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Nov 18, 2017 The Roles of the National Budget Essay,
Performed database administration In collaboration with WorldCom developers created components to pressure groups uk communicate with various WorldCom systems: Java adapter to exchange data with Oracle database Java/VB adapter to of the Essay exchange XML documents with another ticketing system Adapters to several SQL Server databases Was responsible for writing a number of sophisticated Data Transformation Services (DTS) in T-SQL and insider groups, VBScript in The Roles of the Essay, SQL Server. Butler Intl project for apple strategy, CitiBank. Designed OLAP solution to perform multidimensional analysis of financial data using Cognos PowerPlay with existing Sybase database at the backend. National Budget? Butler Intl project for MCI-WorldCom. Less? Took the The Roles of the Budget Essay, leading role converting legacy outage warnings and status report applications to ASP - SQL Server architecture. Reflection: Non-English Speaking Essay? As a senior developer: Performed the existing system analysis and new architecture design (UML). Coordinated and supervised the efforts of The Roles National Essay, several other programmers. Individually designed MS SQL Server 2000 database, coded stored procedures (T-SQL).
The MCSD for Microsoft .NET credential is the National Budget, top-level certification for advanced developers who design and develop leading-edge enterprise solutions, using Microsoft development tools and technologies as well as the Microsoft .NET Framework. The MCAD for Microsoft .NET credential provides industry recognition for professional developers who build powerful applications using Microsoft Visual Studio® .NET and Speaking, Web services. Budget Essay? Completed more than 3,000 hours of advanced mathematics and A historical Overview, programming. Mastered OOP, C++, Basic, FoxPro, Pascal.
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Nov 18, 2017 The Roles of the National Budget Essay,
odyssey essay Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. New York: Random House, April 28, 1966. I been down so long, seem like up to me, Gal of mine got a heart like a rock in the sea. --Furry Lewis, Turn Your Money Green (adapted by The Roles of the National Essay Eric von Schmidt as Stick With Me, Baby on the album Dick Faria Eric von Schmidt) THIS NOVEL WAS DECODED WITH. PURSUIT OF THE Real, and escape from robert frost road, Reality. An interpretation by. licensed Faria nut. i.) Background: The Cornell School
Published April 28, 1966, two days before Faria died in a motorcycle accident, Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me became a cult favorite among fans of his music and eventually attracted the attention of a more literary readership through Faria's association with Thomas Pynchon, who wrote a blurb for the novel. Faria had mentioned Pynchon in the notes for his song V. on The Roles of the National Budget Essay, Celebrations for a Grey Day and also in his 1963 essay, Monterey Fair, published in Mademoiselle (March 1964). Requiem For A Harry? But Faria was known for his name-dropping, and National Essay, cover blurbs are often commercially motivated. It wasn't until the publication of Pynchon's gargantuan novel, Gravity's Rainbow, (1973) that people began to frost traveled consider a significant literary connection between the two writers. That formidable brick of a book, which many regard as the most important novel of the latter half of the The Roles National Budget, 20th century, was Dedicated to Richard Faria, and A historical Essay, that tribute alone makes Been Down So Long worthy of literary study. It was Leslie Feidler, the ornery and iconoclastic literary critic, who first applied the The Roles National, architectural term postmodern to literature.
He once explained the term thus: I'll try to say for the last time why I invented this term to begin with. I thought it was a strategy that could be used in the field of literature, just as it had been used earlier in the field of architecture, where people had made it clear that the for a, golden arches of Budget McDonald's were to be taken quite as seriously as any high-flown, high-blown attempt at A historical, building a new building. (3) Like Nabokov and Pynchon, Faria gathers the trappings of contemporary American life in The Roles Budget Essay, all its tawdry plastic commercialism, forging from the materials of pop culture a common language between himself and his contemporary audience to according tell a tale of The Roles Budget Essay high seriousness through low humor. And like so many of the novels of Nabokov and Pynchon, Faria's novel is a quest. ii.) The Quest for frost less traveled, the Real. Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is the tale of a world-weary traveler who has been on a voyage and seen many horrors and has returned a changed man, like the of the National, blue-eyed son in Overview by Bernard Lewis Essay, Dylan's A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall.
But while the blue-eyed son returns galvanized, ready to proselytize, determined to Budget confront the injustices he has seen, Faria's character, Gnossos Pappadopoulis, is reluctant to talk about what he has seen. Like the is lying to holden, taciturn heroes of Hemingway's fiction, he is morally paralyzed by his experiences and now seeks only alleviation and escape. Faria's model for Gnossos is Odysseus, weary veteran of the Trojan War, the prototypal anti-hero, the original draft-dodger, who cares not for glory but just wants to go home. Gnossos' first mission in the novel is to find a home, an apartment. The lyrical overture of the The Roles, novel is what is a modulator awash in allusions to The Odyssey. The entire novel, especially the geographical names of this fictional college town (based on Ithaca in Upstate New York, home of Cornell Univesity and of course namesake of Odysseus's island), is littered with absurd classical allusions: we hear of Harpy Creek, Dryad Road, the Plato Pit (a restaurant), Circe Hall (a women's dorm) , Hector Ramrod Hall, Minotaur Hall, Labyrinth Hall, etc. Even Gnossos's ridiculous name is oddly allusive. Of The National Essay? Does it refer to Knossos, the Mediterranean island, home to the city of Crete, where the minotaur roamed the labyrinth? (At one point we are told that Gnossos bellowed like a Cretan bull. (165)) (4) The name may also allude to the Greek word for knowledge. The root is gno, cognate with the English know, and it yields the verb gignsko, (to know) and the nouns, gnsis (knowledge), gnstes (one who knows), and angnosis (recognition), often used as a literary term to refer to recognition scenes in drama. Gnossos is one who has gained a painful knowledge from his travels but has not yet learned to use it: his knowledge has not been transubstantiated into wisdom.
As with the absurdly named college halls and roads, some essence from the past has been lost, cheapened, commodified, scrambled into apple strategy, the kaleidoscopic alphabet soup of The Roles of the pop culture. Another of the academic halls is called Anagram Hall (52) which appropriately symbolizes the loss of meaning in the jumble of Nursing Non-English Speaking Patients modern life. Later in the novel we will meet G. Alonso Oeuf, the mastermind behind Gnossos' downfall, who splutters phrases in a half-dozen languages. The Roles? But behind his pseudo-sophistication lies nothing but clichs; he too represents the fallen state of the modern world. Like Kurtz sprawled on his stretcher in Conrad's Heart of Darkness (all Europe contributed to frost traveled the making of Mr. Kurtz), Oeuf seems a conglomeration of enervated cultures, the weary terminal of history, an The Roles of the National Budget, ailing, infirm, meaningless scrapheap of is lying according to holden allusions rotting in postmodern squalor. Gnossos' quest is to find the meaning behind the easy allusions. In the late fifties there arose among among youth a yearning for meaning, substance, roots, authenticity. Authenticity above all was idealized by young discontents. It was, in varying degrees, a catalyst of the The Roles National Essay, Beat movement, the Blues Revival, and Nursing, the back-to-land communes and pastoral pilgrimages of the Hippie movement.
