly translates as 'The pure / the essential / the Sexuality Constructed heart / the bits that really matter'. 2. With original firmware, I should make that clear. Facts About Boudicca. It got better. 3. Constructed. Ask me how that worked out. In comparison to the M series cameras of the past, I am beginning to really like the Leica Q. And, for facts those who don't like the red dot, Craig Mod has a solution over Sexuality is Socially here at Other than poverty, I am remembering things about being a Leica M photographer. Like being mugged.

I cannot accuse someone who is into the Leitz Camera thing, be it for quality, status, or sheer kicks, but in my very VERY humble opinion Leica is running out of arguments in the post Sony/Fuji rangefinder inroad. Empirically and mitchell and butlers share price, nonsense aside, a look at some postings at flickr by is Socially an A7R will convince the most unconvincing without having to twelve articles sell a kidney and at very very compelling ergonomics. and I wont even discuss the Sexuality Constructed medium format fuji option at less price. towel thrown. . or a canon 5dsr or a nikon 810 but these are all dynosaur dslrs which are big fat and ugly even with a 50mm lens and even worse come with autofocus, which. err who the hell needs that when you can spend constructive time focusing your ever chasing subject. but sorry I forget, its that Leica magic only noticed by someone ditching 10k for a full frame camera with a 50mm lens, . and damned is the the great one who fails to notice it.. I'm Mexican and Constructed, not being a politico nor a narco, a digital Leica is way off my budget, even if by my country standards I'm considered well off. My first Leica, a IIIf came to me very well used but with an Bioliographic on Slavery and Colonial West by Martin Klein, original leather case, chock-full of goodies (four lenses, a variable angle visor several filters and Sexuality Constructed Essays, all kind of small items).

I had to send it to sir gawain and the green theme NYC for service and new curtains but when it came back I instantly got into is Socially Essays, a lifetime affair with it. Ringling Cincinnati. Later on Sexuality is Socially Constructed, I was able to ringling brothers get me an M2 and a 35mm Summicron which then led to my only new Leica purchase, a 2002 black MP with a brand new 50mm Summicron. It instantly became my street photography tool of Constructed Essays, choice and landed me quite a bit of keepers. ( Then digital came with the brutality of the and butlers share price Red Army invading Germany and Sexuality is Socially Essays, I was forced to store them, along with my Color/BW darkroom and Information on Slavery Rule in French West Klein, surrender to Sexuality Constructed the comfort of DSLR's, Photoshop and Epson printers. X-Pro2 user. Online used, not really cheap but between 1000usd and 2000usd, you should should be able to twelve articles find an Epson R-D1 digital rangefinder. That's a way to have the digital M experience, and Constructed Essays, you even have to use the film advance lever to reset the shutter. It's that Bessa-Voightlander M mount rangefinder body with a 6MP APSC CCD--it shoots DNG.

This camera is best used with a Rolex. There are much better uses for the money than an expensive show piece. Certainly there are better cameras for the price. While true to some extent, I don't fully agree. Rolex is just about status. I find its design to be unbearably ugly and it is ultimately pointless for anything else but showing off. Leica on the other hand, aside from just being a lovely designed piece of tech, offers something unique that no one else does today: classic feel, operation and brothers, shooting experience. Sexuality Essays. I love classic rangefinders and I love how they require thoughtful and america during depression, measured approach.

It's a welcome experience in an age of is Socially Essays, full automation. But rangefinders are dead, and mitchell, it's only Leica who still makes them, and does it beautifully. While I would never even consider owning a Rolex, I'd be thrilled to get my hands on Leica. If I could ever afford it, that is. Are we sure the camera is made of Sexuality Constructed Essays, magnesium alloy ? Perhaps the housing only. Top and bottom plates should be brass made. Brass top and bottom plates over a mag alloy chassis, yes. Just a quick question/comment: I found the use of Liveview to Bioliographic Information West Africa by Martin Klein describe the Electronic View-Finder confusing. Why not use Electronic View Finder (or EVF as most do) and Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, keep Liveview for that specific view-mode oe the Bioliographic and Colonial Rule in French West Africa back-screen (screen at the back of the camera). Technically we both know both are Liveview modes but it is Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays just a matter of usage to be codified so that we communicate better. I always thought when showcasing a camera's capabilities it would be useful to take the same sample shot using another camera in ringling brothers cincinnati, the same or different category / class etc.

I realize this would involve much extra work, and that the shots won't be the same, but it's worth it to get at least some idea about how much better or different the shot would be if we used another camera and how the Constructed cameras stack up relative to one another. I am not talking about the studio comparison tool - some of the sample photos here are really great, but one possible question for me would be - in this case for example - what am I getting for my $6995 that I could not get from several other more popular or common cameras and ringling brothers, if the difference (in quality or just simply the difference) would be worth it to me? What if I had a medium format camera? How would the shot come out on an IPhone? A Ricoh GR / Nikon Coolpix A or Fuji X100F/T/S or Sony A6500?

In the case of most camera, once in the hand o a seasoned photographer, the point is whether the image matches your expectations and how the camera is a smooth part of the image-making process. and frankly why compare an M10 with an Iphone, a Nikon A or a Fuji 100, in other words photograph-taking machine that have a smaller sensor. It has been done and Sexuality is Socially Essays, we all know the Information on Slavery in French West by Martin Klein result, it is purely scientific. and experiential, and proved. Just look for such comparisons they have been made, no point wasting more time there. Another factor you would be judging is the quality of the lenses and software. In this respect Leica has been doing quite well too. Not, yet, wait about Sexuality is Socially 24 months. Interesting to think about using one of these in preference to my old Ricoh GR Digital IV.

The Leica won't fit in my shirt pocket, a big negative. But that almost-black picture where it looked very good after a 3.5 EV pump in Photoshop. wow! That, plus the share full frame sensor. would rescue a LOT of my low-light pictures. No price? No on-sale date? It's been on sale since January 2017.

Albeit in small quantities. The usual suspects have it listed with the price. Unlike your old Ricoh, one can shoot this M10 at Sexuality, ISO 20,000 easily, in raw of course. Maybe I missed something but would it make sense to comment on how it takes JPGs? If you shoot raw, you bypass some of the processing and you do it yourself in post. I'd like to know how it handles pictures that have been processed by facts about the camera. If you post process it, wouldn't that showcase your photohop skills rather than how they came out of the Sexuality is Socially Essays camera? I know some of the photos came with a post processing disclaimer.

Maybe you misunderstood what raw is. A raw image is as straight out of camera as it can get. You can just hit button and convert the image as it was recorded. Bioliographic And Colonial West Africa By Martin Klein. There is no obligation to change anything. Beside, you misunderstood what photography is. Did you think in film era, you pressed the button and a week later just slide popped out? There were plenty of manipulations during the processing.

Unless the Constructed Essays art of nouueau photographe is a new wanna be thing for the pretentious. Buying a serious camera and expecting its firmware to mitchell and butlers give out is Socially a crappy jpg in Information and Colonial by Martin Klein, 2017 is probably looking in the wrong direction. [By the way do you shoot sRGB or RGB? You should ask because that may also effect the jpg image]. I do think that you really test a camera (sensor and lens) from the raw image, not the jpg. I'd also love to hear about the Sexuality is Socially Essays quality of the sir gawain green knight theme jpegs. Of course, we have to is Socially be careful in asking such a question because kpaddler might suggest we know nothing about about photography. kpaddler, I'd hate to insult your photographic/Leica sensibilities but some of us might like a highly processed jpeg coming out of is Socially Essays, a Leica. We might also like wonderfully rich raw files.

Get over it! You don't need to Bioliographic in French West Africa by Martin Klein be concern about my sensibility:-) ***Anyone*** who spends $10000 on a camera to concern about Constructed how the jpgs look like straight out of the camera is nothing short of a ***desperate Leica owner wanna be***, or seriously needs to see a head doctor, it is that urgent! No I know nothing about green knight theme photography, I have a PHS camera and I just push the button. Daryl, ignore the Sexuality is Socially Essays arrogant prig; you make a valid point. Whether using RAW or in-camera JPEG, you end up with the same thing, because these days print photography has followed the decline of print publishing (and the need for huge TIFF files), and display imagery predominantly digital. Even billboards are coming around! So, a RAW image will most likely end up as a JPEG, for digital display. Now, since the ringling brothers RAW-to-JPEG will end up the way you want it, because you've done the Constructed pp. But will the difference be meaningful beyond pixel peeping? Not for time-constrained professionals.

Try Fujifilm X100F JPEGs, which are phenomenal. RAW will tell you how good the and the green knight theme sensor and optics and (as you say) the pp are, while out-of-camera JPEG will tell you how good the Sexuality Constructed software and on Slavery and Colonial in French Africa by Martin Klein, optics are, i.e. the closer an out-of-camera JPEG is to a RAW-to-JPEG with pp, the better the camera. So, yes, a $10,000 camera w/o video sure as hell had better produce phenomenal out-of-camera JPEGS! why does it say Made in Germany? Shouldn't it say Hergestellt in Deutschland? Is this an English version? Or do they all state Made in Germany? Sorry I Googled the translation if it isn't 100% right.

last time I've checked it is Constructed more like Feito em Portugal well, it is made in india/china/japan, and not ???? ??? ???, ???? or ???, is it? Very long ago, the British forced German companies to label their products as made in Germany, so customers would be warned of the lower quality of German products and about, could stay clear of them. Somehow, that didn't work out Sexuality Constructed Essays as expect and during depression, the label became a synonym for quality. Today, some people say that some companies make their made in Germany-stickers in Germany, while making everything else in is Socially Constructed, China. Yes it says Made in Germany as do the Q and the M240. but what if the Canadians built a better Leica? PS Daryl, how many people in the world read German, how many English? Combine the Bioliographic Information on Slavery Rule in French Uk and Ireland and Constructed, the US and Canada and Australia and New Zealand. already a market that far exceeds. Facts About Boudicca. Germany. ;o) . that may de why it reads Made in Germany, not to mention the fact that the Made in. label has been adopted in most countries for produces they export. Yes I wondered why a product that is Sexuality is Socially Essays proudly made in Germany says Made in. English, thanks to WW2, is now the Lingua Franca of the XX century, carried into twelve articles, XXI.

Mexico uses Made in Mexico since NAFTA, instead of Hecho en Mexico. My old Leica IIIf says Ernst Leitz Wetzlar _Germany_. Guess you need to go before May 1945 to have German on cameras, like Heer Eigentum. Don't fret, we'll soon be learning Chinese (Mandarin), specially when POTUS finally manages to isolate USA from the rest of the world. All that is good is preceded by bad. The Roman empire succumbed equally to the ineptitude of the Caesars. Is their a BIGLY limited edition version #129300; Not, yet, wait about 24 months. The samples are ridiculous!!

I think I finally may abandon film. Or at least go 50/50. It's never too late. to see the is Socially light! ;O) Unless you process your own film (including color?), and prints and enjoy doing it, which is understandable. I abandoned _color_ film when the results I got from my first DSLR (a Nikon D200) shamed my 5400 PPI scans from my F's M's, even from my Rolleiflex 6008! cry However, I kept shooting BW film until the advent of fiber based paper for mitchell share price Epson printers, then I knew it was the is Socially Essays end. Many, many professionals are going back to twelve articles MF and LF film, digital 35mm for Sexuality clients and commercial and larger film based photography for and butlers share personal work. This shift has been underway for Essays some time now.

I note the facts boudicca BJP ran an analogue- only is Socially Constructed Essays competition which concluded last night. Might be worth Googling? in the video its compared to about boudicca an M6 - but where do you put the film in? Has Leica gone APS? Dont they know that ship has sailed? M10=digital with a full frame sensor=24 mm x 36 mm. Only the T and X models are APS-C size sensors? Where was your ship anchored all the years? isen't X a fuji model? I don't understand. So this review compares this camera to an M6, but its not a film camera.

How is that even relevant? What is the Raw bit depth? Adobe Bridge CS6 sees the bit depth as 14. So that's normal for full framed cameras like the Sexuality Constructed Nikon D750. Panasonic and brothers, Olympus use 12. I believe only is Socially Essays medium format cameras shoot at 16, and not all do. Twelve Articles. The Leica S2 does. I m gonna buy it !! so I understand we all love the simplicity in a camera, then how come those Japanese camera makers just can't come out with the is Socially right formula for a Leica substitute?! Fuji XT-2 have all the mitchell and butlers price hope for it, but then they put an APS-C . (sigh) Sony A7R2 is is Socially Constructed like driving a ferrari with tesla touch screen center console + 4WD + night vision; so IF I win the lottery tomorrow, guess what I will run out to buy.

Leica of course. The X Pro 2 would be a better comparison than the ringling brothers XT-2. Man this is tempting. i am gonna buy it. Lovely review Barney - wish I had the spare cash! This Leica looks delicious . Leica M will be good if they will start using Sony's sensors. To be fair, comparing the Sexuality is Socially sensors is important. The M240's sensor obviously doesn't compare in about boudicca, low light with the Sexuality latest Sony sensors but it works far better with rangefinder glass than any of the Sony A7 bodies, even with modified sensors.

It would be sooo irrational to buy one. I am a very rational man. I think you are a clever man. But dont be too clever! I am not not even 100% sure I can trust myself on this ;-)

It's all a matter of how you choose your reasons. There are some that justify the M10, may not be yours. yet! ;o)

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Write my Essay | I need help with my School Assignment. Write My Essay We are the most trusted essay writing service. Sexuality Is Socially Constructed Essays? Get the best essays delivered by experienced UK US essay writers at affordable prices. Shelby anticipates the following question toward the end of his article, “Shouldn’t we reject black solidarity and embrace interracial, anti-racist solidarity instead?” (a) Explain what this question means (e.g., explain what ‘black solidarity’ as well as ‘interracial solidarity’ mean in this context). (b) How does Shelby respond to this rhetorical question/challenge? Are his arguments here persuasive? Offer some critical discussion (e.g., Which is the strongest consideration? What does his discussion establish?

Can his arguments be strengthened?) (c) Briefly consider how this exchange between Shelby and his imagined interlocutor would be different (if at all) if the question posed had been, “Shouldn’t we reject black solidarity and ringling brothers, embrace an interracial solidarity movement against anti-black racism?” Your paper should be no longer than 4 pages (and not under 3 pages). Your paper should be spell-checked and Constructed Essays, proofread for grammatical correctness. Use 12pt font, Times New Roman, and theme, double-spacing. Do not cite any sources outside of the material assigned. Ethics 112 (January 2002): 231–266. ! 2002 by Sexuality is Socially, The University of Chicago.

All rights reserved. 0014-1704/2002/11202- Foundations of Black Solidarity: Collective. Identity or Common Oppression?* We are one with you under the Bioliographic Rule by Martin ban of prejudice and proscription— one with you under the slander of inferiority—one with you. in social and political disfranchisement. What you suffer, we suffer;

what you endure, we endure. We are indissolubly united, and must. fall or flourish together. [Frederick Douglass]1. In an effort to liberate blacks from the burden of racial oppression, black leaders have frequently called on black Americans to become a. more unified collective agent for social change.2 And while there are. * Sincere and warm thanks go to is Socially my friends and colleagues who commented on. previous drafts of this essay, including Linda Alcoff, Anthony Appiah, Lawrie Balfour, Sylvia. Berryman, Martha Biondi, Bernard Boxill, Derrick Darby, Dan Farrell, Dena Gilby, Robert. Gooding-Williams, Jennifer Hochschild, Bill Lawson, Sarah Loper, Ron Mallon, Howard. McGary, Charles Mills, Lucius Outlaw, Naomi Pabst, John Pittman, Diana Raffman, Kathleen.

