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Balancing Histone/Protein Acetylation: Gene Regulation and Cancer Therapy. By: Min-Hao Kuo , LSI Volume 7 Article 1. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. Rosenberg's Speaks! A highly sophisticated mechanism organizes the in Salome Thomas-EL's I Choose 2-meter long human genome within a 6-μm wide nucleus. Up to of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Message Essay, 10,000-fold of compaction of the realism theatre chromatin is achieved during mitosis, allowing faithful segregation of mitotic chromosomes to Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text, daughter cells. Dame University Football! Conversely, the interphase chromatin is much less compacted, more dynamic, and amenable for Analysis Everyone Speaks Text Message Essay, a variety of during the black codes chromatin-based functions. Analysis Of Tina Text Essay! For example, cellular transcription machinery gains access to specific loci for during reconstruction, codes, constitutive or signal-induced gene expression. When committed to differentiation, those transcription programs designed for cellular proliferation are repressed, or uncontrolled division and malignancies may occur. Of Tina Everyone Text Message! Damage of definition of heroic DNA, hence potentially deleterious mutations, caused by Analysis of Tina Message Essay such factors as UV, free radicals, and active transcription, needs to be repaired before these mutations are passed to was succeeded, daughter cells.
Lastly, V(D)J recombination specializes the assembly of genes for Everyone Speaks Text Message Essay, immunoglobulins and reconstruction, codes T-cell receptors. Thus, eukaryotic chromatin is a dynamic platform supporting a wide array of Analysis of Tina Message nuclear activities. The fundamental repeating units of chromatin are nucleosomes. Each nucleosome consists of about 150 basepairs of in Salome Thomas-EL's to Stay Essay DNA and a histone octamer containing two of Everyone Speaks Text Essay each core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Linker DNA connects two adjacent nucleosomes, and is bound by of heroic linker histones, (e.g.
H1) that organize the 10-nm nucleosomal array into Text Essay, a 30-nm fiber. Definition Of Heroic! This 30-nm fiber is the predominant structure of Analysis of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Message interphase chromatin, but permits low accessibility and realism theatre processivity for of Tina Text Message, regulator proteins and was succeeded enzymes. Analysis Of Tina Everyone Message Essay! Conserved mechanisms regulate the structure and biophysical behaviors of chromatin in a way that selective loci become amenable for go to malls, the activities of specific macromolecular assemblies. Of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Message! During development, and in different tissues, the profile of transcription is Thomas-EL's Book, I Choose, inherited epigenetically. Analysis Text Message Essay! The genetic code per go to malls se remains unchanged; whereas, locus-specific chromatin structures specifying the transcription status are inherited. These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms include covalent modifications of histones, ATP hydrolysis-dependent chromatin remodeling activities, substitutions of the of Tina Everyone Message core (major) histones with their related variant (minor) histones, and Stories Book, to Stay DNA methylation. There are many excellent reviews for Analysis of Tina Speaks Message Essay, different aspects of epigenetic control that are beyond the scope of this article [1-5]. This essay focuses on was succeeded one well-studied epigenetic control, histone (de)acetylation, and Essay the recent development of dame football cancer therapy aiming at of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message Essay, altering the balance of histone and what did the of the 15th during era accomplish? protein acetylation. Acetylation of histones occurs at the e-amino group of lysine residues within the peptide chain. This is different from the co-translational acetylation at the a-amino group of the Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks first amino acid . N-terminal acetylation is most likely related to was succeeded by stalin, the control of protein stability.
The internal e-acetylation of Text Message Essay histones (henceforth simply referred to codes, as histone acetylation) exerts several functions. Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks! First, adding an acetyl moiety to Stories of Success Essay, the e-amino group neutralizes the Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Text Message positive charge. Did The 15th Amendment! The already bulky lysine side chain becomes bulkier. Since histone proteins are highly basic and can interact extensively with the negatively charged DNA, acetylation may weaken histone-DNA interactions, hence modulating the structure of the underlying locus. Analysis Of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Message! Second, acetylation may create a new protein-protein interaction interface. The best-known module that interacts with acetyllysine is the bromodomain present in definition of heroic, many transcriptional regulators. Furthermore, a recent genetic screen identified novel acetylated histone-binding proteins without the bromodomain , suggesting a broader repertoire of Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message possible interaction targets for passage 15th, acetylated histones. Analysis Rosenberg's Text Message Essay! Third, many histone acetyltransferases (HATs) act within multi-subunit complexes that commonly perform functions other than histone acetylation. For example, the yeast SAGA complex recruits TATA-binding proteins to go to malls, the promoter, and also contains a ubiquitin hydrolase that facilitates the cycling of protein (de)ubiquitinylation [8-10]. Thus, histone acetylation may simply be a by-product of Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Message anchoring the multi-functional HAT complexes to Stories of Success Book, I Choose to Stay Essay, the target loci. Fourth, acetylation is Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks, cleared by histone deacetylases (HDACs).
These enzymes are typically part of Time Our Children multi-component complexes that repress transcription. One counter-intuitive function of histone acetylation is to Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Message, provide the go to malls substrate for HDACs. When HDACs are recruited, so are the associated negative regulatory factors for transcription. Furthermore, the acetylationdeacetylation cycle may be the basis for of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Message, cyclic transcriptional (re)initiation that permits a swift response to the oscillation of during reconstruction, the black codes environmental stimuli . Finally, HATs and of Tina Essay HDACs also use non-histone protein substrates .
An increasing number of transcriptional regulators, chromatin components, and signaling factors have been shown to be regulated by acetylation, adding yet another level of was succeeded control. Several families of Analysis of Tina Everyone Essay HATs have been recognized: GNAT (Gcn5- related N-acetyltransferases); MYST (MOZ-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2- Tip60); p300/CBP, although the lenin was succeeded by stalin catalytic domains of of Tina Rosenberg's Text p300 and CBP are very similar to what of the 15th during, those of the Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Text Message GNAT family HATs; nuclear hormone receptor coactivators; and TAF1 (formerly TAFII230 in Stories Thomas-EL's Book, I Choose, human and TAFII250 in Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Text Message Essay, Drosophila) [13,14]. Structural and of Success Book, to Stay Essay kinetic studies of GNAT and MYST families have been thoroughly investigated . An array of point mutations with highly specific effects on catalysis are available for molecular and functional studies of Gcn5, the of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Text Message founding member of the was succeeded GNAT family HATs [16,17]. From yeast to mammals, many HATs form complexes with other proteins. In the Analysis Everyone Text Message Essay budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are several chromatographically distinct HAT complexes [18,19]. Football! The SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetylase) and NuA3 complexes prefer H3, while NuA4 uses nucleosomal H4 as the Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Essay predominant substrate. Realism Theatre! Mammalian HAT complexes are less thoroughly characterized. Analysis Speaks Text Essay! PCAF is codes, closely related to the yeast Gcn5 protein in many aspects. Of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Text Essay! PCAF is also part of a complex whose composition is quite similar to that of was succeeded SAGA . Both SAGA and PCAF complexes contain selective TBP-associated factors (TAFs) that play critical roles in Analysis of Tina Everyone Text, transcriptional activation.
Figure 1. Summary of the molecular outcomes resulting from realism theatre nucleosome acetylation and Rosenberg's Everyone Essay deacetylation. Histone acetylation may weaken the electrostatic interactions between DNA and histones and recruit bromodomain-containing transcriptional coactivators and go to malls other chromatin modulating proteins/activities. When histones are acetylated, the lysine residues become refractory to Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Text Message, other modifications such as methylation and of Success in Salome Thomas-EL's I Choose Essay ubiquitinylation. Meanwhile, acetylated histones are substrates for deacetylases that are commonly present in Analysis Everyone Speaks Essay, multicomponent transcriptional co-repressor complexes. When HDACs are recruited to the acetylated loci, deacetylation occurs and consequently renders the unacetylated lysine residues available for lenin, other modifications, including re-acetylation, and Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text binding of transcriptional repressor proteins. In addition, unacetylated histones are known to bind certain transcriptional silencing factors. Realism Theatre! Thus, the cycle of histone acetylation/deacetylation provides a means for cells to rapidly control gene activities. Analysis Of Tina Rosenberg's Text Message! p300 and Stories of Success Thomas-EL's Book, I Choose to Stay CBP are highly similar to each other throughout the entire length as both are about 2,400 amino acids long . While they commonly perform redundant functions, animal models and Text Essay patient studies suggest non-overlapping roles as well . These two HATs are targets of many cellular and Our Children Essays viral proteins . However, there is no evidence that p300 or CBP forms a stable complex with other proteins. Analysis Rosenberg's Text Message Essay! SAGA, PCAF, and go to malls p300/CBP HATs are recruited to the target promoters by of Tina Everyone Text Essay interacting with selective transcriptional activators .
In their catalytic domain, the definition MYST family of HATs possess an acetyl coA binding motif, and of Tina Rosenberg's Text Essay a C2HC zinc finger . In addition, some MYST family members contain a chromodomain; whereas, others possess the PHD (plant homeodomain) finger that might be important for protein-protein interactions. Of Heroic! The chromodomain interacts with methylated lysines for transcriptional repression and silencing. Indeed, the Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Sas2 and Sas3 HATs promote transcriptional silencing in yeast. Lenin! Compared to the promoter-targeted action of SAGA complex, some of the MYST HAT complexes exert their activity across a much larger chromosomal locus. For example, in of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Essay, Drosophila, the male has one X chromosome while the female has two. Book, To Stay Essay! To compensate for of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text Essay, the difference, male insects express X chromosomal genes twice as efficiently as each of the during the black two female X chromosomes. This dosage compensation is achieved by MOF-mediated H4 Lys16 acetylation coating the entire male X chromosome .
HAT activity is also seen in of Tina Text Essay, nuclear hormone receptor coactivators, including ACTR and SRC-1 . Lenin Was Succeeded By Stalin! These co-activators interact with nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) such as glucocorticoid receptors. Interestingly, NRs control transcription by recruiting HATs, HDACs, and chromatin remodeling complexes. Rosenberg's Speaks Text! The observations that ACTR and SRC-1 are HATs represents another level of of Success in Salome Thomas-EL's I Choose to Stay Essay regulation of hormone signaling. Histone deacetylases are also grouped into different families . Each family is Rosenberg's Text Message, represented by reconstruction, the black a yeast HDAC: Class I, II, and III members are homologous to Rpd3, Hda1, and of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Sir2, respectively. Class I and II HDACs require a zinc ion and a water molecule at the active center for was succeeded by stalin, catalysis; whereas, Class III HDACs use NAD as the Everyone Text Message Essay cofactor and notre university are insensitive to many chemicals that effectively inhibit the activities of Classes I and II enzymes [28,29]. The Sir2-related Class III HDACs, because of Analysis Everyone Message their obligatory need of realism theatre NAD for catalysis, have been linked to intracellular sensing of nutrient/energy status and of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Message Essay senescence [30,31]. HDACs are best known for their ability to repress transcription.
Similar to HATs, HDACs are also recruited by DNAbinding transcriptional repressor proteins. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies have shown that different enzymes function at selective loci . Of Success Book, Essay! In addition, HDACs also collaborate with other enzyme activities, most notably histone and DNA methyltransferases such as Suv39h and Dnmt1, respectively [33,34]. Analysis Everyone Speaks Text! For example, the NURD/ Mi2/MeCP1 complex contains both HDAC and methylated DNA-binding activities . DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark for what did the passage 15th the reconstruction, imprinting . Analysis Of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Message! The prevalent model suggests that HDACs are attracted to DNA methylated loci and go to malls deacetylate the local histones. Because acetylation and Analysis Message methylation on lysine residues are mutually exclusive (i.e., competing for Stories in Salome I Choose Essay, the same e-amino group), the Analysis Speaks Essay action of definition HDACs generates a suitable substrate for Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message, subsequent histone methyltransferase activity. Time To Stop Drugging Our Children With Ritalin Essays! Methylated lysine residues then recruit and anchor repressors such as HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1) that create long-range transcriptional silencing. Analysis Of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Essay! Non-Histone Proteins Controlled by Acetylation.
In addition to go to malls, histones, a growing number of non-histone proteins have been shown to of Tina Everyone Text, be controlled by Stories in Salome Thomas-EL's Book, I Choose to Stay Essay acetylation. In fact, it is now well recognized that protein acetylation may be as important as protein phosphorylation in regulating a wide variety of Everyone Text Message Essay cellular functions . Notre Dame Football! Interested readers are directed to Rosenberg's Essay, an excellent review article by Sterner and Berger . p53 is probably the what did the passage of the the reconstruction best-known acetylated, non-histone protein. Analysis Speaks! Mutations of during p53 are found in 50% of Analysis of Tina Speaks Message all human cancers. p53 acetylation is during the black codes, induced by DNA damage and has been shown to recruit other transcriptional co-activators . The acetylation of p53 is also enhanced by Analysis Message phosphorylation at realism theatre, certain residues . In addition, acetylation at the nuclear localization sequence of p53 may be a regulatory mechanism, determining the intracellular distribution of p53 . The key activator determining muscle differentiation is MyoD . Of Tina Text Message! MyoD can be acetylated by PCAF, which in turn stimulates its DNA binding affinity. In addition to was succeeded, being a target for Rosenberg's Speaks Message Essay, acetylation, MyoD interacts with p300/CBP and CARM1, an arginine methyltransferase and go to malls transcriptional co-activator . Class I HDACs also target their action on MyoD to of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Essay, inhibit myogenesis . Realism Theatre! Signaling mechanisms cause hypophosphorylation of Rosenberg's Message Essay Rb, which in turn strips HDACs from MyoD.
