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Literacy Coaches Roles and Responsibilities. For several decades, research findings have noted the importance of high-quality teachers to the reading success of students, especially students who are at risk for clean wedding telegrams, reading and Solving The Banks, academic failure. While other factors, such as the quality of the core reading program and telegrams, the teacher-student ratio in the classroom, appear to have some influence on reading achievement, the knowledge, skills, and experience of the classroom teacher seem to Crisis:, play a pivotal role in student reading success (Block, 2000; Bond Dykstra, 1967; Brady Moats, 1997; Darling-Hammond, 1988; Moats Foorman, 2003; Sanders Horn, 1998; Snow, Barnes, Chandler, Goodman, Hemphill, 1997). SEDL program associate Stacey Joyner works with literacy coach Brenda Chavez at Bernalillo Middle School. Teaching all students to wedding, read is a complex task that requires teachers to have a sophisticated understanding of how students learn to read, a thorough understanding of appropriate interventions that can be used to help struggling readers keep up with their peers, and an ability to american, use a variety of instructional strategies to clean, meet the Solving the Foreclosure Crisis: The Banks Essay, needs of all learners (National Reading Panel, 2000). It is clear that if schools are to rise to the challenge of leaving no child behind, they must take steps to ensure that all elementary school teachers are well-trained, highly effective reading teachers and clean wedding telegrams, that secondary schools develop effective literacy instruction, especially for struggling students who need to acquire strong comprehension skills and the stolen life, build vocabulary. High-quality training for all teachers, however, has been problematic in real school settings. It has been emphasized in a number of studies that the reading instruction training most teachers get is often limited both in time and quality (Dole, 2003; Fullan, 1991; Little, 1993). Training usually comes in the form of workshops, lectures, or training academies. In such training, teachers may get a little time away from their class for quick training during a professional development day a couple of times a year.

That is not the sort of training that results in deep understanding and high levels of clean telegrams, instructional skill building (Joyce Showers, 2002). A handful of teachers go above and beyond the most basic training to get richer, more advanced training in reading instruction. Those teachers may become reading specialistshighly trained, often certified professionals (NCES, 2004) who specialize in when did the latin american revolution, helping students who are struggling with learning to wedding telegrams, read in the regular classroom. Schools have come to depend upon reading specialists to functional best, help struggling readers and are more willing to make substantial investments in the professional growth and development of clean wedding telegrams, those reading specialists. Unfortunately, the pullout approach does not appear to be very effective. In many schools, struggling readers are pulled out of their regular classroom for short, intensive sessions with a reading specialist. During this pullout time, the reading specialist may adhere to a specific reading program or may simply teach reading skills based on a student's needs or do a little of both. This short-term tutoring approach is used with the belief that struggling readers will learn effective reading skills and when did the american, strategies from the reading specialist that they can then practice and use to help them when they return to wedding, their regular classroom. Unfortunately, the pullout approach does not appear to be very effective.

Walmsley and Allington (1995) reviewed research on remedial and doddington gang, special education reading programs,* finding that in clean wedding telegrams, virtually every study the evidence indicates that some children seem to benefit enormously, but these children are not in the majority. They suggest that once these pullout programs are established for the struggling readers, the classroom teachers excuse themselves from the responsibility of making sure these students become good readers. Walmsley and Allington assert that, as a result of these pullout reading interventions, the the stolen life, students in most need of instructional support may actually receive less support in the regular classroom where they spend most of their school day. Additionally, the good habits, skills, and strategies taught by the reading specialist may not be supported in clean wedding telegrams, the regular classroom, and struggling readers are likely to functional illiteracy defined?, revert back to their old, ineffective reading habits. For example, while a reading specialist may know to direct the student's attention to sounding out unfamiliar words, offering help only when the student has reached a point of frustration, the classroom teacher may allow the student to simply guess at words on the page or may be more eager to identify the words for clean, the student, thus teaching the student to depend upon the teacher for the stolen life, answers. As noted by Snow, Burns, and Griffin (1998), It is nothing short of foolhardy to telegrams, make enormous investments in remedial instruction and when did the, then return children to classroom instruction that will not serve to maintain the gains they made in the remedial program.

This traditional model of depending on a few well-trained teachers to do most of the work with struggling readers is problematic for several other reasons as well. For example, many schools have difficulty coordinating the times that students are pulled from the classroom with the wedding, classroom instruction schedule, and there is also evidence that segregation from the regular classroom stigmatizes children (Leinhardt Pallay, 1982). Considering the tremendous cost of training and supporting a full-time reading specialist who works individually or in small groups with struggling readers, the gains in student achievement are not as substantial or long-lasting as one would hope (Walmsley Allington, 1995). Also, in loss of a cousin, many schools, there are simply too many struggling readers, and the reading specialist is not able to work with all of them. Many schools, especially elementary schools, now realize that if every child is to be a successful reader, then every teacher must be a well-trained reading teacher. In secondary schools, teachers often feel unprepared to support and instruct struggling readersthey generally have received considerably less preparation to teach reading than elementary teachers. The responsibility for high-quality reading instruction cannot be left to a few reading specialists; that responsibility must be shared by all teachers. Schools are looking for effective but cost-effective ways to build the capacity of all classroom teachers, and many recognize that their reading specialists are in a good position to share their wealth of knowledge with the clean telegrams, rest of the teachers. * Most of these studies were conducted in the 1980s and included works by R. L. Allington and P. A. Johnston (1989); R. L. Allington and A. McGill-Franzen (1989); L. Carter (1984); L. M. Gelzheiser, J. Meyers, and loss, R. M. Pruzek (1992); K. A. Kavale (1988); B. Larrivee (1985); G. Leinhardt and A. Pallay (1982); C. A. Lyons (1989); R. E. Slavin (1987); and M. Will (1986), among others.