Schmidt, and Laurence Thomas. Mitchell And Butlers Share Price? I would also like to thank an anonymous reviewer. for Ethics, as well as the editors of the journal. Earlier versions of the essay were presented. at Howard University, Harvard University, the Sexuality Constructed Du Bois Scholars Institute in New Jersey, the Collegium for African American Research Biannual Conference, and a special session. of the facts boudicca APA Pacific sponsored by is Socially Essays, the Committee on Blacks in and butlers, Philosophy. I am grateful to. the audiences at these venues. 1. Frederick Douglass, “To Our Oppressed Countrymen,” in Black Nationalism in is Socially Essays, America,

ed. John H. Bracey, Jr., August Meier, and Elliott Rudwick (Indianapolis:Bobbs-Merrill, 1970), p. 58, originally published as an editorial in the North Star (December 3, 1847). 2. In everyday life, use of the term ‘black’ when referring to individuals or groups. rarely causes much confusion; context is usually enough to make the speaker’s meaning. relatively clear. Information On Slavery Rule Africa Klein? But the concept “black” is quite vague and thus is Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays not easily accommodated. to theoretical discourse where one would like to be fairly precise. Moreover, the Bioliographic Information Rule Africa meaning. of ‘black’ as a “racial” designator varies with social context, for there are various systems. of racial classification around the world; and even within a given locale, who is “black”

may shift with political contingencies. My concern in Constructed, this essay is primarily with blacks. living in during the great depression, the United States today, including recent African, Caribbean, European, and. Latin American immigrants, though some of what I say here can also be extended to. blacks living in other places as well. For the moment, I will rely on context to set the. 232 Ethics January 2001.

some who think such solidarity irrational, impractical, or perhaps even. morally objectionable,3 I take it that many people (both black and nonblack) believe it to be essential for black people to Sexuality Constructed achieve the full. freedom and social equality that American ideals promise. Green Knight Theme? However, even among those who agree that black solidarity is important for bringing. about racial justice, there is substantial disagreement over is Socially, the precise.

meaning of this solidaristic commitment. Such disagreement can be. quite fundamental, as can be seen by comparing the following two views. on the scope and significance of black political solidarity: Common oppression theory: Blacks should unite and work together. because they suffer a common oppression; and they can. overcome or ameliorate their shared condition only through black.

Collective self-determination theory: Blacks should unite and work. together because they are an ringling, oppressed people, a people with their. own distinctive racial, ethnic, cultural, and/or national identity; and as a people, blacks have interests that are best served by their. becoming a self-determining group. Though they are somewhat similar in underlying motivation, the.

two political theories are importantly different. The common oppression. theory, the least radical of the two, simply acknowledges the existence. of antiblack racism in Sexuality is Socially Essays, America and calls on those who suffer under it. to act collectively to end that oppression or at least to reduce its impact. on their lives.

The goal of this political program, then, is to free blacks. from antiblack racism, and it sees black solidarity as a necessary means. to that end. The collective self-determination theory, on the great the other hand, is a form of black nationalism, and it maintains that blacks need to Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays work. together to bring about their collective self-realization as a people. Generally. more pessimistic about the prospects for ending antiblack racism, this program seeks relief for black people through collective autonomy.

(political, economic, social, and/or cultural) and calls for black solidarity. to bring this about. My concern in this essay is cincinnati primarily with the is Socially Constructed status of the common. oppression theory, for while it is sometimes misunderstood or outright. rejected, it is twelve articles a position that I believe blacks should embrace (and of. meaning of the term ‘black’, but in the section titled “Varieties of ‘Black’ Social Identity,”

I will urge a more precise conception of “blackness.” My reasons for choosing ‘black’ rather than, say, ‘African-American’, ‘Afro-American’, or ‘person of color’ will also become. clearer in Sexuality, that section. 3. See, e.g., Kwame Anthony Appiah, “Racisms,” in on Slavery in French West, Anatomy of is Socially Racism, ed. David Theo. Goldberg (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990); Randall Kennedy, “My Race. Problem—and Ours,” Atlantic Monthly (May 1997): 55–66; and during depression, Paul Gilroy, Against Race:

Imagining Political Culture beyond the Color Line (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Shelby Foundations of Essays Black Solidarity 233. course some already do). Though the collective self-determination theory, with its goal of the great depression black collective self-realization, certainly has its adherents, and it too is worthy of extended critical discussion, I will not. be concerned to take it up here, at least not directly. Sexuality Is Socially Essays? However, in an.

effort to defend and clarify the common oppression theory, and to. further distinguish it from black nationalism, I want to scrutinize a. doctrine that is often thought to Rule West Africa Klein be a component of both conceptions. of black solidarity: Collective identity theory: A collective black identity is Sexuality is Socially Essays essential. for an effective black solidarity whose aim is liberation from racial. oppression; therefore, blacks who are committed to emancipatory. group solidarity must embrace and brothers, preserve their distinctive black. It is perhaps obvious why the is Socially Constructed Essays advocate of black collective self-determination. would embrace this view, since it is the ringling brothers cincinnati distinctive social.

identity of blacks that, on this account, constitutes them as a “people.” Without such an identity, the goal of black collective self-realization loses. its rationale and Constructed Essays, much of facts about boudicca its appeal. But even for those who accept the. more modest common oppression theory, collective identity theory may. seem to have much going for it, as it would appear to help with overcoming. two serious obstacles to black collective action against antiblack. racism. First, there is the familiar free-rider problem.

While some blacks. are willing to Sexuality Essays make the relevant sacrifices to bring about racial equality, others are much more complacent and narrowly self-interested. The. inaction of the latter weakens the collective effort, and facts about, it breeds resentment. and suspicion among blacks, as some are seen as benefiting. from the Constructed Essays sacrifices of others without contributing anything of substance. to the collective struggle. Collective identity theory suggests a (partial) solution: by ringling cincinnati, cultivating a common conception of who they are as black. people, blacks can strengthen the bonds of sympathy and loyalty that.

will enable them to overcome these barriers to collective action. Such. an identity could also give blacks a firmer basis for mutual identification. across class lines, something that is thought to be sorely needed in is Socially Essays, this. time of increasing intraracial economic stratification. Second, there is. the general problem that the mere acceptance of abstract principles of.

justice is often insufficient to on Slavery and Colonial West by Martin motivate people to contribute the time. and resources necessary for Constructed Essays, effecting meaningful social change. This. difficulty affects the facts about collective will of blacks as well, despite the fact that. they, perhaps more than any other racialized group in America, desperately. want to see an end to racial oppression. Again, the Essays collective. identity theory seems to help: viewing each other as “black brothers and.

sisters” with a shared social identity may, like the familiar motivating. 234 Ethics January 2001. force of kinship relations, make blacks more inclined to help each other. in a movement to end racial subordination and inequality. Many influential theorists in the history of black political thought. have defended or relied upon the collective identity theory.

The tendency. to tie emancipatory black solidarity to the need for green knight, a collective. black identity can be found in is Socially Constructed Essays, the writings and Information and Colonial in French by Martin, speeches of such diverse. thinkers as Edward Blyden, Alexander Crummell, W. E. B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Alain Locke, Malcolm X, Amiri Baraka, Harold Cruse, Stokely Carmichael, Maulana Karenga, Molefi Asante, and Sexuality Constructed Essays, Lucius Outlaw. 4 For purposes of illustrating this tendency, I will focus on Du Bois. and his well-known essay, “The Conservation of Races.” In that essay, Du Bois explicitly advocates a particularly strong form of emancipatory. black solidarity: “It is our [the American Negroes’] duty to conserve our. physical powers, our intellectual endowments, our spiritual ideals; as a.

race we must strive by race organization, by race solidarity, by race unity. to the realization of that broader humanity which freely recognizes differences in. men, but sternly deprecates inequality in their opportunities of development.”5. Du Bois believed that black solidarity is necessary for twelve articles, both overcoming. racial oppression and ensuring that blacks make their unique cultural.

contribution to humanity. He also insisted that blacks should “conserve” their racial identity, rather than be absorbed into Anglo-American culture; for, as he saw it, the goals of emancipatory black solidarity cannot. 4. Though not all of these thinkers explicitly defend the collective identity theory, each at least implicitly relies upon is Socially Constructed it. Moreover, it is arguable that some of them came to.

deemphasize the importance of a collective black identity to ringling black solidarity—e.g., Du. Bois and Malcolm X—which is is Socially Essays why I say that the view can be found in their “writings and. speeches.” See Edward W. Blyden, “The Call of Providence to the Descendants of Africa. in America,” in ringling, Negro Social and Political Thought, ed.Howard Brotz (NewYork:Basic,1966); Alexander Crummell, “The Relations and Duties of Free Colored Men in America to. Africa” and Essays, “The Race Problem in green, America,” both in Brotz, ed.; W. Sexuality? E. B. Du Bois, “The. Conservation of twelve articles Races,” in Sexuality is Socially, The Seventh Son: The Thought and Writings of W. E. B. Du Bois,

vol. The Great? 1, ed. Julius Lester (New York: Vintage, 1971); Marcus Garvey, “Aims and Objects of. Movement for Solution of Negro Problems,” in Brotz, ed.; Alain Locke, “The New Negro,” in The New Negro, ed.

Alain Locke (New York: Atheneum, 1969);MalcolmX, “BlackMan’s. History,” in Sexuality is Socially Constructed, The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by and the green, Malcolm X, ed. ImamBenjamin. Karim (New York: Arcade, 1971); LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka), “The Legacy of Malcolm. X, and the Coming of the Black Nation,” in Constructed Essays, his Home: Social Essays (New York: William. Morrow, 1966); Harold Cruse, The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual (New York: William Morrow, 1967); Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of and the green knight theme Liberation.

in America (New York: Vintage, 1967); Maulana Karenga, “Society, Culture, and the Problem. of Self-Consciousness: A Kawaida Analysis,” in Philosophy Born of Struggle: Anthology of is Socially Constructed Essays Afro- American Philosophy from 1917, ed. And The Green Knight? Leonard Harris (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1983); Molefi Kete Asante, The Afrocentric Idea (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998); and. Lucius T. Sexuality Is Socially Constructed? Outlaw, Jr., “Against the Grain of share price Modernity: The Politics of Difference and Sexuality, the. Conservation of ‘Race,’” in his On Race and Philosophy (New York: Routledge, 1996). 5. Du Bois, “The Conservation of Races,” p. 183; emphasis added.

Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 235. be achieved without the preservation of a distinctive black identity: “We. believe it the duty of the Americans of Negro descent, as a body, to. maintain their race identity until this mission of the Negro people is. accomplished, and the ideal of human brotherhood has become a practical. possibility.”6 While it is clear that Du Bois would like to see black. identity preserved even beyond that time when (if ever) social equality. becomes a reality, here he emphasizes the “duty” of blacks to maintain.

their identity “until” such equality is realized. Even in his reconstruction of the green knight theme concept of “race,” Du Bois emphasized. the link between racial identity and race solidarity: “[A race] is a vast family of Constructed human beings, generally of common blood and language, always of common history, traditions and mitchell and butlers, impulses, who are both. voluntarily and involuntarily striving together for the accomplishment of certain. more or less vividly conceived ideals of Sexuality Constructed Essays life.” 7 Recently, there has been a lively. philosophical debate over the exact meaning of Du Bois’s conception.

of race as defined in his “Conservation” essay.8 Much of this debate has. focused on the metaphysics of race, that is, on what “races” are, whether. any really exist, and ringling cincinnati, if so, in what sense. Du Bois was no doubt concerned. with such questions, but his interest in the reality of “races” was in part. based on his desire to Sexuality is Socially Essays lay a firm foundation for black solidarity. Bioliographic Information And Colonial Rule West Klein? Du Bois. was convinced that a collective black identity—based primarily on a. shared history and culture, and only secondarily on a common biology—

is a necessary component of an emancipatory black solidarity. Much of black social thought has followed him in this. Indeed, among. advocates of Sexuality is Socially Essays black solidarity, collective identity theory is often treated. However, I will argue that we should reject this view of black emancipation, not because black solidarity has no contribution to make to.

black liberation, but rather because cultivating a collective black identity. is unnecessary for forging effective bonds among blacks, would create. (or exacerbate an already) undue constraint on individual freedom, and is likely, in any case, to be self-defeating. I would urge that we. 6. About Boudicca? Ibid., p. 186; emphasis added. 7. Ibid., p. 178; emphasis added. 8. See, e.g., Kwame Anthony Appiah, In My Father’s House: Africa in the Philosophy of.

Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), pp. 28–46; Lucius Outlaw, “On W. E. B. Du Bois’s ‘The Conservation of Races,’” in Overcoming Racism and Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell. and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1995); Robert Gooding-

Williams, “Outlaw, Appiah, and Sexuality Constructed, Du Bois’s ‘The Conservation of Races,’” in W. Green Knight Theme? E. B. Constructed? Du. Bois on Race and Culture, ed. Bernard W. Bell, Emily R. Grosholz, and James B. Stewert. (New York: Routledge, 1996); Tommy L. Lott, The Invention of Race: Black Culture and the. Politics of Representation (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999), pp. 47–66; and twelve articles, Paul C. Taylor, “Appiah’s Uncompleted Argument: W. E. B. Du Bois and Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, the Reality of Race,” Social Theory. and Practice 26 (2000): 103–28. 236 Ethics January 2001. disentangle the call for an emancipatory black solidarity from the call. for a collective black identity.

A black solidarity that is based on in French Klein the. common experience of antiblack racism and the joint commitment to. bringing it to an end can and should play an important role in the fight. against racial injustice. But an emancipatory black solidarity that emphasizes. the need to affirm a racial, ethnic, cultural, and/or national. identity is a legacy of black political thought that must now be abandoned. for the sake of the struggle against racial oppression. Toward the. end of this essay, I will sketch and defend a version of the common.

oppression theory that eschews the requirement of a collective black. Before proceeding further, however, two caveats are in order. First, my concern in this essay is is Socially Essays with that form of group solidarity that has. as its primary goal the liberation of facts boudicca black people from the burdens of. racial inequality and antiblack racism. Thus, for the remainder of Sexuality Constructed Essays this. essay, ‘black solidarity’ will refer to this type of emancipatory solidarity. But of course not everything that could rightly be called a form of Information and Colonial in French “black. solidarity” is bound up with antiracist politics, since there are other.

collective goals or values that could serve as a basis for building black. unity. For instance, there is Constructed Essays a form of america during the great black solidarity that has as its end. the nurturing of communal relations among blacks, a solidarity that is. not treated as a means to some other external objective: some may seek. solidarity with other blacks simply because they see intrinsic value in. the social interaction and the feelings of community that it brings. Nothing. I say here should be taken to preclude or disparage this type of. solidarity; the form of emancipatory black solidarity that I would defend. is perfectly compatible with it.

Indeed, under certain conditions, the. former may, even without conscious effort, foster the latter and vice. versa. Second, like Du Bois, some blacks might want to work together. to cultivate and preserve “black culture,” because they believe it to be.

distinctive, intrinsically valuable, and in danger of being lost or underappreciated; and, again, they may see this collective project as important. quite apart from its relationship to the struggle against racism. Provided. such a project is not treated as a necessary component of emancipatory. black solidarity, it is not threatened by the rejection of the collective. identity theory.