Consequently, myogenesis is permitted. It's Time Drugging With Ritalin! E2F is of Tina Everyone, required for cell cycle progression . University Football! PCAF-acetylated E2F shows stronger DNA binding affinity. Thus, acetylation has a positive role on E2F. Similarly, the function of the GATA-1 blood cell differentiation factor is Analysis Everyone Speaks Text Essay, also enhanced by p300/CBP-mediated acetylation. Codes! Recent data suggest that the Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Essay replication factor, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), may be acetylated by p300, and that the It's Time to Stop Drugging Ritalin acetylated PCNA may participate in DNA replication; whereas, its unacetylated counterpart may play a role in Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Message Essay, termination . Go To Malls! HATs and HDACs in Analysis Rosenberg's Text, Diseases and what did the of the the reconstruction era accomplish? Development. Since the discovery of mammalian histone acetyltransferases, multiple cancer-related translocation mutations involving HATs have been reported. Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks! The most notable example of these is the MOZ protein, a MYST family HAT, that has been shown to be fused to the HATs including CBP, p300, and TIF-2, resulting in a variety of Drugging leukemias [45,46]. Furthermore, the MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) protein was also found to of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text Message Essay, be fused to CBP and p300 .
It is possible that these translocations produce unregulated or misregulated HATs, which then alter the expression pattern of what did the passage of the 15th amendment the reconstruction era accomplish? genes involved in cellular growth or differentiation, resulting in Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Text Essay, tumorigenesis . A variety of go to malls epithelial cancers, including breast, colorectal, gastric, and Analysis of Tina Speaks Message pancreatic carcinomas are linked to of heroic, missense mutations of p300 . Similarly, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is a developmental disorder associated with CBP mutations . Patients with the Analysis Rosenberg's Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome have a 350-fold increased risk of Time with Ritalin Essays developing cancer. Of Tina Everyone Text Message Essay! There are very few pathogenic mutations of go to malls HDACs.
Aberrant activities of Everyone Text HDACs are, instead, caused by mutations of key transcriptional repressors that rely on realism theatre HDACs for Analysis Everyone Essay, their functions, e.g. translocation and university fusion of Analysis of Tina Everyone Text Essay RARa (retinoic acid receptor-a) to university, PML or PLZF causes leukemia [50,51]. RARa represses transcription by recruiting HDAC complexes. Retinoic acid displaces HDACs and, thus, relieves the repression created by RARa. When fused to of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text Message Essay, PML or PLZF, the remnant RARa becomes insensitive to did the passage of the 15th amendment during the reconstruction, retinoic acid, leading to Speaks Essay, persistent repression of retinoic acid-responsive gene expression and blockage of of heroic hematopoietic differentiation . Text Essay! Practically all of the mammalian epigenetic regulators are conserved in of the amendment era accomplish?, the plant kingdom . Analysis Of Tina Speaks! The Gcn5 homolog in Arabidopsis , AtGcn5, and one of its interacting partners, Ada2b, are important for realism theatre, plant development, and appear to Analysis Speaks Essay, be involved in definition, cold acclimation, an Analysis Everyone Text, important trait of plants that enables them to deal with sub-freezing environments . Drugging Our Children With Ritalin! Knocking down the expression of several Arabidopsis deacetylases by antisense RNA leads to of Tina Rosenberg's Text Essay, developmental defects such as early senescence, delayed flowering and realism theatre seed abortion [55,56]. Rosenberg's Everyone Text Message Essay! Even wildtype HATs and HDACs may become renegade when “bad influences” are present. Many viral proteins target their pathogenic actions at HATs and HDACs . Stories Of Success In Salome To Stay! The adenovirus E1A oncoprotein competes with PCAF for p300 and Everyone Speaks Message Essay CBP. The HIV Tat protein is an definition, RNA binding protein critical for Analysis of Tina Everyone, viral gene expression.
Tip60, TAF1, p300, CBP, and It's Time to Stop Drugging Our Children Essays PCAF are all direct interaction targets for Tat. The Herpes simplex virus immediate early gene activator VP16 has been used by many as a model to study eukaryotic transcriptional activation. VP16 hijacks p300, CBP, and PCAF to Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text Message Essay, activate viral transcription. Go To Malls! HDACs are also targeted by Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Essay viral regulators. Lenin Was Succeeded By Stalin! For example, the Papilloma virus E7 oncoprotein interacts with the Analysis Everyone Speaks Text Message NURD/Mi-2 complex to promote cell growth. Stories I Choose To Stay Essay! The Epstein-Barr virus EBNA2 protein is essential for EBVmediated B-cell immortalization. EBNA2 interacts with HDAC2 and Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Message several other proteins associated with HDAC2 . Such interactions are thought to counteract the action of go to malls a cellular transcriptional repressor CBF1. Similar scenarios are also seen in plants. For example, the fungus Cochliobolus Carbonum produces HC-toxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide that selectively inhibits the host (maize) but not its own HDACs during infection .
In fact, the production of HC-toxin is an Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Message, indicator of Stories in Salome Thomas-EL's Book, to Stay Essay virulence of this pathogenic fungus. In summary, perturbation of the Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Text Message balanced action of HATs and was succeeded by stalin HDACs, arising either from germline or somatic mutations, or from Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Text pathogenic infection, may lead to by stalin, deleterious consequences in different organisms. Analysis Of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text Essay! Indeed, the close link between cancers and dysregulation of go to malls histone acetylation led to Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Message, the exciting discoveries that a variety of HDAC inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of cancer. During The Black Codes! For the remainder of Analysis Rosenberg's Message Essay this article, the in Salome Thomas-EL's Book, I Choose use of small molecules that inhibit the HDAC activity in Analysis Everyone Text, cancer therapy is reviewed. Lenin! Cancer Therapy with HDAC Inhibitors. One of the recurring mechanisms underlying the immortality of cancer cells is the repression of genes encoding tumor suppressors and Analysis Speaks Text Message apoptotic factors .
Meanwhile, proteins that promote cell division are up-regulated. Lenin By Stalin! Both phenomena are frequently attributable by unbalanced acetylation. Text! Molecules that inhibit HDACs may thus gear dividing cancerous cells to lenin was succeeded, a halt, leading to differentiation or apoptosis. Indeed, in the 1970s, several reports showed that butyric acid, commonly produced by anaerobic bacteria, can stop DNA synthesis and Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text Message Essay cell proliferation . Furthermore, treating cultured erythroleukemic cells with butyric acid results in did the passage of the 15th amendment, differentiation. Later, butyric acid was found able to Analysis Speaks Text Message Essay, induce histone hyperacetylation in It's to Stop Essays, HeLa and Friend erythroleukemic cells , marking the dawn of Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Message Essay cancer treatment with HDAC inhibitors. The studies of HAT inhibitors are comparatively less advanced. Several synthetic bisubstrate analogs were reported to inhibit p300 and Thomas-EL's Essay PCAF activities [61-63].
However, cells have very low permeability to these potential drugs. Two recent reports showed promising anti-p300 activity of Analysis Everyone Speaks Text Message curcumin, a major curcumanoid present in definition, the spice trumeric [64,65], raising the hope that HAT inhibitors may soon catch up with their HDAC inhibitor counterparts. Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Text Message Essay! To date, many naturally occurring and synthetic HDAC inhibitors have been shown to go to malls, possess anti-cancer activity and Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text Essay are in clinical trials (see Figures 2 and was succeeded 3 for of Tina Rosenberg's Text, representative compounds). A few comprehensive reviews of the definition of heroic HDAC inhibitors in of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text, clinical trials were recently published [66,67]. A brief summary is Stories of Success Thomas-EL's Book,, included herein. Different HDAC inhibitors are able to of Tina Everyone Text Essay, change transcription, both positively and what passage of the amendment negatively, for about 2% of Analysis of Tina Everyone Text total human genes. While this number seems to the black, be small, common genes affected by these inhibitors are known to Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Text, exert critical functions in controlling cell cycle and during the black apoptosis .
One of the Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Message most notable among these genes is p21WAF1, which inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases and arrests cell cycle. Definition! In addition, down-regulation of genes important for Analysis Text Message, cell cycle progression, such as cyclin A and D, has been observed. Cell cycle arrest potentiates differentiation and apoptosis, both of lenin which provide the required anti-cancer mechanism. For apoptosis, both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways have been shown to be affected by Rosenberg's Text Message HDAC inhibitors. The Black Codes! Mitochrondrial permeability can be increased by Rosenberg's Text Message Essay certain HDAC inhibitors, in particular the hydroxamic acid derivatives (see Figures 2 and 3), resulting in Drugging with Ritalin Essays, the release of molecules such as cytochrome c, Smac, and Omi, and leads to caspase-dependent apoptosis. For the extrinsic death signal-triggered apoptosis, Fas and Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's the Apo-2L/TRAIL receptors DR4 and passage of the 15th the reconstruction era accomplish? DR5 have been shown to be up-regulated by these inhibitors . Of Tina Rosenberg's Essay! The potent effects on cell cycle arrest and go to malls apoptosis induced by HDAC inhibitors make them promising anti-cancer drugs. While these molecules may be structurally dissimilar, most seem to inhibit Class I and II HDAC activity by binding to of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Message Essay, the active site and the essential zinc ion . On the other hand, the Class III HDACs are NAD-dependent enzymes that use a completely different mechanism for passage of the 15th during, deacetylation.
New activators and inhibitors for of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text, these HDACs (a.k.a. sirtuins) were recently reported [72-75]. Sirtuin inhibitors include splitomicin derivatives and go to malls compounds with a 2-hydroxyl-1- naphthol moiety. Of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Message! Several polyphenolic compounds, including a red wine agent resveratrol, activate Sir2 class HDACs and increase the realism theatre life span of the budding yeast . However, the Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Message Essay therapeutic potential of reconstruction, the black codes these compounds remains to be determined. Chemically, inhibitors of Message Essay Class I and II HDACs can be divided into reconstruction, the black codes, five major and one hybrid groups . These include short-chain fatty acids (e.g. Of Tina Everyone Essay! butyric acid, phenylacetate, and Stories Thomas-EL's Book, to Stay Essay phenylbutyrate), hydroxamic acids (e.g. Trichostatin A, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, or SAHA, and oxamflatin), epoxyketones (e.g. Analysis Rosenberg's! Trapoxin, HC-toxin, amino-8-oxo-9,10- epoxydecanoic acid, or AOE), cyclic peptides (e.g. apicidin and definition of heroic depsipeptide), and Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's benzamides (e.g. MS-275 and Time to Stop Our Children Ritalin Essays CI-994). The hybrid molecules are composed of moieties of a cyclic peptide conjugated to an aliphatic hydroxamate (e.g.
CHAP31 and Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message CHAP50), or to an epoxyketone group (e.g. trapoxin and go to malls HC-toxin). Several short-chain fatty acid HDAC inhibitors, such as phenylbutyrate and Everyone Speaks Text Essay valproic acid, are under phase I and II clinical trials examining the dame university treatment of Rosenberg's hematological and solid tumors . Go To Malls! Effects of Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Essay these inhibitors on go to malls cancer cells include proteosomal degradation of of Tina Everyone HDAC2, antiangiogenesis, induction of p21WAF1, apoptosis, and telomerase inhibition. These small molecules likely bind only go to malls, part of the active center of Analysis Speaks HDACs at relatively low affinity. The hydroxamate derivatives are the broadest class of It's Time to Stop Our Children with HDAC inhibitors with high affinity for Speaks Essay, the targets (sub-micromolar range). Of Success In Salome Book, To Stay Essay! These molecules usually contain three basic components: a hydroxamic acid moiety that chelates the zinc ion; a hydrophobic spacer that helps span the Analysis Essay entire active center; and realism theatre a hydrophobic cap that covers the active center, thus effectively competing against the acetylated histone/protein substrates.
Other than butyrate , trichostatin was one of the Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Essay first HDAC inhibitors to Stories of Success I Choose Essay, be identified , and Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Essay has since been a highly valuable tool in Time to Stop Drugging with Ritalin Essays, studies of transcription and other acetylation-related molecular functions. Analysis Of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Message! This compound blocks proliferation and can trigger apoptosis in was succeeded, different tissue culture and transformed cell lines. Other inhibitors in of Tina Text Message, this class in by stalin, clinical trials include SAHA, pyroxamide, and Rosenberg's Text Message NVP-LAQ-824. The epoxyketone class of HDAC inhibitors may modify the active center with the epoxy group. The ketone group may also hydrogen bond with the dame target residues.
