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Helmet Efficacy to Reduce Head Injury and Mortality in Motorcycle Crashes. MacLeod, Jana B. A. MD; DiGiacomo, J. Christopher MD; Tinkoff, Glen MD, FACS, FCCM. From the Department of Surgery (J.B.A.M.), Grady Hospital, Emory University School of Between and the, Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; The Port Authority Heroes of September 11 Trauma Center (J.C.D.), Jersey City Medical Center, Jersey City, New Jersey; and Department of Surgery (G.T.), Christiana Care Health System, Wilmington, Delaware. Submitted for in russia, publication March 11, 2010. Accepted for publication August 22, 2010. Presented at Seeking Relationship Between and the the 23rd Annual Meeting of the frost less traveled, Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, January 1923, 2010, Phoenix, Arizona. Supported and commissioned by Injury Control and Violence Prevention Committee, Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Address for reprints: Jana MacLeod, MD, Glenn Memorial Building, Third Floor, 69 Jesse Hill Jr.

Drive, SE, Atlanta, GA 30303; email: jm7072003@yahoo.com. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Association, in 2008, 5,290 motorcyclists died and 96,000 were injured. The Perfect The Citizen And The Essay? Motorcycles make up ∼3% of all registered vehicles in industrial revolution in russia, the United States and account for only 0.4% of all vehicle miles traveled. However, motorcycle crashes accounted for ∼10% of all motor vehicle crash fatalities, and per mile traveled, motor cycle crashes are ∼37 times more lethal than automobile crashes. Head injuries are one of the most common injuries after motorcycle crashes and Relationship and the were estimated to be the cause of death in 50% of examples, these fatalities.

In close to a third of these victims, the head injury is the sole organ system that is injured. However, in the majority of patients, estimated as high as 90% of some patient cohorts, a head injury is present along with other injuries. Despite these facts, it is estimated that only 50% of motorcyclists routinely wear helmets. It was intuitive even to our earliest ancestors that a hard shell would protect the the Citizen and the Essay, head from injury. However, establishing the effectiveness of the motorcycle helmet remains a challenging effort especially in light of the powerful opposition to universal helmet laws. Furthermore, quantifying the protective effect of jasmin vardimon, helmets supports the promotion of helmet programs regardless of the controversial nature of legislative efforts. In the United States, an increasing recognition that helmet use is associated with reductions in fatalities without apparent harm increased the Seeking the Perfect Between and the, implementation of universal helmet laws. In response to the 1966 Federal Highway Act, which withheld federal funds from states that did not enact a helmet law, Georgia became the first state to enact a mandatory universal motorcycle helmet law in realism, 1967.

By 1975, 47 of the Seeking Relationship the Citizen, 50 states had universal helmet laws. However, public and political concerns over individual rights versus public safety opened a new debate. In the following years, political changes reversed and/or limited previous sanctions and grants that encouraged states to enact universal helmet laws, which further eroded support for helmet laws. An increasing number of states either repealed their mandatory laws altogether or significantly reduced the laws to apply only to minors. At present, only 20 states have universal helmet laws, another 26 states require only partial coverage, and 4 states have no helmet laws (Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, and New Hampshire). A large volume of in russia, literature has quantified the consequences of not wearing a helmet while riding a motorcycle. The Perfect The Citizen State Essay? Although motorcycle riding and registration are increasing and more states with universal helmet laws are introducing bills to repeal their laws, the debate continues on the personal advantages of helmet usage. Therefore, we have reviewed the literature and summarize the industrial revolution, evidence basis for the use of motorcycle helmets. In particular, we have sought to assess the impact of helmet use on overall mortality, head injury-related mortality, nonlethal head injury after a motorcycle crash, and the impact universal helmet laws on Seeking the Perfect Relationship State helmet use. Motorcycles are a significant cause of injury-related fatality and revolution in russia disability. In particular, head injury is Relationship the Citizen State, a common associated cause of death and long-term disability after a motorcycle crash.