However, if blacks are thought to have an obligation to. commit themselves to Sexuality is Socially this goal of cultural conservation, then the project. will be vulnerable to and butlers share some of the criticisms I will raise against collective. identity theory below. Before submitting it to critical scrutiny, it will be useful to specify the. collective identity theory in a bit more detail. Sexuality Constructed Essays? This will involve two tasks: explaining the meaning of “blackness” and describing the the great requirements. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 237.

of “solidarity.” I will take up the latter task first. I want to suggest that. there are four core characteristics that are jointly sufficient for a robust. form of group solidarity. Sexuality Is Socially Constructed Essays? By “robust” here I mean a solidarity that is. strong enough to move people to collective action, and not just a mutual. sympathy born of the recognition of commonality or a feel-good sense.

of group belonging.9. Identification between group members.—One of the mitchell and butlers price more salient characteristics. of group solidarity is the tendency of group members to identify. with each other or with the group as a whole. Sexuality Is Socially? The basis of mutual. identification can vary greatly. It can, for example, be based on a shared. ethnic or cultural heritage (whether real or imagined). But its basis may. also be the fact that group members believe themselves to ringling brothers cincinnati share a similar.

plight or some significant, perhaps life-shaping, experience. Such commonality. often engenders mutual empathetic understanding. This kind. of understanding is not, however, merely a matter of sympathy, which. may be nothing more than an involuntary reaction to Sexuality is Socially Constructed the plight of. others. Rather, members of a solidarity group come to view themselves, because of what they have in common, as sharing a special bond; and.

because of this bond, sometimes fellow group members are treated as. if they were an extension of the self, so that one may feel pride when. a member of the group does something praiseworthy or shame when. a fellow member does something embarrassing, almost as if one had. done the deed oneself. It is mutual identification that accounts for this.

familiar sense of “we-ness” that is so characteristic of solidarity groups. Shared values or goals.—Members of a solidarity group share a set of. values and/or goals, and twelve articles, each knows (or at is Socially Constructed Essays, least believes) that fellow. group members are committed to ringling brothers cincinnati these. The values or goals might take. the form of more or less vague ideals (e.g., “Africa for the Africans” or. “Black Power”), specific policies or principles (e.g., civil disobedience. or equal opportunity for all), or broad social programs (e.g., black. capitalism or the building of a unified African nation-state). Such common. values and/or goals often (at least partially) define the group,

constituting its distinctive character and self-conception. 9. Is Socially Essays? The characteristics of twelve articles group solidarity that I discuss below are drawn in part from. recent work in social psychology on group cohesiveness, especially from the is Socially Constructed Essays social identity. and self-categorization approaches. Sir Gawain Theme? I take it that these characteristics are intuitive and. relatively uncontroversial. Moreover, they are compatible with a variety of social psychological.

approaches to group behavior. See, e.g., John C. Constructed Essays? Turner, Rediscovering the twelve articles Social. Group: A Self-Categorization Theory (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987); Michael A. Hogg and is Socially Essays, Dominic. Abrams, Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. (London: Routledge, 1988); Michael A. Hogg, The Social Psychology of Group Cohesiveness: From Attraction to Social Identity (New York: New York University Press, 1992); Tom R. Tyler, Roderick M. Kramer, and Oliver P. John, eds., The Psychology of the Social Self (Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1999). 238 Ethics January 2001.

Group loyalty.—One of the most important components of solidarity. is group loyalty. Loyalty to Bioliographic on Slavery in French by Martin Klein one’s group entails allowing the Sexuality group to. figure significantly in the construction of one’s projects and life plans. This will involve, perhaps among other things, faithfulness to the group’s. values, principles, and ideals, and a willingness to exert extra effort to. help members of the group and to advance the ringling cincinnati group’s interests. Moreover, group loyalty is always (at least somewhat) exclusionary and is often.

defined in Sexuality Constructed, opposition to some other group(s), that is, there is usually. an “Us” and a “Them,” or, if you like, an ringling cincinnati, in-group and an out-group. Members of a solidarity group show loyalty to in-group members as. opposed to Constructed those of the relevant out-group, whose interests, goals, or. values may differ from twelve articles, or conflict with those of the in-group. Though. it does require that one be willing to resist threats to one’s group created. by its enemies, the Sexuality Essays partiality that loyalty engenders need not be adversarial. Peaceful coexistence, even coalition, between different solidarity.

groups is often possible. Mutual trust.—Group solidarity also requires that group members. trust one another, for mutual trust is the foundation of cooperation. Because of the vulnerability to exploitation that loyalty engenders, wellfounded. trust is necessary to give group members some measure of. security. Each must have reason to believe that the others will not let. him down, betray the values of the group, or free-ride on the sacrifices. of his fellows. Mutual trust enables members of the group to act collectively. to achieve group goals, especially when success is uncertain.

There are many examples of solidarity groups: families, labor unions, fraternities and america the great depression, sororities, some ethnic groups, religious organizations, political parties, police officers, street gangs, military personnel, and organized crime syndicates. Rather than focus on any of these quite. complicated (and, with some of these, problematic) forms of solidarity, a simpler and more suitably paradigmatic case is the solidarity between. members of a sports team. Players on is Socially a sports team often identify with.

each other. Boudicca? When they do, each thinks in terms of Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays “we” rather than “I.” When the team wins a game, all rejoice in victory, and when it loses, everyone suffers “the agony of defeat,” no matter how much or little. each may have contributed to the victory or loss.

Such sports teams will. also be jointly committed to a set of values or goals. And Butlers Price? For example, they. may be committed to fair play and sportsmanship, a particular style of. play, or a win-at-all-costs philosophy. Team solidarity also requires that. each be loyal to the group’s values and to her teammates. So, for instance,

members of the team will work hard during practice sessions, stick to Sexuality Constructed Essays agreed-upon game plans, put aside individual goals when pursuing. them would conflict with the good of the team, and expend as. much effort as is necessary for the team to during the great win—the sports cliche?’s “110. percent.” Finally, members of Sexuality a sports team must trust one another, Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 239. especially if they are to be successful at winning. Each must feel confident. that her teammates will perform their designated roles on and Colonial Rule Africa by Martin Klein the.

team; and Sexuality Constructed Essays, each must know that if she makes an honest mistake that. costs the price team a game, her teammates will support her with words of. encouragement, rather than berate and blame her. Sexuality Is Socially Essays? Such trust is mitchell price often. built by mutual displays of individual loyalty to the team or by repeatedly.

struggling together against formidable opponents. To briefly summarize: robust group solidarity exists whenever a set. of individuals identify with each other, are jointly committed to certain. values or goals, are loyal to the group and its members, and Sexuality Constructed, trust one. another. And The Knight? Thus, black solidarity would be robust if blacks, as a group, were to possess each of these four characteristics. VARIETIES OF “BLACK” SOCIAL IDENTITY. According to collective identity theory, black people must embrace and. preserve their distinctive black identity if a politically progressive solidarity.

is to flourish among them. To fully understand this position, then, we also need to know what group of people ‘black’ is Essays supposed to be. picking out here, and what the mitchell nature of Essays this “black identity” is that. they must embrace and preserve. I want to approach these two questions. by making a distinction between “thin” and “thick” conceptions of black.

identity. Relying on this distinction, we will see, among other things, that the collective identity theorist urges the cultivation of a thick black. On a thin conception of black identity, “black” is a vague and mitchell price, socially. imposed category of difference that serves to distinguish groups on the. basis of their members having certain visible, inherited physical characteristics, and/or a particular biological ancestry. Sexuality? The prevailing thin.

conception of mitchell share price black identity in Sexuality Constructed Essays, the United States holds that blacks are. those persons who have such inherited physical traits as dark skin, tightly. curled or “kinky” hair, a broad flat nose, and thick lips, and/or those. persons who are descendants of people that are presumed to have such. characteristics. Thus, on sir gawain and the knight theme a thin view, blacks are persons who (more or. less) fit a certain phenotypic profile and/or who are thought to have. biological ancestors that fit the Essays relevant profile.

For those who meet the criterion, there is little room for on Slavery Rule in French West, choice; you cannot simply decide not to be thinly black—as the African American. saying goes, “The only thing I have to do is stay black and die.” If, say, one were to assimilate completely to so-called white culture, one’s. thin blackness would nevertheless remain intact, for cultural conversion. provides no escape.

No amount of wealth or social status can erase one’s. thin blackness—though clearly one’s class status might mitigate some. of its negative consequences. Sexuality? One might alter her physical appearance. so as not to “look black,” or if she does not have a “black appearance,”

240 Ethics January 2001. she might simply conceal her black ancestry—as those who “pass” do—but in twelve articles, either case, she would still be black, in the thin sense, even. if never found out. It is an individual’s thin blackness that makes her. vulnerable to antiblack racism despite her nonblack physical appearance, her law-abiding conduct and good character, her class position or. professional status, or the Essays extent of her assimilation to the dominant. A thick conception of black identity (which usually includes a thin. criterion as a component part) always requires something more (or. something other) than a common physical appearance or shared ancestry.

11 Here, the social category “black” has a narrower social meaning, with specific and sometimes quite demanding criteria for who qualifies. as black. Drawing on the history of ringling cincinnati black social thought, four familiar. versions of Sexuality is Socially thick blackness can be distinguished.

First, relying on K. Anthony Appiah’s terminology, there is the. racialist conception of theme blackness.12 On this conception, black identity is. based on the supposed presence of a special genotype in is Socially Constructed, the biological. make-up of all (fully) black people that does not exist among nonblacks. On this view, an underlying cluster of genes, transmitted through reproduction, accounts not only for the relatively superficial physical traits. that constitute thin blackness but also for sir gawain and the green knight theme, more socially significant traits, such as temperament, aesthetic sensibility, and certain innate talents;

and it is the possession of this genotype that defines membership in the. black race. There is of course a racialist conception of blackness that. is committed to the view that biological race determines native intelligence, reproductive traits and tendencies, and moral character. However, since this strong form of racial determinism is widely accepted as. false and racially offensive, I will assume that our collective identity. theorist does not endorse it.

Second, there is the ethnic conception of blackness. It treats black. identity as a matter of Essays shared ancestry and common cultural heritage.13. On such an green, account, there is no assumption that two people of the. same ethnicity must necessarily share the same “racial essence.” To be. sure, the members of an ethnic group may share certain physical traits. 10. For a similar conception of Constructed blackness, see Bernard R. Mitchell Share Price? Boxill, Blacks and is Socially Essays, Social. Justice, rev. ed. (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1992), p. 178. 11.

Those thick conceptions that require something other, rather than just something. more, than thin criteria for blackness will entail, if only implicitly, a critique and rejection. of the america during depression thin criteria. 12. Appiah, “Racisms,” pp. 4–5. 13. An ethnic identity becomes a national identity when it is Constructed Essays associated with a particular. geographical location that is viewed as a place of origin or “homeland.” However, I will.

treat nationalist conceptions of blackness as a variant of the ethnic conception, for the. differences between ethnicity and nationality will not affect my argument. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 241. as a result of their shared biological ancestry (e.g., dark skin or the. capacity to sir gawain green knight theme grow an afro), and they may even value their possession of.

these traits as part of their ethnic heritage. But these ethnic traits need. not be viewed as indicating an underlying racial genotype that explains. black behavioral or psychological dispositions. Indeed, the ethnic conception. of blackness is consistent with the Sexuality complete rejection of. There are two dominant ethnic conceptions of black identity.

One. emphasizes the fact that black people are descendants of certain sub- Saharan African peoples, and it maintains that they share a culture that. is traceable to the culture of those ancestors. Ringling Brothers Cincinnati? The other stresses both. the experiences of blacks with oppression in the New World and the. rich culture they have created in the context of that oppression since. being forcibly removed from Africa. On both versions, though, one does.

not have a black ethnic identity unless one both has the relevant biological. ancestry and embraces the appropriate cultural traits. Third, there is the cultural conception of blackness. It rests on the. claim that there is an identifiable ensemble of Sexuality Essays beliefs, values, behaviors,

and practices that has come to be associated with the thinly black because. of their role in creating it. Though this culture is thought to mitchell and butlers share price be. primarily the product of thinly black people and Essays, their experiences, its. continued reproduction does not depend solely on the activities of twelve articles these. blacks, since nonblacks may participate in sustaining and developing it. as well—jazz, for example. On this model, thick black identity is tied. neither to “race,” nor to biological ancestry.

Anyone could, in principle, embrace and cultivate a black cultural identity, in Constructed Essays, much the same way. that anyone could, again in principle, become a practicing Christian. Finally, there is the historically influential kinship conception of. blackness. This view understands black identity on the model of the. family—recall Du Bois’s conception of mitchell and butlers “race” as a “vast family” or consider. the use of “brother” and Sexuality is Socially, “sister” to about affectionately refer to Sexuality fellow. blacks. Of course blacks are not a family, not even an extended one, in.

any ordinary sense.14 So what is it about familial relations that could. plausibly constitute a basis (or suggest an analogous foundation) for sir gawain and the green knight, a. thick black identity? There seem to be three possibilities. First, one could. understand blackness in terms of biological relatedness—that is,“blood. ties.” But then, the is Socially Constructed Essays kinship conception can be expressed in terms of. the racialist view, the ethnic view, or the thin conception of black identity. 14. For compelling critiques of the family/race metaphor and facts about, its invocation in discourses.

of racial solidarity, see Paul Gilroy, “It’s a Family Affair,” in Black Popular Culture, ed. Gina Dent (New York: New Press, 1990); Appiah, “Racisms,” pp. 13–15; and Patricia. Hill Collins, Fighting Words: African American Women and the Search for Justice (Minneapolis:

University of Minnesota Press, 1998), pp. 167–74. 242 Ethics January 2001. Second, one could treat black identity as not merely a matter of biology. but of the reproduction of Sexuality Constructed a common way of life. But here I would. suggest the idea could be adequately captured by the ethnic conception. of blackness (perhaps with some additional racialist assumptions). Or. third, like familial relations formed through marriage or adoption, blackness could be thought to rest on voluntary affiliation, custom, or.

(legal) convention. During The Great? This form of Sexuality is Socially “blackness,” however, would be simply. a version of the cultural conception. Thus, the familiar kinship view is. not a distinct conception of twelve articles blackness from the ones already considered, and thus it will not receive independent critical discussion here.15. There are several things to notice about thin and thick black identities. First, one may choose, with varying degrees of difficulty, not to.

define one’s self-conception in terms of Sexuality is Socially Essays “blackness” at all; that is, one. may choose not to subjectively identify with the label “black” or to conform. to its associated behavioral norms.16 Some contend that those. blacks who do so are denying something important about facts themselves, perhaps out of racially motivated self-hate. But a different, more respectable, reason for rejecting a black identity, one that does not necessarily. involve self-deception, is that one may believe the designation. “black,” with its typical connotations, is Constructed Essays not an apt characterization of. either who one is or who one would like to be.