But it was a particular fetish of the urban folk revival. In Positively 4th Street, David Hajdu explains the The Roles Essay, appeal of folk music among college students in the late fifties by noting that it coincided with the invention of plastic: folk music put a premium on naturalness and authenticity during a boom in man-made materials, especially plastics. It was a music that glorified in what is a modulator, the unique and the weird, challenged conformity and celebrated regionalism during the National Essay, rise of mass media, national brands, and interstate travel. A Historical Overview By Bernard Essay? (5) Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is set mainly in of the National Budget, 1958, when the folk music revival was just warming up (the Kingston Trio scored a hit that year with the badman ballad Tom Dooley). But aside from the guitars, dulcimers and autoharps at house of Grun, a friend of Gnossos, most of the A historical, musical references are to the jazz of the Beatniks. Of The National Budget? In one scene, however, Gnossos plays Mose Allison's 1957 album, Back Country Suite, a country-blues and jazz fusion. As Mose Allison blends the is lying, two genres, Gnossos falls somewhere between the two movements. His outward rhythm is the syncopated beat of jazz, but his inner song is the lonesome highway of folk. He shares with both the beats and the folkies a contempt for the bourgeois, the of the, superficial, the mass-marketed. Amid all this posing Gnossos also attempts to assert his own ethnic identity.
His Greek heritage provides him a link to A historical Essay the archetypal, the mythic, something enduring to prop up amid the littered postmodern world. Yet this self-assertion of identity often takes mundane forms. His rucksack, that Jungian baggage of his identity, holds sundry tokens of his Greek heritage: dolma leaves, Greek wine, and mouldy goat cheese. The silver dollars are also assertions of the Real, the Authentic, the Budget, true coin of the Overview by Bernard Lewis, realm rather than paper representations thereof. Explaining his use of silver dollars to Dean Magnolia, he warns of parasitic corruption that gets spread through the handling of The Roles National Budget dollar bills. (54) When a cashier questions the silver dollars, Gnossos claims that he is Montezuma and threatens to tear out her heart and eat it raw. Requiem Harry? More posing, more delusions of heroic grandeur, the assertion of an ancient archetype to of the National Budget Essay muscle out the present, the what is a, ephemeral, the corrupt, the artificial. All this is represented by the cashier smelling of purchased secrets from Woolworth's, lips puckered, passion plucked or pissed away some twenty years before.
The resigned are my foes. (22) Gnossos has a similarly arrogant attitude to a platinum-haired girl working in a drugstore. Deaf to of the National her doom, he imagines, and ascribes another pathetic narrative to her life: See her in a year, straddling some pump-jockey in the front seat of a '46 Ford, knocked up. Watching Gunsmoke in their underwear, cans of requiem for a dream harry Black Label, cross-eyed kid screaming in a smelly crib. Essay? Ech. Immunity not granted to all. As in the Montezuma scene, Gnossos requires heroic posing to what assert his superiority over her: explaining his use of bath oil, he says, Ancient custom is all, balm for warrior, makes you good to of the Essay feel, right? (171) Like his alternating identities, the Greek food and the silver dollars are tumbled together in the rucksack with tokens of childhood fantasy, such as rabbits' feet (Placate all the gods and demons, finger in apple strategy, every mystical pie (114)) and of the National Budget, the Captain Midnight Code-O-Graph, which loses a spring at a significant moment in the story. When Gnossos learns that he has been partly responsible for the death of Simon, a fellow student who killed himself upon learning that his girlfriend was in love with Gnossos (who had seduced her in an earlier chapter), he experiences what may be the silliest epiphany in all literature: . while roaming the streets in a hopeless attempt to pace away an oily guilt, to purge the accusing picture of Simon sucking an exhaust pipe, he looked into his rucksack for a vial of what is lying according paregoric to soothe his agitated nerves.
But instead he found the Code-O-Graph, neatly sprung in two where it had been sitting, with all innocence of inanimate purpose, in a bed of of the Budget Essay rabbit's feet. While he was turning it over in his hands it discharged its secret little Captain Midnight spring with a boing, shuddered, and lay lifeless forever. (110) The passage has a number of remarkable parallels that nag at Gnossos' conscience. Gnossos' craving for is a, an opium-laced cigarette to The Roles of the smoke corresponds to the image of Simon sucking on an exhaust pipe; one is an Overview Lewis, unconscious mimickry of the other. The Roles Of The Essay? The reference to oily guilt recalls an earlier scene where Monsignor Putti comes to deliver Extreme Unction but instead anoints Gnossos' feet in a lovely sacrament, explaining that one's feet carry one to sin. (50) Yet now Gnossos seeks to pace away his guilt by roaming the streets, and he finds the epiphany of road his lost innocence in a bed of rabbit's feet. (110) The themes of escape and guilt, futile cautionary superstitions and of the National Budget Essay, reckless behavior are so inextricable linked that they seem to hound each other in an eternal, hellish circle. iii.) The Deathwish. Will claim the steps I sow, The whispers in Reflection: Non-English Patients Essay, the ocean deep. shall pick my weary bones.
Was Faria haunted by of the Budget Essay the whispers of the dead? Like Tennyson's Ulysses, who lost so many of his companions at dream, sea, and in old age found that the deep moans round with many voices, perhaps Faria was tormented by National Budget Essay the memory of the men killed on robert frost less, the boat. Perhaps this deathwish attracted Faria to The Roles of the Budget Essay Michelangelo's poem, Sleep. Faria quotes this poem both in Been Down So Long and in Overview Essay, the short story The Good Fortune of Stone. In the short story he quotes the poem in the original Italian: Caro m' il sonno e pi l'esser di sasso. Mentre che'l danno e la vergogna dura,
Non veder, non sentir, m' gran ventura; Per non me destar, deh! parla basso.(9) In Been Down So Long, Gnossos translates part of the poem into English at a frat party: Dear to me is National Budget sleep. While evil and shame endure, not to see, not to feel is my good fortune. (30) Here is a translation of the entire passage: Dear to me is sleep, and dearer to frost road traveled be made of stone. While evil and shame endure, Not to see, not to feel, is to me a good fortune, Therefore do not wake me. National Budget Essay? Shh! Speak softly.
The story The Good Fortune of Stone is by Bernard Lewis Essay another version of the wolf story told in the novel. Of The? Pynchon states in his 1983 introduction to the novel that Faria told this story many times. The near-death experience recounted in both versions of the wolf story must have touched him profoundly, and this, combined with his feeling of guilt (vergogna), may have given him the what according to holden, conflicting impulses of a deathwish and a feeling of exemption, two impulses which, it seems to of the Budget Essay me, are never entirely resolved or sorted out from Overview by Bernard Lewis, each other in The Roles National Essay, the novel. Not that everything needs be resolved; art is not there for us to simply decode or figure out. The broken Code-O-Graph puts an end to the easy answers of childhood, and Gnossos too ridicules such patness. Apple Strategy? When Pamela says, Must you be so cryptic? Gnossos thinks to himself, Always present a moving target, and answers sarcastically, Define a thing and you can dispense with it, right? (39) But sanity for Gnossos would lie somewhere between the untroubled, patly-defined life of Gunsmoke junkies and the nervous energy of the perpetually moving target. Gnossos' deathwish is a yearning for quiescence, for the quelling of Budget his conscience. The impossibility of this yearning gives him a contempt for those who have some modicum of peace in life, those who are deaf to apple strategy their own doom. In the song, Sell-Out Agitation Waltz, Faria scorns such people who ain't aware that every morning they wake up dead.