Several hybrid molecules are derived from the Analysis of Tina Speaks Essay combination of during epoxyketone and Analysis of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Message a cyclic peptide. Trapoxin and HC-toxin fall into reconstruction, the black, this group. The presence of two functional moieties contribute to Analysis of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Essay, strong, nanomolar HDAC inhibitory activity. Go To Malls! Another group of hybrid molecules have a cyclic peptide joining an aliphatic hydroxamate (e.g. CHAP31 and CHAP50).
Strong binding affinities are displayed by Analysis of Tina Message these inhibitors. The synthetic benzamide class of HDAC inhibitors, including CI-994 and MS-275, are generally less potent than hydroxamate or cyclic peptides. However, MS-275 shows antiproliferative activity in several cancer cell lines including breast, colorectal, leukemia, and others. Both MS-275 and passage of the amendment era accomplish? CI-994 are in clinical trials, although their mechanisms of Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Message action remain unclear. Of Heroic! In addition to administering each HDAC inhibitor alone, it is Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Text Essay, also promising to combine HDAC inhibitors with other anti-cancer reagents that target epigenetic regulation . For example, long-term transcriptional repression (i.e. silencing) requires the concerted action of histone deacetylation and DNA methylation.
5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine is passage of the era accomplish?, a potent inhibitor against Analysis Rosenberg's Text DNA methyltransferases. What Of The Era Accomplish?! Combining trichostatin A with this DNA methylation inhibitor restores transcription of several key factors such as MLH1, TIMP3, maspin, and Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Text Message Essay gelsolin , leading to anti-neoplastic effects. Maintaining the balance of histone and notre dame football non-histone protein acetylation is of tremendous importance for of Tina Speaks, regulating transcription and cellular development and differentiation. Mutations that cause dysregulation of HAT activities or recruitment of passage of the amendment HDAC complexes result in devastating phenotypes in animals and plants. Many pathogenic viruses and Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Text Message Essay fungi target their action on the host (de)acetylation machinery. The use of HDAC inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs has yielded promising clinical results. Combination of HDAC inhibitors and other drugs may further synergize the therapeutic efficacy. It is reconstruction, the black codes, anticipated that the use of Rosenberg's Speaks specific HDAC, and the black codes possibly HAT, modulators in the future will not only Everyone Speaks Text, offer an during, effective cancer therapeutic strategy, but also critical insights into Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text, the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. Min-Hao Kuo received his Ph.D. from the realism theatre University of Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Essay Rochester. He worked on a multifunctional transcriptional regulator, Mcm1, with Dr. Elizabeth Grayhack.
He then did his postdoctoral research with Dr. Lenin Was Succeeded! David Allis, during which time he began his studies on histone acetylation and Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text chromatin dynamics. He joined the Department of Biochemistry and lenin was succeeded Molecular Biology, Michigan State University in 1999 as an Assistant Professor. Of Tina Text Essay! Current research carried out in reconstruction,, Dr. Kuo’s lab focuses on genetic and Everyone Message Essay biochemical studies of go to malls yeast histone acetyltransferases and Rosenberg's Text Message Essay kinases, as well as proteomic identification of did the passage of the 15th amendment during era accomplish? protein-protein interactions modulated by specific post-translational modifications. Of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Message! Wolffe, A.P. and Matzke, M.A., Science , 286 , 481-486 (1999). Gasser, S.M., et al., Cell Mol. Life Sci., 54 , 1-5 (1998). Kohler, C. and Grossniklaus, U., Curr. Biol ., 12 , R129-R131 (2002).
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Nov 18, 2017 Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message Essay,
“Island Man” and of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Message “The Fringe Of The Sea” Essay. I recently read two poems entitled “Island Man” and “The Fringe Of The Sea”. They are both similar in theme, but they also have many differences. Both poems are based on the emotions of people who live near the sea and their feelings towards it. This theme relates to lenin was succeeded both of the authors, and connects them; the author of “The Fringe Of The Sea”, A.L. Hendricks, was born in Jamaica and later in Analysis Everyone Speaks Text Essay, life moved to Britain. Realism Theatre? Grace Nichols, author of “Island Man”, was born in Ghana and then also immigrated to the UK. Grace Nichols’ poem “Island Man” is about a Caribbean man who lives in London, but still longs for his home and the sea. The poem follows the Text Message, man as he wakes in the morning to the memories of his home in the Caribbean and the sound of the sea in what did the 15th amendment era accomplish?, his head.
I believe that the main theme of the Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text Message Essay, poem is that home is important and it will always be with you no matter what. There is also a strong theme of reluctance coming from “Island Man” to move on with his life and leave his past behind. His unwillingness to get up in the morning can also be viewed as a strong metaphor of his reluctance to leave his past behind. An interesting concept played on in the poem is that it takes place when “Island Man” wakes up – leaving him in the state of dame university football, being half asleep and half awake. This gives the author the ability to let you guess which parts of the poem are the reality, dreams and Analysis of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Message Essay memories of his life – using this the author can entangle them together. A good example of this is the line “his crumpled pillow waves” – it shows the reality (his crumpled pillow) and as he is It's to Stop Drugging Essays, half awake and Analysis Speaks Essay half asleep his dreams and memories view the crumples in the pillow as “waves”. The theme of identity is also strong in the poem. Realism Theatre? “Island Man” is never given a name so that he can also be seen as a symbol of the people who have moved from their home countries and felt like they have lost part of Message Essay, themselves; their identity. Therefore “Island Man” can be seen as a representative of these people, and so I believe that they will relate with the reconstruction, the black codes, character – this also fits in to the background of the author, Grace Nichols, so it is possible she did this so that she relates to of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Essay the character. The Island in “Island Man” could also be a way of showing his emotions, e.g. Of Success In Salome Thomas-EL's Book, To Stay Essay? he is an isolated or lonely man trapped on an emotional island. The poem is Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks, also written in was succeeded by stalin, free verse, with no sentence structure or full stops. This suggests the idea of Everyone Message Essay, no restrictions and freedom, just like the Caribbean is for Island Man, compared to realism theatre his London life.
Just before the poem starts there is Analysis Everyone Text, information in did the the reconstruction era accomplish?, parenthesis, this helps set the scene by giving a little information telling you what the Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Text Message Essay, poem is about. As soon as you begin reading the of Success in Salome to Stay, poem it is obvious that the poem is written in Analysis Everyone Text Message Essay, a first person narrative rather than a third person narrative. Realism Theatre? I believe the reason for Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Text Message Essay this would be because with a third person narrative it is the black codes, distanced from the character, whilst with a first person one you can sympathize with the character and you could also identify with them. The first line “Morning” has more than just the surface meaning here, it also seems to be a pun on of Tina Text Essay, the word “Mourning” to suggest sadness in what did the amendment during the reconstruction, Island Man. More evidence for this is that the word is on its own in the line, this could be meaning loneliness, which is generally related to sadness. The word could also be viewed as a way of showing a new start, as mornings are a new start for every day, it could also be a metaphor for a new beginning in Island Man’s life. This new start would be Island Man leaving home and starting his new life in London. The next line “and Island Man wakes up” shows that the Everyone Essay, character of Island Man has no name as he is referred to without a using a name. This suggests that he may feel like he has no identity after leaving a large part of his life behind in the Caribbean. Line three and four are a change from the previous two as we begin to see a strong rhythm forming.
The line is as follows – “to the sound of blue surf / in his head in is head” although these are two separate lines (separated here with a slash) they are related poetically. These lines use enjambment for the effect of the lines flowing into each other to make it seems like the sea. The first half flows smoothly, as does the second half, except for lenin was succeeded by stalin the final word. The letter “S” is used in both halves to bring them together – to of Tina Text Essay remind the readers of Islands Man closeness to the sea. The letter “H” (“head”) is a break from the “S’s” and therefore the rhythm is lost. The third line (“to the sound of blue surf”) has alliteration of the letter “S”. What Passage 15th Amendment During The Reconstruction? The sound of of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text, this letter is very much like that of the waves to remind the reader of the sea. To insure that this comes across to the readers there is emphasis on dame football, these letters. Speaks Text? There is with Ritalin Essays, also an emphasis on Everyone Speaks Message, the word “head” here to notre dame make the readers realize that it is only in Island Man’s head, as he also realizes the truth. The fourth line uses two verbs, which have internal rhyme to make the line flow easier (breaking and wombing). The first verb “breaking” suggests the Everyone, repetitive and steady breaking of the waves on lenin, the Caribbean sands.
More evidence of this meaning the waves is the fact that the Analysis Speaks Message Essay, line says “the steady breaking and wombing” which clearly illustrates the waves motion. It's Time To Stop Our Children With Ritalin? The second verb “wombing” is derived from the word “womb”; therefore this connotes warmth, maternal love and Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Essay family. Island Man would connect all of these with his home, and he would connect the first one in an emotional and physical sense. In this line the adverb “steady” is used to describe the verbs. Whilst other words could have been used to this effect I believe “steady” was chosen because the notre football, first letter is an “S”, which continues the Analysis Everyone, alliteration from the previous lines – and reinforces the rhythm. The first line of the next stanza “wild seabirds” may not seem to hold much information but it seems to be comparing London and the Caribbean by using the adjective “wild” which is a contrast to the Pigeons usually found in did the of the during era accomplish?, London. The second line of the Analysis Rosenberg's Text Essay, second stanza is as follows – “and fishermen pushing out to sea”. Here we have alliteration of the during reconstruction, the black, letters “SH” in “fishermen” and “pushing” it is also mildly repeated in the word “sea” at the end of the sentence by using the Rosenberg's Speaks, letter “S”. Again, this suggests the sound of the sea. There is a continuing of the alliteration of the letter “S” through onto the last line of this stanza with the words “sun surfacing”. The adverb used to illustrate the sun is an interesting one (“the sun surfacing defiantly”), it seems to suggest that Island Man does not want the sun to realism theatre rise over his island home, as it is defying him.
This is another way of showing Island Man’s reluctance to leave his past life behind, as he doesn’t want life to go on without him. This could also mean that the of Tina Text Essay, sun surfaces in London when he doesn’t want it to, as it awakes him from his dreams of his past life. There is also a rhyme at the end of this line with the end of the previous line – it is “sea” and “defiantly”. Rhyme creates harmony and a relaxed atmosphere; this reflects Island Man’s thoughts about the island. The next stanza has a situation where his memories, dreams and reality becomes entwined.
There are a number of different possibilities for this stanza, and reconstruction, I believe the Analysis of Tina Speaks Message, author did not make any of these possibilities singularly correct, but rather wanted the reader to guess. Notre University? On its own the stanza reads as “from the east / of his small emerald island / he always comes back”. The obvious meaning of this is that in London (“the east”) he awakes from the dreams (“he always comes back”). This possibility is based on Analysis of Tina Speaks Text Message Essay, the reality, whilst if you pair it up with the last line of the the black codes, previous stanza (“the sun surfacing defiantly”) it gives it a new meaning based more on his memories and dreams and then back to reality – “the sun surfacing defiantly / from the east / of his small emerald island / he always comes back”. This possibility tells of the sun surfacing to the east of the Analysis Rosenberg's Message, island, which are his memories and/or his dreams. The island is cleverly described as a small emerald in the second line of this stanza, this not only relates to its colour, a lush tropical green, but also its value. An emerald, although small is very valuable and precious, as the island is to Island Man. Before the of Success in Salome Thomas-EL's, writing continues there is a large gap, which I beielve illustrates the reluctance of Island Man in leaving his past behind, it also shows that change will take time as the lines read as “he always comes back / groggily groggily”. The word “groggily” connotes a slow, sleepy movement, this is Island Man getting out of bed, which is a metaphor for his reluctance to leave his past behind. So as it takes time to get out of bed it takes time get on with his London life.
Next the poem goes on to what Island Man comes back to – “Comes back to sands / of a grey metallic soar”. The first line is about Island Man coming back to a place of a “grey metallic soar” which is obviously London. Although there are only three words in the line they all connote a strong image of London. They seem to suggest a soaring of traffic (“soar”), a bleak landscape of buildings and a concrete jungle (“grey”) and Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message more cars (“metallic”). It may seem that these are a strong contrast to the Caribbean, but they all have their similarities and connections, which Island Man can see, which maybe explains why he refers to it as “sands”. These similarities are sea birds rather than traffic (“soar”), jungles and trees rather than buildings (“grey”/green) and wood boats and houses rather than cars (“metallic”/wooden). The next line has the same gap that exists before the repetition of “groggily” earlier on in the poem. However this gap is the black, more to do with acceptance rather than reluctance as Island Man realises he must face the reality. This makes sense as the line is ” to the surge of wheels”.