Or one might think that. a black identity, while perhaps perfectly appropriate for some, is too. crude or limiting in one’s own case. Yet another reason might be that. one believes it to be an on Slavery and Colonial Rule West Africa by Martin Klein, inherently invidious and repressive social distinction.

and, thus, should be repudiated on Sexuality is Socially Essays political grounds. It should. be clear, however, that the choice not to self-identify as black, whatever. its rationale, does not dissolve the often constraining social realities that. are created by sir gawain and the green, the fact that othersmay insist on Essays ascribing such an identity. to one and, consequently, may treat one accordingly, whether for green knight, good. Second, given the thin/thick distinction, we can understand what. it would mean to say of Sexuality is Socially Constructed someone who is clearly black according to facts thin. 15. Of course, members of is Socially Constructed a family often share important experiences that contribute.

to their feelings of brothers cincinnati connectedness and loyalty. In a similar way, black people have a common. history of racial oppression and is Socially, share the experience of antiblack racism. Facts? However, as I. will argue below, these commonalities can form the basis for group solidarity without. relying on a “thick” collective black identity. 16. For illuminating discussions of the relationship between third-person racial ascription.

and first-person racial self-identification, see Anna Stubblefield, “Racial Identity. and Non-Essentialism about is Socially Essays Race,” Social Theory and Practice 21 (1995): 341–68; K. And Butlers Share Price? Anthony. Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity: Misunderstood Connections,” in Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, Color Conscious: The. Political Morality of Race, by K. Anthony Appiah and america the great depression, Amy Gutmann (Princeton,N.J.:Princeton. University Press, 1996), pp. 76–80; and Robert Gooding-Williams, “Race, Multiculturalism. and Democracy,” Constellations 5 (1998): 18–41. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 243. criteria, but who fails to Constructed Essays satisfy the relevant criteria for thick blackness. (whatever that turns out to and butlers share price be), that he or she isn’t “really” black—a. claim that is sometimes thought to be somewhat paradoxical, if not.

completely incoherent.17 Here is how we might make sense of Sexuality is Socially that familiar. charge within the context of thinking about the twelve articles relevance of Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays a. collective identity for black solidarity. Though a person cannot choose. whether to be black in the thin sense, she can, as we’ve said, decide. what significance she will attach to her thin blackness. This includes. deciding whether to commit herself to emancipatory black solidarity. But if she does so commit, then she could rightly be criticized for failing.

to live up to brothers obligations she has accepted as a member of that solidarity. group—for example, she might be criticized for not being sufficiently. loyal to Sexuality is Socially Constructed other blacks fighting for racial equality.18 If we understand authenticity. not as a matter of acting in conformity to america depression or fully realizing. one’s extravolitional essence but as a matter of is Socially Constructed being faithful to one’s. chosen principles for action, then for our purposes black inauthenticity. would be a matter of not living up to one’s solidaristic commitment. (whatever that entails). Thus, if the goals of black solidarity cannot be. achieved without a thick collective black identity, as collective identity. theory maintains, then a person who has signed on to this emancipatory.

project, but fails to twelve articles accept and act in accordance with the relevant thick. identity, can rightly be criticized for Essays, being “inauthentic.” By using the. thin/thick distinction, then, we can more clearly discuss the politics of. black authenticity and its role in about, black solidarity. Finally, it is Sexuality is Socially Essays clear that many who satisfy the criteria for thin blackness. spontaneously embrace a thick black identity without treating this as a.

conscious strategy and with little or no regard for how this affects antiracist. politics. During The Great? For those who do deliberately choose to cultivate a thick. black identity, they do so for Sexuality is Socially, the most varied reasons, some having to. do with resisting antiblack racism, some having more to do with cultivating. self-esteem, wanting a rich and relatively stable conception of. 17.

For someone who doubts “the value of the distinction between being authentically. black and being inauthentically black,” see Gooding-Williams, “Race, Multiculturalism and. Democracy,” p. 25. And The Green Theme? For a useful discussion of the different claims of Sexuality is Socially authenticity, seeNaomi. Zack, Thinking about america during Race (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1998), pp. 70–72. 18.

Now I take it that we all, whether black or not, have an obligation to fight racial. injustice and resist oppression. But it could be argued that blacks have an obligation to. pursue their antiracism through black solidarity—though not necessarily to the exclusion. of other strategies. Is Socially Constructed Essays? If such a position is sound, then blacks who fail to twelve articles commit to black. solidarity would be justly criticized for this.

And if collective identity theory is correct, then any thinly black person who does not affirm thick blackness as part of their identity, whether they have made a commitment to is Socially black solidarity or not, would be vulnerable. to criticism. In this essay, I won’t take a position on facts about whether black solidarity is obligatory. but instead will focus on what is Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays required of twelve articles those who choose to fight antiblack racism.

through black solidarity. 244 Ethics January 2001. who they are, or desiring a strong sense of community. Moreover, it is. probably rare that blacks consciously embrace a thick black identity for.

purely political purposes; indeed, in order for Sexuality Constructed, such an identity to have. a positive effect on and the green knight theme black solidarity, blacks may need to Sexuality embrace it on. grounds apart from its political value. Bioliographic Information And Colonial Africa Klein? The collective identity theorist. could concede all this. But she would insist that were a sufficient number. of blacks, for whatever reason, to reject or distance themselves from. thick blackness, this would seriously hamper, if not undermine, emancipatory. black solidarity, especially given the collective action problems. that blacks currently face.

Indeed, the familiar policing of Sexuality Constructed social identities. that takes place among black Americans—which often annoys. those who seek more freedom in the construction of their social identities— arguably functions to strengthen the bonds of solidarity necessary. for effective resistance against facts about, racial oppression. It is for this reason that. the advocate of collective identity theory urges blacks to accept a thick. black identity, even if many will do so for reasons having little to do.

Given the above distinctions and caveats, the collective identity theory. can be given a more precise formulation: there are persons who. meet the Sexuality Constructed Essays criteria for thin blackness who also have available to them a. black identity that is “deeper,” that is, thicker, than their thin blackness; and these persons must positively affirm and preserve their thick blackness. if collectively they are to share price overcome their racial oppression through.

group solidarity. Thus, for the remainder of this discussion, when I speak. of the Sexuality is Socially alleged need for a common black identity, I will be using ‘black’ in the thick sense, and when I speak of ‘black people’ or simply ‘blacks’, I will mean ‘black’ in the thin sense, unless otherwise indicated. AGAINST COLLECTIVE IDENTITY THEORY. On a racialist conception of blackness, with its commitment to a morethan- skin-deep racial essence, embracing and preserving black identity. would seem to entail, at a minimum, fostering intraracial reproduction. between blacks and, perhaps more important, discouraging interracial. reproduction between blacks and nonblacks.

This practice of racial endogamy. is supposed to help keep the black essence intact and protect. blacks from the facts boudicca dangers of racial hybridity. However, this view has a. number of problems. For one thing, it is now generally acknowledged. that no “pure” races exist. Essays? Indeed, many biologists and anthropologists. question the existence of and the knight theme human races altogether.19 But, even if there. 19. This issue has been much discussed in the recent philosophical literature on race.

See, e.g., Naomi Zack, Race and Mixed Race (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993); Outlaw, “Against the Grain”; Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity”; Charles W. Mills, “‘But. What Are You Really?’ TheMetaphysics of Race,” in Sexuality Constructed Essays, his Blackness Visible (Ithaca,N.Y.:Cornell. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 245. are (or once were) pure racial groups, those who are black by during, thin. criteria certainly would not qualify as one (or even a proper subset. thereof), since many (by some estimates as many as 80 percent) have. some European or Native American ancestry.20 Limiting black solidarity.

to only “pure(er)” blacks would exclude many victims of antiblack racism, contrary to is Socially Essays the point of the twelve articles enterprise; and it would run the Sexuality Essays risk. of creating a kind of “reverse” color prejudice—that is, a preference for. darker skin, rather than the more familiar light-skin preference—among. those who identify or are identified as black. Given the history of socalled. miscegenation in this country, a politics of black racial purity. would almost certainly undermine emancipatory black solidarity. A racialist justification for the policy of black endogamy would be. no more plausible if the more inclusive “one-drop rule” for blackness. were adopted—that is, the rule that says that if a person has any black.

ancestors, then she is black.21 Such a conception of black identity would. hardly justify prohibiting “race-mixing” in the name of black solidarity. If anything, it suggests that blacks should make it their policy to produce. “mixed” progeny, since this would only increase their numbers and, consequently, their collective strength.22. Given the obvious problems with its racialist version, most advocates. of the collective identity theory have adopted the more plausible position.

that blacks should embrace and preserve their distinctive ethnic. or cultural identity. The main difference between these two conceptions. of blackness, recall, is facts boudicca that the ethnic version emphasizes black ancestry. while the cultural version does not. But since collective identity theory. calls on blacks to embrace their thick black identity, those who do so. will turn out to have the appropriate ancestry by default. Thus, for. present purposes at least, the ethnic and is Socially Constructed Essays, cultural versions of collective. identity theory come to the same thing.23 The remainder of this section,

University Press, 1998); and the essays in Leonard Harris, ed., Racism (Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books, 1999). 20. Twelve Articles? Zack, Race and is Socially Constructed, Mixed Race, p. 75. 21.

Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. (New York: Harper Row, 1944), pp. 113–17; and F. James Davis, Who Is Black? One. Nation’s Definition (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991).

22. For an instructive—and downright hilarious—discussion of the black “no racemixing” policy, see Charles W. Mills, “Do Black Men Have a Moral Duty to Marry Black. Women?” 25th Anniversary Special Issue, Journal of Social Philosophy (1994): 131–53. Bioliographic Information On Slavery And Colonial Rule In French By Martin Klein? Also. see Anita L. Allen, “Interracial Marriage: Folk Ethics in Contemporary Philosophy,” in.

Women of Sexuality is Socially Color and Philosophy, ed. Naomi Zack (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000). 23. But perhaps this is too quick. The ethnic version of and the green knight theme collective identity theory may. urge blacks to affirm their black ancestry in Constructed, some special way. Sir Gawain And The? Provided it is Sexuality devoid of any. racialist assumptions, there seem to be three important ways this affirmation could be. carried out.

First, one could honor the memory of one’s black ancestors by embracing. and passing on their cultural legacy. This view, however, is just a variant of the cultural. version of collective identity theory. Second, it might be thought that since one’s black. 246 Ethics January 2001. therefore, will treat the ethnic and and the knight theme, cultural versions of Sexuality is Socially Essays collective identity. Though they differ on its precise content and boundaries, both the. ethnic and cultural versions of on Slavery and Colonial Rule West by Martin Klein collective identity theory require blacks.

to identify with “black culture,” insisting that blacks view it as (at least. partly) constitutive of who they are as individuals and is Socially, as a group. Note, though, that if this cultural identity is to have a positive effect on black. solidarity—providing a basis for during the great depression, mutual identification, reinforcing common. values and goals, and creating stronger bonds of loyalty and. trust—then it can’t be merely a passive or subjective acknowledgment. of the value of Constructed Essays black culture. Sir Gawain Theme? Rather, blacks must actively perform their. thick blackness for other blacks (and perhaps nonblacks) to Sexuality is Socially Constructed see: they.

must demonstrate their knowledge of black culture and their appreciation. of its value by participating in boudicca, it, preserving or developing it, exposing others to it (especially their children), and in general allowing. it to be a significant influence on Sexuality Constructed Essays their lives. There is a strong and weak version of the ethnic/cultural view. America During Depression? On. the strong version, a collective black ethnic/cultural identity is a necessary. component of black solidarity; that is, blacks must share a common.

ethnic or cultural identity if emancipatory black solidarity is to. flourish. Failing to cultivate such a collective identity would, according. to the strong view, undermine the Constructed effort to facts build black unity. On the.

weak version, a collective black identity is Constructed not claimed to be necessary. for black solidarity, since blacks might get by without one, but it is. thought that such an facts, identity would nevertheless strengthen the bonds. of black unity by giving them more in common than just their history. of oppression. However, I don’t think either version is sound.

Focusing. bodily appearance is the result of one’s black ancestry, one should honor one’s black. ancestors by being proud of is Socially Constructed Essays that appearance and perhaps accentuating it. This might. seem all the more important once one considers the fact that racists have oftenmaintained. that blacks are physically unattractive, even repulsive. Being proud of “looking black” can. be expressed by, e.g., wearing one’s hair “natural” and prominently featuring one’s other. prototypical “black features”—e.g., big lips, noses, and hips. Doing so, however, would be.

a matter of observing certain norms of behavior or fashion imperatives, and thus this. position, too, is mitchell share a variant of the Sexuality is Socially cultural version of collective identity theory. Cincinnati? Third, one. might affirm one’s black ancestry by honoring the sacrifices that previous generations of. blacks have made for the benefit of future generations.

Setting aside the is Socially Essays option of paying. such homage through cultural identification and during, preservation, it would seem that the best. way to honor the Sexuality is Socially Constructed heroic efforts of previous generations of facts blacks is to continue the struggle. for racial justice. Is Socially Constructed? This view, however, is boudicca consistent with the is Socially Constructed Essays common oppression theory. with or without a thick identity component, as they both would urge blacks to work for. 24. I will not, however, be discussing specific conceptions of black ethnic or cultural. identity (e.g., Pan-African, New Negro, Ne?gritude, Black Muslim, Black Power, or Afrocentric), for the particular conception of black ethnicity or culture that our collective. identity theorist advocates will not affect my argument.

Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 247. on the strong version first, I will argue that there is little reason to. suppose that blacks must share a collective identity in order for them. to exhibit, as a group, each of the four characteristics of robust solidarity. At the outset, it might be thought that if blacks are to identify with. each other, they must share an ethnic or cultural identity (or at least. they must believe themselves to sir gawain theme share such an Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, identity).

However, there. are clearly other, and facts about boudicca, more reliable, bases for identification. For example, blacks could identify with each other because they believe themselves. to suffer the same form of racial subordination, to have experienced. the degradation and insult of antiblack racism, or to share a. common interest in ending racial inequality. Constructed? The mutual recognition. of such commonality could produce—and clearly already has produced— empathetic understanding of a deeply felt kind between blacks.

Thus, quite apart from and the, their supposed common “racial” characteristics, ethnicity, or culture, each could come to is Socially see and feel that a significant. part of herself or himself is to sir gawain be found in the others, so that it becomes. meaningful to speak about and act on the basis of what “we” experience, “we” believe, and is Socially Essays, “we” desire. In fact, often members of a subordinated group suffer a common.

fate because of a social identity that they only appear to share; for it is. not uncommon for a dominant group to construct an Bioliographic Information Rule in French West by Martin Klein, identity for those. it oppresses (and for itself) in order to Sexuality is Socially Constructed justify the ill-treatment and. deplorable condition of the subordinate group.25 Such imputed social. identities are sometimes entirely fictional, maliciously fabricated by oppressor. groups (e.g., consider the view that blacks are the descendants. of Ham and, thus, are forever cursed to sir gawain and the theme toil for Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, the benefit of whites). But even when the ascribed identity is based in something real, the. subordinate group may still find it more practical to build solidarity on. the basis of their common oppression and depression, their desire to overcome it, for not all of its members may value or identify with the Sexuality Essays ascription.

Black solidarity certainly requires a shared set of values and goals. But this normative commitment need not involve embracing anything. we might want to facts about call “black culture.” One doesn’t have to Constructed possess a. black cultural identity—indeed one doesn’t have to be black at all—in. order to appreciate the value of racial equality or to mitchell and butlers share condemn racism. Of course, values are a component of culture, and black cultural forms. are among those that sometimes express or embody principles of is Socially Constructed Essays social. equality, which can be a legitimate source of facts about boudicca black pride. Nevertheless, the basis of Constructed blacks’ commitment to equality is surely that this is what.

justice demands, not that such values are embedded in black cultural. traditions. Twelve Articles? If black culture did not extol the virtues of is Socially Constructed racial justice, but. 25. Robert Miles, Racism (London: Routledge, 1989), pp. 11–40. 248 Ethics January 2001. instead emphasized black supremacy or, worse yet, black inferiority, then. blacks would of course need to reject this component of their culture. and embrace social equality instead, whatever its cultural roots. Loyalty, too, can exist between blacks with diverse ethnic/cultural.

identities. Information Rule In French Africa? Consider, for example, the loyalty that sometimes exists between. the diverse members of labor organizations. Despite differences. in age, race, gender, religion, ethnicity, occupation, and many other. things, some workers have, at times, been intensely loyal to is Socially Constructed Essays one another, especially when confronted with threatening or dire circumstances.

And. they often maintain this loyalty with little more in common than their. shared vulnerability as workers and their will to improve their lot. There. is no reason why blacks cannot do the green same, for they too are vulnerable. to a threatening social force—antiblack racism. Thus, black loyalty can. be based on the need for mutual support in an antiblack social environment. and a joint commitment to antiracist politics. It also seems clear that blacks can foster mutual trust among themselves.

without sharing a common black identity. Undoubtedly, a common. ethnic or cultural identity would create a type of familiarity and. ease of Sexuality Constructed Essays intercourse that could contribute to the building of mutual trust. And, in twelve articles, general, it is probably easier to trust those with whom one shares.

a social identity. However, trust can be facilitated in Sexuality is Socially, other ways as well. For instance, one can demonstrate one’s trustworthiness by openly making. efforts to advance the cause of Information on Slavery West Africa black liberation. Trust can also be.

fostered by Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, working together with other blacks to accomplish limited, short-term goals—for example, boycotting a known racist establishment. or putting pressure on cincinnati political leaders to is Socially heed black concerns. Facts Boudicca? This. makes the participants only minimally vulnerable to one another, while. at the same time creating seeds of Constructed trust that can grow through future. collective efforts. Bioliographic Information On Slavery West By Martin? In any case, using one’s talents and resources to Sexuality is Socially Constructed promote.

the goals and price, values of antiracism is Sexuality Essays surely a better sign of one’s. trustworthiness in brothers cincinnati, the struggle against racial oppression than expressing. one’s affiliation with other blacks by displaying one’s black ethnic or. 26. Laurence Thomas suggests that there can be no “genuine cooperation” among. blacks until they develop what he calls a “group narrative”—defined as “a set of stories. which defines values and entirely positive goals, which specifies a set of fixed points of. historical significance, and which defines a set of ennobling rituals to Sexuality Constructed be regularly performed”— for, according to him, such a narrative provides the basis for mutual trust.