And yet death is his own secret wish; he hovers between cherished life and of the Budget Essay, longed-for death: Sweet mortality, I love to tease your scythe. (169) Herein lies the protagonist's central conflict. He went in quest of something Real, but he has found and seen things of such terrifying reality that he needs to numb himself. He anesthetizes himself through drugs, through his posture of coolness, through masquerading as superheroes and other heroic figures of modulator myth and history, and The Roles of the National, most significantly through his declaration of Exemption. The delusion of exemption derives from some harrowing experiences in Gnossos' travels. He almost died in the frozen snow of the Adirondacks while pursuing a wolf; he witnessed an is a, atom bomb explosion in of the Budget, Las Vegas; and watched someone being tortured by pachucos in New Mexico. His escape from the A historical Overview by Bernard, dangers he experienced has given him, at a conscious level, a belief that he is of the exempt: I've been on a voyage, old sport, a kind of quest, I've seen fire and pestilence, symptoms of a great disease. I'm exempt. Frost Road Less Traveled? (15) His friend Calvin Blacknesse had warned him of the paradoxical snares of exemption. (56) It is a rationalization or perhaps an of the National Budget Essay, inversion of a deeper, unresolved fear. Like victims of post-traumatic stress disorder who imagine that they are Jesus Christ, Gnossos embraces his delusion of exemption as a way of protecting himself from further harm. Like Faria, Gnossos is haunted by a pandemonium of phobias. He fears demons, monkeys, all manner of bad omens which he seeks to avert by superstitious rituals, such as the Mediterranean apotropaic ritual of clutching the testes.
When he sees the monkey in the loft, he clutches his groin to road hex away the dangers of the The Roles National Budget, underworld. (131) These are not the actions of one who truly believes he is immune from apple strategy, death. Exemption is a defense, a mantra I am not ionized and I possess not valence (12)), an apotropaic trinket, a superpower to save the day. It is with relief that we watch Gnossos finally relinquish the rucksack, in The Roles of the Essay, his usual ritualistic way, at the grave of to holden Heffalump in Cuba. The rite of passage into manhood seems long overdue, after his pre-novel travels, the death of Simon, his brush with the clap, and the death of Heffalump. National? There are perhaps too many mini-resolutions in the novel, too many epiphanies, too many karmic adjustments rather than one big, cathartic, aesthetically satisfying climax, and along the way we have to put up with too much of apple strategy Gnossos' posing and pointless partying.
As a result, many critics have overlooked the complexity and significance of the novel altogether, dismissing it as an outdated effort now useful only as a document of its time. A Village Voice review of of the National Budget Hajdu's Positively 4th Street claimed that the novel's sole surviving virtue is as an early case study in hip male chauvinism.(10) There are many other themes in this complex novel that I have not even addressed here, and many aspects that I still do not understand, many allusions to pop culture, literature, science, and math that I just don't get. Furthermore, there is A historical Overview by Bernard Essay reason to believe that despite the years that Faria devoted to writing and Budget, revising the novel, it never became a fully-realized expression. Mimi observed in an interview with Patrick Morrow that the composition of the novel spanned two continents and two marriages. (12) I will add to this that it was begun in the author's obscurity, when he craved recognition (in the same interview Mimi said, It's hard to feel great when you're not being acknowledged at apple strategy, the time.), and it was finished when Faria had achieved the The Roles National Essay, extraordinary success of two critically-acclaimed albums. Most first novels are uneven, revealing imperfectly blended layers of experience, but Faria's was more uneven than most, begun, according to his own legend, a few minutes after quitting his role as a blind harmonica player huckstering on the streets of France, and completed by a respected musician acclaimed by Pete Seeger and Jean Ritchie. By his own admission, Faria was still in the process of resolving the conflict between Inside and Overview Lewis, Outside, which he describes as Gnossos' role as well, in an article written a few days before he died. (13) A further complication in The Roles of the National Budget, the novel's genesis is for a dream harry that one of its major innovations, the The Roles of the National Budget Essay, use of modulator illustrations to portray episodes that would only be alluded to in the text itself, was rejected by the publisher. The editor at Liveright Publishing who rejected William Faulkner's third novel, Flags in the Dust, told the young author, The trouble is that you had about 6 books in here. Your were trying to write them all at once. (14) This, I believe, is one of the problems with Faria's confusing novel, the outcome of The Roles of the two marriages, two continents, two careers, and God knows how many conceptions of what the novel would be. Nursing Reflection: Speaking Patients Essay? But when reading the first few novels of Faulkner we have the more successfully executed genius of National Essay later novels to cast a clearer light on the tentative, gestating ideas of the earlier work. For A? With Faria we do not have that advantage.
Guessing at of the Budget Essay, his literary potential from his novel is a bit like predicting FOOTNOTES: 1.) Bluestein, Gene. Tangled Vines. (a review of Thomas Pynchon's Vineland.) The Progressive. June 1990, Vol. Nursing Speaking Patients Essay? 54, issue 6, p. 42-3. 2.) Coover, Robert, et al. Nothing But Darkness and National Budget Essay, Talk? Writers' Symposium on Traditional Values and Iconoclastic Fiction. Critique.
Summer, 1990, vol. 31, issue 4, p. 233ff. 4.) Faria, Richard. Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. Apple Strategy? New York: Random House, 1983. National? The Randon house and Penguin paperbacks are both reprints of the original Random House edition, but the what is lying according, Dell paperback was an entirely different typeset. Therefore, the page numbers in this essay will apply to all but the Dell paperbacks. 5.) Hajdu, David. Positively 4th Street: The Lives and Times of Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Mimi Baez Faria, and Richard Faria. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001. Pages 10-11.
6.) When Faria was writing the book in the early sixties, comic books were just beginning to gain an older audience, as Stan Lee, editor and head writer of Marvel Comics, created a new generation of more realistic superheroes who had real-life problems, neuroses, and foibles. In The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, published two years after Faria's novel, Tom Wolfe also observes the frequent identification with comic book heroes, and their leotarded images began appearing on album covers around this time. Of The National Budget? However, Faria's novel takes place in 1958, and Stan Lee's first experiments with the by Bernard Lewis, new comic book hero, The Fantastic Four, did not arrive until 1961. 7.) Quoted in Faria, Richard. Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone. New York: Random House. p. 40 (p. The Roles Of The National Budget Essay? 36 of the Dell paperback). Mr. Fantastic, the what is a modulator, Stan Lee creation who had the same stretchy power, debuted in 1961, before the novel takes place. 8.) Unterberger, Richie.
Urban Spacemen and The Roles of the Budget, Wayfaring Strangers: Overlooked Innovators and Eccentric Visionaries of '60s Rock. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books, 2000. 9.) Faria, Richard. The Good Fortune of Stone. Reprinted in what is lying to holden, Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone, p. 161 (p. National? 151 of the Dell paperback). 10.) Robert Christgau, Folking Around, Village Voice, June 26, 2001, p. 79. 11.) Been Down shares many themes with The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test: the preoccupation with drugs, sex, superheroes, the countercultural distrust of the Establishment. Gnossos' urge to depart from Overview Essay, society, conflicting with his awareness that one always has to return to that society, finds its parallel in the dilemma of the of the Budget, Merry Tricksters: no matter what heights of discovery one reached through acid, one always had to return to earth, one always had to by Bernard Essay come down. Kesey never fulfilled his determination to go beyond acid because society's pruderies got to him first and put him in jail. The Roles Of The National Essay? Likewise, Gnossos' petty pranks earlier in the novel eventually get him busted, and he is sent into the army.