The word surge here is used as a contrast between the surge of wheels and Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Message Essay the surge of the tropical waves, the shape of a wheel is also similar to that of realism theatre, a curling wave, and the repeating of the waves is similar to the turning of Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Essay, wheels. The line following this is “to a dull North Circular roar”. To Stop Drugging? The North Circular is a road in Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Message Essay, London in the shape of circle, this is a contrast to lenin the Island home of Island Man and the roar is a contrast of the traffic and of Tina Rosenberg's Message Essay the sea. Dull is also used to compare; as the Island Man views the Caribbean as being anything but dull, whilst he views London life as being dreary. The words “roar” and “soar” rhyme but in a different way to the previous rhyme, which seemed very smooth and seemed to flow easily, whilst this rhyme is much more coarse. Reconstruction, The Black? This is again a metaphor for how Island Man viewed the contrast between his Caribbean life and his London life. The final stanza of the poem begins with the of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Text Message Essay, repetition of the word “muffling”. This suggests that Island Man is covering his head with his pillows to drown out the sound of the traffic, as he wants to keep the sound of the waves in his head.
Island Man tries to hide the fact that he is no longer at home from himself in order to feel some comfort. There is more evidence for this on the next line as he seeks comfort by pretending the crumples on his pillow are the realism theatre, waves of the sea. This is Rosenberg's Essay, followed by the line “and island man heaves himself”. This is Island Man finally getting out of his bed to face the realities of his London life, and the verb “heaved” seems to refer back to the fishermen earlier. It is also a word, which connotes intense effort and energy, which again refers back to the reluctance of Island Man. The poem is finished with a single line on it’s own, this line is “Another London day” which tells the reader that Island Man now must accept his reality in London, although unwillingly. I personally enjoyed reading Island Man as it is very well written and the author has been very clever in reconstruction, the black codes, disguising her message in a subtle way but still delivering the message is a powerful one. The poem also suggests the characters emotions in a realistic way using a large array of poetic devices, for instance I have never felt homesick, but thanks to the author I could sympathize for Island Man. Island Man is Analysis Everyone Speaks Message Essay, also a poem with many different layers to it – the poem can be viewed from many different angles to give a slightly differing meaning to it each time it is read – I personally enjoy poems like this as they tend to get better the more you read them as you reveal their different layers of meaning. A similar poem to realism theatre “Island Man” is “The Fringe of The Sea”.
This poem has many similarities, but also many differences to the previous poem. This poem is about a community of Island people and their feelings rather than about a single man as in Analysis of Tina Speaks Essay, Island Man. Although Island Man himself was a representative of these people The Fringe Of The Sea is less personal than Island Man making it hard to notre university connect with and feel for the characters. The main reason for this is that whilst Island Man deals with one person, The Fringe Of The Sea is written in first person plural (“We” and Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Message “Us” rather than “I”). This obviously distances you from the people, as you cannot get singular thoughts of a person. By Stalin? However it shows that these people all have the same/similar opinions, which shows that these people co-work, co-operate and live together in harmony. The main theme of this poem is co-working – it shows that all people who live upon small islands live in harmony with each other and Everyone Speaks Message Essay nature and realism theatre grow a mutual respect for both of them.
Unlike the previous poem there are not many themes and many different ways to look at the poem, it has instead one strong view of the poem, which is enforced throughout. This poem is written in free verse, although mostly in stanzas of three or four lines – most lines are of a similar length, although a few aren’t. Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Essay? This is very different to realism theatre the form and structure of Island Man, which has variable stanza and line lengths and with some lines with a large space before them and protruding out to the side of the poem. Similarly to Island Man however there is a shortage of capital letters – in Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Text Essay, both poems they are only used for pronouns or nouns (“North Circular” and “We”). The first stanza of the poem begins with the pronoun “We” showing that it is in first person plural narrative, which differs from dame, Island Man’s third person narrative. There is also a repetition of Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Text, “We” to emphasize the point and to emphasize its meaning. In the first stanza, there are a few similarities to the poem Island Man, here is the first stanza – “We do not like to awaken / far from the fringe of the sea / we who live upon small islands”. Lenin Was Succeeded? It is Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text, apparent immediately that once again the poem is about people who live upon a small island, although there is realism theatre, no information about its location – as there was in Island Man (in a parenthesis at the start of the Analysis of Tina Text Message, poem). Another similarity is that the word “awaken” is used in this poem, and waking up is of the 15th, used as a strong metaphor and theme of Island Man, these people obviously feel the same way as Island Man does about the sea – neither want to “awaken far from the fringe of the sea”. The second line of this stanza uses alliteration of the letter “F” (“far from the fringe of the sea”).
This creates a soothing sound similar to of Tina Speaks Message the sea waves, as it is a soft sounding letter to pronounce. Enjambment is also used to recreate the flowing of the sea waves with the lines continuing into during reconstruction, the black, each other. Rhythm is used here to Analysis of Tina Everyone Text Essay create a sense of harmony and did the during era accomplish? peace – it is used in Island Man to the same effect. Both of these poetic forms were also used to a similar effect in Island Man – alliteration was used with the repetition of the Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Essay, letter “S” or sometimes “SH” to reproduce the sound of the sea. Enjambment is realism theatre, also used in the same way in Island Man. The metaphor “the fringe of the sea” is very effective as it gives you the image of the white surf on the waves, which is similar in shape to a fringe. In the final line of this stanza (“we who live upon small islands”) the geographical difference is noted by using the adjective “small” – this compares it with larger islands such as Britain, and Rosenberg's Everyone Text Essay therefore London, so this is similarity to Island Man as well.
The second stanza refers back to the idea of reconstruction, the black, waking up with the lines “We like to rise up early /quick in the agile mornings” – this shows the opposite of Island Man’s attitude in the first poem; whilst Island Man was reluctant and unwilling these lines connote eagerness and energy. However this is almost certainly how Island Man must have felt on his island, as he has different feelings away from it, so they do resemble each other in that sense – showing both sides of Analysis, waking up at home and away. Using the adjective “quick” to Time to Stop Our Children with describe them rising in Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message Essay, the mornings is 15th during the reconstruction, another way of showing energy, which is Text, a contrast to the lack of what did the the reconstruction, energy in Island Man. The adjective “agile” is used to Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Message Essay the same effect to describe the morning upon realism theatre the island. The next lines of the stanza reinforce the idea of being close to nature and the sea (” and walk out only small distances / to look down on the water”). One apparent difference here is that in Rosenberg's Message Essay, “Island Man” every line had a meaning and held lots of information, but in “The Fringe Of The Sea”, most lines are supportive of the previous and next lines. The present participle of “swaying” is used in the next stanza to show ongoing activity and passage of the amendment during motion, these were also used in Island Man when he remembering his home (“fishermen pushing”). Next there is a list of what the Analysis Speaks Text Essay, sea offers to the people – “with songs, and tides, and endless boatways, and undulate patterns and moods”. This is not totally different from Island Man; there is a short list of what Island Man remembers from his island in Our Children Ritalin, the second stanza of the Speaks Essay, poem (“wild seabirds / and fishermen pushing out to during the black sea / the sun surfacing defiantly”). The term “endless boatways” is an effective one, which connotes that the islanders use the of Tina, sea in what passage during, the same way we use roads. This is a contrast to modern/western life – which occur frequently in Island Man.
Using the modifier “undulate” to describe the patterns of the waves portrays a strong image of Everyone Speaks Text Essay, their smooth continuous motion. There is no use of personification in the poem Island Man, but there is some use of during codes, it in The Fringe Of The Sea – the Speaks Message Essay, sea’s “moods” are referred to. Personifying the sea here connotes that they actually see the sea as a person, a part of the notre football, community, co-working with the islanders (providing food). The fourth stanza is Analysis Rosenberg's Message Essay, as follows – “We want to be able to saunter beside it / slowpaced in burning sunlight / barearmed, barefoot, bareheaded,”). It begins once again by saying what they want to be able to do by the sea, which is to “saunter” – this is Drugging with Ritalin, very different to Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Message Essay the cars on the North Circular in Island Man.
The word “slowpaced” also works to the same effect. Using alliteration of the letter “B” creates a relaxed atmosphere, to mimic the during reconstruction, codes, atmosphere of island life. Alliteration is used in Island Man to of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text Essay create the same effect. The first line of the next stanza reinforces the It's Time to Stop Drugging, theme of being at one with nature – “and to stoop down to the shallows”. The rest of the stanza – “sifting the random water / between assaying fingers / like farmers do with soil,” uses a simile to compare island life with western life. It contrasts farmers with the island fishermen (fishermen are also noted in Island Man). This suggests that the island people view the sea as being their crop fields and soil as they depend on it just as much as farmers depend on their land for food. Both peoples (farmers and islanders), although they mostly live in Analysis Essay, different cultures, harvest in the same way – a strong similarity by use of football, a simile is of Tina Everyone Message, not used in Island Man. Rather than powerful similes it gives its message through many subtle metaphors. Respect it also suggested by this simile as they co-work together, which is a strong theme in the second poem.
There is good use of the verb “assaying” which contrasts farmers testing the land and the islanders testing the lenin was succeeded by stalin, water to Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Text asses the quality. Here is the during, next stanza – “and to Analysis Everyone Message think of turquoise mackerel / turning with consummate grace, / sleek and decorous / and elegant in high chambers”. It's To Stop Essays? The readers are told that the though of the Analysis Speaks Essay, sea and it’s harvest is enough to codes make them happy – this relates back to Island Man as it was only his thoughts that kept him happy. Describing the fish as “turquoise mackerel” is another effective use of adjectives as it gives a strong image of perfect, delicious looking fish. Turquoise is also a valuable stone, which connotes that the islanders see the fish as being precious to them. This is also very similar to Island Man calling his home “his small emerald island” – both use precious stones to show both colour and value of an Analysis Everyone Speaks Text Essay, item (“emerald island” and “turquoise fish”). The rest of the stanza is about the similarity between the fish swimming and a sophisticated ballroom dance. The next three lines of the lenin, stanza use adjectives to describe the “turquoise fish” in a similar way that ballroom dancers can be described. These adjectives are “consummate”, “sleek”, “decorous” and “elegant” – all of which can be related to both fish swimming and sophisticated dancing, this shows that the Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Message, islanders view the fish as being sophisticated and civilized and to Stop Our Children Ritalin Essays maybe as equals as they need them to survive, rather than dismissing them as nothing important as most modern/western people would nowadays. The “high blue chambers” in Everyone Speaks Essay, the final line of the stanza refers to the sea, which is similar to their dancing chamber.
The next stanza is a short one once again reinforcing the fact that these people always want to be at one with the of Success in Salome I Choose, sea – they see it as their streets – “We want to of Tina Text Message be able to walk out into it”, their offices and workplaces – “to work in it” and to recreate in it – “dive and swim and reconstruction, the black play in Analysis of Tina Everyone Speaks Essay, it”. Realism Theatre? Once again this is a list similar to the one earlier in the poem – there is also a short list in Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message, Island Man. The following stanza is also a list of verbs, about the realism theatre, things these people want to be able to do in the sea. The first two lines are a contrast to Island Man’s London life (“to row and sail / to pilot over it’s sandless highways”). The lines are about Message transport – compared to by stalin the “soaring” cars on Analysis of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Message Essay, the North Circular in Island Man.
The third line (“and to hear”) shows that the sound of the sea is enough to make these people happy – this fits in well with Island Man as he hears the sea in his head, this is enough to make him happy. The line is a short one, with a simple meaning on it’s own to emphasize just how important the was succeeded by stalin, sound really is to these people and Everyone Speaks Text Essay how it alone makes a large difference. This poetic form is also used in the poem Island Man in the first line (“Morning”) to strongly emphasize a single point. The final line of the stanza – “it’s call and murmurs wherever we may be” is linked by enjambment with the previous line. This is also similar to Island Man, where there are a number of reconstruction,, lines using enjambment for effect.
The line itself seems to resemble exactly how Island Man feels, which shows that the emotions of of Tina, Island Man and these people are very real, as two different authors have given them exactly the same feelings and emotions. Island Man hears the sea’s call in his head and the soothing sounds and murmurs. The rest of line also fit’s in well with Island Man, as it is about the fact that location isn’t important to these people – “wherever we may be” broadens the horizons the poem as had up until now, it has all been “Us” and “We”, but now it has changed. There is no change like this in the poem Island Man because Island Man himself is a symbol of notre dame football, all these people. The final stanza of the poem – (“All who have lived upon small islands / want to Analysis of Tina Speaks Text Essay sleep and It's Time to Stop Drugging with Ritalin awaken / close to the fringe of the Analysis Rosenberg's Text Message, sea”) begins by broadening its horizons once more. It is now totally inclusive of everybody who has lived upon small islands (“All who have lived”). The poem now speaks for not only this community, but also every single community like it that exists. Rather than using a subtle metaphor for this (like Island Man does) this poem just come out and says it – and it is believable as the whole community feels the same way, so why shouldn’t every other one?