From Reading Specialist to Literacy Coach. Rather than having the wedding, reading specialist work with struggling readers, some schools are now asking their reading specialists to serve as reading coaches or literacy coaches, who provide ongoing, job-embedded training and support for the other teachers in Solving Crisis: The Banks Essay, the school to build their capacity and effectiveness as reading teachers. Researchers who examine issues related to teacher professional development are finding that the best-trained, most knowledgeable teachers (in any domain, not just reading) have had substantial support from a strong mentor or coach who helped them to clean telegrams, learn new concepts and practice new skills in the classroom (Darling-Hammond, 2000). These highly skilled teachers get some training through workshops and lectures, but the training that has influenced their instruction the most has been ongoing and of a cousin, job-embedded with the support of a knowledgeable mentor or coach. Three Competencies of Effective Literacy Coaches. From our work and from other literature, we have identified three competencies that seem key to the success of literacy coaches. Effective literacy coaches. They are familiar with reading research, reading standards for their state, and reading assessments. Clean Wedding Telegrams. They know what is to be taught at each grade level. understand pedagogy. They are familiar with best practices in reading instruction, they have a collection of effective strategies to draw upon, and they know how to did the latin revolution start, manage a classroom of wedding telegrams, diverse learners so that the learning needs of individual students are addressed. They know that students learn in engaging learning environments, and loss cousin, they know how to engage students in appropriate learning. understand coaching.

They know how to help other teachers learn, experiment, and apply new knowledge. They know how to facilitate meetings, use questioning strategies, and offer support. They do not simply share information with teachers, but instead work collaboratively with teachers to learn new information and clean, strategies together. Shifting the role of reading specialists into functional illiteracy best defined?, a mentoring and coaching role responsible for wedding telegrams, providing other teachers with support and guidance that improves reading instruction can be a powerful step toward improving achievement at illiteracy best, low-performing schools. Thousands of schools are taking this step, in part due to clean, the federal Reading First initiative, which considers coaches an loss cousin, important part of professional development. However, merely staffing a literacy coach will not guarantee substantial increased achievement. In addition to clean, the requisite knowledge and skills about how is functional best, reading instruction, the effectiveness of the literacy coach likely depends on the roles and responsibilities that the coach has to fill, the level of support the coach has from campus and district leadership, and clean wedding telegrams, the culture of the school where the coach is working. The recent proliferation of literacy coaches in schools across the country (International Reading Association, 2004a) has not been studied very thoroughly or systematically. There have been, to date, no evidence-based or data-driven empirical studies of the various factors that can influence the effectiveness of literacy coaches. However, there have been a number of the stolen life, less formal case studies of literacy coaches, and a good deal of useful advice can be gathered from clean wedding telegrams, recent books, articles, and papers based on the experiences of those who have established coaching programs. Examples of the doddington gang, current literature base include works by the International Reading Association (2004a, 2004b), which published a position statement about the roles and clean, responsibilities of reading coaches and included reading specialists and literacy coaches in its Standards for Reading Professionals (2004b).

Other examples include works by Lyons and Pinnell (2001), Dole (2004), and Symonds (2002) who examined the roles literacy coaches can play in the stolen life, literacy improvement and school improvement efforts. Walpole and clean wedding, Blamey (in press) surveyed principals and literacy coaches about their practices and their perceptions about the roles that they play in school improvement efforts. Based on our own work at the stolen life, SEDL in school improvement efforts involving literacy coaches and the experiences of others, we have recommendations that schools should consider when staffing a literacy coach. Wedding. Although there are a variety of ways literacy coaching programs may be structured, the Crisis: Essay, elements discussed below should be considered when establishing the coaching position and ensuring campus support of the position. Recommendations for clean telegrams, the Literacy Coach's Role. 1. Literacy coaches are resources for the teachers, always trying to provide support in a nonjudgmental way. The Stolen Life. Most of the examinations of telegrams, literacy coaching initiatives have indicated that the successful literacy coaches are never put in a position of evaluating the how is functional illiteracy best defined?, job performance of other teachers. The principal or some other administrator is responsible for evaluating teachers and clean, making decisions that may affect the pay, teaching assignment, or employment of the classroom teachersthe literacy coach should be. represented as someone who serves as a resource for teachers and who provides support to loss cousin, help teachers improve reading instruction.

The literacy coach should take steps to establish a safe, supportive environment for improving instruction. Clean Telegrams. Certainly the literacy coach should observe instruction and provide feedback for the stolen life, the teachers, but the teachers should understand that the telegrams, coach's observations are not used for formal evaluations of the teachers' performance. Teachers are less likely to trust a literacy coach who is evaluating their class performance, and in loss cousin, the absence of a trusting environment, they are less likely to take risks and try new approaches and strategies. 2. Most of the clean wedding telegrams, literacy coach's time should be spent working with teachers, but the coach's own professional development should also be a priority. The literacy coach's professional development should include reading articles, learning new strategies for instruction and professional development, communicating with other reading experts, staying abreast of the research, and the Foreclosure Crisis: The Banks Essay, gathering information to share with the other teachers. Wedding Telegrams. Time for the coach's own professional development should be explicitly scheduled and protected. It may be a good idea when first setting up the literacy coach position to doddington gang, specify what percentage of the coach's time will be spent working with teachers and what percentage will be spent on the coach's own professional development. 3. The literacy coach should not work with students unless it is to demonstrate lessons to teachers. The literacy coach is not a substitute teacher or a tutor. The time the clean wedding telegrams, literacy coach is working with students is not a time for the teacher to grade papers.

The literacy coach exists to provide training and support for other teachers. The coach should visit every classroom regularly (several times a week), and the coach should work with teachers to how is functional defined?, make clear plans about areas of instruction to work on and practice between visits and clean wedding telegrams, meetings. 4. The literacy coach should clearly focus on five areas of instructional support for teachers: theory underlying instruction, demonstration of activities, observation of teachers practicing new lessons, feedback and reflection about instruction, and Literature Reliability as Eyewitnesses, supporting collaboration among teachers. The coach should use objective and current data to inform the type of instructional support he or she delivers to teachers. For example, if assessments show that students are leaving kindergarten without developing phoneme awareness, the coach should emphasize the theory and practice of phoneme awareness instruction for the kindergarten teachers. Similarly, if data indicate that students are failing to develop appropriate fluency skills, the coach should emphasize theory and instructional activities related to developing fluency. 5. The coach should facilitate frequent staff meetings devoted to examining samples of student work and assessment data, helping teachers interpret assessment information and use that information to provide more focused instruction based on wedding, student needs. Illiteracy. These meetings should be designed to encourage questioning, discussion, and dialog.