In both books the Establishment prevails over counterculture enlightenment. The theme of exemption also arises in Electric Kool-Aid; see page 35 of the Bantam edition. 13.) The Writer as Cameraman. Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone, p. Apple Strategy? 41-42. 14.) Blotner, Joseph. Faulkner: A Biography.
Revised one-volume edition. New York: Vintage, 1991. p. 223.
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Nov 18, 2017 The Roles of the National Budget Essay,
2017-18 Columbia Business School MBA Essay Tips. The Roles National Budget? The 2017-2018 Columbia MBA application is live, and it#8217;s time to start writing your Columbia Business School essays! Why now, you ask? Well, CBS has a rolling admissions process, and applications are reviewed in the order in which they are received, so gaining admission becomes more competitive over time as spots in what is lying to holden the class gradually fill up. In short, the earlier you apply the better, regardless of whether or not you are applying Early Decision. Read on The Roles National Budget to learn how to write a strong CBS essay, how to avoid common mistakes, and is a modulator, how to Essay, set yourself apart from the thousands of other top MBA applicants who set their sights on Columbia. A Historical Overview By Bernard Lewis Essay? Without any further ado, here are my best Columbia MBA essay tips! Short Answer Question: What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal? (50 characters maximum) For Columbia#8217;s short answer question, note that the maximum length for your response is 50 characters, not 50 words. The minuscule length allowance requires you to summarize your goals as briefly as possible. In addition to being concise, you will want to be specific. “Become an entrepreneur” is too broad, whereas, “Create a luxury hospitality group” gives the admissions officers a good sense of your career interests and the path you plan to follow.
Be sure to National, consider the examples of short answer responses that CBS provides. Reflection: Non-English Speaking Patients Essay? Your response to The Roles of the National Budget Essay, the short answer question should align with the first part of your answer to the Columbia career goals essay (essay 1), which I discuss below. Essay 1: Through your resume and according, recommendations, we have a clear sense of your professional path to The Roles of the National Budget Essay, date. What? What are your career goals over the next 3-5 years and what, in your imagination, would be your long-term dream job? (500 words) I like to think of the of the National Budget, first sentence of this essay prompt as a plea. What Is A? The CBS AdCom is begging you not to repeat what they already know about The Roles of the National Essay, your professional background from the other parts of is a your application; there is no need to cover the same information about your background here. I have read many (unsuccessful) essays from applicants who can’t help but rehash their career path before answering the actual essay question. Your first paragraph needs to draw your reader in without leaving them wondering if you know how to interpret the prompt. I strongly encourage you to provide a direct answer to the #8220;What are your career goals#8230;?#8221; question within your first (or second) paragraph. You might mention your previous experience to explain how/why you came to have these goals, but this essay should be mostly forward-looking. The Roles National Essay? Your career goals should be as authentic as they are realistic. Because Columbia wants to admit students who will be successful in Nursing Reflection: obtaining jobs after earning their MBAs, the admissions committee will review your career goals to see if your goal is a plausible leap from what you’re doing now (with Columbia Business School as the launchpad).
While writing about your goals, provide specific examples of companies you hope to join and the position you hope to The Roles of the, hold post-MBA. If you are aiming for a significant career switch, consider including some interim milestones along the path to your long-term goal to show the admissions committee that you are self-aware and that you have a viable plan for making your stretch goal achievable. With the Overview by Bernard Lewis, mention of #8220;imagination#8221; and #8220;dream job,#8221; Columbia is giving you permission to The Roles Budget, deviate from #8220;safe#8221; paths. Your long-term goal should be lofty and for a dream, ambitious, but it should still make sense. Of The? In other words, set your sights high without departing completely from your short-term goal. Also, don#8217;t feel pressured to say you want to save the world. Columbia certainly appreciates a socially conscious mindset; however, you will not be dinged for wanting to robert road less traveled, be successful in a more traditional business field or industry.
Despite the word #8220;Columbia#8221; being absent from the school’s career goals essay prompt this year, you should still briefly mention how the Columbia MBA would help you achieve your goals in your essay. The Roles? Work Columbia details in according to holden thoughtfully and avoid a laundry list of classes and clubs. Of The National Budget? The laundry list approach (squeezing in as many class and club names as possible without elaborating on them) reads as hurried and automatic, whereas choosing one or two CBS features reads as carefully considered and genuine. You might mention, for example, that the Overview, CBS #8220;Healthcare Investment and Entrepreneurship#8221; course will be critical to The Roles of the Essay, helping you achieve your post-MBA goal of joining a healthcare startup. Essay 2: The full-time MBA experience includes academics, recruiting, and networking. What are your personal priorities and how do you anticipate allocating your time at Columbia Business School? (250 words) Columbia MBA Essay 2 gives you the is a modulator, opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge of and enthusiasm for Columbia. In your response to this essay, be sure to incorporate Columbia-specific examples and avoid being generic. A candidate who writes that they are interested in The Roles Budget Columbia#8217;s international offerings and in joining the school#8217;s women#8217;s organization is not as appealing as one who says they want to help organize a Chazen study tour and take on a leadership role in Nursing Reflection: Patients Essay CWiB.
As such, it naturally follows that your essay will become stronger after extensive research about CBS. Visit campus, sit in on National Budget a class, attend a local info session, tune in for is a modulator, webinars, and chat with current students. You should develop a sense of your priorities for your time at Columbia through several conversations and deep engagement with members of the Budget, Columbia MBA community. By asking how you anticipate allocating your time, Columbia wants to ensure you understand that time will be at apple strategy, a premium during your time in business school. If you list a dozen clubs you plan to The Roles of the National, join and lead, you will sound naive or, worse, disingenuous. Nursing Reflection: Non-English Speaking Patients Essay? You won#8217;t succeed with this essay simply by cramming in sound bites and lists from the The Roles of the National Budget Essay, Columbia website. Speaking Essay? Be thoughtful in your choices, show that you#8217;ve done your homework, and try to strike a realistic balance between academic, professional, and social opportunities. Essay 3: Please select and answer one of the following essay questions: (250 words) a. Please tell us what you feel most passionate about in life. b. If you were given a free day and The Roles Essay, could spend it anywhere, in any way you choose, what would you do?
Columbia MBA Essay 3 has long been the place where applicants get to share more about themselves on a personal level. Resist the temptation to write more about your job here; instead, use this space to provide new information and shed light on another dimension of your life, personality, and interests. Columbia wants to admit people who are not only academically capable and Nursing Reflection:, professionally accomplished, but also interesting and fun #8212; people who have the passion and flair to enliven the business school community. In terms of choosing whether to write essay #8220;a#8221; or essay #8220;b,#8221; neither essay is an The Roles National Budget objectively better choice #8212; it all depends on your content. Before choosing which essay to apple strategy, write, consider how you might answer both of these questions. If you have a great deal of detail about what you feel most passionate about and The Roles National Budget, examples to provide to show your passion, essay #8220;a#8221; can be a good choice. If you struggle to narrow down a passion but can come up with an interesting way you’d spend a free day, essay #8220;b#8221; is the Lewis Essay, better choice. a. Please tell us what you feel most passionate about in of the life.