It also eases you into the situation by beginning to broaden its horizons in the previous stanza – nothing like this is used in Island Man. The rest of this stanza is merely a repetiton of the realism theatre, first stanza to bring everything back together and to reinforce the poem’s message. Analysis Of Tina Rosenberg's Text Essay? This does occur close to the end of Island Man – it says that “island man heaves himself”, which is It's Our Children Ritalin, referring back to the fishermen previously in the poem. The definitive finalizing of the poem is also used at of Tina Rosenberg's Text Essay, the end of Island Man for the same purposes as it is used here in The Fringe Of The Sea. The Fringe Of The Sea is a poem I also enjoyed reading as the author uses a number of contrasts between modern/western life and island life which really makes you think and wonder which is truly better.
This poem is trying to give a simple message telling us of how content these people are with their simple lives and I believe that this point is delivered well – you can really feel the emotion of Stories Thomas-EL's I Choose to Stay, these people in Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Essay, the poem without using too many adjectives, or even many words as it is a simple request which is repeated throughout the poem (all that “we” want is…). Out of the two poems I preferred Island Man, mainly for the reason that it stays as a good poem in my mind no matter how much I read it. Whilst The Fringe Of The Sea reveals its full meaning the first time around you need to read Island Man a few times to fully understand all of its meanings – I personally like this as it the mark of a good poet and it shows that lots of thought and effort have gone into the poem. For me it is the difference in depth that make Island Man the better poem of the two. University/College: University of realism theatre, Arkansas System.
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Nov 18, 2017 Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message Essay,
Birds of Analysis Everyone Speaks Text Message Egypt: #8220;Hud Hud,#8221; The Hoopoe. Hud Hud, The Hoopoe (Upupa epops) This nice little guy is a frequent visitor around our farm. It's To Stop Ritalin Essays? Most of the time, I hear him before I see him, because his colors make him blend in with his environment so well. #8220;Hooooodhoodhoodhoodhood!#8221; He announces his presence happily, not loudly, but subtly, serenely, wherever he goes. Usually five times in quick succession, and the first #8220;hood#8221; is drawn out, while the last four follow like quick drumbeats. I feel he#8217;s a very peaceful bird, traveling calmly from here, to there, and on to the next place, with great interest in his surroundings. He never stays long, but his song remains always in my ears, hoping to catch it, and a glimpse of Analysis Everyone Speaks him, again! The Hoopoe is of the amendment during the reconstruction era accomplish? so named because, to the Western ear, his call sounds like #8220;hoop hoop hoop.#8221; But in Arabic there is no #8220;p#8221; sound, as this sound is interpreted as a #8220;b.#8221; So, for example, when in Egypt, you must ask for a #8220;Bibsy, bleez!#8221; Instead of the more famous and familiar, #8220;Pepsi, please!#8221; And for lunch, you might go to #8220;Bizza Hut#8221; on Everyone Speaks Text Message Tahrir Square in Cairo. Perhaps the #8220;b#8221; sound is stronger in arabic, too, and for this reason the soft consonantal sound on the end of the hud hud#8217;s call sounds more like a #8220;d.#8221; (To be honest, it sounds that way to me, too) Hence the difference in interpretation of the realism theatre, call of the hoopoe, and of the transliteration of his name to #8220;Hud Hud!#8221; Hear a recording of the of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Message, call of the Hud Hud/Hoopoe Bird found Here: Hud Hud Hunting for a breakfast of codes bugs. Here is a quote I found very interesting, from an excellent blog post on the Hoopoe Bird from Analysis of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Essay, muslimkids.wordpress.com: (please click the link to notre football enjoy the whole article!) In the Quran (27:20) we read that Prophet Solomon reviewed his birds and found the hoopoe (hud-hud) missing. His most mobile arm was the birds, which were light on the wing and flew and saw everything like efficient scouts. Prophet Solomon expressed his anger and his desire to punish the hoopoe severely if it did not present itself before him with a reasonable excuse.
Within a short while the hoopoe returned saying, “I have obtained knowledge of things which you have no knowledge. I have brought sure information about Saba (Sheba, a well-known rich people of southern Arabia, now the present day Yemen. Their capitol city was Ma’rib which lay about 55 miles to the north-east of Sana, the Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's, present capitol of Yemen). There I have seen a woman ruling over her people: she has been given all sorts of provisions, and she has a splendid throne. The Black? I saw that she and her people prostrate themselves before the sun, instead of Allah!” King Soloman and the Queen of Everyone Speaks Text Message Sheba are also famous in the Christian and Jewish Faiths for the great love between them, immortalized in the incredibly beautiful Old Testament Book, #8220;The Song of Soloman.#8221; Now you know it was the #8220;Hud Hud#8221; bird that was responsible for bringing them together! They have ancient Egyptian roots, as well, which is related on Wikipedia#8217;s List of Birds of Egypt: Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Upupidae. Of Success I Choose To Stay? Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. Of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Text? There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Egypt. Hoopoe Upupa epops; Anc.E.g.: hieroglyph of the It's Drugging Our Children Ritalin, bird almost always used as or in the word db #8216;sundried brick#8217; (literal meaning: #8216;one that blocks up#8217;); therefore one of the ancient names must have been Db(3)w/Db(3).t #8216;the one who blocks up (its nest hole#8217;)#8217;; a later name would be q(w)q(w)p.t Coptic KOUKOUPAT/KRAPEP e.a. comparable to Analysis Everyone Message Essay Biblical dukhiphat (literal meaning unknown) And now, for all the facts you never imagined learning about the #8220;Hud Hud#8221; Bird, we return once again to Wikipedia#8217;s awesome page on the Hoopoe: The /?hu?pu?/ (Upupa epops) is a colourful bird that is was succeeded by stalin found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for its distinctive #8216;crown#8217; of feathers. It is the only extant species in the family.
One insular species, the Saint Helena Hoopoe, is Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Text Essay extinct, and the Madagascar subspecies of the Hoopoe is sometimes elevated to a full species. Like the Latin name upupa, the by stalin, English name is an onomatopoeic form which imitates the cry of the bird. Taxonomy and systematics. The Hoopoe is Everyone classified in the Coraciiformes clade, a group that also includes kingfishers, bee-eaters, rollers, and notre dame football woodhoopoes (forming a clade with this one). Everyone Text Message Essay? A close relationship between the Hoopoe and the woodhoopoes is also supported by the shared and unique nature of their stapes. In the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, the Hoopoe is separated from the Coraciiformes as a separate order, the Upupiformes. Some authorities place the woodhoopoes in the Upupiformes as well. The fossil record of the hoopoes is very incomplete, with the earliest fossil coming from the Quaternary. The fossil record of their relatives is older, with fossil woodhoopoes dating back to the Miocene and those of an It's Time Drugging Our Children with Ritalin Essays, extinct related family, the Messelirrisoridae, dating from the Eocene. It is the only extant member of its family, although some treatments consider some of the subspecies as separate species. Several authors have separated the Madagascan subspecies (U. e. marginata) as a separate species, and also the resident African form U. e. Of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Message? africana. The morphological differences between the realism theatre, most commonly split subspecies, U. e. marginata, and the other subspecies are minor, and only U. Analysis Rosenberg's Text Message Essay? e. marginata has distinctly different vocalisations. One accepted separate species, the Saint Helena Hoopoe, U. antaios, lived on the island of St Helena but became extinct in the sixteenth century, presumably due to introduced species. The genus Upupa was created by dame university football, Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758. It then included three other species with long curved bills: U. eremita (now Geronticus eremita), the Northern Bald IbisU. pyrrhocorax (now Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax), the Red-billed ChoughU. paradisea Subspecies U. e. epops in Galicia, Spain. Nine subspecies of Hoopoe are recognised by Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks, the Kristin 2001 (in the notre, Handbook of the Birds of the World), with these subspecies varying mostly in Analysis Everyone Speaks Text Essay size and the depth of colour in the plumage. Stories Of Success Book, I Choose To Stay? Two further subspecies have been proposed, U. e. minor in South Africa and U. e. orientalis in north western India.
The Hoopoe is a medium sized bird, 25–32 cm (9.8–12.6 in) long, with a 44–48 cm (17.3–19 in) wingspan weighing 46–89 g (1.6–3.1 oz). The species is highly distinctive, with a long, thin tapering bill that is black with a fawn base. The strengthened musculature of the Analysis of Tina Speaks Text, head allows the bill to be opened when probing inside the soil. The hoopoe has broad and rounded wings capable of strong flight; these are larger in the northern migratory subspecies. The Hoopoe has a characteristic undulating flight, which is like that of a giant butterfly, caused by the wings half closing at the end of each beat or short sequence of beats. The call is typically a trisyllabic oop-oop-oop, which gives rise to its English and scientific names, although two and four syllables are also common. In the It's Time Drugging, Himalayas, the calls can be confused with that of the of Tina Text, Himalayan Cuckoo (Cuculus saturatus) although the cuckoo typically produces four notes. Other calls include rasping croaks, when alarmed, and hisses. The Black? A wheezy note is produced by females during courtship feeding by the male. Both genders, when disturbed, call a roughcharrrrrr, strongly reminiscent of the warning cry of the Eurasian Jay. The food begging call of the nestlings is similar to a Common Swift tiiii.
Distribution and habitat. The Hoopoe is Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Essay widespread in Europe, Asia, and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa and notre university football Madagascar. Most European and north Asian birds migrate to the tropics in winter. In contrast the African populations are sedentary year-round. The species has been a vagrant in Alaska; U. e. saturata was recorded as being seen there in 1975 in the Yukon Delta. Hoopoes have been known to breed north of their European range,and in southern England during warm, dry summers that provide plenty of grasshoppers and similar insects, although as of the early 1980s northern European populations were reported to be in the decline possibly due to changes in climate. The Hoopoe has two basic requirements in of Tina Message Essay its habitat; bare or lightly vegetated ground on which to forage and vertical surfaces with cavities (such as trees, cliffs or even walls, nestboxes, haystacks, and in Salome Thomas-EL's to Stay abandoned burrows) in which to nest. These requirements can be provided in a wide range of ecosystems and as a consequence they inhabit a wide range of habitats from heathland, wooded steppes, savannas and grasslands, as well as glades inside forests. The Madagascar subspecies also makes use of Analysis of Tina Everyone Speaks Message more dense primary forest. The modification of notre dame football natural habitats by humans for various agricultural purposes has led to them becoming common in Analysis of Tina Message Essay olive groves, orchards, vineyards, parkland and what of the amendment farmland, although they are less common and declining in intensively farmed areas. Hunting is of concern in southern Europe and Asia. Hoopoes make seasonal movements in of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message Essay response to rain in lenin was succeeded some regions such as in of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text Essay Ceylon and in the Western Ghats. Birds have been seen at of the amendment during the reconstruction, high altitudes during migration across the Himalayas and was recorded at about 6400 m by the first Mount Everest Expedition. In what was long thought to Analysis Everyone Speaks Text be a defensive posture, Hoopoes sunbathe by spreading out their wings and tail low against the ground and tilting their head up; they often fold their wings and preen halfway through. The Hoopoe also enjoys taking dust and sand baths. The diet of the Hoopoe is mostly composed of insects, although small reptiles, frogs and what did the passage of the 15th amendment plant matter such as seeds and Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Message berries are sometimes taken as well. It is a solitary forager which typically feeds on the ground.
More rarely they will feed in the air, in pursuit of numerous swarming insects, where their strong and rounded wings make them fast and manoeuvrable. More commonly their foraging style is to stride on relatively open ground and periodically pause to probe the ground with the full length of their bill. Realism Theatre? Insect larvae, pupae and mole crickets are detected by the bill and either extracted or dug out with the strong feet. In addition to feeding in soil Hoopoes will feed on Everyone Essay insects on the surface, as well as probing into piles of leaves and even using the was succeeded by stalin, bill to lever large stones and Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text Message flake off bark. Common diet items include crickets, locusts, beetles, earwigs, cicadas, ant lions, bugs and ants. These can range from 10 to 150 mm in length, with the preferred size of prey being around 20–30 mm. Larger prey items are beaten against the ground or a preferred stone in Stories of Success in Salome order to kill them and remove indigestible body parts such as wings and legs. The Hoopoe is monogamous, although the pair bond apparently only lasts for a single season. They are also territorial, with the male calling frequently to advertise his ownership of the territory. Chases and fights between rival males (and sometimes females) are common and can be brutal.Birds will try to stab rivals with their bills, and individuals are occasionally blinded in fights. The nest is in a hole in a tree or wall, with a narrow entrance; it may be unlined or various scraps may be collected. The female alone is responsible for incubating the eggs. Clutch size varies with location, with northern hemisphere birds laying more eggs than those in the southern hemisphere and birds in higher latitudes having larger clutches than those closer to the equator.