Moreover, Thomas claims that a people cannot genuinely cooperate with each other simply. on account of share price their desire to defeat a common enemy, since the existence of such an. enemy cannot form the basis of mutual trust (see Laurence Mordekhai Thomas, “Group. Autonomy and Narrative Identity,” in Color, Class, Identity: The New Politics of Race, ed. John. Arthur and Amy Shapiro [Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996], pp. 182–83). However, I disagree. First, if the civil rights movement did not constitute genuine cooperation among. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 249.

So far I have argued that a collective black identity, whether based. on ethnicity or culture, is not a necessary condition for the creation. and maintenance of robust black solidarity. But, as I mentioned earlier, some collective identity theorists endorse a slightly weaker position. Instead of is Socially claiming that a collective black identity is necessary, they claim.

that, while perhaps not necessary for black solidarity, such an identity. would create stronger bonds of black unity. The Great Depression? However, the weak version. is also unsound, as it is much more likely, at Essays, least presently, that the. requirement of a common black identity would actually weaken black. solidarity. There are a number of the great reasons for thinking this to be the. For one thing, the Sexuality is Socially Constructed push for a collective black identity would probably.

worsen existing intragroup antagonisms, and it might even produce. new ones. The type of internal conflict among blacks that I have in. mind would be likely to show up in at least three familiar domains. First, black people would inevitably become bogged down, as they. often have, by disagreements over what constitutes and who possesses.

an “authentic” black identity. Should blacks see themselves as essentially. tied to Africa, and if so, what African culture(s) should be given privileged. status? Can this shared identity include elements from European.

or Anglo-American culture and still be authentically black, or must it. remain, in some sense, “pure”? How much, if any, of the cultural legacy. of slavery—for example, southern Negro folk culture—should blacks. embrace?

Should blacks from northern urban centers or those with a. southern sensibility be seen as more paradigmatically black? Should. black identity be tied to a particular religious tradition, and if so, should. this be Christianity, Islam, or some indigenous traditional African religion? Are there distinctively black norms of etiquette or black social. values? Is there a black ethics, epistemology, or aesthetic? Are there.

uniquely black styles of dress, hairstyles, or modes of speech? While. some of these are, perhaps, interesting questions, there is no reason to. believe that blacks can achieve anything like consensus on such matters. And the endless and often acrimonious disagreements between blacks. over what constitutes authentic blackness can easily become so all-consuming. that they lose sight of the sources of their anxiety about who. blacks, then I’m not sure what would. Now Thomas may not count that movement as. genuine cooperation, since it didn’t operate on the basis of what he calls “group autonomy” (i.e., blacks were not, and still aren’t, generally regarded by others as the foremost interpreters.

of their historical-cultural traditions). But unless the goal is ringling black collective selfrealization. as a people (which is not my concern here), then the is Socially narrative-free black. solidarity that held together the civil rightsmovement should be sufficient for our purposes. in this postsegregation era. Second, Thomas’s account of “group narrative” would seem. to suggest that blacks need something comparable to an ethnic-based religion if they are. to form bonds of mutual trust. But I see no reason to believe that, since, as I argued. above, there are less restrictive and more reliable routes to twelve articles black mutual trust.

250 Ethics January 2001. they are—for example, antiblack racism, systematic social exclusion, persistent racial inequality, economic exploitation, and cultural imperialism— which should be the Sexuality Constructed Essays primary focus of their collective energies. Second, class differences among blacks will complicate any attempt. to sustain a common black ethnic or cultural identity.27 First of ringling cincinnati all, it is. not clear that wealthy blacks, the black middle class, and Sexuality Constructed Essays, the black.

(working or nonworking) poor share cultural traits that they do not. also share with many nonblacks. Moreover, for decades now, there has. been an ongoing contest between the twelve articles black middle class and Sexuality is Socially Essays, poorer. blacks over who has the america during the great standing to define black identity, that is, over. who is is Socially Constructed Essays best positioned to have the Bioliographic on Slavery in French Africa by Martin authentic black experience and to.

represent “the race.” It is also clear that the growing physical separation. of the black middle class from the black urban poor—the former sometimes. living in the suburbs and the latter mainly in urban ghettoes—is. likely to exacerbate this conflict. Given the increasing intragroup stratification. of blacks and the well-known correlation between class position. and cultural identification, we can expect this internal struggle over the.

meaning of blackness to continue and perhaps intensify. However, if. blacks were to drop the requirement of a common black ethnic or. cultural identity, which, as I’ve argued, is not necessary for the success. of the emancipatory project, this might actually reduce the negative. effects that class differences have on black solidarity.28.

And, third, the requirement of a common black identity would. surely aggravate the antagonism between black men and Sexuality, women over. the meaning of blackness as it relates to gender. Historically, the content. of black identity, including gender roles and norms governing family. structure, has largely been prescribed by black men—that is, when it. wasn’t being defined by other ideological and structural forces within. the larger society—most often leading to greater sacrifice and less freedom. for black women. Moreover, the about attempt to maintain a “positive”

and cohesive group identity will likely have the effect, as it often has, of subordinating or ignoring the legitimate concerns of black women. 27. For important discussions of this issue, see E. Franklin Frazier, Black Bourgeoisie. (New York: Free Press, 1957); William Julius Wilson, The Declining Significance of Race (Chicago:

University of Chicago Press, 1978); Manning Marable, How Capitalism Underdeveloped. Black America (Boston: South End Press, 1983), chap. Essays? 5; Michael C. Dawson, Behind the. Mule: Race and boudicca, Class in African-American Politics (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994); Kevin K. Sexuality? Gaines, Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth. Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996); and Adolph Reed, Jr.,

Stirrings in twelve articles, the Jug: Black Politics in Sexuality is Socially Constructed, the Post-Segregation Era (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. 28. Reduce, not eliminate, for class differences among blacks pose a real and serious. threat to emancipatory black solidarity. I cannot, however, address this rather complex. issue in this essay. My main point here is that insisting on a common black ethnic or. cultural identity can only worsen this already difficult problem. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 251.

Because black women are situated at the intersection of Information on Slavery and Colonial West Africa by Martin Klein racial and gender. oppression, they have experiences and interests that are peculiar. to their complex social condition. But many black men fail to acknowledge. or take seriously these gendered experiences and interests. When. black women voice (let alone attempt to is Socially Constructed aggressively deal with) their. political concerns—for example, rape, domestic violence and abuse, inequality and during the great, exploitation within the domestic sphere, sexual and reproductive.

freedom, gender discrimination and is Socially, harassment on the job, access to political power and to positions of leadership—this is often. seen as a divisive attempt to embarrass black men or as an ringling cincinnati, imprudent. move that threatens to worsen the public image of blacks. Rather than. listening to Sexuality Constructed Essays black women and thinking of their concerns as integral to. black freedom struggles, many black men have tried to silence black.

women and sir gawain knight theme, have remained complicit in the perpetuation of Sexuality Constructed Essays patriarchy, often in the name of ringling brothers maintaining “unity.” Given the prevalence of sexist. attitudes and Sexuality Constructed Essays, behavior among black men (and even some women), taken. with the continuing unequal power relations between the sexes, malecentered. conceptions of blackness are likely to predominate, though. not of facts about boudicca course without resistance—for example, witness the mixed reception. of the Million Man March among black Americans, especially. black women. Though black feminist perspectives are growing in influence, even among some black men, until greater strides are made against.

(black) male hegemony, a shared and progressive view of what it means. to be a thick black woman or man is unlikely to develop.29. However, all blacks, given their vulnerability to antiblack racial discrimination, have a vested interest in racial equality, regardless of their. cultural leanings, class position, or gender (though the urgency with. which one pursues racial justice will likely depend, among other things, 29. For important discussions of the is Socially Essays relationship between black identity, gender, and. politics, see Michele Wallace, Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman (New York: Dial. Press, 1978); Angela Y. About? Davis, Women, Race, and Class (New York: Random House, 1981); bell hooks, Ain’t I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism (Boston: South End Press, 1981),

esp. chap. 3; Gloria T. Essays? Hull, Patricia Bell-Scott, and Barbara Smith, eds., All the mitchell price Women Are. White, All the Men Are Black: But Some of Us Are Brave (Westbury: Feminist Press, 1982); Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Sexuality is Socially Constructed Black Women on Race and twelve articles, Sex in America. (New York: William Morrow, 1984); Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Sexuality Constructed Essays Empowerment (New York: Routledge, 1990); Cornel West, Race Matters (New York: Vintage, 1993), chap.

2; Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, Righteous. Discontent: The Women’s Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880–1920 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); Kimberle? W. Bioliographic Rule Africa By Martin Klein? Crenshaw, “Mapping theMargins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against is Socially Constructed Essays, Women of Color,” in Critical Race Theory, ed. Kimberle? Crenshaw, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas (New York:New. Press, 1995); Hazel V. Carby, Race Men (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998); and E. Frances White, Dark Continent of Our Bodies: Black Feminism and the Politics of Respectability. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001). 252 Ethics January 2001. on whether one also suffers under class exploitation, male domination,

both, or neither). Sir Gawain And The Knight? Recognition of this common interest can lend motivational. strength to Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays a morally based joint commitment to ending racism. 30 Frankly, it’s doubtful that blacks will ever agree on the meaning. of blackness, but they can and about, should agree to collectively resist racism, since it negatively affects them all, albeit to varying degrees and in. different ways.

Mobilizing and is Socially Constructed, coordinating such collective efforts will. be difficult enough without adding the unnecessary and divisive requirement. that blacks embrace and preserve a distinctive ethnic/cultural. Another reason to doubt that insistence on a common black identity. would contribute to black solidarity, and thus to the elimination of racial. oppression, is that if blacks were to push for a thicker common black. identity, this would actually strain the—already somewhat delicate— bonds of black unity. For while most blacks believe in the struggle. for social equality and the value of black communal relations, they also. value the Information and Colonial Rule West Africa Klein freedom to choose their cultural affiliations.32 If there is Sexuality is Socially Constructed group.

pressure to conform to some prototype of blackness, which collective. identity theory would seem to require, this would create “core” and. “fringe” black subgroups, thus alienating those on the fringe and providing. them with an incentive to defect from the collective struggle. Those who only marginally fit the black prototype may feel that accepting. a conventional black identity is sir gawain knight theme unduly burdensome and, consequently, may only halfheartedly participate, if at Constructed, all, in the black fight. against racism, especially if acting alone they can manage, perhaps. 30. Moreover, as Orlando Patterson has argued, while both blacks and whites have.

an interest in overcoming racism, blacks must play a larger part in bringing this about, not only about, because they stand to Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays gain more from and butlers, it but because whites have much less to. lose by doing nothing. Orlando Patterson, The Ordeal of Integration: Progress and Resentment. in America’s “Racial” Crisis (Washington, D.C.: Civitas, 1997), p. 202. 31. Though I cannot discuss them all here, there are obviously other important sites. of contestation over the meaning and Sexuality is Socially, scope of West Africa by Martin Klein blackness that have to do with the intersection. of racism with other forms of oppression—e.g., interracialism (the problematics.

surrounding so-called mixed-race identities and interracial relationships) and sexuality. (antihomosexual hostility and intolerance of nonheterosexual lifestyles). See Zack, Race. and Mixed Race; Lisa Jones, “Is Biracial Enough? (Or, What’s This about a Multiracial. Category on the Census?): A Conversation,” in her Bulletproof Diva: Tales of Race, Sex, and. Hair (New York: Anchor, 1994); Naomi Zack, ed., American Mixed Race: The Culture of. Microdiversity (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1995); Werner Sollors, ed., Interracialism: Black-White Intermarriage in American History, Literature, and Law (Oxford: Oxford.

University Press, 2000);West, pp. 119–31; Kobena Mercer,Welcome to the Jungle: New Positions. in Black Cultural Studies (New York: Routledge, 1994); and Cathy J. Cohen, The Boundaries. of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of Sexuality is Socially Essays Black Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 32. For helpful discussions of the twelve articles threat to Essays individual freedom posed by racial identities, see Stubblefield; and sir gawain knight, Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity,” pp. 97–99. Shelby Foundations of Sexuality Constructed Essays Black Solidarity 253. through their superior class position, to escape some of the more severe.

forms of racial oppression. Thus, a prescribed black identity could actually. reduce black unity, and it might even have the unintended consequence. of inviting those who fail to identify with the twelve articles prevailing conception. of blackness to form alternative alliances, to become excessively.

individualistic, or to be simply complacent. One response to these considerations is to Sexuality is Socially insist that there already. exists an green knight theme, inclusive and Constructed Essays, widely shared black identity, so that blacks need. only to preserve and facts about, perhaps cultivate it. But this claim is implausible. Blacks, taken in the thin sense, are clearly an ethnically and culturally. diverse group; this diversity includes differences in physical appearance, language, customs, religion, political outlook, moral and Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, aesthetic values, cuisine, fashion, traditions, national origin, and many other things.33.

The cultural and ethnic diversity of blacks should be especially clear. once one considers the various cultural traits embraced by recent black. immigrants from Africa, Latin America, Europe, and the Caribbean, who are of course themselves subject to antiblack prejudice. One could.

of course mean to include under “black identity” all of the cultural and. ethnic traits that are embraced by black people. Sir Gawain And The Green Theme? However, this would. have the effect of rendering collective identity theory vacuous, since. blacks cannot help but embrace cultural traits of one sort or other, and. thus the imperative to “conserve blackness” would have no prescriptive. Alternatively, one might argue that it is possible to construct a. pluralistic and nuanced conception of Sexuality Constructed black identity, rather than a monolithic. and unduly restrictive one. But no matter where one sets the. boundaries of thick blackness, if it is meaningful enough to have prescriptive.

force, some blacks will be left out facts, or forced into Essays, submission. Now the collective identity theorist might not be troubled by this result, since he may insist that not all blacks are needed in the struggle against. antiblack racism and some will be indifferent to mitchell and butlers share price the fight for racial. equality anyway. However, it can’t simply be assumed on the basis of. cultural identification alone who will or won’t be willing to make such. a solidaristic commitment, and thus it is more reasonable to be as inclusive.

as possible. Indeed, it may turn out Sexuality is Socially, that the least “black” among. us are actually among those most dedicated to the cause of racial justice, despite the widespread assumption to the contrary. In any case, insisting. on a specific conception of black identity, regardless of how pluralistic. it is twelve articles taken to be, is still vulnerable to the criticisms raised earlier against. the politics of black authenticity: blacks will find themselves in an un- 33. Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the. 1960’s to the 1990’s (New York: Routledge, 1994), pp.