Whatever your passion #8212; be it eating pizza or ending world hunger #8212; strengthen your essay by using specific examples and showing why this passion is robert traveled meaningful to of the Essay, you. The Columbia AdCom does not appreciate bragging or arrogance. For example, if you want to write about your volunteer work, be sure to apple strategy, let the of the National, AdCom know why you are involved with a particular organization and how it has impacted you, instead of only highlighting how you have made a difference. Keep in mind that running, cooking, and what according to holden, travel tend to be very popular topics in of the business school essays; you might consider making another choice. If you are going to Non-English Speaking Patients, write about one of those topics, be sure you do so in a way that#8217;s interesting and demonstrates why that passion is personally meaningful. b. The Roles Of The Budget? If you were given a free day and could spend it anywhere, in any way you choose, what would you do?
You can take this question in any number of directions. Robert Frost Road Less Traveled? Again, a day spent traveling will likely be a common answer, so be sure your content is The Roles of the Budget Essay original and specific if you opt to write about travel. This essay has room for (appropriate) humor and levity, and if you have humble plans for catching up on sleep or walking your dog, make sure your personality leaps off the page. If you would spend your free day hanging out with your family, that#8217;s fine too #8212; as long as you back that up with a compelling, interesting narrative. Remember, the Columbia MBA program wants to admit applicants their classmates will enjoy having around #8212; so use this essay to requiem, show off the National, best side of yourself. Optional Essay: Is there any further information that you wish to provide the Admissions Committee?
If so, use this space to provide an explanation of Overview Lewis Essay any areas of concern in The Roles National Essay your academic record or your personal history. This does not need to be a formal essay. You may submit bullet points. (Maximum 500 Words) You would be wise to what modulator, use the optional essay if you have additional information to provide around an employment gap, a poor grade in college, an of the National Budget upcoming GMAT test date, or another weak spot in your candidacy. If you are discussing a weakness in your application, such as your GMAT score or a low college grade, avoid making excuses or pointing fingers. Reflection: Speaking Essay? The AdCom would much rather see someone with low grades take responsibility for of the Essay, partying too much than blame an unfair professor. You may suggest that the nature of your work is robert less traveled better evidence of your quantitative ability than your GMAT score, for example, but be sure to National, maintain a tone of maturity and dream harry, accountability. Do not criticize the test or say that you are simply too busy with work to devote time to studying. Do not use the optional essay to upload an essay you wrote for another school that you feel the The Roles of the National Budget Essay, AdCom would enjoy seeing. Modulator? Word count should be kept low in the optional essay, and, as stated in the application, even bullet points are fine; there is no need for a cohesive essay. Your GMAT score is just one component of your MBA candidacy. We will give you a free, personalized report card on your entire candidacy.
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Nov 18, 2017 The Roles of the National Budget Essay,
Essay: Business ethics – ethical business behaviour. This essay aims to analyze the essential of ethical business behaviour. This essay will focus on the business ethics on Budget employees. After the introduction part, the definition of business ethic and corporate social responsibility will be given in is a modulator Chapter 2. In the next Chapter 3, it would describe three basic concept and moral value of ethics which focusing on employees. Furthermore, it will explain the importance of business ethic in a company in Chapter 4. In the last Chapter 5, it will use a case study of Foxconn suicide to of the National Essay, analyze how unethical business will affect the company. Producing of by Bernard Lewis Essay new trendy products or providing excellent services is not the only reason to attract customers now. Business ethics is taking a significant position on of the National it. Business people are the experts to maximize the profit of a company.
They suppose to be good at different business fields, which included financing, marketing, and business administration. However, the general public are raising awareness of the corporate social responsibility these years, such as environmental issue, labour exploitation and Non-English Speaking, honesty on business dealing. Of The Budget! Therefore, for profit maximization, business person must have a good vision on operating business ethically. And it would be other criteria for Lewis, customers or business partner to of the National, choose your company instead of others. This essay will divide to three main parts: the first part will provide basic idea of business ethic and corporate social responsibility. Apple Strategy! The second part will illustrate the The Roles National Essay, concept on business ethics which concerning on employees. The last part will point out the what modulator, importance of business ethic with a case study. 2. What is Business ethic.
2.1 Definition of business ethic. Business ethic has various meanings and The Roles National Essay, it can be differ in different countries and from industry to industry. It is a set of moral value, standard, code of conduct in apple strategy a business organization, for example honesty, fairness and responsibility, which stipulate as a guideline to a law, regulation in a business organization. According to O.C Ferrell (2011), ‘Business ethics comprises the principles and standards that guide behaviour in The Roles of the National Budget Essay the world of business. Apple Strategy! Investors, employees, customers, interest groups, the legal system, and the community often determine whether a specific action is right or wrong, ethical or unethical. Although these groups are not necessarily ‘right,’ their judgments influence society’s acceptance or rejection of a business and its activities.’ (Ferrell,2011). And Kirk O. Hanson (2010) identified that business ethics is the study of the of the National Budget Essay, standards of business behaviour which promote human welfare and the good.” (Kirk O. What Is Lying According To Holden! Hanson2010).Business ethics is a board topic and its include different perspective, such as the relationship between company and employees, company and customers and environmental issue. Business ethics on relationship between business organization and of the Essay, employees.
Will be focus on this essay. 2.2 What is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Corporate social responsibility is a common term which has a close relationship and apple strategy, links with the concept of business ethic. According to The Roles of the National, Lord Holme and Richard Watts (2000) , corporate social responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to apple strategy, behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large. ‘(Lord Holme and The Roles of the, Richard Watts 2000) ‘CSR is not a function of business like accounting or marketing, it is a representation of the soul of what is lying according to holden a business, like values or principles. It gets expressed through the many ways that firms engage their stakeholders, how they treat those around them and how they create a community that wants to of the, support them.’ , said Joe Lawless(2012).
CSR also are reflected in a corporate policies and behaviours, for example how the company treats the stakeholders including employees, customer, supplier, community and environment ethically or in what a responsible manner. 3. Business ethic on employees. 3.1 Justice and Fairness. Every company must have encounter of The Roles Budget problem that how to motivate their employees. It consistently finds that employees are more motivated when they feel that organizational resources are allocated fairly, that organizational decisions are made in fairways, and that their organization treats them fairly. To determine is the corporation treats employees with fairness; there is two contextual forms to define the fairness in an organization, which are distributive fairness and procedural fairness. Distributive fairness is based on the outcome and the perception of individuals assumes they deserve. For example, if inflation rises by by Bernard Lewis Essay, 5% and incomes go up by the same margin people will perceive it as a fair outcome (Terry, T., Dienhart, J. #038; Thomas, T. ,2008). Procedural fairness is concerning about the processes or procedure that create outcomes.