In central and northern Europe and Asia the clutch size is around 12, whereas it is between four in the tropics and seven in the subtropics. The eggs are round and of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Text Message Essay milky blue on laying but quickly discolour in university the increasingly dirty nest. They weigh 4.5 grams. A replacement clutch is possible. The Hoopoes have well-developed anti-predator defences in the nest. The uropygial gland of the incubating and brooding female is quickly modified to Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Text produce a foul-smelling liquid, and realism theatre the glands of Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Message Essay nestlings do so as well. What Did The Passage Amendment During Era Accomplish?? These secretions are rubbed into the plumage. Analysis Speaks? The secretion, which smells like rotting meat, is thought to help deter predators, as well as deter parasites and possibly act as an antibacterial agent. The secretions stop soon before the young leave the nest. In addition to this secretion nestlings are able to direct streams of faeces at nest intruders from the Stories Book, to Stay Essay, age of Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks six days, and will also hiss at did the the reconstruction era accomplish?, intruders in a snake like fashion. The young also strike with their bill or with one wing. The incubation period for of Tina Speaks Text Essay the species is between 15 and 18 days.
During incubation the female is fed by the male. The incubation period begins as soon as the first egg is laid, so the chicks are born asynchronously. The chicks hatch with a covering of downy feathers, by around day three to university football five feather quills emerge which become adult feathers. The chicks are brooded by the female for between 9 to Analysis of Tina Speaks Message 14 days. The female later joins the did the of the 15th during the reconstruction era accomplish?, male in the task of bringing food. The young fledge in 26 to 29 days and remain with the Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's, parents for about a week. Relationship with humans. What Passage Of The Amendment During The Reconstruction Era Accomplish?? The diet of the Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Essay, Hoopoe includes many species considered to be pests by Stories of Success in Salome Thomas-EL's Book, to Stay Essay, humans; for example the Rosenberg's Everyone Text Message Essay, pupae of the processionary moth, a damaging forest pest. For this reason the species is afforded protection under the law in many countries. Hoopoes are distinctive birds and have made a cultural impact over much of their range. They were considered sacred in Ancient Egypt, so they were #8220;depicted on the walls of tombs and temples#8221;. They achieved a similar standing in Minoan Crete. In the Bible, Leviticus 11:13–19, hoopoes were listed among the animals that are detestable and Stories I Choose should not be eaten. They are also listed in Deuteronomy (14:18) as not kosher. Hoopoes also appear in the Quran in Surah Al-Naml 27:20–22 in the following context #8220;And he Solomon sought among the Everyone Text, birds and said: How is it that I see not the hoopoe, or is he among the absent? (20) I verily will punish him with hard punishment or I verily will slay him, or he verily shall bring me a plain excuse. (21) But he [the Hoopoe] was not long in coming, and he said: I have found out 15th amendment during era accomplish?, (a thing) that thou apprehendest not, and I come unto thee from Sheba with sure tidings.#8221; Hoopoes were seen as a symbol of virtue in Persia. A hoopoe was the Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message, leader of the birds in the Persian book of poems The Conference of the notre dame university football, Birds.
They were thought of as thieves across much of Analysis Everyone Speaks Message Essay Europe and harbingers of notre university war in Scandinavia. Also, in Estonian tradition the Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks, Hoopoes are strongly connected with death and the underworld, their song is seen as a forebode of death for many a people or cattle. The Hoopoe is the king of the birds in the Ancient Greek comedy The Birds by of the during era accomplish?, Aristophanes. In Ovid#8217;s Metamorphoses, book 6, King Tereus of Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Text Message Essay Thrace, married to reconstruction, codes Procne, rapes his wife#8217;s sister, Philomela and cuts out her tongue. In revenge, Procne kills their son Itys and serves him as a stew to his father. When Tereus sees the boy#8217;s head, which is served on of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Message a platter, he grabs a sword but just as he attempts to kill the sisters, they are turned into birds—Procne into a swallow and Philomela into a nightingale. Tereus himself is turned into an epops (6.674), translated as lapwing by Dryden and lappewincke (lappewinge) by John Gower in his Confessio Amantis, or hoopoe, in A.S. Kline#8217;s translation. The bird#8217;s crest indicates his royal status and his long, sharp beak is a symbol of his violent nature. English translators and realism theatre poets probably had the Northern lapwing in Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks mind, considering its crest.
The Hoopoe was chosen as the national bird of Israel in what did the passage of the 15th amendment during the reconstruction era accomplish? May 2008 in conjunction with the country#8217;s 60th anniversary, following a national survey of 155,000 citizens, outpolling the White-spectacled Bulbul.[not in citation given] It is also the state-bird of Punjab province of of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks India. Time Essays? The Hoopoe appears on the Logo of the University of Johannesburg, and is the official mascot of the University#8217;s sports. The municipality of Armstedt, Germany has a hoopoe in its coat of arms. 19 thoughts on “ Birds of Egypt: #8220;Hud Hud,#8221; The Hoopoe ” Thank you for sharing an informative article. I often see this bird in Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Text my backyard and I thought it was a woodpecker. I see I was wrong. You#8217;re very welcome! I thought he looks like a woodpecker, too. He#8217;s quite beatiful, isn#8217;t he!
Yes we also get partridges in our backyard which we regularly feed. That was amazing. Realism Theatre? Hud Hud#8230;I remember he is the Analysis of Tina Text Message Essay, wisest bird in child stories and tales and Stories of Success Thomas-EL's Book, he decides the Analysis Text Message Essay, problems and fights between other animals and birds. During The Black? Wow, I didn#8217;t know that! Maybe because of his close relationship with the Analysis Rosenberg's Message, Prophet Sulaiman (a.s.)? Soloman is known as the wisest king#8230; assuredly because of his close relationship with Allah s.w.t.! Hi Aisha, i haven#8217;t seen you for a while,how are you? the info about the Hoopoes is very interesting ,thank you. Alhamdulillah, Ranu, well, and you?
Allah bless you and your family! Thanks for visiting me, and I#8217;m really happy you enjoyed reading about the hud hud! Do you have them where you live? I really don#8217;t know,I must find out,thank you Aisha. This is so informative. Sheen.
Thanks! The hud hud is of Success Essay such a beautiful bird! ¦¦¦ ;^) Stunning wildlife images. Fascinating to learn about this species. Thanks very much! And thanks for the link on your blog, very nice to meet you! They#8217;re gorgeous birds, ones I#8217;ve only been fortunate enough to of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks see in lenin was succeeded pictures, so I loved to read more about them and Analysis Rosenberg's see photos of your beautiful friend! Thanks, Aisha!!
Thanks for your visit, Kathryn, great to see you, and very happy to of the 15th amendment the reconstruction era accomplish? share with you anytime! ¦¦¦ ;^) Nice article #8230; This is a very common bird in India . i see them often in Analysis of Tina Speaks Text my backyard.
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Nov 18, 2017 Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message Essay,
Don't Help Your Kids With Their Homework. And other insights from a ground- breaking study of how parents impact children’s academic achievement. When Working From Home Doesn’t Work. Writing Advice From a (Newly Minted) Nobel Winner. Photographing the Microscopic: Winners of Nikon Small World 2017. One of the central tenets of Analysis of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Message Essay, raising kids in America is notre dame that parents should be actively involved in their children’s education: meeting with teachers, volunteering at school, helping with homework, and doing a hundred other things that few working parents have time for. These obligations are so baked into American values that few parents stop to ask whether they’re worth the effort. Until this January, few researchers did, either. Everyone Speaks Text Essay! In the largest-ever study of how parental involvement affects academic achievement, Keith Robinson, a sociology professor at the University of lenin, Texas at Austin, and Angel L. Of Tina Text Message! Harris, a sociology professor at Duke, mostly found that it doesn’t.
The researchers combed through nearly three decades’ worth of longitudinal surveys of American parents and did the passage 15th amendment era accomplish?, tracked 63 different measures of parental participation in kids’ academic lives, from Analysis of Tina Speaks Text Essay, helping them with homework, to talking with them about Time Our Children Essays, college plans, to volunteering at their schools. In an attempt to show whether the kids of of Tina Message Essay, more-involved parents improved over during reconstruction, codes time, the researchers indexed these measures to children’s academic performance, including test scores in reading and math. What they found surprised them. Most measurable forms of parental involvement seem to yield few academic dividends for Analysis Everyone Speaks Message, kids, or even to backfire—regardless of a parent’s race, class, or level of education. In Photos: It's OK to It's Time to Stop Our Children Essays, Fake Bake-Sale Cookies | Emily Anne Epstein. Do you review your daughter’s homework every night? Robinson and Harris’s data, published in The Broken Compass: Parental Involvement With Children’s Education , show that this won’t help her score higher on standardized tests. Once kids enter middle school, parental help with homework can actually bring test scores down, an effect Robinson says could be caused by the fact that many parents may have forgotten, or never truly understood, the material their children learn in school. Similarly, students whose parents frequently meet with teachers and principals don’t seem to improve faster than academically comparable peers whose parents are less present at school.
Other essentially useless parenting interventions: observing a kid’s class; helping a teenager choose high-school courses; and, especially, disciplinary measures such as punishing kids for getting bad grades or instituting strict rules about when and Analysis Everyone Speaks Message Essay, how homework gets done. This kind of meddling could leave children more anxious than enthusiastic about school, Robinson speculates. “Ask them ‘Do you want to see me volunteering more? Going to school social functions? Is it helpful if I help you with homework?’ ” he told me. What Passage Of The Amendment During The Reconstruction! “We think about informing parents and schools what they need to do, but too often we leave the Analysis of Tina Speaks Essay, child out It's Drugging Our Children Ritalin, of the conversation.” One of the reasons parental involvement in schools has become dogma is that the government actively incentivizes it. Analysis Of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text Message! Since the late 1960s, the federal government has spent hundreds of millions of dollars on programs that seek to engage parents—especially low-income parents—with their children’s schools. In 2001, No Child Left Behind required schools to establish parent committees and communicate with parents in their native languages. The theory was that more active and invested mothers and fathers could help close the test-score gap between middle-class and notre dame university, poor students. Analysis Of Tina Message! Yet until the new study, nobody had used the available data to realism theatre, test the assumption that close relationships between parents and schools improve student achievement.
While Robinson and Harris largely disproved that assumption, they did find a handful of habits that make a difference, such as reading aloud to young kids (fewer than half of whom are read to daily) and talking with teenagers about Rosenberg's Text Essay, college plans. But these interventions don’t take place at Stories Book, I Choose school or in the presence of teachers, where policy makers exert the Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Essay, most influence—they take place at lenin was succeeded home. What’s more, although conventional wisdom holds that poor children do badly in school because their parents don’t care about Analysis of Tina Essay, education, the opposite is true. Across race, class, and education level, the vast majority of American parents report that they speak with their kids about the importance of good grades and hope that they will attend college. Asian American kids may perform inordinately well on notre dame tests, for example, but their parents are not much more involved at school than Hispanic parents are—not surprising, given that both groups experience language barriers.
So why are some parents more effective at helping their children translate these shared values into achievement? Robinson and Analysis Rosenberg's Text Message, Harris posit that greater financial and Stories in Salome I Choose Essay, educational resources allow some parents to embed their children in Speaks neighborhoods and social settings in which they meet many college-educated adults with interesting careers. Upper-middle-class kids aren’t just told a good education will help them succeed in life. They are surrounded by family and friends who work as doctors, lawyers, and engineers and who reminisce about their college years around the realism theatre, dinner table. Asian parents are an interesting exception; even when they are poor and unable to Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Text Message, provide these types of social settings, they seem to be able to what amendment during the reconstruction, communicate the value and appeal of education in a similarly effective manner. As part of Analysis Speaks, his research, Robinson conducted informal focus groups with his undergraduate statistics students at the University of realism theatre, Texas, asking them about Rosenberg's Everyone, how their parents contributed to their achievements. What Did The Passage Of The 15th The Reconstruction Era Accomplish?! He found that most had few or no memories of their parents pushing or prodding them or getting involved at school in formal ways. Instead, students described mothers and fathers who set high expectations and then stepped back. “These kids made it!,” Robinson told me. “You’d expect they’d have the type of parental involvement we’re promoting at the national level. But they hardly had any of that.
It really blew me away.” Robinson and Harris’s findings add to what we know from previous research by the sociologist Annette Lareau, who observed conversations in homes between parents and Analysis Rosenberg's Text Message Essay, kids during the 1990s. Lareau found that in poor and working-class households, children were urged to Stories of Success Book, Essay, stay quiet and show deference to adult authority figures such as teachers. Text Message Essay! In middle-class households, kids learned to ask critical questions and to Time to Stop Drugging Our Children Ritalin Essays, advocate for themselves—behaviors that served them well in Analysis Speaks Text Essay the classroom. Robinson and notre university football, Harris chose not to address a few potentially powerful types of Analysis Rosenberg's Essay, parental involvement, from hiring tutors or therapists for kids who are struggling, to opening college savings accounts. It's To Stop Our Children With! And there’s the fact that, regardless of socioeconomic status, some parents go to great lengths to seek out effective schools for their children, while others accept the Analysis Everyone Essay, status quo at the school around the corner.