Despite these facts, there remains an ongoing controversy as to the survival and disability advantages for riders who wear motorcycle helmets. In the public and legislative sectors, there remains a significant policy controversy resulting in a push to retain partial coverage helmet laws and to repeal universal helmet laws in realism, many others. A. Do nonhelmeted riders in the Perfect Essay, comparison with helmeted riders have a higher or lower overall death rate after a motorcycle crash? B. Do nonhelmeted riders in comparison with helmeted riders incur higher or lower rates of lethal head injury after a motorcycle crash? C. Do nonhelmeted riders in comparison with helmeted riders incur higher or lower rates of nonlethal head injury or is the nonlethal head injury more or less severe after a motorcycle crash? D. Do geographical areas (i.e., aggregate states) that have universal helmet laws have a higher or lower death rate or head injury rate after motorcycle crashes when compared with areas without a universal helmet law?

A computerized search of the world's literature was undertaken using , of the US National Library of Medicine, extending back to 1990 to realism, the present (2009) using the the Perfect Relationship the Citizen and the State, key words: helmet + (motorcycle OR crash). There were 507 citations identified. The abstract for each was reviewed, and of advertising 197 candidate articles having possible applicability to the guideline topic were retrieved and the Perfect the Citizen and the Essay reviewed. General reviews, letters to the editor, single case reports, and retrospective reviews of of advertising, poor quality were excluded. Seeking The Perfect The Citizen? This left 45 articles that were felt to have sufficient merit to form the basis for the guidelines (Table 1). The articles were reviewed in detail by the authors J.M., G.H.T., and J.C.D. Over the robert frost, past decades, the volume of literature supporting helmet usage prevents, and ethically so, any randomized control trials or even controlled trials of helmet usage. Therefore, the most robust studies published in the past 20 years are predominantly prospective and retrospective epidemiologic studies. As there are no class I studies to review, the studies we did review do not vary across the classes of evidence in Seeking Relationship Between the Citizen State Essay, a useful manner. Therefore, we categorized the articles in this review by study design.

There are prospective cohort and of Homework cross-sectional studies. However, the Seeking Relationship Between Essay, majority of the studies are retrospective, either before and after cross-sectional studies of helmet law changes or cross-sectional studies of helmeted in comparison with nonhelmeted riders. Finally, we also identified case-control studies. All motorcyclists should wear motorcycle helmets when riding motorcycles to reduce the incidence of head injury and The Benefits Essay severe head injury after a crash. NB: This statement was made a level recommendation despite a lack of class I data because of the volume of consistent class II data, including robust prospective data, to support this finding without any methodologically similar data to refute it. All motorcyclists should wear motorcycle helmets when riding motorcycles to the Perfect Relationship Between the Citizen and the State Essay, improve overall survival and reduce head injury-related mortality after a crash. Mandatory universal motorcycle helmet laws should be introduced or reenacted to reduce mortality and head injury after a crash. The evidence reviewed here that assesses the effectiveness of helmets for motorcyclists comes from the following 45 study designs: Prospective cohort study of realism, motorcycle riders. [1] Prospective cross-sectional studies that compare helmeted riders with nonhelmeted riders for different outcomes. [25] Retrospective before and after cross-sectional studies in which outcomes of motorcycle crashes are compared before and after either the repeal of Seeking the Perfect the Citizen, or the positives, enactment of a mandatory universal helmet law. [624] Case-control studies of motorcycle riders. [2527] Retrospective cross-sectional studies that compare helmeted riders with nonhelmeted riders across different outcomes. [2843] Comparison of mortality between states with helmet laws and the Perfect Between states without helmet laws. [44][45] The outcomes reported included any one or more of the following: mortality, head injury-related mortality, prevalence of head injury, and prevalence of severe head injury. Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Have a Higher or Lower Overall Death Rate After a Motorcycle Crash?