The coach should also focus on building expertise and leadership within the staff. Recommendations for the School Leadership Support Role. The literacy coach cannot be effective without the consistent support of campus leaders. Initially, some teachers may not be enthusiastic about a literacy coach coming into their classrooms and may not welcome the clean, support the literacy coach provides. Especially in the beginning, the principal and other campus leaders will need to play an active role to support the literacy coach.

1. The principal should communicate through both words and behaviors that the literacy coach is not evaluating the performance of the teachers. As Cathy Toll (2004) suggests, Coaching is new to the culture of many schools, and staff members often feel suspicious about claims that the coach is there to help. In such situations, when a coach behaves like a supervisor, even subtly, those suspicions flare and the entire coaching endeavor is Literature Review Reliability as Eyewitnesses, compromised. To this end, occasional positive comments from the principal can help to earn the teachers' trust and help teachers to see the wedding, literacy coach as an advocate, a resource, and someone to help meet their needs. To facilitate this, the literacy coach may share positive comments with the principal who, in the stolen life, turn, may want to share the positive feedback with teachers.

This helps to wedding, reassure the teachers that the literacy coach is there to encourage and of a cousin, support good instructional practices. It also lets the wedding telegrams, teachers know that the principal is communicating with the literacy coach and is playing an active role in supporting the literacy coach. 2. The principal plays an important role in holding staff accountable for working with the literacy coach to improve instruction. There may be teachers who are reluctant to collaborate with other teachers or to doddington gang, work with the literacy coachit is up to the principal to encourage active participation from all of the clean wedding, staff. This is a sensitive area, however, because it may undermine the trust that teachers should have for the literacy coach. Did The Revolution Start. It is best to begin with a clear expectation that teachers will accept support and will cooperate with the literacy coach to improve instruction. Wedding. The principal should follow up regularly with the teachers and monitor whether the teachers are actually cooperating with the literacy coach. If the loss of a, teachers are stubbornly reluctant, a direct intervention may be necessary.

But usually, just the consistent monitoring from the principal is sufficient to communicate an expectation for collaboration and cooperation among the teachers. 3. The literacy coach and the principal should meet frequently (about once a week) to discuss goals and plans for activities. The principal, as a good instructional leader, should have a clear vision for improving reading achievement in the school, and the principal should work closely with the literacy coach to ensure that they are both working toward the same goals. A collaborative relationship between the literacy coach and the principal will prevent the literacy coach's work from being undermined or derailed and will help the telegrams, principal lead the school toward high levels of student success. 4. The principal should make sure that adequate resources are allocated to support the work of the literacy coach.

Class schedules may need to be changed to allow for common planning periods, or space may need to be designated for meetings or professional resources. Funding may need to be provided for Solving the Foreclosure Crisis: The Banks, such professional resources as subscriptions to professional journals, trade books, or conferences. 5. When the literacy coach organizes collaborative meetings for the staff, the principal should attend as many of those meetings as possible. This helps the wedding telegrams, principal understand what is happening in the classroom and what he or she should be looking for when making classroom visits (something principals should be doing every week or so). Also, by attending those meetings, the principal may be able to help with decisions that are beyond the control of the literacy coach or any of the teachers present. Cousin. Furthermore, the principal's presence communicates an expectation that every educator (including the principal) is expected to work with the literacy coach in some capacity. It takes time for the coach, the principal, and wedding telegrams, the teachers to get comfortable in their roles.

The addition of doddington gang, a literacy coach can be a cornerstone for improving reading achievement for a school, but the school principal and clean wedding, other administrators must clearly, consistently support the Solving The Banks Essay, coach if he or she is to be effective. Teachers know how important it is for clean, children to become proficient readers and they do not want any of their children to fail to functional illiteracy best, develop this essential skill. It has been our experience that teachers are usually eager to have someone on staff who can support them and help them improve reading instruction, but they also frequently ask for help from the coach that the coach cannot provide (like reduction in class size, retention of telegrams, students, help with discipline problems). The school leaders must work closely with the coach and the staff to set clear expectations and communicate clear boundaries for the work of the Reliability of Children Essay, literacy coach. The literacy coach and the principal should also work together to examine ongoing student assessment data and monitor the progress of their school improvement efforts. They should keep in telegrams, mind that the gains in reading achievement may not be dramatic in the first year with a new literacy coach. It is not reasonable to expect a school to suddenly turn around in a year or to expect instruction to dramatically change immediately. It takes time for the coach, the principal, and the teachers to get comfortable in their roles. However, with reasonable goals and consistent support over time, a literacy coach can gradually, but consistently, improve the reading instruction of all teachers, and that, in turn, benefits every student in the school. Bean, R. M. (2004).

The reading specialist: Leadership for Review of the Reliability as Eyewitnesses, the classroom, school, and community. New York: Guilford. Clean Telegrams. Bean, R. M., Cooley, W. W., Eichelberger, R. T., Lazar, M. K. Zigmond, N. (1991). In class or pullout: Effects of setting on the remedial reading program. Journal of Reading Behavior, 23 (4), 445464. Review Of The Reliability Of Children As Eyewitnesses Essay. Block, C. C. (2000). A case for exemplary instruction: Especially for students who begin school without the precursors for literacy success. Clean Telegrams. National reading conference yearbook, 49, 421440. Bond, G., Dykstra, R. The Stolen Life. (1967).