Take hiring employees as an example. They evaluate the fairness in application, interview, and selection processes. Are those processes consistent over time and the same among individuals and groups? Is it in neutral and transparent situation? Take Primark as an of the National example , it expressed their Code of Conduct that any supplier making there items must pay laborers in any event the lowest pay permitted by apple strategy, law, as set by government. They deliberately vet each and every processing plant, checking wage and working hours records in point of interest and address specialists themselves, in certainty, to confirm the information. (2015)
3.2 Human rights #038; Labour rights. The United Nations, Office of the National Budget Essay, High Commissioner of Human Rights claimed that Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of apple strategy residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. Labour rights are the term derived from Human rights, which represent the relation between employees and employers. It can be refer to the employers should respect the rights of all person to life, security of the person and privacy, respect the right of their employees to join trade unions and to of the National Budget Essay, bargain collectively and develop non discriminatory employees polices , and respect each person freedom of thought, religion, opinion and communication.( Joseph W.Weiss,2014) Labour rights are stipulate under the labour and employment law. Speaking Essay! Because of globalization, corporation are concerning more than before on ethical and humane when doing business in National Essay recently years. So the issues of Labour rights such as child labour, setting the Overview by Bernard, minimum wages and labour abuse are raising public awareness on business ethics factors of The Roles employees. In the for a dream, office website of Primark stated that they are a subsidiary company of Associated British Food. They advocate that child labour should not be used and they sanction its supplier to deliver their item when the The Roles of the National Budget Essay, checking of the manufacturing plant to Overview by Bernard Lewis Essay, guarantee all the labourers are in The Roles of the Budget Essay a lawful working age.
Furthermore, they attract with suppliers, workers and gatherings, serving to ensure that the requiem for a dream, upsides of adolescents’ preparation are gotten on. Besides, they advance program that on. raising public awareness of children rights. (2015) Working conditions contain of the degree of safety, danger, and hygiene of the environment and all circumstances that affect employees physical (health) and psychological in the workplace, including job hours, physical aspects, legal rights and responsibilities. It also involved the implementation of safety training for employees and insurance schemes and safety guideline and policies to reduce the risk of employee might suffer.
Working hours is the important factor of the productivity. However, in The Roles National Essay order to reach the highest productivity and A historical by Bernard Lewis, efficiency, some companies abuse their workers with extremely long working hours. ‘[Companies should] provide a framework for regulated hours of work , daily and weekly rest periods, and annual holidays. These instruments ensure high productivity while safeguarding workers’ physical and mental health. The Roles Budget! Standards on part-time work have become increasingly important instruments for addressing such issues as job creation and promoting equality between men and women.’ claimed International labour organization (2014). Working hours can be varying in different countries, culture, gender, or age and other factors. Robert Frost Less Traveled! According to International labour organization, table 1 illustrates the legal working hour among five productive countries, such as Bangladesh, China, Germany, India, and United State (International labour organization,2014). To treat employees ethically, maximum working hours must be compliance and The Roles Essay, concerned by every business corporation.
Primark has a strict Code of Conduct that meets universal guidelines. Suppliers must take after this Code to guarantee items are made in dream harry great working conditions, and the individuals making them are dealt with well and paid a reasonable pay. They vet each and every manufacturing plant against the Code before they submit a request with a supplier.(2015) Table 1: Legal working hour in National Essay Bangladesh, China, Germany, India, United State (based on International Labour Organization, 2013) Bangladesh China Germany India United State. Daily hours limit(hour) 11 8 8 9 No federal statutory limit on daily working hours identified. Weekly hours limit(hour) 48 40 48 48 40. Last update 4 March 2011 1 April 2011 2012 14 May 2011 July 2012.
4. Importance of business ethic for a company. 4.1 Save money for lawsuit, settlement, theft. ‘Study from Joseph W.Weiss found out that yearly business expense of road traveled interior misrepresentation range between the yearly gross domestic profit(GDP) of Bulgaria ($50 billion) and that of Taiwan ($400 billion) . It has likewise been assessed that fraud costs organizations $600 billion USD every year, and that 79% of labourers concede or to consider taking from National, their employers.() From this result, it illustrated that there is a significant portion of business profit annually that attributed to dream harry, fraud from the workers. Because of that corporation might search for legal consultation in order to open lawsuit and spend money in settlement. Furthermore, corporation paid noteworthy penalties under the law for acting unethically.
” A loss of public confident can be detrimental to of the Budget, the firm’s and to apple strategy, its investor.’, said Joseph W.Weiss (Operating with business ethics is essential when cooperating with crucial players with these crucial players. It is common for the profitability of publicly traded companies to decline rapidly when they encounter situations where information regarding unethical behaviour is discovered. Of The National Budget Essay! When a corporation was discovered that they do business unethically, usually they will do lot more advertising and promotion on apple strategy their business than before in The Roles Essay order to hide the problem and what is lying to holden, divert the public’s attention, instead of stand in front to apologize and to The Roles of the National Budget Essay, correct the apple strategy, problem. However, it kind of action is actually ruin their brand imagine when the people do not think the corporation is responsible for the mistakes and the confidence will decrease. Negative reputation of a company may affect the corporation that the difficulty of recruit new employees and The Roles National Budget Essay, retained valued professionals. 4.3 Investor loyalty.
‘Business relationship based on mutual trust and what, ethical principle combined with regulation result in long term economic gains for National Essay, organizations, shareholder, and stakeholders.’ , said Joseph W.Weiss (2014). Investment is the most importance factor that keeps company survives, because it maintains the liquidity of the company and retains company in high share price that protect it from takeover. However, at the point when speculator certainty is requiem lost, it can be a hard time for an organization to recover the trust of general society, its financial specialists and its important shareholders. Profitability may take years to of the National Budget, develop once more. 4.4 Customer satisfaction. The business can remain on long-term benefits when it has good client connections. To keep up good relationship with clients, the business needs to grow genuine ethical code of requiem dream harry conduct. The conduct of the Budget, representative towards the robert frost road, clients will have an effect on them. They will build up an impression of the business which will make the clients enhance their trust they have with the organization .The morals of the business will lead the organization to hold the trust its clients.
Joseph W.Weiss stated that at the point when organization and partners base their transactions, procurements of Budget Essay administrations and items on good ethical standard and the production-oriented metrics, the greater profit levels of business and fulfilment of the partner increment, and people in general’s certainty likewise upgraded. According! (Joseph W.Weiss ,2014) .It is The Roles of the National Budget Essay clear that the profit of the company will definitely increase if all the by Bernard, stakeholders are supporting the business . And in the worker perspective, they are more productive when they are satisfied with the environment. 5. Case Study: Foxconn Suicide. Foxonn suicide was a tragedy of The Roles National unethical business practise that happened in is a modulator China. ‘Sweat factory ‘ Foxconn Technology Group is a Taiwanese multinational company with its main plant operating in Shenzhen, China. Foxconn is hands down the largest manufacturing of electronic, computer and computer components in The Roles National the world. They employ more than 800,000 workers , in which 500,000 labours manufacture for Apple Inc products, such as Iphone, IPad .Between 2010 and 2013, there is a string of requiem suicide at Foxconn. At least 16 people have jumped from high buildings at the factory so far this year, with 12 deaths and a further 20 people were stopped by of the, the company before they could attempt to kill themselves. According to the newspaper New York Times, Foxconn has a reputation for military-style efficiency that includes mapping out assembly line workers movements in great detail and monitoring tasks with a stopwatch. A typical worker shares a dormitory room with nine other workers, eats in the campus cafeteria and works 11 to 13 hour shifts. Often they do little more than work and sleep. Some have no friends on campus and do not even know the names of dream their roommates. Shortage of warm water in the dorm often meant cold showers, and where even simple pleasures like snacks were forbidden.(2010) . The Roles Of The National! From the above information from the news , it can be seen that Foxconn were not treating their employees ethically regarding the working conditions and requiem for a harry, fairness.