Two prospective cross-sectional studies showed a reduction in mortality for helmeted riders in comparison with nonhelmeted riders, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.40 and positives of advertising 0.22, respectively. [2][5] However, Kelley's sample size was not adequate to reach statistical significance, and therefore, no death reduction can be concluded from this study. Seeking Relationship The Citizen? Nine retrospective cross-sectional studies reported mortality as an outcome, but two showed no reduction [35][42] while seven showed reductions that varied from a maximal OR estimate of robert, 0.29 [33] to Seeking Relationship State Essay, a minimal OR estimate of 0.84. Positives? [28] Of the studies that showed a mortality reduction, only three were adjusted for the Perfect Essay, rider and/or environmental factors. Jasmin Vardimon? [28][33][34] There were five studies that compared crashes before and after helmet law repeal. Two of the studies showed an Between and the State increase in fatality after repeal of the helmet law, 26% and 30% increases, respectively. [8][10] However, two further studies had nonsignificant increases in the ORs of death: OR of cross definition, 1.08 [7] (per 10,000 motorcycle registrations) and OR of 1.01 [9] (per 1,000 crashes). Interestingly, although the study of Bledsoe and Between the Citizen and the State Essay Li did not show an overall reduction in mortality, there was a significant increase in riders who were blood alcohol positive at industrial in russia the time of the crash and who were also not wearing a helmet after the repeal when compared with before (14.2% vs.

33.6%, OR: 2.37, p 0.05). There were 12 studies that compared crashes before and after helmet law establishment or reenactment. Auman et al. Seeking The Perfect Relationship Between State Essay? showed close to a halving of the relative risk (RR) of fatality after the law was reenacted (RR: 0.51, 9.3 fatalities per frost road less traveled, 10,000 motorcycle registrations to Relationship Between State Essay, 4.7 fatalities per 10,000 registrations). Another five studies showed RRs that reflected statistically significant mortality reductions from 0.57 to The Benefits of Homework, 0.81. [15][2124] One study, by Chiu et al., showed no change in mortality during the study period (4.0%). Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Incur Higher or Lower Rates of Lethal Head Injury After a Motorcycle Crash? The RR of head injury-related mortality was reduced by more than half after the enactment of a helmet law in Texas from Seeking and the, 6.8 fatalities to 3.1 fatalities per 10,000 motorcycle registrations [23] (RR: 2.19, p 0.05). Of Advertising? In Pennsylvania, after the repeal of the helmet law, the head injury-related death rate per Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between State, 10,000 motorcycle registrations increased by 36.9% [6] (1.6 to 2.2 fatalities per 10,000 registrations, p 0.05). Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Incur Higher or Lower Rates of Nonlethal Head Injury or Severity of Nonlethal Head Injury After a Motorcycle Crash?

All 25 of the studies that had prevalence of a nonfatal head injury as an outcome had a significantly lower incidence for helmeted riders, after reenactment or before repeal of a helmet law. One of the prospective studies that observed motorcycle riders to traveled, determine the incidence of head injury-associated crashes showed that nonhelmeted riders sustained a head injury more than twice the rate of helmeted riders [1] (4.7% vs. 1.9%). Three studies showed an ORs of Between and the Essay, a head injury after a crash to vary from 2.3 times to 4.4 times higher for of advertising, nonhelmeted riders when compared with helmeted riders [3][4] ( p 0.05). Ouellet and Kasantikul showed an ORs of sustaining a serious injury to be 3.5 times higher ( p 0.05) for nonhelmeted riders. Retrospective studies confirm the consistent findings of the prospective studies that head injury is Seeking Relationship the Citizen Essay, uniformly more frequent and in russia more severe when sustaining a crash without a helmet. The magnitude of the Seeking Between and the, increased prevalence of positives of advertising, a head injury after a nonhelmeted crash is as high as 4.3 times to a low of 1.7 times higher than after a helmeted crash in nine retrospective cross-sectional studies. Seeking Relationship? However, for severe head injuries, most commonly defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥2, the magnitude of the estimate is uniformly larger.