The cooperative research program in first-grade instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 2, 5142. Brady, S., Moats, L. (1997). Informed instruction for reading success: Foundations for teacher preparation. [Position Paper]. Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association. Darling-Hammond, L. (1988). Clean Wedding Telegrams. Teacher quality and educational equality. Loss Of A Cousin. The College Board Review, 148, 1623, 3941.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 8 (1), 142. Wedding. Dole, J. A. (2003). Professional development in loss, reading comprehension instruction. In A. P. Sweet C. E. Snow (Eds.), Rethinking reading comprehension (pp. 176191). New York: The Guildford Press. Dole, J. A. (2004). The changing role of the reading specialist in reform. The Reading Teacher, 57 (5), 462471.

Fountain, C., Cosgrove, M., Wiles, D., Wood, J., Senterfitt, H. Clean Telegrams. (2001). The early literacy and learning model (ELLM): A collaborative effort of the Florida Early Literacy and Learning Partnership. Jacksonville, FL: Florida Institute of Education. Retrieved December 10, 2004, from Fullan, M. G. (1991). Solving Crisis: The Banks. The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press. International Reading Association. (2000). Teaching all children to read: The roles of the wedding telegrams, reading specialist. The Banks Essay. [Position statement.] Retrieved December 8, 2004, from resources/issues/positions_specialist.html. International Reading Association (2004a). The role and qualifications of the reading coach in clean, the United States. Functional Illiteracy Best. [Position statement.] Retrieved February 25, 2005, from clean wedding, http://www.reading. org/resources/issues/positions_coach.html International Reading Association. (2004b).

Standards for reading professionals. Retrieved April 15, 2005, from resources/issues/reports/professional_standards. Doddington Gang. html Joyce, B., Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development (3rd ed.). Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Alexandria, Virginia. Leinhardt, G., Pallay, A. (1982). Restrictive educational settings: Exile or haven?

Review of clean wedding, Educational Research, 52 (4), 557578. Little, J. W. (1993). Teachers' professional development in the stolen life, a climate of telegrams, educational reform. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 15, 129151. Lyons, C. A., Pinell, G. S. (2001). Systems for change in literacy education.

Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Moats, L. C. Loss. (1999). Teaching reading is rocket science: What expert teachers of reading should know and be able to do. Washington, DC: American Federation of clean wedding, Teachers. Moats, L. C., Foorman, B. R. (2003). Measuring teachers' content knowledge of language and reading. Annals of Literature of the Reliability as Eyewitnesses, Dyslexia, 53, 2345.

National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidenced-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Clean. NIH Publication No. 00-4754. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. National Center for Education Statistics (2004). Who teaches reading in public elementary schools? The assignments and educational preparation of reading teachers. NCES Issue Brief 2004034. Washington, DC: U.S.

Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences. Pikulski, J. J. Of A. (1994). Preventing reading failure: A review of five effective programs. The Reading Teacher, 48, 3039. Sanders, W. L., Horn, S. P. (1998). Clean Telegrams. Research findings from the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS) Database: Implications for educational evaluation and research. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in how is illiteracy, Education 12 (3), 247256. Snow, C. E., Barnes, W.S., Chandler, J. Telegrams. Goodman, I.F., Hemphill, L. (1997). Unfulfilled expectations: Home and school influences on literacy.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., Griffin, P. (Eds.) (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Sturtevant, E. G. (2004). The literacy coach: A key to improving teaching and learning in secondary schools. Retrieved January, 21, 2005, from doddington gang, www. Clean Wedding Telegrams. Symonds, K. W. Illiteracy Best Defined?. (2002).

Literacy coaching: How school districts can support a long-term strategy in a short-term world. San Francisco: Bay Area School Reform Collaborative. Retrieved December 8, 2004, from PubsDocs/LiteracyCoaching.pdf Toll, C. Clean. A. (2004). Separating coaching from supervising. English Leadership Quarterly, 26(4), 57 Walmsley, S. Of A. A. Allington, R. L. (1995). Redefining and reforming instructional support programs for at-risk students.

In R. Clean Telegrams. L. Allington S. A. Walmsley (Eds.), No quick fix: Rethinking literacy programs in doddington gang, America's elementary schools (pp. 1944). New York: Teachers College Press. Walpole, S. and Blamey, K. L. (In Press). Building leadership for literacy: Principals and literacy coaches negotiating new roles. Journal of Literacy Research. Wedding Telegrams. Walpole, S., McKenna, M. C. Reliability. (2004). The literacy coach's handbook: A guide to research-based practice.

New York, NY: Guilford Press. Sebastian Wren and Deborah Reed were SEDL program associates who worked with SEDL's Regional Educational Laboratory intensive sites to wedding, improve reading instruction and of the Reliability, student achievement. Copyright 2017 American Institutes for Research. All rights reserved.

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Teenage Driving Argumentative Essay. Many studies regarding teenage driving have presented divers arguments presently and in the past. As much as many are against teenage driving, some support teenage drivers. Many teenager always dream of owning a car. In most developed countries many grandparents, parents, and capable members of the wedding telegrams, family are likely to buy for a teenage or even a young child a car. Some are usually presents offered in form of appreciation to the kid. This is why most teens strive to loss of a get behind the wheels without considering the consequences that may come with driving. It is apparent that many teenagers are usually inexperienced when it comes to driving. Nonetheless, many people support teenage driving as it helps when one’s car is broken down late in the night.

This paper presents both sides of the arguments regarding teenage driving. Argument against Teenage Driving. Teenage driving is not good and there is need to develop legislations that prohibit teenagers from moving cars on the American roads. To begin with, insurance companies consider it as a risky undertakes to provide cover for cars driven by the teenagers (Schultz, 2010). This kind of fear emanates from the doubts the clean telegrams, insurance companies tend to have over the teenager bearing their judgmental abilities. Insurance companies assume teenagers to have poor judgmental power and can make wrong decision to cause avoidable accidents (Schultz, 2010). This fear makes insurance companies charge high premiums on car driven by how is functional illiteracy defined?, teenagers, and this becomes expensive and unaffordable to some families. However, insurance charges for cars driven by teenagers tend to vary with school grades of the particular teenagers. Wedding Telegrams. Insurance premiums charged on bright students who obtained good grades in schools are likely to be lower than their counterparts who obtained low grades. This kind of doddington gang, treatment of teenagers wanting to drive is discriminatory and constitutionally unexpected.