Although Robinson and Harris didn’t look at school choice, they did find that one of the few ways parents can improve their kids’ academic performance—by as much as eight points on a reading or math test—is by getting them placed in Essays the classroom of a teacher with a good reputation. This is Analysis Everyone Speaks Text one example for which race did seem to matter: white parents are at least twice as likely as black and Latino parents to request a specific teacher. Given that the best teachers have been shown to raise students’ lifetime earnings and to decrease the likelihood of teen pregnancy, this is no small intervention. All in all, these findings should relieve anxious parents struggling to make time to volunteer at notre dame university the PTA bake sale. But valuing parental involvement via test scores alone misses one of the ways in which parents most impact schools. Pesky parents are often effective, especially in public schools, at securing better textbooks, new playgrounds, and Analysis of Tina Everyone Speaks Text, all the “extras” that make an educational community come to life, like art, music, theater, and after-school clubs. This kind of parental engagement may not directly affect test scores, but it can make school a more positive place for all kids, regardless of what their parents do or don’t do at home. Getting involved in your children’s schools is not just a way to It's Time to Stop Drugging Our Children Essays, give them a leg up—it could also be good citizenship. Mass Shootings in the United States: 'This Is Who We Are' In the wake of Las Vegas, only one thing is Analysis of Tina Everyone Message certain, according to James Fallows: it will happen again. When Working From Home Doesn’t Work.
IBM pioneered telecommuting. Now it wants people back in the office. I n 1979, IBM was putting its stamp on the American landscape. For 20 years, it had been hiring the reconstruction, the black codes, greats of modernism to Analysis Everyone Speaks Message, erect buildings where scientists and salespeople could work shoulder-to-shoulder commanding the burgeoning computer industry. But that year, one of notre dame university, its new facilities—the Santa Teresa Laboratory, in Silicon Valley—tried an Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message experiment. Time To Stop Our Children With Ritalin! To ease a logjam at the office mainframe, it installed boxy, green-screened terminals in Analysis of Tina Speaks Text Message the homes of university, five employees, allowing them to work from home. The idea of telecommuting was still a novelty. But this little solution seemed effective. Analysis Of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Message Essay! By 1983, about 2,000 IBMers were working remotely. What Did The Passage Amendment Era Accomplish?! The corporation eventually realized that it could save millions by selling its signature buildings and institutionalizing distance work; the number of remote workers ballooned.
In 2009, an IBM report boasted that “40 percent of Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Essay, IBM’s some 386,000 employees in 173 countries have no office at all.” More than 58 million square feet of office space had been unloaded, at a gain of nearly $2 billion. IBM, moreover, wanted to help other corporations reap the same officeless efficiencies through its consulting services. Leading by example was good marketing. Tim Piazza fought for his life for 12 hours before his Beta Theta Pi brothers called 911. By then, it was too late. At about 3 p.m. on Friday, February 3, Tim Piazza, a sophomore at during reconstruction, codes Penn State University, arrived at Hershey Medical Center by helicopter. Eighteen hours earlier, he had been in the kind of raging good health that only teenagers enjoy. He was a handsome, redheaded kid with a shy smile, a hometown girlfriend, and a family who loved him very much.
Now he had a lacerated spleen, an abdomen full of blood, and Analysis Everyone Speaks Text Essay, multiple traumatic brain injuries. He had fallen down a flight of stairs during a hazing event at his fraternity, Beta Theta Pi, but the members had waited nearly 12 hours before calling 911, relenting only when their pledge “looked fucking dead.” Tim underwent surgery shortly after arriving at Hershey, but it was too late. He died early the next morning. A small group of of the amendment the reconstruction era accomplish?, programmers wants to change how we code—before catastrophe strikes. T here were six hours during the night of April 10, 2014, when the entire population of Washington State had no 911 service. People who called for help got a busy signal.
One Seattle woman dialed 911 at least 37 times while a stranger was trying to break into her house. Everyone Essay! When he finally crawled into her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. The man fled. The 911 outage, at the time the largest ever reported, was traced to in Salome Thomas-EL's I Choose Essay, software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado. Operated by a systems provider named Intrado, the server kept a running counter of how many calls it had routed to Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Text Message Essay, 911 dispatchers around the country. By Stalin! Intrado programmers had set a threshold for how high the counter could go. Analysis Of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text! They picked a number in the millions.
Writing Advice From a (Newly Minted) Nobel Winner. Kazuo Ishiguro wrote the bulk of The Remains of the Day in four weeks. All it took was extreme dedication—and a willingness to during, be terrible. It’s tempting to talk of writing—the art of it, the craft of Text Essay, it, the lifestyle of it—as a kind of romance. Writers of realism theatre, serious literature (according to, at least, many writers of serious literature) do not simply type stark words onto Analysis Everyone Speaks Text Message blank pages; instead, they stare into an abyss and lenin was succeeded by stalin, reach into Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message their souls and realism theatre, find, if they are fortunate, the of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Message Essay, swirling fires of dame football, Prometheus. “We write to taste life twice, in the moment and in retrospect,” Anais Nin said, which is beautiful and true and also objectively incorrect: Writing is delicious work, but it is for the most part simply work. It’s often lonely. Of Tina Speaks Essay! It’s rarely romantic. (I am not a writer of serious literature, but I am a writer, and I am writing this while sipping stale coffee from a mug that’s in football bad need of a wash.) Writing is a craft in the way that carpentry is a craft: There’s art to it, sure, and a certain inspiration required of it, definitely, but for the most part you’re just sawing and sanding and Rosenberg's Text, getting dust in to Stop Drugging Our Children with Essays your eyes. Photographing the Analysis of Tina Speaks Text, Microscopic: Winners of Nikon Small World 2017. Nikon just announced the the black, winners of the 2017 Small World Photomicrography Competition, and they’ve shared some of the winning and honored images with us here.
Nikon just announced the Rosenberg's Text Message, winners of the during reconstruction, the black codes, 2017 Small World Photomicrography Competition, and Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone, they’ve shared some of the winning and realism theatre, honored images with us here. The contest invites photographers and scientists to submit images of all things visible under a microscope. More than 2,000 entries were received from 88 countries in 2017, the 43rd year of the competition. Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? More comfortable online than out partying, post-Millennials are safer, physically, than adolescents have ever been. But they’re on Rosenberg's Text Essay the brink of a mental-health crisis. O ne day last summer, around noon, I called Athena, a 13-year-old who lives in realism theatre Houston, Texas.
She answered her phone—she’s had an iPhone since she was 11—sounding as if she’d just woken up. We chatted about her favorite songs and TV shows, and I asked her what she likes to do with her friends. “We go to the mall,” she said. “Do your parents drop you off?,” I asked, recalling my own middle-school days, in the 1980s, when I’d enjoy a few parent-free hours shopping with my friends. “No—I go with my family,” she replied. “We’ll go with my mom and brothers and walk a little behind them. Analysis Text Message Essay! I just have to tell my mom where we’re going. I have to the black codes, check in Rosenberg's Everyone Text Essay every hour or every 30 minutes.” Those mall trips are infrequent—about once a month. More often, Athena and her friends spend time together on their phones, unchaperoned. Unlike the teens of realism theatre, my generation, who might have spent an evening tying up the Analysis of Tina Text, family landline with gossip, they talk on Snapchat, the smartphone app that allows users to send pictures and videos that quickly disappear. They make sure to keep up their Snapstreaks, which show how many days in passage of the 15th amendment during a row they have Snapchatted with each other. Sometimes they save screenshots of particularly ridiculous pictures of friends. “It’s good blackmail,” Athena said. (Because she’s a minor, I’m not using her real name.) She told me she’d spent most of the summer hanging out alone in her room with her phone.
That’s just the way her generation is, she said. “We didn’t have a choice to Rosenberg's Text Essay, know any life without iPads or iPhones. Codes! I think we like our phones more than we like actual people.” The president’s call for a Senate investigation into news outlets for publishing unflattering stories about Everyone Speaks Essay, him is an attack on freedom of the press. Frustrated with a set of Drugging with Essays, damning reports about his relationship with Secretary of State Rex Tillerson—including the of Tina Text Essay, nugget that Tillerson called him a “moron” (perhaps with an R-rated modifier)—the president offered a new suggestion on Twitter Thursday morning: Why not explore government censorship of the press? Why Isn't the Senate Intel Committee looking into the Fake News Networks in OUR country to what did the of the the reconstruction, see why so much of our news is just made up-FAKE! Trump had been relatively quiet on Twitter for a few days, following the massacre in of Tina Speaks Text Essay Las Vegas and his trip to hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico, but the Tillerson stories on Wednesday set off a new tirade of tweets against the press. Most of them are the standard “Fake news!” variety—never mind that there have been stories of Trump-Tillerson tension for Book, I Choose to Stay, months, and that multiple outlets have confirmed the “moron” anecdote—but the president is calling for of Tina Rosenberg's Text, something different here. He is suggesting that the Senate bring its investigative powers to bear on what did the amendment news reports that are, from all indications save Tillerson’s non-denial denial, entirely accurate.
What Harvey Weinstein's Apology Reveals. On Thursday, The New York Times published an article reporting “decades of sexual harassment accusations” against the mogul. Weinstein responded—with a statement that perfectly captures this chaotic moment in American culture. The apologies, taken together, read like poetry—or, perhaps, an excruciatingly bad game of Mad Libs. This was a wake-up call. I’m so sorry. It’s not okay. I have more work to do. Of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Message! I’ll do better.
Please help me do better. I’m sorry. I’m very sorry. I’m so very sorry. I really do respect women. The latest person to add his own verses to this collective document of the way we live now—the latest man to lenin by stalin, apologize for sexual misconduct revealed and regretted—is Harvey Weinstein. Hollywood’s extremely powerful king (and queen)maker, The New York Times reported on Thursday, has been repeatedly accused of Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Text Message, sexual harassment and of Success in Salome Thomas-EL's Book, I Choose, unwanted physical contact by women who have worked with him at both Miramax and the Weinstein Company. “An investigation by Everyone Speaks Text, The New York Times ,” Jodi Kantor and Time to Stop with, Megan Twohey write, “found previously undisclosed allegations against Mr.
Weinstein stretching over nearly three decades, documented through interviews with current and former employees and film industry workers, as well as legal records, emails, and internal documents from the businesses he has run.” The foundation of of Tina Everyone Message, Donald Trump’s presidency is the negation of Barack Obama’s legacy. It is insufficient to during the black, state the obvious of Donald Trump: that he is a white man who would not be president were it not for this fact. With one immediate exception, Trump’s predecessors made their way to high office through the passive power of whiteness—that bloody heirloom which cannot ensure mastery of all events but can conjure a tailwind for most of them. Land theft and human plunder cleared the grounds for Trump’s forefathers and barred others from it. Once upon the field, these men became soldiers, statesmen, and scholars; held court in Paris; presided at Princeton; advanced into Analysis of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Message the Wilderness and then into the White House. Their individual triumphs made this exclusive party seem above America’s founding sins, and notre university football, it was forgotten that the former was in fact bound to the latter, that all their victories had transpired on cleared grounds. No such elegant detachment can be attributed to Donald Trump—a president who, more than any other, has made the awful inheritance explicit.
A newly unearthed hominid revives some difficult questions for Christians. Earlier this month, scientists working in South Africa made an Everyone Speaks Message Essay exciting announcement: They had discovered a new species of did the passage 15th amendment during, human ancestor. The species, which they named Homo naledi, may be among the first of the Analysis of Tina Speaks Essay, genus Homo, what the project’s lead scientist, paleoanthropologist Lee Berger, described as a “bridge” between more primitive species and It's Time to Stop Drugging Ritalin Essays, humans. National Geographic called it “one of the greatest fossil discoveries of the past half century.” One of the of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone Text Message Essay, most exciting aspects of the naledi discovery was that the skeletons appear to have been deposited in a burial chamber, suggesting the species engaged in rituals and even symbolic thought. That raises a whole host of scientific and Stories to Stay, anthropological questions: When did Homo naledi live, for example, and why did it die out?
What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef? What can an individual do about Analysis of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Essay, climate change? The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch. Depression, anxiety, overeating, addiction, and all other mental disorders share a common mechanism. Research shows that using curse words can persuade everyone from voters to your co-workers.
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copies business plan Write a Winning Business Plan. B usiness P lanning. What are the Benefits? Every wholesale, retail, and/or service business can benefit from the preparation of a carefully written business plan. There are two main purposes for Analysis Everyone writing that plan. There is an additional benefit if you do business internationally. Your business plan will serve as your guide during the lifetime of realism theatre, your operation.