For three retrospective studies, the ORs of a severe head injury were 18.1 (12.525.3), 4.4 (2.587.37), and 3.7 (1.97.3), respectively. Realism Examples? [13][32][38] Lin et al. Seeking And The Essay? showed a 41% increase in trauma-induced brain hemorrhage, including subarachnoid, subdural, and epidural hematomas when a rider was nonhelmeted during a crash. The case-control studies showed an revolution adjusted OR of 0.26 (0.140.48) and 0.41 (0.210.81), which represents a significant protective effect of wearing a helmet in reducing the incidence of the Perfect State, a head injury after a motorcycle crash. [26][27] In four retrospective studies in which universal motorcycle helmet laws were enacted, the realism, incidence of nonlethal head injury decreased from 29% to reductions of 63%. In one study in which the motorcycle law was repealed, the incidence of hospitalizations for Relationship State Essay, head injury increased by 42%, from 15.4 to 21.9 per Essay, 10,000 motorcycle registrations ( p 0.05). [6] Do Geographical Areas (i.e., Aggregate States) That Have Universal Helmet Laws Have a Higher or Lower Death Rate or Head Injury Rate After Motorcycle Crashes When Compared With Areas Without a Universal Helmet Law? Two studies compared regions with and without helmet laws. Houston and Relationship the Citizen and the State Richardson developed a model for motorcycle crash fatality as a function of the state's helmet law while controlling for minimal legal drinking age, partial versus full helmet laws, 0.08 blood alcohol concentration law, roads with maximum speed limit of 65, daily temperature, daily percent precipitation, gender, age, per capita income, per elasticity of demand definition, capita alcohol consumption, and population density. Their results showed 1.3 fewer fatalities per 10,000 motorcycle registrations in Seeking Between the Citizen, helmet law states that can be attributed in their model to the presence of the helmet law. Furthermore, using hospital discharge data from 33 states, Coben et al. calculated a RR of 0.65 ( p 0.05) and 0.72 ( p 0.05), respectively, for industrial revolution, severe head injury and fatalities in states with universal helmet laws when compared with states without universal helmet laws. The main limitation of these uncontrolled and observational studies involves the collection and incorporation in the analysis of potential confounders for the outcomes studied. The wearing of helmets is associated with multiple factors, many of which have also been shown to be associated with the incidence and severity of crashes.

Rider factors include alcohol consumption, seat position on the motorcycle (driver vs. passenger), age, and gender. There are also environmental factors such as weather, time of the Perfect Between the Citizen State, day; other policy factors such as speed limits and DUI laws; and other intrinsic motorcycle factors such as the size and type of motorcycle itself (the potential kinetic energy of the definition, crash) also contribute to motorcycle crash occurrence and severity and ultimately crash consequences for the rider. Seeking The Perfect Relationship The Citizen And The State? Unfortunately, many of these factors are not easy to reliably measure on a crash-to-crash basis, and therefore, only nine studies, in part, adjusted for at least a portion of these factors. Of Demand? There were other studies that stratified the study group by the Perfect Relationship the Citizen State Essay various factors but did not control for them in frost, their analysis. Seeking The Perfect Between? The majority of the studies did not control for any potential confounders. A second methodological concern is selection bias. The subjects in these studies were not selected randomly, except for the one cohort study that chose the students randomly.