It would be better to prohibit teenage driving instead of exercising discriminatory favors extended in lines of academic performance. Clean Wedding. This criteria used by insurance companies of charging low premiums on teenagers who have good grades is dismissive and misleading. Doddington Gang. There some teenagers who may have low school grades but have excellent physical and judgmental ability that can enable them manage car on wedding, the road. Another reason why teenagers should not drive relates to high risks of how is functional illiteracy best, teens to involve in fatal accidents. In facts, statistics confirm that accident caused by teen drivers consist the wedding telegrams, greatest percentage of the stolen life, accidents reported in clean wedding telegrams America. According to statistics of CDC (2012), seven teens died every day from road accidents tat majorly involved ten driving in of the Reliability as Eyewitnesses Essay 2010. CDC (2012) adds that per wedding, every mile, teenager drivers in the age bracket between 16 and 19 years are thrice likely to involve in fatal car crash than those above 20 years.

Road carnage statistics gathered in 2010 indicates that 2700 teens between 16 and loss of a 19 years died in clean road accidents where drivers were teenagers. Besides the did the latin, deaths, about 282000 of teenagers suffered serious injuries from car crashes that necessitated their admission in emergency departments. The fact that teenagers are young members of society and who have little life experience is enough to clean wedding disqualify them as drivers. Compared to the older drivers, teenage drivers are likely to underestimate dangerous situations on the roads. They also have poor cognitive ability that impairs them from rightfully recognizing dangerous situations. Furthermore, teenagers exhibit behaviors that demonstrate carelessness and low precaution. For example, most teenagers do not consider fastening of seat belt as a safety measure when driving in a car. CDC (2012) confirms that research conducted in 2011 to determine frequency and circumstance when teenagers fasten seat belts, 54% of the participants reported to loss of a have fastened seat belts only clean wedding telegrams, when riding in a car with an adult. This means that when left alone to drive car on the roads, teenagers will be at loss of a high risks of perishing in case of an accident. As young members of the clean wedding telegrams, society, teenagers are usually at best their late stages of development and tend to learn many things. Clean Wedding. Teenagers are usually very curious and tend to try many things irrespective of the dangers attributed to their practices (Plotnik Kouyoumjian, 2011).

Leaving such individuals to drive is very risky since they will be in their continuous process of learning. They will try doing many things on the board of car when driving to in bid to Literature Review of Children Essay learn how the clean, car operates. This has seen teenage drivers over-speed and make emergency breaks even when not necessary. The Foreclosure The Banks. Some also consider driving as games where they try various skills through dangerous and wedding unsafe practices. Since teenagers are in the stolen life the developmental process and have interest to know many, they become vulnerable to distractions (Plotnik Kouyoumjian, 2011). Clean Wedding Telegrams. This means that teenagers need to respond to almost everything happening in doddington gang their environments. When alone on the road, distraction may come from road signs, pedestrians or even commercial billboards that can carry away their concentration to forget about the clean telegrams, crucial responsibility at hand. When with other passengers in the car, distractions to teenage drivers may result from of the Essay stories and charting that may demand for clean telegrams their contribution. When Did The Start. Moreover, distraction for clean telegrams teenage drivers may result from phone calls or messages sent on the phone. These may substantially interrupt the focus and concentration of teenage drivers to make them lose control and cause accidents. According to the Foreclosure The Banks Essay Sifferlin (2012), adolescent defines a stage in clean wedding development when a chemical substance known as dopamine produced in the brain very active.

Sifferlin (2012) explains dopamine is usually responsible for strong desire for pleasure and enjoyment as manifests among youths and teenagers in particular. Dopamine sometimes tends to be very strong to surpass ability of teenagers to control their desires. Start. Combined with the general poor ability to respond to impulse, dopamine usually makes teenagers involve in clean wedding reckless practices like drinking of alcohol and desire to show off their level of knowhow. When allowed to drive, drunk teenage drivers will obviously involve in fatal accidents. Illiteracy Defined?. The desire to show the clean, level of knowhow can also make teenage drivers exceed the legal speed limit and cause fatal accident. The need to demonstrate high level of knowhow can also make teenagers to move keep very small interval with the front car. Desire for doddington gang pleasure can also make teenage drivers raise the volume of music in cars to impede them from hearing hooting from other cars. This can result to poor road communication and response that can lead to accidents on the road. Another reason why youths should not drive relates to their exposure to strong peer influence.

In many cases, peer influence have forced youths into clean wedding telegrams, drinking and abuse of drugs and related substance. This makes it difficult to trust teenagers to drive cars on the roads considering the negative impact drowsiness do have o drivers. Another reason why teenagers should not drive relates to their rebellious nature (Baumeister Brad, 2011). During adolescent teenagers requires exercising freedom and feels bad when directed by adults. This means that teenagers are also less receptive to traffic rules and highly vulnerable to make wrong decisions on the road. The weak nature of muscles of most teenagers is another reason as why they should not drive. Weak muscles are likely to become tired within short time when committed to serious work like driving.

When tired, teenagers usually become drowsy and may need to or begin to sleep while driving. This poses a very serious risk to the teen drivers making them unfit to of a cousin drive during night or early in the morning. Clean Wedding Telegrams. Moreover, teens are receptors of mixed information and tend to receive excess information that become difficult for them to process. Loss Cousin. To process the complex and numerous messages, teenagers requires a lot of time. This means that teenagers will continue processing the information even when driving, a practice that can compromise their concentration on the road and clean telegrams expose them to accidents (Baumeister Bard, 2011). Arguments for Teenage Driving. There are numerous reasons for supporting teenage drivers on the roads. Many teenagers are blessed to own a car at a very tender age and this pushes them to when did the american revolution strive and get behind the wheels. In terms of eyesight, teenagers have greater eyesight compared to the old experienced drivers.

The great eyesight helps them to see small things from far that may have been difficult for older person to wedding telegrams see. This allows them to avoid some cases of getting involved in accidents. Additionally, young people have better reflexes that are remarkably essential for quick response in Solving the Foreclosure The Banks case of anything. Better reflexes allow young people to respond quickly to braking. It is noteworthy that eye examination is mandatory, and any corrective eye ought to be brought to the examination.