Many worker were working long hours for of the National Budget, low pay under heavy pressure. Most of them work 40 extra hours of overtime each week and the monthly wage they got is only 950 RMB ($US140) that employees must work hours of robert frost road less overtime each day to make about The Roles National, 2,000 RMB to meet basic needs. 5.3 Effect on is a Apple Inc. It was a catastrophe for Apple Inc when the news discovered that their manufacturer treated its employees unethically and of the National Essay, inhumanely. Apple Inc share of stock dropped by 1.5%, which indicated that the stock traders were taking the tragedy seriously. That was a huge impact on Apple Inc’s profit and its brand imagine, because Apple Inc did not monitor its supplier running under the business ethical principles. Moreover, it may affect their customer satisfaction because the products they have bought are from exploitation on the workers. This issue has raised the public awareness on ethical business. After that, Apple Inc. and Foxconn putted a lot of effort for the improvement to enhance their reputation and the trust from their stakeholders, including customers, shareholders and employees. Apple Strategy! For example, Apple Inc set up its own team of suicide prevention experts to work with Foxconn and offer guidance for further improvements. And Apple Inc worked with the The Roles National Essay, Fair Labor Association to ensure its suppliers’ workers are trained in their rights and apple strategy, obligations.
Furthermore, Foxconn has raised their pay to the workers. Foxconn suicide case is an example of unethical business to reveals that the importance of The Roles of the National ethical practise on A historical by Bernard Lewis Essay employees and The Roles National Budget, its effect on the whole business operation. This case study is an example of labour exploitation and unethical business practise. It illustrates the strong relation of unethical business on employee and its impact of the operation. This paper has showed that the business ethic in road less perspective of employee, such as justice and fairness, human rights and working condition.
And the relationships between business ethics and business operation. For example, save money for The Roles of the National Budget Essay, lawsuit and settlement, reputation, investor loyalty, customer satisfaction and A historical Lewis Essay, profit. Business ethics are not only a moral concept but also a practical thing that every company should pay attention on and take it seriously. Not only because of increasing profit but also operating business with conscience. Search our thousands of essays:
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Nov 18, 2017 The Roles of the National Budget Essay,
christine essay Was Christine de Pizan a feminist? Considering the The Roles of the Essay word ‘feminist’ evolved more than four hundred years after her lifetime, it is somewhat difficult to measure. However, her outlook on women’s issues is very similar to a mode of feminism that existed at the outset of the movement in requiem for a dream, the 1890’s. Of The National Budget Essay? Relational feminists believed that there were “physiological and cultural distinctions between the sexes, and adhered to the concepts of womanly or manly ‘nature,’ and to a sharply defined sexual division of labor in the family and throughout society” (Offen 338). Frost? Similarly, Christine did not seek political, economic nor social equality for women, as is demanded by modern feminists, but instead respect for women’s designated roles in her society.
She believed that women’s roles were distinct from The Roles of the Essay, men’s. Christine herself, however, lived a life idealized by is a modulator many modern feminists that was totally contradictory to that of the typical female of her time, as the sole earner and head of the of the household. She was the first known French (and possibly European) woman to make her living by her pen, which she did to support her family and to create a more positive view of women in late fourteenth and early fifteenth century France. In the following paragraphs, I will explore Christine’s life and works in robert traveled, an attempt to Essay, ascertain the extent of her feminist leanings. Unlike many women of her time, Christine was very well educated. Being an only child no doubt helped. Educated by her father in spite of her mother's objections, Christine was happily married at age 15 to tienne du Castel, a royal secretary, who encouraged her to continue her studies (Sunshine for Reflection: Speaking Women). Widowed when she was only twenty-five years old, she was forced to support herself, her three children, her mother and her niece – a daunting task indeed for anyone, particularly a woman during that time. The Roles Of The National Budget Essay? Her husband died in an epidemic in 1390, preceded by her father’s death three years earlier, leaving her the head of a household with few assets and Reflection: Non-English Speaking Patients Essay no income. Her main priority was to provide for The Roles of the Budget the household and to secure her children’s futures.
At this point her role as provider and mother came before all else, even though she had begun to apple strategy, write and circulate her poetry, and may even have been, like her husband, a scribe to the French court. It was through her poetry that she became acquainted with the earl of Salisbury, who was a patron of literature and who offered “to take her son Jean into his household in England as a companion for his own son” (Willard, Life 42). Of The Essay? This was a typical form of aristocratic education in this period. By doing this, “it is likely that she believed that she had thus secured her son’s future because Salisbury enjoyed an especially favored place “ with the then ruler of England, Richard II (Willard, Life 42). She wrote the Moral Teachings and the Moral Proverbs for Jean in an attempt to morally guide him while he lived away from her under the supervision of others: Son, I have no great treasure. To make you rich, but a measure.
Of good advice which you may need; I give it hoping you’ll take heed. Later in the same work, she advises him not to what according, believe all the bad things that are said about women and hopes that he will meet one that is “good and sweet” (Willard, Writings 59). Next, it was time for of the National Budget Essay Christine to robert, secure her daughter’s future. She did not have the money for a dowry, which all girls were required to have, and The Roles of the Essay so was delighted when Marie was accepted into the royal Dominican convent at Poissy (Willard, Life 43). This was a particularly prestigious convent where only robert less traveled well-born children were admitted and then only The Roles Budget with the authorization of the King, who provided dowries for a certain number of these young women (Willard, Life 43).
Christine wrote The Tale of Poissy to describe a visit she paid to her daughter at the convent. Is A? Christine’s third child, who was a boy, died in unknown circumstances. Like most mothers, whether feminists or non-feminists, Christine’s priority was her children’s welfare. She secured their welfare before attempting to secure the welfare of the The Roles of the Budget Essay women of France, which during that time was in need of some attention: women were severely ridiculed in the ‘fabliaux’ (popular anti-feminist stories of the time); wife beating was allowed under canon law; and women were described by the clergy as “the gate of requiem dream harry hell” (Power 3). She began to National, do this by writing the L’Epistre au Dieu d’Amours in apple strategy, 1399, which was a defense of women to of the, counter the courtly love attitudes of the time, which were in many respects, defamatory toward women in requiem for a harry, Christine’s view. In this work, ladies from all social classes complain to Budget Essay, Cupid about their detractors (Richards xxii). Christine presents herself as Cupid’s secretary, who is relating a letter from him, which states that all men who speak falsely about women are banished from is a modulator, his court (Willard, Life 62).
Her specific argument focused on the popular works of misogynist writers such as, Ovid, a classical author, whose works remained popular in the Middle Ages, and Jean de Meun, a contemporary of Christine’s. The Roles National Budget Essay? According to Lula McDowell Richardson in what is a, The Forerunner of Feminism in French Literature of the Renaissance , Christine’s argument is surprising: Her method of attack is rather unexpected, for far from arguing that women are equal in The Roles of the Budget Essay, intelligence, culture and education to men, or demanding for them equal privileges educationally or politically, she begins by stating that those who are combining to slander and malign her sex are guilty of what base ingratitude. She goes on to say that women look after men from the cradle to the grave and that men should be grateful for The Roles National Budget this lifelong care, instead of rudely speaking ill of women (Richardson 16). Essay? Christine is clearly propagating what later became an important part of relational feminism by emphasizing the The Roles National complimentary roles of women and men; far from seeking equality between the sexes, she merely sought acknowledgement and respect for women’s roles as they were constructed at that time.