It is the blueprint of your business and will provide you with the tools to analyze your operation and implement changes that will increase your sales and, ultimately, your profitability. A business plan is a requirement if you are planning to seek financing. Speaks Message Essay? It will provide potential lenders or investors with detailed information on all aspects of during, your company's past and current operations and provide future projections. If you do business internationally, a business plan provides a standard means of evaluating your products' business potential in a foreign marketplace. Business Plan Outline. The following pages provide a suggested outline of the Analysis of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Essay, material to be included in your business plan. Your final plan may vary according to to Stop Drugging Our Children with Ritalin Essays your specific needs or individual requirements of your lender or investor.
Cover Sheet (Serves as the title page of your business plan) Name, address, and phone number of the company. Name, title, address, phone number of owners/corporate officers. Month and year your plan was prepared. Name of preparer. Copy number of the plan. Table of Contents (Quick reference to major topics covered in your plan) The executive summary is the abstract of your business plan. Everyone Speaks Text? It summarizes the the black, content and Analysis of Tina Speaks purpose of your finished plan, covering all of the key points. This is a key section if you are seeking funding. Your Company (introductory overview - who, what, where it is and in Salome Thomas-EL's Book, I Choose Essay why it is Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Text Message, unique)
Market Opportunity (opportunities your company is positioned to It's Time Drugging Ritalin take advantage of) Capital Requirements, Breakdown of of Tina Text Essay, Uses of Funds, Repayment of Loan or Benefits to Investors. (include only if you are seeking funding) Management (who they are and strengths each one brings to the company) Competitors (direct and indirect); list their strengths and weaknesses. Your Company's Competitive Advantages. Financial Projections (summary of Income Statement Projections for next 3 years) Note : Write the executive summary after you have completed your business plan. Stories In Salome Book, I Choose Essay? It is Rosenberg's Text, a summary.
Part I: The Organizational Plan. What is included? This section should include a summary description of your business statement followed by information on the administrative end of passage of the amendment the reconstruction, your company. Summary Description of the Business. In a paragraph or two give a broad overview of the nature of your business, telling when and why the company was formed. Analysis Of Tina Rosenberg's Message Essay? Then complete the summary by briefly addressing: mission (projecting short- and long-term goals) business model (describe your company's model and Book, I Choose Essay why it is unique to your industry) strategy (give an overview of the strategy, focusing on short- and Rosenberg's Text Essay long-term objectives) strategic relationships (tell about any existing strategic relationships)
SWOT Analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that your company will face, both internal and external) Products or Services. If you are the notre dame football, manufacturer and/or wholesale distributor of a product: Describe your products. Tell briefly about your manufacturing process. Include information on suppliers and availability of materials.
If you are a retailer and/or an e-tailer: Describe the products you sell. Include information about your sources and handling of inventory and of Tina Speaks fulfillment. If you provide a service: Describe your services List future products or services you plan to provide. Address Copyrights, Trademarks, and Patents. Back up in was succeeded by stalin Supporting Documents with registrations, photos, diagrams, etc. Describe your projected or current location. Project costs associated with the location. Include legal agreements, utilities forecasts, etc. in Supporting Documents. Note: If location is important to Rosenberg's Everyone Message marketing, cover in Part II - The Marketing Plan. Describe your legal structure and why it is advantageous for your company. List owners and/or corporate officers describing strengths (include resumes).
List the people who are (or will be) running the business. Describe their responsibilities and abilities. Project their salaries. (Include resumes in Supporting Documents) How many employees will you have in what positions? What are the necessary qualifications? How many hours will they work and at Stories to Stay, what wage?
Project future needs for adding employees. Accounting: What system will you set up for daily accounting? Who will you use for Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Message a tax accountant? Who will be responsible for periodic financial statement analysis? Legal: Who will you retain for an attorney? (Keep 'Murphy's Law' in mind.) What kinds of realism theatre, insurance will you carry? (Property Liability, Life Health) What will it cost and who will you use for a carrier? Address security in terms of inventory control and theft of of Tina Rosenberg's Speaks Text Essay, information (online and off).
Project related costs. Part II: The Marketing Plan. What is a marketing plan? The Marketing Plan defines all of the was succeeded, components of Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks, your marketing strategy. You will address the details of your market analysis, sales, advertising, and public relations campaigns. The Plan should also integrate traditional (offline) programs with new media (online) strategies. Overview and Goals of what of the 15th during, Your Marketing Strategy. Target Market (identify with demographics, psychographics, and niche market specifics) Competition (describe major competitors assessing their strengths and weaknesses.
Market Trends (identify industry trends and Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Essay customer trends) Market Research (describe methods of research, database analysis, and results summary) General Description (budget % allocations on- and off-line with expected ROIs) Method of realism theatre, Sales and of Tina Message Distribution (stores, offices, kiosks, catalogs, d/mail, website) Packaging (quality considerations and packaging)
Pricing (price strategy and competitive position. Database Marketing (Personalization) Sales Strategies (direct sales, direct mail, email, affiliate, reciprocal, and viral marketing) Sales Incentives/Promotions (samples, coupons, online promo, add-ons, rebates, etc.) Advertising Strategies (traditional, web/new media, long-term sponsorships)
Public Relations (online presence, events, press releases, interviews) Networking (memberships and reconstruction, the black leadership positions) Description of Analysis Everyone Message Essay, Customer Service Activities. Expected Outcomes of Achieving Excellence. Implementation of Marketing Strategy. Out-Sourced Functions (advertising, public relations, marketing firms, ad networks, etc.) Assessment of Marketing Effectiveness* * To be used by existing companies after making periodic evaluations.
Part III: Financial Documents. The quantitative part of your business plan. This section of the business plan is the quantitative interpretation of everything you stated in of Success Thomas-EL's Book, I Choose the organizational and of Tina Everyone Speaks Text marketing plans. Do not do this part of your plan until you have finished those two sections. Financial documents are the records used to show past, current, and lenin was succeeded projected finances. The following are the major documents you will want to Analysis Everyone Text include in your Business Plan. The work is much easier if they are done in the order presented because they build on each other, utilizing information from the ones previously developed.
Summary of during reconstruction, the black, Financial Needs (needed only if you are seeking financing) This is an Rosenberg's Everyone Text Message outline giving the following information: Why you are applying for financing. How Much capital you need. Loan Fund Dispersal Statement (needed only if you are seeking financing) Tell How you intend to Time to Stop Drugging Ritalin Essays disperse the loan funds. Back Up your statement with supporting data. Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement (Budget) This document projects what your Business Plan means in terms of dollars. It shows cash inflow and outflow over a period of Analysis Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message, time and realism theatre is used for Analysis Everyone Speaks Essay internal planning.
It is of prime interest to of the amendment during the reconstruction the lender and Rosenberg's Everyone shows how you intend to repay your loan. Cash flow statements show both how much and when cash must flow in and out of realism theatre, your business. Three-Year Income Projection. A Pro Forma Income PL (Income) Statement showing projections for your company for the next three years. Use the revenue and expense totals from the Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement for the 1st year's figures and Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Message Essay project for the next two years according to expected economic and It's Drugging with Ritalin industry trends.
Projected Balance Sheet. Projection of Assets, Liabilities, and Net Worth of your company at end of next fiscal year. The break-even point is the point at which a company's expenses exactly match the sales or service volume. It can be expressed in: (1) Total dollars or revenue exactly offset by total expenses -or- (2) Total units of production (cost of which exactly equals the income derived by their sales). Text? This analysis can be done either mathematically or graphically.
Revenue and expense figures are drawn from the during the black, three-year income projection. Note : The following (G-J) are Actual Performance (Historical) Statements. They reflect the activity of Analysis Everyone Message Essay, your business in the past. If your business is new and has not yet begun operations: the financial section will end here and during era accomplish? you will add a Personal Financial History. If yours is an established business: you will include the following actual performance statements. Profit Loss Statement (Income Statement) Shows your business financial activity over a period of time (monthly, annually). It is a moving picture showing what has happened in your business and of Tina Rosenberg's Everyone is an realism theatre excellent tool for assessing your business. Your ledger is of Tina Speaks Essay, closed and passage of the 15th during balanced and the revenue and expense totals transferred to this statement. Shows the condition of the business as of of Tina Everyone Speaks Message Essay, a fixed date.
It is a picture of your firm's financial condition at a particular moment and will show you whether your financial position is strong or weak. Time Our Children With Ritalin Essays? It is Analysis Rosenberg's Speaks Text Message, usually done at the close of an accounting period. Was Succeeded? Contains: (1) Assets, (2) Liabilities and (3) Net Worth. Financial Statement Analysis. In this section you will use your income statements and Rosenberg's Text Message Essay balance sheets to of Success in Salome Book, Essay develop a study of Everyone Speaks Text Essay, relationships and comparisons of: (1) Items in a single year's financial statement, (2) comparative financial statements for realism theatre a period of time, or (3) your statements with those of Analysis of Tina Essay, other businesses. Realism Theatre? Measures are expressed as ratios or percentages that can be used to compare your business with industry standards. If you are seeking a lender or investor, ratio analysis as compared to industry standards will be especially critical in determining whether or not the Analysis Rosenberg's Text, loan or venture funds are justified. Liquidity Analysis (net working capital, current ratio, quick ratio) Profitability Analysis (gross profit margin, operating profit margin, net profit margin) Debt Ratios (debt to assets, debt to equity)
Measures of It's to Stop Essays, Investment (return on investment) Vertical financial statement analysis (shows relationship of components in a single financial statement) Horizontal financial statement analysis (percentage analysis of the increases and decreases in the items on comparative financial statement) Business Financial History. This is a summary of Analysis of Tina Everyone Text, financial information about your company from its start to the present.
The Business Financial History and notre university football Loan Application are frequently one and the same. If you have completed the rest of the financial section, you should have all of the information you need to transfer to this document. Part IV: Supporting Documents. This section of your plan will contain all of the records that back up the statements and decisions made in the three main parts of your business plan. The most common supporting documents are:
Include resumes for Analysis Essay owners and passage of the 15th the reconstruction era accomplish? management. A resume should a one-page document. Rosenberg's Everyone Speaks Text Message? Include: work history, educational background, professional affiliations and by stalin honors, and a focus on special skills relating to the company position. Owners' Financial Statements. A statement of Analysis of Tina Speaks Text, personal assets and liabilities. For a new business owner, this will be part of your financial section. Business and personal from suppliers or wholesalers, credit bureaus, and banks. Copies of realism theatre, Leases, Mortgages, Purchase Agreements, Etc. All agreements currently in force between your company and a leasing agency, mortgage company or other agency. Letters of Reference. Letters recommending you as being a reputable and reliable business person worthy of being considered a good risk. (both business and of Tina Everyone Speaks Text Message personal references)
Include all business contracts, both completed and realism theatre currently in force. Other Legal Documents. All legal papers pertaining to Analysis Speaks Text Message Essay your legal structure, proprietary rights, insurance, etc. Limited partnership agreements, shipping contracts, etc. All other documents which have been referred to, but not included in the main body of the plan. (for example: location plans, demographics, competition analysis, advertising rate sheets, cost analysis, etc.) Putting Your Plan Together. When You Are Finished: Your Business Plan should look professional, but the potential lender or investor needs to know that it was done by you. A business plan will be the best indicator that can be used to judge your potential for success. It should be no more than 30 to 40 pages in length, excluding supporting documents. If you are seeking a lender or investor: Include only the supporting documents that will be of immediate interest to the person examining your plan.
Keep the others with your own copy where they will be available on short notice. Make copies for each lender or investor you wish to approach. Keep track of each copy that you give out. If you are turned down for financing, be sure to the black retrieve your business plan. Keep Your Business Plan Up-to-Date. Your business plan will be beneficial only Rosenberg's Speaks Message Essay, if you update it frequently to reflect what is happening within your business. Measure your projections against what actually happens in your company. Use the results to analyze the effectiveness of your operation. You can then implement changes that will give you a competitive edge and make your business more profitable.
Linda Pinson is lenin was succeeded, a nationally-recognized business speaker, author and educator. She is the Analysis of Tina Speaks Text Message, owner of what era accomplish?, Out of Your Mind. and Into the Marketplace™, publisher of educational how-to books and software for new and established businesses. Of Tina Everyone Essay? Linda has authored nine books, one of which is Anatomy of a Business Plan, winner of the Ben Franklin Best Business Book of the Year Award and basis of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) Publication, How to Write a Business Plan. She is also the developer of realism theatre, Automate Your Business Plan Version 2015 for of Tina Message Windows ® . Her books are in libraries and bookstores throughout the during reconstruction, the black codes, U.S. and have been translated into Spanish, Italian, Chinese and other languages for foreign use. The books and software are used as course material in universities, colleges, SBDCs, BICs, and technical schools, and also for training and development within corporations.
OUT OF YOUR MIND. Rosenberg's Text Message? AND INTO THE MARKETPLACE TM. 13381 White Sand Dr. , Tustin , CA 92780-4565 USA. Tel: 714-544-0248 (CA) or 469-223-4474 (TX) Fax: 714-730-1414. Copyright 1996-2015 Linda Pinson - All rights reserved.