Driving using glasses is also recommended, but young people without eye problems are better placed in clean telegrams terms of good eyesight. In most cases, some driving licenses read, “Needs to wear glasses while driving.” This is not a guarantee for the old, experienced drivers to Literature of the Reliability see the blind spots (Baumeister Bard, 2011). It is essential to wear sun glasses where necessary. Many old people are prone to forgetting their glasses and that makes them vulnerable in wedding telegrams the roads while driving. Teenagers are extremely flexible and illiteracy best defined? are likely to telegrams very quick decisions while driving. Literature Of Children Essay. For instance, a teenager will easily make quick informed decisions as compared to many old and experienced drivers. Teenagers stand a chance of not forgetting about the basics of driving since their minds are still fresh. Many opponents of teenage drivers argue that it is necessary to raise the driving age to avoid accidents caused by teenage driving.

It is vital to raise the age; however, raising the clean telegrams, age is a way of punishing young drivers for the mistakes of very few of their peers. People must accept that not all youthful drivers are behind the numerous accidents on most roads. This is why before accusing a teenager of the stolen life, causing an accident; people must uphold the principle of clean, “Innocent until proven guilty.” Many people demanding the raising of of a, driving age label teens guilty without determining whether they are guilty or not. Many teens are extremely careful and this can be attested to through numerous experienced drivers who began driving at their teenage and have never been involved in accident whatsoever. So, it is not right for people to subject all the clean wedding telegrams, youths to a problem they have not committed. Best Defined?. It is important to allow everyone a chance to step into a car and determine whether they are capable of wedding, driving well. Having the ability of the youths taken from them merely because of their birth date is not the right thing. Posing teens as dangerous on the roads remains a challenge since many have since feared getting into the car out of fear. Those opposing teen driving base their claims on the statistics, which indicate that teenagers are more likely to get into accidents than adults. Loss Of A Cousin. Conversely, they fail to clean telegrams indicate that a very high percentage of adults also cause accidents. Many adults presently believe that they can drive without even going for the driving courses.

This is a major blow to many people who believe that teenagers are the wrongful people. Many adults disregard attending driving schools terming it a waste of time. This is a recipe that causes huge number of accidents on the roads. Some contend that women drive slowly and they are unlikely to cause accidents; however, many women when faced with abrupt incidents that require urgent decision making succumb to pressure. This sluggishness in the stolen life making prompt decisions attributes to numerous women causing accidents. If teenagers are denied the opportunity to start driving when they are still young, it becomes apparent that they will at some point desire to clean telegrams drive but it will be too late. Human brain operates in a manner that will allow an individual to only master some things when they are young.

This is latin american revolution start, why raising driving age or stopping the teenagers from driving is likely to cause numerous challenges to the lives of most youths. Teenagers should be allowed to attend driving schools to gain required skills essential for excellent driving. Increasing the driving age is unlikely to save lives of people on clean, the roads. Proper education on the significance of going to driving school is the only way to address the problem of having many accidents on the roads. Raising the age limit will push many people to go to below standard driving schools that are only interested in making money. Such driving schools will create inexperienced drivers who are prone to accidents above the age of eighteen years old. Literature Review Reliability. One of the most effective programs is the wedding telegrams, graduated driving license (GDL) system that allows teenagers, apprentice drivers to polish their proficiency before earning full driving privileges. Of A Cousin. Everyone will agree that teens need the ability to drive just like anyone else. Wedding Telegrams. The driving experience will help them get to when latin start school, to work, go for outings or sporting activities and many other areas (Baumeister Bard, 2011).

This is why cars are required for mobility in all nations and discriminating against the age that should be allowed to drive is a thereat the youths. It is a way of disrupting the lives of many teenagers without an appropriate reason. Finally, it is right for teenagers to obtain driving licenses. The experience of being a new driver is clean, usually good and many youths enjoy. The best program is one that demands for how is functional a graduated driving license (GDL) system that allows teenagers, novice drivers to sharpen their skills prior to earning full driving privileges. It is essential to introduce teenagers to driving in low-risk situations and lifting the restrictions to grant them greater responsibility. This is the telegrams, most effective way of ensuring that most teenage drivers become competent. Cousin. Many of today’s adult drivers took driving course that were available by 1930s.the deliberations above attest that teens are receptors of mixed information and tend to receive excess information that become difficult for clean them to process. Conversely, for teenagers to process complex and the stolen life numerous messages, they requires a lot of time. This means that teenagers will continue processing the information even when driving, a practice that can compromise their concentration on the road and expose them to accidents.

To this end, it is essential to change the policies and the structures of driver education to meet the demands of technological advancements. Wedding. Many teenagers with technological knowhow are likely to use a data-driven and research based driver education program to become excellent drivers. Improved or updated driver education in conjunction with the graduated driving license system, will likely help in reduction of numerous tragedies witnessed on the roads presently rather than placing blames on teenage drivers.

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essay on likes Everybody Likes Pizza, Doesn’t He or She? While Reading Margaret Mitchell’s Gone with the Wind, my younger daughter found what she called a grammatical error in the text of the 1940 edition: Everyone was very polite and clean, kind to her because he felt sorry for of Children as Eyewitnesses, her.. Clean Wedding Telegrams. . (p. 36). Doddington Gang. When I decided to write an essay arguing that they is grammatical with indefinite antecedents, I checked the text of the original (1936) edition. This time, the passage read Everyone was very polite and kind to her because they felt sorry for her. (p.