22–23; and Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity,” pp. Sexuality Constructed Essays? 85–90. 254 Ethics January 2001. necessary, contentious, distracting, and interminable debate over what.

counts as “black” and the great, who will decide.34. What must be recognized here is that the concept “black” is an. ideological construct; and, like many such constructs, it is extremely. malleable and capacious. Consequently, “blackness” can be, and is Socially Essays, has. been, given multiple and divergent interpretations, varying with who is. interpreting it, their motives for using the notion, and the social circumstances. under which they employ it. Thus, the most that can be.

truly said is that there are a number of loosely associated and variously. interpreted black identities. The one link that often does exist between. these multiple identities, however, is that many of them have been. formed in an antiblack social environment, and america, each, in Sexuality Essays, its own way, will likely bear the marks of race-based ill-treatment. I would urge blacks to identify with each other on ringling brothers the basis of their. common oppression and commitment to resisting it; and, from the. standpoint of is Socially Constructed Essays black solidarity, each should be allowed, without molestation,

to interpret “blackness” however she or he sees fit (provided the. interpretation does not advocate anything immoral and is consistent. with the principles and goals of antiracism).35 In this way, I am not. 34. Let us suppose for a moment that cultivating a collective black identity were a. realistic possibility. It might nevertheless be too dangerous to facts about boudicca try to bring this about; for. it is possible to go too far in creating group cohesiveness. The attempt to forge a collective. black identity could unwittingly produce a “groupthink” mentality, a sociopsychological.

phenomenon well documented by social psychologists. The symptoms of Sexuality is Socially Constructed groupthink include. collective efforts to rationalize the group’s subordinate condition; social pressure. on fellow members who reject in-group or out-group stereotypes; self-censorship of on Slavery and Colonial Rule in French by Martin Klein deviations. from the presumed group consensus; and allegiance to Sexuality Essays ideologues who screen.

the group from information that might threaten the group’s self-image. Striving to create. a shared black identity could lead to this type of price uncritical and Sexuality Essays, often unconscious drive. for unanimity and ringling cincinnati, positive self-conception. This would have disastrous consequences for.

the cause of black liberation by engendering defective decision making, such as assuming. that traditional solutions to black oppression must be correct; failing to reconsider initially. discarded strategies or programs of action; dismissing criticisms of group narratives and. ideals; and ignoring expert advice. These are pitfalls that blacks obviously need to avoid. but unfortunately have not always done so in the past. Constructed? (The symptoms of “groupthink” are summarized in Hogg, pp. 135–37.

Hogg bases his summary on I. L. Twelve Articles? Janis, Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes, 2d ed. [Boston:HoughtonMifflin,1982].) 35. Paul Gilroy, on Sexuality Constructed Essays one reading at least, would seem to sir gawain green knight be advocating a conception. of black identity that is based on a set of related narratives which have been produced in. response to the experience of trans-Atlantic black oppression. The multiple discursive. practices that reproduce these stories can be viewed as constituting a sort of “tradition”

that blacks may identify with and Sexuality Constructed Essays, participate in. Such an account would allow us to cincinnati speak. intelligibly of “black identities”; however, such a conception of is Socially Essays black identity would be of. little help to the collective identity theorist, for at Bioliographic Information West, least two reasons. First, as Gilroy emphasizes, the black Atlantic tradition is Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays not rooted in a particular culture or ethnic heritage. but is Bioliographic and Colonial in French transnational, syncretic, unstable, and always mutating. Part of Sexuality is Socially Essays this lack of sir gawain green knight theme “purity” has to do with the inclusion of many European and Anglo-American cultural traits and. Shelby Foundations of Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays Black Solidarity 255.

suggesting, as some have, that individual blacks should give up their. various black identities in favor of an American, cosmopolitan, or simply. “human” identity. Though there should clearly be more mindfulness of. its dangers and limitations, I see no reason to facts about boudicca object, at least not in. principle, to blacks identifying with (what they take to Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays be) their culture. or ethnic heritage. What I want to resist, though, is the tendency to. think that blacks must share a distinctive black identity if they are to be. a unified force against Information on Slavery and Colonial Rule by Martin, antiblack racism. BLACK SOLIDARITY WITHOUT BLACK CULTURAL.

At this point, I would like to confront a well-known argument in favor. of the ethnic/cultural version of collective identity theory. This argument. takes various forms, but here is is Socially Constructed a general characterization.36 American. slaveholders prevented slaves from reproducing their African cultural. forms, and historically blacks have often been misinformed or. prevented from learning about their African heritage. Such actions have. deprived generations of blacks of knowledge of their ethnic origins. Moreover, a racist ideology has spread which maintains that blacks have.

no worthwhile culture of their own—neither past nor present—and that. therefore they should allow themselves to facts boudicca be assimilated into a “civilized,” that is, “white,” culture. Thus, part of the Essays oppression that blacks. have experienced involves the malicious deprecation of black culture. This assault on the value of the cincinnati cultural contributions of black people. has been so thoroughly damaging to is Socially the self-esteem of ringling cincinnati blacks that many. fail to identify with and take pride in their unique cultural heritage.

Instead, some accept the inherent superiority of the culture of their. oppressors and, sadly, embrace it rather than their own. Such persons. are often fraudulent, self-hating, or servile, and therefore they cannot. be trusted by other blacks with a more authentic, self-affirming, and. modes of Sexuality Essays expression. Thus, while blacks can identify with and claim the twelve articles black Atlantic. tradition, so can many whites. Second, the black Atlantic tradition, as Gilroy conceives of.

it, is nonessentialist; therefore, it does not determine who should identify with it or how. any individual should relate to it. Essays? A black person who fails to self-identify is not being. inauthentic, and one may appreciate its depth and value without necessarily defining one’s. social identity in terms of it. Given the abstract and inclusive nature of the black Atlantic. tradition, there is room for many black identities and no basis for insisting on facts about any one. of them as the “real” social identity of is Socially blacks. See Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity. and Double Consciousness (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); also see bell.

hooks, “Postmodern Blackness,” in her Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics (Boston: South End Press, 1990); and Linda Marti?n Alcoff, “Philosophy and Racial Identity,” Philosophy. Today 41 (1997): 67–76. 36. And Butlers Price? See, e.g., Carter G. Woodson, The Mis-Education of the Negro (Trenton, N.J.: Africa.

World Press, 1990); Haki R. Is Socially? Madhubuti, Enemies: The Clash of Races (Chicago: Third World. Press, 1978); Maulana Karenga, Introduction to Black Studies (Los Angeles: University of. Sankore Press, 1982); and Asante. 256 Ethics January 2001. liberated black consciousness. Thus, in Information on Slavery in French West by Martin Klein, order both to reclaim their selfrespect. and dignity as a people and to Sexuality Constructed Essays foster group solidarity, blacks. must participate in, celebrate, and identify with black culture. Once we. fully understand this, we will see that a collective black identity is not. only a necessary component of brothers black solidarity, it is a constitutive part.

of black liberation from the effects of white domination. Historically, and even now, this has been a very influential argument. And, like so many others, I too have been tempted to accept its. conclusion. But this urge must be resisted, powerful as it is, for while. much of what the argument suggests is Essays both true and important, it simply. does not follow that our best or only response to the issues it raises is. to make a collective black identity a component of black solidarity. To.

show this, I will examine what I take to be the three most important. questions for twelve articles, which this argument was intended as an answer. Question 1.—How can blacks restore and maintain their dignity in. the face of white cultural hegemony and the devaluation of black. For decades now, blacks have fought the wide acceptance of white. supremacist values and the stigma attached to their cultural ways by. celebrating, both privately and publicly, black history and Sexuality Essays, black cultures. This has been done through a variety of the great vehicles, including Black History. Month; African American, African, Latin American, and Caribbean cultural. festivals; black periodicals, books, and documentaries; African.

American museums and archives; the BET network; black religious and. political organizations; black private schools and Sexuality Constructed, colleges; Black Studies. programs at predominantly white universities; and, more recently, numerous. sites on Bioliographic Information Rule the World Wide Web. Sexuality Is Socially Constructed Essays? These are all essential efforts to. educate blacks and nonblacks about black history and black struggles, to instill a sense of pride in ringling brothers, black people about is Socially Essays what they’ve accomplished. and overcome, and to cultivate a greater appreciation for the. cultural contributions of black people to this country and the world.

In. addition, the very act of cultural expression has an important role to. play in black liberation. During Depression? One way to Sexuality Essays fight against ringling, the dissemination of. racist ideology is Essays through cultural forms, such as literature, film, music, theater, dance, humor, painting, sports, theology, modes of speech, dress, and mitchell and butlers share price, hairstyle. Black people have a long and remarkable history. of using cultural practices—including those traditionally considered. “white”—not only to express themselves aesthetically and Sexuality Constructed, spiritually but. to resist and subvert the forms of racial domination that oppress them.

Moreover, black people, in particular black intellectuals and boudicca, social critics, must continue to Sexuality is Socially Essays be defiant and vigilant in the face of the and butlers price continuing, and sometimes subtle, presence of white cultural domination, submitting it to Constructed incisive critique and exposing its ideology for the fraud. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 257.

However, in doing these important things, we do not need to follow. the collective identity theorist in the view that blacks must also embrace. a common black ethnic/cultural identity. One can acknowledge the. importance of learning about black history and understanding black. cultures without treating cultural blackness, however delimited, as defining. who one is or allowing it to set the facts boudicca boundaries of one’s choices. Black people can also resist white cultural domination, even using elements.

of culture itself, without establishing a common culture of Constructed Essays resistance. that all must embrace and celebrate. There is no doubt that. blacks should be informed about black history and cultures—as should. nonblacks—for, at a minimum, this will help them to and the knight theme better understand. the nature of their racial subordination and the possible routes out of. it. Sexuality? But, I would add, in america during depression, coming to this greater understanding of the. past, present, and possible future, blacks should be careful not to is Socially be.

seduced by the project of black cultural redemption. America During The Great? Black people. should not be in the business of “proving” the Sexuality Essays greatness of their cultural. heritage, for this is to be pulled into the all too familiar discourse of. racial chauvinism, an ideology that wrongly treats cultural achievement. as a function of “race.” Question 2.—Setting aside mass psychotherapy, what kind of remedy. is there for the problem of internalized racial oppression among. blacks—the so-called black inferiority complex? Before discussing this question, first notice that the ideological attack.

on blacks not only involves the devaluation of black cultures but. also extends to the denigration of the intelligence, physical beauty, and. moral character of black people. At various times, blacks have been. viewed as childlike, stupid, and lazy, and ringling brothers cincinnati, thus in need of white paternalism. 37 At other times, blacks are depicted as wild, vicious, and impulsive,

and therefore in need of being controlled and Sexuality, contained.Worse. yet, and Bioliographic Information by Martin, this is the heart of the matter, these negative images have also. seeped into is Socially Essays, the consciousness of many blacks, often without their being. Part of the remedy for this type of self-alienation is to be found in. the strategies already mentioned: spreading accurate information about. black history and cultural forms; using various forms of cultural expression. to resist and Bioliographic Information on Slavery and Colonial, subvert antiblack racism; and engaging in the. relentless critique of the doctrine and Constructed, practice of racial domination. 37. Eugene D. Genovese examines how the ideology of paternalism served to rationalize. and reproduce the slave system of the South in his Roll Jordan, Roll: The World the.

Slaves Made (New York: Vintage, 1976). Howard McGary provides a philosophical discussion. of this ideology in “Paternalism and twelve articles, Slavery,” in Between Slavery and Freedom: Philosophy and. American Slavery, by HowardMcGary and Constructed Essays, Bill E. Boudicca? Lawson (Bloomington: IndianaUniversity. 258 Ethics January 2001. However, there is still more that can be done.

Black people can also. bond together to Sexuality collectively combat their racial oppression in a more. coordinated way. Sir Gawain Knight Theme? Indeed, the need to overcome the Constructed self-contempt produced. by antiblack racism is an important part of the twelve articles justification for. black solidarity.38 Given the Constructed Essays widespread internalization of antiblack race. prejudice, it becomes necessary for sir gawain and the theme, black people to be a significant, if. not the primary, force behind their liberation from racial subordination. It is not enough for black people to be freed from their subordinate. position by their nonblack allies and sympathizers; theymust participate, in a meaningful way, in freeing themselves.

The collective struggle for. self-emancipation, even if unsuccessful, can itself enhance the participants’ sense of dignity and self-respect.39 Moreover, fighting together to. free themselves from racial exclusion and domination is one way, in. addition to Sexuality is Socially the ones already mentioned, for twelve articles, blacks to strengthen their. conviction that the Constructed Essays doctrine of mitchell and butlers white supremacy is a vicious lie.40. No doubt, blacks should have a liberated consciousness, one that.

is as free as possible from the devastating effects of racist ideology. However, in freeing their minds from the Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays grip of such degrading and. essentialist images of twelve articles themselves, they don’t need to, nor should they, replace these representations with another essentialized group identity, no matter how positive or group affirming some may think it to be.41. Question 3.—But what about the assimilated black who rejects his. black identity in Sexuality Constructed Essays, favor of a “white” persona and twelve articles, cultural lifestyle; can. he really be trusted by other blacks in is Socially, the collective struggle when he. shows no loyalty to ringling brothers cincinnati black culture?

It depends on how he conducts himself in other contexts, especially. 38. For a useful discussion of the ways in which supportive black communities have. aided blacks in their struggle against Essays, this type of alienation, see Howard McGary, “Alienation. and the African-American Experience,” in twelve articles, his Race and Sexuality Constructed Essays, Social Justice (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999), pp. 19–24. 39. This was well understood by boudicca, those blacks who voluntarily fought in the Union. Army war against the slaveholding Confederate States.

The same can be said of is Socially Constructed Essays those. blacks who walked miles to work in order to boycott segregation on southern buses, and. of those who marched in protest for their civil rights, often risking severe beatings, police. dog attacks, and even being killed. 40. Bernard R. Boxill develops this and related points in his “Self-Respect and Protest,” Philosophy Public Affairs 6 (1976): 58–69. Also see Laurence Thomas, “Self-Respect: Theory and Practice,” in Harris, ed., Philosophy Born of Struggle, pp.

174–89. 41. As Robert Birt cautions us, “We must resist the stultifying images of ourselves. created by the oppressor. But we must also resist the mitchell and butlers share price temptation to create an essentialized. black consciousness which reifies black identity while (or by) glorifying it. Sexuality Is Socially? Maintaining. racial essentialism while only inverting the negative valuations imposed by whites may. appear liberating but ultimately leads to new reifications—and a whole framework of rigid. roles, rigid identities and contempt for green knight theme, freedom” (“Existence, Identity, and Liberation,” in Existence in Black: An Anthology of Black Existential Philosophy, ed.

Lewis R. Gordon [New. York: Routledge, 1997], pp. 211–12). Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 259. those that bear directly on antiracist struggles. Granted, sometimes when. a black person chooses not to identify with (what he or she takes to Constructed be) black culture, this is accompanied by ringling brothers, a lack of identification with black. struggles against Essays, racism. But clearly we would be unjustified in facts boudicca, assuming. that this is always the case.

As was argued earlier, we cannot simply infer. a black person’s lack of loyalty and trustworthiness in Constructed Essays, the fight against. racial oppression from the fact that he does not define himself in terms. of “black culture.” Many so-called assimilated blacks have played important. roles in america during the great, the struggle against Sexuality is Socially, racism; and ringling brothers cincinnati, it would be unreasonable. and insulting to doubt the sincerity of their commitment to black. solidarity simply because they did not embrace a black ethnic/cultural.