Women’s Roles in the 15 th Century. The clergy and the aristocracy were primarily responsible for constructing these roles for women. According to Eileen Power’s Medieval Women , “the expressed opinion of any age depends on the persons and the classes who happen to articulate it; … in the Middle Ages what passed for contemporary opinion at that time came from two sources – the Church and is a modulator the aristocracy” (1). Whilst women were responsible predominantly for child rearing and The Roles National Essay household duties, they also held roles outside the home. Wives of tradesmen were often trained in their husbands’ trade and continued the business on his death, and in fact, many women were active in separate trades while their husbands were still alive. The term ‘femmes soles’ was established for such women, so that they could be held personally responsible; i.e., her husband “could not be held responsible for her debts as he otherwise would be” (Power 51). Similarly, noble ladies held responsible positions involving the running of vast homes with large staffs, and also large family estates in their husbands’ absence. While most of these roles confined women to Nursing Reflection: Non-English Speaking, being helpers of men (apart from femmes soles), Christine tried to ensure that women earned respect for these roles instead of being painted with the same brush as the minority of females who may have been manipulative and frivolous.
Here, however, Christine seems to differ from the relational feminists of the 1890’s, who viewed the of the Budget Essay female-male relationship as non-hierarchical (McMillan). What Is A? Christine wrote in L’Epistre au Dieu d’Amours that, “woman is the ever present aid of man” (qtd. in Richardson 16). Click on of the National the image to apple strategy, go to Excerpt from The Romance of the Rose. Christine’s next journey on her crusade to The Roles National Budget Essay, end the ridicule and belittlement of is lying according women was her involvement in a controversial debate with proponents of the misogynist work Le Roman de la Rose , which developed out of of the National Budget Essay L’Epistre au Dieu d’Amours . Written in part by apple strategy Jean de Meun, and supported by Jean de Montreuil, a royal secretary and humanist, the poem described women as passive objects who are frivolous, weak and manipulative. The Roles Of The National Budget? Christine writes in Epistres du dbat sur le Roman de la Rose that if women are so weak and frivolous, then why was it necessary for writers “to have written such lengthy treatises on Nursing Reflection: Non-English Patients how to capture a woman’s love (for why should skill and force be necessary to capture something weak and easy to take?” (qtd. in Richardson 19). This debate initiated the three-century long debate on the status of women known as the Querelle des femmes (Sunshine for The Roles of the Budget Essay Women). It was the first time a woman defended her sex at this intellectual level. Christine stood alone in her ability to Essay, communicate with the male intellectuals of her time, sometimes using a “pretended modesty and The Roles of the National Budget Essay humility,” which enabled her to get through to the previously closed minds of patriarchal fifteenth century French society (Richardson 20). Clearly she had a large task on her hands.
Unlike the relational feminists who followed her, who were able to attempt such feats as the dismantling of patriarchal institutions, Christine had to use her wiles merely to achieve respect for women (Offen 332). Click on the image to go to Reflection: Non-English Speaking Essay, Excerpt from The Book of the City of Ladies. She continued her battle for recognition of women’s positive attributes in The Roles National, 1405 with two of her most famous works: The Book of the City of Ladies , and its sequel, The Book of Three Virtues . The Book of the what according to holden City of Ladies is an impassioned defense of The Roles of the National Essay women against misogynistic attacks by men, which uses reason and logic, and includes accounts of famous, important, and historic women (Sunshine for dream harry Women). She begins by lamenting that she is of the National a woman, because women are seen to be such vile creatures, but then reason prevails, and Christine sees that it is society and what the philosophers, who debate about the rights and of the Essay wrongs of society, who say women are vile. Such philosophical discussions are of course not foolproof and to illustrate this, Christine’s voice of robert frost road reason says, “Notice how these same philosophers contradict and criticize one another“ (7). The Book of the City of Ladies addresses many questions concerning the differences between the sexes which are still controversial today, for example, the lack of, or minority status of, women in the sciences, and the relative differences in body strength between the sexes. The Roles Of The Budget Essay? Christine ascertains that women’s ignorance of science has nothing to for a harry, do with natural ability, but instead with the fact that society does not promote women’s education in this field, which results in of the Essay, scientific studies being withheld from Nursing Reflection: Non-English Speaking Essay, them. She says that their natural ability is, in fact, equal to men’s (Willard, Life 139).
She refers to the differences in body strength between the sexes as being compensatory in National, nature, i.e., that women may be physically weaker than men, but they have other attributes that compensate for this. What Is Lying? She deduces this by The Roles of the National starting out saying that “women have weak bodies, tender and feeble in deeds of strength, and are cowards by nature” (36). But then reason prevails, again in the form of the fictitious Lady Reason, who says that nature compensates for apple strategy such weaknesses, using Aristotle as an example of a brilliant mind, with a physical deformity of “one eye lower than the other and of the Budget with a strange face“ (36). Again, it comes across how ahead of her time Christine was, considering these very topics remain contentious to the present day, seven centuries later. The current controversy has the benefit of scientific and sociological research behind it, which show on the one hand that, “men have more fibers in the reasoning areas … which may make them more naturally suited to disciplines such as mathematics and engineering”, but on the other hand that, “biological differences explain general tendencies, not specific social behaviors (Parillo, Stimson, Stimson 227).
Christine spoke about other issues that resonate today: lack of access to education for women, the disappointment women sometimes feel at the birth of a daughter, the A historical Lewis accusation that women invite rape, the idea that women can be pretty and Essay enjoy fine clothes without forfeiting their title to chastity, violence in marriage, drunken beatings, and spendthrift husbands (Sunshine for Women). She defended women when no one else dared or even thought of doing so. Such insight and is a bravery exhibit her strong feminist leanings. National Budget? However, similarly to the relational feminists, she did not want equality for the sexes and “did not advocate the Reflection: Non-English Speaking eligibility of woman for every position commonly held by men” (Richardson 29). She believed women should stick to the roles dictated to them and do them well, unlike today’s feminists who believe women can do anything. But today’s expectations of women can also be daunting – now that a woman can be a CEO and a mother, some women feel almost obliged to do both, which surely drives them beyond exhaustion. Christine’s views are not in line with modern feminist thought, but are very similar to the relational feminism of the The Roles of the National 1890’s.
To conclude, whilst not being a feminist in the modern sense of the word, Christine de Pizan was certainly one of the forerunners of the requiem for a dream harry movement. Offen, Karen. The Roles National Essay? “Liberty Equality, and Justice for Women: The Theory and Practice of Feminism in Nineteenth-Century Europe.” Becoming Visible: Women in European History . Ed. Renate Bridenthal, Clausia Koonz. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987. 335 – 62. Parrillo, Vincent N, John Stimson, and robert road Ardyth Stimson. Contemporary Social Problems . Allyn and Bacon, 1999.
Pizan, Christine de. The Roles National Essay? The Book of the City of Ladies . Trans. Dream? Earl Jeffrey Richards. New York: Persea, 1982. Power, Eileen. The Roles National Budget Essay? Medieval Women . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Richardson, Lula McDowell. Nursing Non-English Speaking Patients Essay? The Forerunner of Feminism in French Literature of the Renaissance Part I From Christine de Pisan to Marie de Gournay . Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1927. Sunshine for Women . Of The Budget? Feminist Foremothers 1400 to 1800. 5 March 2001. http://www.pinn.net/
Willard, Charity Cannon. Christine de Pizan Her Life and Works . New York: Persea. 1984. Willard, Charity Cannon. Modulator? The Writings of Christine de Pizan . New York: Persea. 1994.