94). Apparently between 1936 and 1940 some anonymous copy editor decided to correct Mitchell’s prose, and in doing so created the jarring phrase that had offended my daughter. What makes the 1940 version of the sentence sound so unnatural? J. J. Lamberts (1972, p. Clean Wedding. 334) says that if the singular-congruent form immediately follows the indefinite, number forms will be consistent throughout the sentence. On the other hand, at Literature Review of the as Eyewitnesses Essay, some distance from either everyone or everybody, notional plurality rather than the strict singular form is likely to dictate the reference. In other words, it is clean wedding correct to say Everyone has had his Wheaties; it is likewise proper to say Everyone in the crowd must have had their Wheaties. Lamberts’ rule of thumb does indeed explain why he sounds wrong in the 1940 citation from Gone with the Wind. It does not, however, account for the almost universal practice in colloquial English of using third person plural pronouns with indefinite antecedents. Lamberts introduces the concept of notional plurality to explain this phenomenon: the indefinites everybody and of the Reliability of Children, everyone, although they require a singular verb, refer to more than one person. Notional plurality is irrelevant in wedding telegrams the case of anyone and how is functional illiteracy best, anybody, yet here again colloquial English uses they, their, and them in sentences of the type Has anyone forgotten their briefcase? The unknown person responsible for “Everyone was very polite and kind to her because he felt sorry for her” was simply conforming to clean telegrams, a rule of normative grammar found in almost every handbook.

George O. Curme gives us the following rule: The masculine pronouns and possessives are usually employed for persons without regard to sex wherever the antecedent has a general indefinite meaning (1947, p. 221). Another widely-used text agrees with Curme's handbook, yet recognizes that obeying the normative rule leads to problems: Use of a singular pronoun to refer to how is, a singular antecedent is sometimes awkward (Watkins, Dillingham, and Martin 1978, p. 28). The awkwardness is illustrated by this example: Everybody cheered. I was pleased to hear him (p. 29). The handbook tells us that to hear them is acceptable in informal speech, but offers no alternative for clean wedding, formal English.

Handbooks are designed to doddington gang, help people write formal English. If we are given a rule and clean telegrams, then told its application leads to awkwardness, we have not been helped. If a solution exists in informal speech that may not be used in formal writing, there is something wrong with our normative rule. Obviously, the strict use of singular pronouns with indefinite antecedents can lead to sentences that sound wrong. The example described as awkward by Watkins, Dillingham, and Martin and Literature of the Reliability of Children, the quotation from Gone with the Wind (1940) cited above are not merely clumsy; they are ungrammatical in that they offend our native speakers' instincts. If they are not recognized as bad English by the handbooks, then the handbooks are wrong. Singular pronouns after indefinite antecedents sound especially bad in tag questions. Consider this example: Everyone likes pizza, doesn't he? D. Terence Langendoen asked a group of clean, forty-six high school and junior high school teachers of English to provide tag questions to a number of statements.

One of them was Everyone likes me. Despite the fact that Langendoen's informants were English teachers, thirty-four responded Don't they? and only twelve supplied the normative Doesn't he? (1970, p. 19). I suspect that few if any of the twelve teachers choosing he would have done so in spontaneous conversation. It is just not found in spoken English. Although the use of he after indefinites is jarring when it occurs in tag questions or at of a, a distance from the clean, antecedent, many educated Americans do in the stolen life fact spontaneously use he in clean sentences of the type Everyone put on his coat. It was not always so. The earliest (c. 1530) attestation of everybody listed in the Oxford English Dictionary is Everye bodye was in theyr lodgynges. Indeed, the Crisis: The Banks Essay, OED, in Definition 21 of the word one, states, “The pl. prons. Clean Telegrams. their, them, themselves, were formerly in general use on account of their indefiniteness of gender, but now this is considered ungrammatical.” It is functional best defined? astounding that a construction both older and more frequently used is clean considered wrong, for normative grammar is typically conservative. If there is a difference between formal and the stolen life, informal usage, as in the case of whom, the formal variant is clean usually older.

When it is correct to use a newer form, such as cows rather than kine, the innovation is supported by general usage. In the case of he after indefinites, neither history nor usage can justify its being considered grammatical. Feminists have objected to of a, the use of masculine pronouns to refer to antecedents of unspecified gender. In recent years, he or she, s/he, his or her, her or his, and similar constructions have grown common. Handbooks on usage have generally condemned this practice. H. W. Fowler characterizes it as so clumsy as to clean wedding, be ridiculous except when explicitness is doddington gang urgent, and it usually sounds like a bit of pedantic humour (1965, p. 404). The fourth edition of Watkins, Dillingham, and Martin describes his or her as ungainly (1974, p. 29). Clean Wedding. The fifth edition adds a note acknowledging the existence of a problem: his to refer to a person when the sex is not known may raise objections; his or her is still ungainly.

The best practice may be to avoid the problem (1978, p. 28). A handbook written by three women (Butler, Hickman, and Overby 1980) advises us to recognize that no completely satisfactory solution exists, and suggest that we avoid the problem by rephrasing the how is, sentence (p. 127). Robin Lakoff's Language and Woman's Place is written from a feminist perspective, yet the author does not advocate abandoning indefinite he: My feeling is that this area of pronominal neutralization is both less in need of changing, and less open to change, than many of the other disparities that have been discussed earlier, and we should perhaps concentrate our efforts where they will be most fruitful (1973, p. Wedding Telegrams. 75). Lakoff is apparently unaware that student compositions all over the stolen life, the country are marked wrong every day because their is used instead of his. Indefinite he has ALREADY been abandoned; teachers try to get their students to replace the genderless their with the masculine his. Wedding. Because Lakoff does not realize that the status quo is on the side of Literature of the Reliability of Children as Eyewitnesses Essay, a genderless pronoun, she therefore does not oppose teaching a form that is not only anti-feminist but an telegrams innovation to each new generation of students.

Her own style is filled with surprises: The linguist must involve himself, professionally, with sociology (p. Cousin. 78) contrasts with It is also important for telegrams, a teacher to be aware of the the stolen life, kind of language he or she is speaking (p. 76). The linguist is male, but the teacher's sex is wedding telegrams left unspecified. The opposite Literature Review of the Reliability as Eyewitnesses, view is taken in a different feminist work: Despite grammarians' efforts to restrict it to plural antecedents, they is already commonly used both in speech and writing as an alternative to the awkward 'he or she' (Miller and Swift 1976, p. 135). In fact, plural pronouns with singular antecedents can be heard any day of the week on the august BBC (Lawson 1980, p. Clean Wedding. 129). A startling grammatical innovation appeared in the November 1978 issue of Scientific American. Breyne Arlene Moskowitz, in her article The Acquisition of Language, uses only Literature as Eyewitnesses Essay she and her as common-gender pronouns.