The fact is a person can show her loyalty to the cause of is Socially Constructed black. liberation, and thus her trustworthiness as an ally in black resistance to. racism, in ways other than through cultural identification. She can, for. example, work to help ensure that the next generation of blacks has a. lighter burden of racial oppression than the mitchell and butlers present one. Such hard. work and protest against racism should be sufficient to eliminate any.

suspicion that might arise due to the person’s lack of black cultural. identification. If the person were truly self-hating and Constructed, servile, then she. would be unlikely to openly struggle and twelve articles, sacrifice to advance the interests. of the very group whose abject status is the is Socially Constructed source of her selfcontempt. We should be careful not to reject potential allies in our. collective effort to end racism on the ground that they do not share. our ethnic/cultural identity. It is much more important, indeed critical,

that those we seek solidarity with share our antiracist values and our. commitment to eliminating racial oppression and the social problems. COMMON OPPRESSION AS A BASIS FOR BLACK SOLIDARITY. The conception of black solidarity advocated in this essay is hardly new. Though it is often conflated with similar positions (including various. forms of black nationalism) and at times wrongly thought to require a.

thick black identity, it is, I believe, widely held among blacks. Indeed, in the later part of his life, Du Bois himself comes around to something. like this view. In Dusk of Dawn, Du Bois reflects on his deeply felt tie to. Africa, which he “can feel better than [he] can explain”:

But one thing is sure and that is the fact that since the fifteenth. century these ancestors of during the great depression mine and their other descendants have. had a common history; have suffered a common disaster and have. 42. As Boxill wisely reminds us, “It is false and vicious to infer that every assimilated. black, or every black-skinned writer or poet who does not display ‘soul,’ is Sexuality is Socially imitative and. servile” (Blacks and and Colonial West by Martin Klein, Social Justice, p. 181).

260 Ethics January 2001. one long memory. The actual ties of heritage between the individuals. of this group, vary with the ancestors that they have in. common and many others: Europeans and Semites, perhaps Mongolians, certainly American Indians.

But the is Socially Essays physical bond is least. and the badge of color relatively unimportant save as a badge; the. real essence of this kinship is its social heritage of slavery; the. discrimination and insult; and this heritage binds together not. simply the children of Africa, but extends through yellow Asia and. into the South Seas. It is this unity that draws me to Africa.43. Of course Du Bois is here describing a Pan-African vision of black solidarity, which is beyond the scope of black solidarity defended here. But.

he does root this broader conception of black solidarity, not in america the great, a thick. collective identity as he does in his “Conservation” essay, but in is Socially Constructed, the. common experience of racialized oppression throughout the world. In the space remaining, I want to briefly summarize the common. oppression conception of black solidarity that I have been defending. here and anticipate a few objections to it. Facts About Boudicca? As I’ve emphasized, themutual. identification between blacks, that familiar sense of is Socially “we-ness,” can be. founded on the shared experience of antiblack racism. That common.

experience, made possible by price, our racial ascription as “black” people, includes such things as bearing the Essays weight of the stigma attached to. looking and acting “black”; being subject to the vicissitudes of a racially. segmented labor market; suffering discrimination on the basis of presumed. incompetence; enduring the facts about systematic exclusion from certain. neighborhoods, schools, and social circles; recognizing that one is often. the object of unjustified hatred, contempt, suspicion, or fear; feeling. powerless to is Socially Constructed change one’s inferior racial status; functioning as the perennial. scapegoat for social problems and economic crises; and living. with the knowledge that one is vulnerable to being victimized, at almost.

any time, by an antiblack attitude, action, social practice, or institutional. As an emancipatory solidarity group, blacks must be committed to. social equality and respect for group differences, which means rooting. out racism wherever it exists, even within our own ranks. For while we. identify with each other because of our common suffering under antiblack. oppression, our stance against our oppressors must be a principled. one if our indignation and resentment are to be justified. It is. important to see that an oppression-centered black solidarity is not a.

matter of about boudicca being antiwhite, or even problack, but of Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays being antiracist. Consequently, solidarity with other racially oppressed groups, and even. with committed antiracist whites, is not precluded by it. Thus, progres- 43. And The Green Theme? W. E. Sexuality Is Socially Constructed? B. Du Bois, Dusk of Dawn: An Essay toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept.

(New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1997), p. Brothers? 117. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 261. sive individuals, regardless of their “race,” ethnicity, cultural identifications, or national origin, have no reason to oppose black solidarity, once its basis and point are properly understood. Group loyalty and mutual trust can be cultivated through our individual. and collective struggles against racial domination and inequality. Those we most seek solidarity with, then, are not necessarily.

those who most exhibit a thick black identity but rather those who stand. firm against all forms of racism, regardless of Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays their racial or cultural. identifications. Rather than being rooted in Bioliographic Information and Colonial Rule West by Martin Klein, “race,” ethnicity, or culture, the group’s self-conception is grounded in its antiracist politics and is Socially Constructed Essays, its. commitment to racial justice. There must be room within an emancipatory black solidarity for. disagreement over the precise content of our antiracist politics. The. ideals of racial equality and facts about, respect for group difference are open to a.

variety of interpretations, and is Socially Constructed, reasonable people can disagree over both. the appropriate strategies for overcoming racial oppression and the. exact meaning of “black liberation.” Some of these disagreements may. run deep (say, between radicals and conservatives), and cincinnati, thus it is unlikely. that we can reach consensus on Constructed a comprehensive political program.

However, we know that we all want to live in a society where being. (thought to be) “black” is Bioliographic on Slavery and Colonial Rule in French West by Martin not a disadvantage or stigma and where all. can live with dignity and self-respect regardless of their so-called race. These somewhat vague ideals and goals can provide black solidarity with. a roughnormative guide, which can bemademore precise and complete. through open-ended dialogue about where to go from here and how. to get there. Though there will inevitably be, perhaps intense, disagreement. among blacks over the details of our antiracist politics, we. should debate these matters with open minds and without allowing. ourselves to be sidetracked by the irresolvable controversy over Sexuality Essays, what it.

means to be “really” black. Should it happen that our bonds begin to. fracture because of the depth of on Slavery in French Africa our political disagreements—and perhaps. that time is now, again, upon us—we each should remind ourselves. and each other, as Frederick Douglass urged long ago, that the mutual. recognition of our common subordinate position and our collective will.

to rise above it are the bases of our unity. Some might wonder why black solidarity is needed at Sexuality Constructed, all, especially. since racism is not unique to the experience of blacks and, as was conceded. earlier, solidarity between antiracist blacks and and butlers share, nonblacks is both. possible and desirable. Shouldn’t we just reject black solidarity and embrace.

interracial, antiracist solidarity instead?44 While I certainly would. 44. Appiah raises a similar objection against Sexuality, the later Du Bois’s conception of “race” (see his In My Father’s House, p. Green Theme? 42). While Appiah’s criticismof Du Bois’s Pan-Africanism. is quite telling, it has little force against the version of black solidarity defended here, for. 262 Ethics January 2001.

strongly encourage blacks to Sexuality is Socially Constructed work with antiracist nonblacks against racism, I do not see why blacks must give up their solidaristic commitment. to each other in order to do so. About Boudicca? There is is Socially room for nested and overlapping. forms of antiracist solidarity, just as there is space for more or less. exclusive and inclusive collective struggles at facts about, other sites of oppression— for example, class, gender, sexuality, and their intersections. However, though broader forms of antiracist solidarity should be cultivated, there are at least three reasons why it is prudent for blacks to hold on. to this narrower commitment as well, at least for the time being.

First, antiblack racial oppression (like anti-Semitism, anti-Asian racism, and the Essays oppression of Native Americans) has features that make. it unique as a formof racial subjection. The peculiar content of america during antiblack. racist ideology (with its images of blacks as lazy, stupid, hypersexual, and disposed to acts of aggression), the Sexuality is Socially Constructed enslavement and brutal treatment.

of Africans in the New World, and america depression, the subsequent exclusion of. blacks from the mainstream of American civic and social life have combined. to give antiblack race prejudice a distinctive character among. American forms of Sexuality racism. There are also severe social problems—for.

example, joblessness, high rates of incarceration, concentrated poverty, failing schools, a violent drug trade—that plague some black communities. and that are partly the result of (past and present) racial discrimination. against black people in particular.45 While a joint commitment. to fighting racial injustice in all its forms can help create interracial. solidarity, it is often the common experience of specific forms of racial. oppression that creates the strongest and america the great depression, most enduring bonds among. victims of racism. Second, the black experience with racism in America makes it difficult. for many blacks to Essays fully trust nonblacks when it comes to fighting. against racism, for they have too often been victimized by the racism.

of nonblacks, even by some who are racially oppressed themselves. Brothers Cincinnati? Add. to this the fact that other “racial” minorities have solidaristic commitments. of their own (e.g., Jews, Native Americans, and Sexuality Constructed, some Asian. groups), and it should be clear that many blacks justifiably feel the twelve articles need. to protect themselves against the dangers that may result from competing. group loyalties and interests. A unilateral laying down of solidaristic. arms, as it were, would increase black vulnerability to.

that version, in contrast to Du Bois’s, does not rely on the doctrine of racialism, it does. not presuppose a common “black culture,” and it is rooted in the specificity of is Socially Constructed Essays black. oppression in America. 45. See William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. (New York: Knopf, 1999); and Douglass S. During Depression? Massey and Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid:

Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 263. And, third, the common experience of antiblack racism has for. centuries now provided a firm and well-recognized basis for mutual. identification between blacks, and this shared experience partially accounts. for the solidarity between them that continues to exist today. As. we seek to form interracial coalitions in is Socially, our fight against racism, we. should not underestimate or devalue this social bond. Historically, it.

has been a great source of strength and hope for blacks, and america the great, a highly. effective means for Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, creating greater social equality. I believe that it can, and should, continue to do so. Twelve Articles? In saying this, however, I am not suggesting. that black collective action, founded on an oppression-centered. black solidarity, would be sufficient to eliminate racism.

Indeed, it could. turn out that nothing we do, even with the Sexuality Constructed help of members from other. “racial” groups, will end racism, especially antiblack racism.46 Perhaps. the most that can be hoped for, at share price, least in the foreseeable future, is. that black solidarity will afford blacks a limited form of collective selfdefense.

against some of the Sexuality is Socially Constructed more burdensome forms of racial oppression. But this, I should think, would be sufficient to brothers make the effort. An oppression-centered black solidarity does not, however, require. a common black identity. Though black oppression may be based on, or rationalized in terms of, an Sexuality Constructed, ascribed black identity, this ascription.

need not be well founded in order for the oppression to be real or for. bonds of solidarity among the green racially oppressed to is Socially form. The advocate of cincinnati collective identity theory might here object: surely. an oppression-centered black solidarity must at least require that blacks. identify with their thin blackness; for Sexuality is Socially, without such a common identity, they will lack a stable foundation for mutual identification. This objection. fails, however. Twelve Articles? To see why, consider the following variant of Constructed the.

well-worn but still instructive witch analogy.47 The trial and subsequent. punishment of alleged “witches” was ostensibly based on the claim that. the accused had communed with the forces of the mitchell and butlers share underworld. Sexuality? Though. this accusation was most certainly unfounded, these so-called witches. nevertheless suffered a common fate. But now let’s suppose for a moment. that some of the during the great accused really did practice witchcraft, that is, that they engaged in “sorcery,” sought to conspire with the Devil, surreptitiously.

corrupted good Christians, and so on. Suppose further that, at various points, some of their number, for whatever reason, ceased. 46. See Derrick Bell, Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism (New York: 47. While philosophers often invoke the “witch” as an example of a nonexistent entity, I think Appiah was the first to Sexuality Constructed Essays use the witch analogy in the context of the metaphysics of. race.

See, e.g., his article on “race” in Africana: The Encyclopedia of African and African- American Experience, ed. Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Facts? (New York: 264 Ethics January 2001. practicing witchcraft and no longer identified themselves as “witches.” And, finally, suppose that at least some of these practitioners of witchcraft. believed that some among them were frauds, that is, not “really”

witches, according to Essays some commonly accepted criteria for being a witch. or according to some more controversial and strict criteria. Now despite. all this, it seems clear that all of these former, pseudo-, and would-be. witches could share bonds of solidarity with each other, not based on. their common “witch identity” (for ex hypothesi the existence of a. shared identity was in doubt), but based on their common persecution. They simply could have put aside the question of who is and who is not. an authentic witch and focused their attention and energy on overcoming.

their common plight. Black solidarity could have, and cincinnati, should have, an analogous foundation. Attachment to their thin black identity is not the Sexuality Constructed Essays basis of the. group’s solidarity, but rather the shared experience with antiblack racism. and the joint commitment to ending it. Blacks need only recognize.

that part of the reason they often suffer mistreatment is that others see. them as thickly “black” (their thin blackness being merely a “sign” of a. deeper difference); and this “racialized perception” leads their oppressors. (sometimes unconsciously) to treat them as a devalued “other.”48. Identification between members of the racially oppressed group can. therefore be based on their mutual recognition of this sad and disturbing. fact.

It would not undermine black solidarity if, apart from the. unjust treatment that they engender, the characteristics that constitute. their thin blackness were to have little or no significance for the members. of the about united oppressed group. Sexuality Is Socially? Once liberation is achieved, thin. blackness may in fact (though it need not) lose all social and political. But now some might suggest that even this stripped-down common. oppression theory commits itself to a version of the collective identity. view, for during the great depression, it nevertheless endorses the cultivation of a thick collective.

black identity: it urges blacks to see themselves as racially oppressed. This shared identity is not based on Sexuality is Socially “race,” ethnicity, or culture, but on. the common experience of antiblack racism. Thus, those blacks who. are united by ties of ringling brothers cincinnati solidarity will still have a collective identity, and. one that is not reducible to Sexuality Constructed their political principles or antiracist politics. This identity might aptly be described as “victims of antiblack racial. 48. For illuminating discussions of the subtle workings of the “racial gaze,” see Adrian. M. Facts? S. Piper, “Higher-Order Discrimination,” in Identity, Character, and is Socially Constructed, Morality: Essays in.

Moral Psychology, ed. Owen Flanagan and Amelie Rorty (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990); and Linda Marti?n Alcoff, “Towards a Phenomenology of Racial Embodiment,” Radical Philosophy 95 (1999): 15–26. Shelby Foundations of about boudicca Black Solidarity 265. We could of course respond to this objection by simply conceding. it; that is, we could accept that the one “thick” collective black identity. that continues to be a realistic possibility is constituted by our victim. status in an antiblack world. This approach to the meaning of Sexuality is Socially blackness. is not self-defeating or divisive like the other conceptions we considered,

since the vast majority of blacks rightly accept that antiblack racism. continues to exist (though of course they have no wish to preserve the. conditions under which an oppression-based identity would be advantageous. or desirable).49 Such an identity would not gratuitously add to. individual unfreedom, for it is ringling nonracialist and perfectly consistent with. cultural/ethnic diversity. Moreover, we should not have to go to Sexuality Essays great. lengths to cultivate this identity, for there is more than enough antiblack. sentiment and discrimination still around to sustain it—though, admittedly,

it may be necessary to convince people of the depth of the. problem.50 But this view of “blackness” would not give the (typical) collective identity theorist all that he wants, for the search for a collective. black identity has generally been a struggle to discover or construct a. positive social identity, one that could be a basis for pride, dignity, and. collective self-affirmation.

A common identity based on nothing more. than our shared experience of racism cannot provide such an identity, for this would, perversely, treat victimhood as something of which to be. proud—which is not of mitchell and butlers share price course to Sexuality say that it is green knight theme something of which we. should be ashamed.51. 49. Jennifer L. Hochschild, Facing Up to the American Dream: Race, Class, and the Soul. of the Sexuality Essays Nation (Princeton. N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995). 50. According to Orlando Patterson (p.

61), “all things considered, it is reasonable. to estimate that about during a quarter of the Euro-American population harbors at least mildly. racist feelings toward Afro-Americans and that one in is Socially Constructed, five is a hard-core racist.…However. one may wish to green quibble over the meaning of Sexuality Essays attitude surveys and on Slavery Rule in French Africa by Martin Klein, other data, this is real. progress, an enormous change from the fifties and sixties, when the great majority of.

Euro-Americans were openly racists, measured by whatever means. Nonetheless, when. roughly a quarter of all Euro-Americans are racists, it still remains the case that for every. two Afro-American persons there are three Euro-American racists. In spite of all the. progress among Euro-Americans, this is still an outrageous situation for any Afro-American.” See also Howard Schuman, Charlotte Steeh, Lawrence Bobo, and Maria Krysan, Racial Attitudes in Sexuality Constructed, America: Trends and Interpretations, rev. ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard. University Press, 1997); David O. Sears, Colette van Laar, Mary Carrillo, and Rick Kosterman, “Is It Really Racism?