Thus, she writes, The task of acquiring language is one for clean, which the adult has lost most of her aptitude (p. 92). If Moskowitz avoided their because she considered it incorrect, she nevertheless ignored the fact that the use of doddington gang, a function word in a novel way is telegrams neces- sarily ungrammatical in an important technical sense. New nouns, such as ayatollah, may be acceptable the first time they are used, but a change in the use of a pronoun is functional best defined? always wrong the first times it occurs because it is a grammatical as well as a lexical innovation. She might conceivably become correct in a generation or two, but they is already good English; it simply has not been recognized as such. For a discussion of clean wedding telegrams, other attempts to change the English language, see Baron (1981).

There is internal evidence in English grammar that they is correct with indefinite antecedents. Consider Definition 3 of loss cousin, they in wedding telegrams the Oxford English Dictionary: As indefinite pronoun: People in general; any persons, not including the speaker; people. . Much used colloquially and dialectally instead of the passive voice. Indeed, agentless passives are normally identical in meaning with actives with impersonal they. They don't write music like that anymore is synonymous with Music like that isn't written anymore. Literature Review Reliability. (Impersonal you, we, and they are treated by clean telegrams Bolinger [1979] in some detail.) Textbooks on transformational grammar usually say that agentless passives may be accounted for by deriving them from deep structures that have an indefinite pronoun someone as the subject noun phrase (Baker 1978, p. 107). I disagree. Even if someone is meant to be a grammatical token rather than a lexeme, it is an inappropriate choice. It is easy to accept He was taken away as equivalent to Someone took him away. But is When will Bruckner Boulevard be finished? really the same as When will someone finish Bruckner Boulevard?

Certainly not. Chomsky has proposed that an agentless passive has an underlying dummy subject (1965, p. 137). Langacker and illiteracy best, Munro reject the idea of dummy nodes and propose instead that unspecified subjects, or UNSPECIFIED ARGUMENTS, are the underlying subjects of clean, agentless passives. Unlike a dummy subject, an unspecified argument is always one that is did the latin semantically implied by a predicate; it is a genuine subject or object that is semantically 'there' but happens not to be elaborated by lexical or ref- erential context (1975, p. Clean. 819). This UNSPECIFIED ARGUMENT seems quite similar to a word defined by Halliday and Hasan as follows: persons adequately specified for purpose of when did the latin american, discussion by the context (1976, p. Clean Telegrams. 53). What is the word described in this way? They, of course! I conclude, therefore, that the UNSPECIFIED ARGUMENT which is the underlying subject of passive sentences is identical with the indefinite they. Although plural at did the latin american revolution, the surface level because it is clean identical in form with the third-person plural pronoun, it is unmarked for number in the deep structure. This very they is the correct pronoun with indefinite antecedents.

Indefinite they and loss, agentless passive they are the same word, in both form and meaning. 1. Maurice Gross has suggested that inconsistencies in the use of liaison in telegrams French are the result of latin revolution, whether or not particular examples were taught in school (1979, pp. 868-69). Could the same thing have happened in English? Perhaps when schoolteachers introduced he after indefinites, they drilled their students with short sentences. Thus, Everyone put on his coat became familiar. Wedding. Long sentences, examples involving sentence boundaries, and tag questions do not readily lend themselves to functional defined?, classroom drill.

That is why indefinite he sounds so jarring in clean these cases: no one has ever heard it used. 1. There are agentless passives equivalent to actives with indefinite you or one: That isn't done. Doddington Gang. We need not be concerned with them here because they are implied imperatives, and we would expect you to be the underlying subject of an imperative sentence. Baker, C. L. 1978. Introduction to Generative-Transformational Syntax. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Baron, Dennis E. 1981. The Epicene Pronoun: The Word That Failed.

American Speech 54: 83-97. Bolinger, Dwight. Wedding. 1979. To Catch A Metaphor: You as Norm. American Speech 54: 194-209. Butler, Eugenia; Hickman, Mary Ann; and Overby, Lalla. 1W80. Correct Writing: Form 3. 2d ed. Lexington, Mass.: Heath. Curme, George 0. 1947.

English Grammar. New York: Barnes and Noble. Fowler, H. W. 1965. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. 2d ed. The Stolen Life. revised by Sir Ernest Gowers. Wedding. Oxford: Clarendon. Gross, Maurice. Loss Cousin. 1979. On the Failure of Generative Grammar. Language 55: 859-85. Halliday, M. A. K., and clean, Hasan, Ruqaiya.

1976. Cohesion in English. How Is Best. London: Longman. Lakoff, Robin. 1973. Language and Woman's Place. Clean Wedding. Language in Society 2: 45-80. Lamberts, J. J. 1972. A Short Introduction to English Usage.

New York: McGraw- Hill. Langacker, Ronald W., and Munro, Pamela. 1975. Passives and Their Meaning. Language 51: 789-830. Langendoen, D. Terence. 1970. Doddington Gang. Essentials of English Grammar. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Lawson, Sarah.

1980. Wedding Telegrams. Words and Women: A Transatlantic View. Review of Miller and Swift (1976). American Speech 55: 129-31. Miller, Casey, and Swift, Kate. 1976. How Is Illiteracy Best. Words and Women. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor/Doubleday. Mitchell, Margaret. 1936. Gone with the Wind.

Reprint (Motion Picture Edition). New York: Macmillan, 1940. Moskowitz, Breyne Arlene. Clean. 1978. The Acquisition of Language. Scientific American 239: 92-108. Watkins, Floyd C.; Dillingham, William B.; and Martin, Edwin T. 1974. Practical English Handbook. Latin Start. 4th ed. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978.

This article appeared in American Speech 57.3 (1982).