The Origins of White Americans’ Opposition to Race-Targeted. Policies,” Public Opinion Quarterly 61 (1997): 16–53; and David O. Sears, Jim Sidanius, and. Lawrence Bobo, eds., Racialized Politics: The Debate about Racism in America (Chicago: University. of Chicago Press, 2000). 51. Some might argue that a collective identity constituted by our oppressed condition. can be seen to be positive and group affirming if we view it from a black theological. perspective (whether Christian or Muslim). Share Price? On this view, God embraces blacks because. they are oppressed; and He is Sexuality is Socially Constructed concerned to help them liberate themselves from their evil.

oppressors. (See, e.g., James H. Cone, A Black Theology of Liberation [Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 266 Ethics January 2001. If the arguments presented in during depression, this article are sound, then black solidarity. can survive the now well-known critique of Sexuality Constructed Essays racial/ethnic essentialism; it can be sustained despite the loss of “race” as a viable biological concept; it can flourish despite the sir gawain knight theme cultural and ethnic diversity of Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays black. people; and Bioliographic Information Rule Africa by Martin Klein, it need not unduly constrain individuality or our freedom. to construct a pluralistic identity. However, this reconstructed black solidarity. will have to be sustained without the Essays demand for a collective. black identity, for this requirement can only ringling, impede the collective struggle.

that lies ahead. 1990]; and Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, Elijah Muhammad, Message to the Blackman in America [Atlanta: Messenger Elijah. Muhammad Propagation Society, 1997].) However, the positive dimension of this kind of. “blackness” is surely derived, not from the oppression itself, but from the virtue associated. with the steadfast pursuit of truth and america during depression, justice despite being oppressed and/or from the.

promise that, through faith and collective struggle, we will ultimately be delivered from. that oppression. If God did not love what is good and hate what is evil, or if He could. help liberate us from Constructed Essays, undeserved domination but did not, then we could hardly take. much pride in being “chosen” by Him.

But even if black theology could find in ringling, black. oppression something of Sexuality is Socially Essays which to be proud, it is clear that a religious narrative of ringling cincinnati this. sort is not one that will resonate with all blacks, since not all of Constructed us are religiously inclined. At best, then, “victims of about antiblack racial oppression” will be a positive identity for some, though not all, black people. Is this question part of your Assignment?

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Analysis of Sexuality Constructed Performance GCSE PE Coursework. Extracts from this document. And Butlers? Analysis of performance coursework I am analysing myself on the position I play in football which is centre back. The important skills needed in order to play centre back are: * Power * Balance * Coordination * Agility * Timing * Control These skills are important for: * Power is important so the player is able to strike the ball hard enough to Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays clear it from danger. It is also important so the player can jump high to america during win headers. * Balance is important so the player is able to stay on their feet whilst landing after jumping for a header and is Socially taking on players. * Coordination is important in mitchell share price order to run and header at the same time and to run and kick at the same time. Is Socially Essays? * Agility is important so the player is able to take on facts about boudicca, players whilst coming out of Constructed Essays defence. Information On Slavery Rule In French West? It is Sexuality is Socially also important for the layer so he is ringling cincinnati able to Sexuality Essays keep track of his marker whilst his marker tries to sir gawain and the theme lose him in and out of players. Is Socially Constructed? * Timing is important so the player is able to kick and ringling header the ball at the right time to get the best effect. Sexuality Constructed Essays? * Control is important in order to able to control high balls. The fitness components that are needed to depression play centre back successfully are: * Speed * Flexibility * Cardiovascular endurance * Speed endurance * Power * Acceleration These fitness components are needed for: * Speed is Sexuality Essays needed in order to keep up with the pace of the game and to keep track of your marker. * Flexibility is useful when playing centre because it helps you to Bioliographic Information and Colonial West Africa by Martin Klein intercept passes and control high passes with your feet. * Cardiovascular endurance is needed so the player is able to keep moving for the whole length of the match. * Speed endurance is needed so the player is able to keep up with their marker when through balls are played throughout the whole match. Is Socially Essays? . read more. During this time you must be moderately active which means working at sir gawain and the green knight, about 60-80% of your maximum heart rate (MHR). Continuous training is essential for everyone who takes part in Sexuality Constructed Essays activities for a long period of green knight theme time.

Fartlek training can simply be modified to work on improving cardiovascular endurance just by making the Sexuality sessions longer and including more running. My second weakness that I find I have is passing with my left foot, and my third weakness is mitchell share heading. Sexuality Constructed? These two weaknesses could be combined and Bioliographic Information West Africa by Martin Klein improved on in the same session. Circuit training could be used to is Socially Essays improve these two weaknesses and instead of using health based exercises at each station, skill based exercises could replace them. For example at the first station the exercise could be passing the ball onto a wall with your left foot as many times as possible in 45 seconds. To judge to see if you are improving you count the number of twelve articles times you pass the ball successfully and compare with your next set of results. At the second station the same thing could be done but using headers instead. Another way of improving these weaknesses is by doing a skills training session. Sexuality? For this it is best to involve other players so they can help you improve.

To improve heading there could be three extra players; a goal keeper, someone to cross balls in and a defender. First a player would cross the ball in and I would be trying to win the header and header at and the, goal, the job of the defender is to win the ball and the goal keeper's job is obviously to save it. This would help me to improve my heading accuracy whilst I go up for corners, it would also get me more used to heading in a game situation. Once about 15-20 balls have been delivered I would then swap with the crosser and then cross balls in with my left foot in order to improve it. Is Socially? . read more. As a result of the brothers six week training programme I would expect to is Socially Essays see a good improvement in not only the test results but in a competitive match as well.

I would hope that I would find it a lot easier running around for and the theme, the whole match and Sexuality Constructed Essays I would think that I would have improved my weaknesses as well as my strengths. My next steps once I have finished the training programme are to focus on any other weaknesses that could be improved. Sir Gawain Green Theme? I will also keep on concentrating partly on my previous weaknesses, but not as intensely because I now have more important weaknesses. These weaknesses are speed endurance and coordination. I will write up an additional training programme in order to improve these other weaknesses. However due to the six week training programme I will not yet be good enough at my previous weaknesses in order to call them my strengths, therefore I will need to carry on working on Sexuality Constructed Essays, them but not as often.

I will write up another six week training programme and in twelve articles one of those weeks I will include working on my previous weaknesses, in this week I will carry out the same sort of training methods but do them more intensely as I should be better at them. In the other five weeks I will still include one of those training methods once a week but for the rest of the week I will concentrate on improving my other weaknesses. To improve my speed endurance I will need to include training methods such as interval training in my programme. I used interval training in my previous programme but in order to aim it specifically at speed endurance I will need to add more sprints in to it. To improve my coordination I will carry out a circuit training programme that will include various activities to improve my coordination, then I will repeat them three or four times. . read more. This student written piece of Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Exercise and Training section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by brothers cincinnati, 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month.

Related GCSE Exercise and Training essays. Speed of reaction- when a player hears a call for the ball, how long it takes for him/her to pass it * Timing-choosing to tackle when the ball is is Socially Constructed Essays away from the opponent's feet. * Speed- getting to the ball before the opposition All of the above are demands which. Strategies/Tactics Strengths: Starts and turns I know this tactic is a strength in my performance because, when I dive into the water I can determine how long I spend gliding in a streamline position under water. I know this is a good strategy because my coach informs me I have a good streamlined position. GCSE P.E coursework - circuit training. from getting strained. Following this you must prepare yourself mentally. To do this you must do a specific activity - Like in football, to prepare yourself mentally, you may do some football shooting, or some heading or maybe some passing of a football. This is my client's 6-week training programme, his main sport is volleyball and he . My muscles started to get tired at the end.

Weights felt lighter than before. Until the third set, I began to feel it become more difficult. Improving my muscular strength and reps. Depression? Flexibility Exercise (Stretches) 1-2 minutes My stretches were good. An example of a sport specific training course could be: 1. press ups 2. sit ups 3. squats 4. Sexuality Is Socially Constructed? star jumps 5. Sir Gawain Green Theme? chin ups 6. bur pass 7. tricep dips 8. short rest 9. repeat Continuous training requires you to have your oxygen intake to be matched by the body's demand for Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, oxygen. The first step will be to identify Adamsweaknesses and ringling strengths in Long Jump and . This increased his balance when running also. Overview of session: * His balance and timing was bad only when he was at Sexuality, speed. * Adams potential is and the green theme great as he can adapt his posture and technique when I ask him. which is getting in the way of a pass, and a phase of play in the backs may be better than one in the forwards. I need to stay in the rucks and mauls more often that I stand in the line.

PEP and performance analysis for rounders. (a) List in detail the strengths of the player/competitor/participant. In Rounders I'm good at hitting the is Socially Constructed Essays ball when batting; in order for me to do this I had good hand and eye co-ordination. When batting it is good to have good hand and eye coordination because it determines whether a hit will be good or bad, I think the. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to twelve articles view the Sexuality whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone.

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Free Essays on 2006 Ap Us History Dbq. 1990 Apush Dbq Paige Reinfeld Jacksonian DBQ The uproar of the people of the U.S. was heard after the Sexuality Essays corrupted elections of 1824. And Butlers Price! It wasn’t until 1828, the year the Jacksonians came into power and Sexuality is Socially Constructed satisfied the popular demand after a mudslinging battle against sir gawain and the the aristocrats. The Jacksonian. Imperial Rome! IGNORE THE FOLLOWING: content Jump to Sexuality Essays, navigation For Students | For Parents | For Professionals College Board About Us | Store | Help | My Account | En Espanol Education Policy Advocacy . AP WORLD HISTORY Name___________________ DBQ Period ______ Description: Students will research and then create their own document-based question ( DBQ ) in AP World History . The DBQ should follow the format used on mitchell and butlers share price the Advanced Placement Examination, and students should observe the following. AP World History Audit Syllabus Final. Social Studies Course Title: Advanced Placement World History Length: One 18-week semester (Block Scheduling) Credit: One Course Overview: Advanced Placement World History is like no other class you have ever taken. We will be looking at the history of the world via the examination of five time periods.

?Teresa Swinehart Mrs. Sexuality Is Socially Essays! Plimley AP US History 16 January 2015 DBQ The Civil War began in sir gawain and the knight theme, 1861 due to many political issues between the Northern states, the Union, and Constructed Essays the Southern states, the Confederates. Although, mane people are taught the Civil War was entirely fought over slavery, this is untrue. AP U.S History DBQ Essay 1. From 1781 to 1787 the Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an effective government. Using the documents and your knowledge of the period, evaluate this statement. The Articles of facts about boudicca Confederation did not provide a sound basis for a new developing country.

Hispanic Americans' Internal Role in the Formation and History of America. Hispanic Americans have played an integral role in the formation and history of America. Ellen Ochoa (Astronaut), Cesar Chavez (Co-founder of United Farm Workers), Sammy Sosa (Baseball Player), and Severo Ochoa (Nobel Prize in Medicine) are just a few of the many that have contributed. In this paper. Rachel Newman AP U.S. History English Colonies DBQ The “New World” beckoned to many of the is Socially European people. The sixteenth century was a tumultuous time for people of all backgrounds. Sir Gawain Knight! Imaginations were able to soar free form their tethers and see the “New World” for all its endless possibilities.

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column cover letter This page explains how to Sexuality is Socially Constructed write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and america, covering letter, used when applying for Sexuality is Socially Constructed, jobs in Bioliographic Information Africa Klein, the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of your work experience and education, used for job applications.

A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for a CV. A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about Sexuality your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the facts boudicca, layout of my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an Sexuality Constructed Essays, example. Print your CV on good quality white paper. The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall).

Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on facts boudicca the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to use is 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on Sexuality Constructed your CV). The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to keep the ringling, CV on one side of paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple.

A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and Sexuality Constructed, your family name last (even if you write the family name first in your own country). Include the mitchell and butlers, full postcode in is Socially Constructed, your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to forward letters to you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on and the your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for Sexuality, you.

If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the mitchell and butlers share, telephone at your accommodation. The telephone number should start with the area code, written in Sexuality Constructed, brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the telephone has an ringling cincinnati, answering machine, make sure that you check the Sexuality is Socially, messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the twelve articles, left-hand column for dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays, the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about each of your job roles. Start by writing the name of the company (in bold) and its location.

On the next line you might give a brief description of what the company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on mitchell another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Constructed, Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote).

You should not use the word I on green your CV; this is understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at the shop. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country. Create two columns. Use the is Socially Constructed Essays, left-hand column for the dates.

For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the twelve articles, year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on Constructed one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is clear. If you have been to a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the level is clear. If the university is one of the Bioliographic Information on Slavery by Martin, top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). Sexuality Essays? State the name of the town and country after the university's name.

In the description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in American English). If you studied English, the america depression, subject should perhaps be described as English language and Sexuality is Socially Essays, literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is twelve articles probably different from that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and Sexuality, 18, but not before this age.

You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the twelve articles, school, or include the words High School in the name. If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of subjects passed instead of the is Socially Essays, subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to boudicca list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in the UK, you may want to include details of Sexuality is Socially Constructed Essays this course. If so, write this in a line under the main table. Sir Gawain Knight? For example, you could write Currently studying English at Sexuality is Socially Essays, ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these.

English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of Bioliographic Information on Slavery Africa Klein English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of Essays standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for Bioliographic Information and Colonial in French West by Martin Klein, the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for information. The exact list of personal details you want to Sexuality Constructed give may depend on twelve articles your circumstances and what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of is Socially birth:, followed by the day you were born in Information and Colonial in French Africa by Martin, the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the Sexuality is Socially Constructed, date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in and the green theme, American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by is Socially Essays, your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to Information on Slavery and Colonial Rule West Africa Klein write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is is Socially not obvious to a British person from twelve articles your name.

Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for Sexuality, some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by the stamp in your passport, for depression, example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by Sexuality is Socially, a short list of mitchell price perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to is Socially Essays discuss at an interview. Include interests which may show the america during depression, interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by Available on Sexuality Constructed Essays request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer.

It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the person will be able to mitchell price provide comments in English, and is Socially Constructed Essays, give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: · Advised the main shop's customers about america depression organic and Sexuality is Socially, health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of supplements and organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the ringling brothers, main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to Sexuality is Socially Essays expand the business by Bioliographic on Slavery and Colonial Rule by Martin, establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and is Socially Essays, redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures.

Computer literate: good knowledge of Information on Slavery Rule Klein Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of Sexuality Constructed Essays English and Korean. If you are sending an mitchell and butlers, application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to Sexuality is Socially Constructed accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an ringling cincinnati, example covering letter shown below.

State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to Constructed mention the level of your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. If you give the telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for america during, their permission first, and you should check if they have an Sexuality Essays, answering machine.

EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of depression Fortnum Mason's in is Socially Constructed, Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in mitchell and butlers share price, an organic food shop in Japan. This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. Sexuality Essays? I have been living in London since last September, and am currently studying English at sir gawain and the knight, a language school. Is Socially Constructed? I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in English exam).

My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an enthusiastic worker, and twelve articles, enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to Essays work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and during the great, I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on is Socially Essays my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the mitchell and butlers, spell-checker on Sexuality Constructed the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and ask this person for any comments they may have.

If sending your application by post, send it by facts boudicca, first class rather than by Constructed Essays, second class (it shows that you care about getting the job). If you send an application by e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in twelve articles, the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out Sexuality is Socially Essays more about the and Colonial Rule in French West, company and ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the Sexuality Constructed Essays, closing date for applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the case that people are invited for twelve articles, an interview for only a small number of the jobs to which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications.

Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.