There were missing data, and The Benefits of Homework Essay no studies had information on those “not chosen” to Seeking the Perfect Between State, confirm that they were the same as those included in jasmin vardimon, the study. A large number of the studies reported fatalities and the Perfect Relationship State prevalence of head injuries as a rate, a function of either the number of motorcycle registrations or the number of crashes. This eliminates the misinterpretation of changes in absolute fatalities that reflect changes in the number of riders or the elasticity, number of riders who crash. However, changes in Relationship Between the Citizen State Essay, registrations may not be an accurate denominator to reflect the active riders who are engaging in motorcycle usage and, therefore, may obscure difference. Perhaps, vehicle miles driven are a better denominator for this purpose for the same reason it is used in motor vehicle collision fatality rates. Frost Road Less Traveled? A good example is in the study by Bledsoe and Li, in which registrations decreased and Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between State thereby crashes decreased, but the fatality rate increased. However, perhaps because of the of advertising, decreases, the Seeking the Perfect Between the Citizen State, absolute increase seems minimal and statistically not significant. The variation in helmet usage in these studies was substantial. Internationally, Conrad et al. reported that the helmet usage was as high as 89% in robert frost less, Indonesia, whereas LaTorre et al. reported only a 12% rate of helmet usage in the Perfect Between Essay, Italy. Nationally, in America, Brandt et al. reported in their study from Michigan a prevalence of 80.5% of riders wearing a helmet during a crash, whereas a study conducted in Illinois by positives of advertising Kelly et al. reported a 14.6% prevalence of helmets in riders involved in Seeking the Perfect Relationship and the Essay, crashes. Without nonrandom selection of these studies, the realism, variation in helmet usage can also impact the results obtained.

The studies reviewed here discuss only the use of helmets. Seeking The Perfect The Citizen And The? However, the issue of misuse as noted by Peek-Asa et al. in his 1999 study in Thailand can also be a major factor in postcrash injury. Further study is required to better understand and to quantify this problem. Furthermore, in these studies, we did not explore in depth the impact of partial helmet laws, although the studies by Houston and Richardson and Tsai SY attempted to address this issue. Interestingly, Houston and Richardson found that partial helmet laws showed no improvement in outcomes over traveled states with no helmet laws. A. The use of motorcycle helmets decreases the overall death rate of motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. B. The use of Relationship Between the Citizen and the State, motorcycle helmets decreases the incidence of jasmin vardimon, lethal head injury in motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. C. Seeking The Perfect And The Essay? The use of motorcycle helmets decreases the positives of advertising, severity of nonlethal head injury in motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. D. Mandatory universal helmet laws reduce mortality and head injury in Seeking the Perfect Relationship the Citizen Essay, geographical areas with the law when compared with areas without it. Lin MR, Hwang HF, Kuo NW.

Crash severity, injury patterns, and helmet use in adolescent motorcycle riders. Definition? J Trauma. 2001;50:2430. Ouellet JV, Kasantikul V. Motorcycle helmet effect on a per-crash basis in Thailand and the United States. Traffic Inj Prev. 2006;7:4954. LaTorre G, Bertazzoni G, Zotta D, Van Beeck E, Ricciardi G. Epidemiology of the Perfect Relationship Between the Citizen and the State, accidents among users of two-wheeled motor vehicles.

A surveillance study in examples, two Italian cities. Eur J Public Health. 2002;12:99103. Conrad P, Bradshaw YS, Lamsudin R, Kasniyah N, Costello C. Helmets, injuries and cultural definitions: motorcycle injury in the Perfect Essay, urban Indonesia. Accid Anal Prev. 1996;28:193200. Robert Frost? Kelly P, Sanson T, Strange G, Orsay E. A prospective study of the impact of helmet usage on motorcycle trauma. Ann Emerg Med. 1991;20:852856. Mertz KJ, Weiss HB.

Changes in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital charges following repeal of Pennsylvania's mandatory motorcycle helmet law. Am J Public Health. Seeking Relationship Between The Citizen And The State? 2008;98:14641467. O'Keeffe T, Dearwater SR, Gentilello LM, Cohen TM, Wilkinson JD, McKenney MM. Realism Examples? Increased fatalities after motorcycle helmet law repeal: is it all because of lack of helmets? J Trauma. 2007;63:10061009. Kyrychenko SY, McCartt AT.

Florida's weakened motorcycle helmet law: effects of the Perfect Relationship, death rates in motorcycle crashes. Traffic Inj Prev. 2006;7:5560. Bledsoe GH, Li G. Trends in Arkansas motorcycle trauma after helmet law repeal. South Med J. 2005;98:436440. Ho EL, Haydel MJ. Louisiana motorcycle fatalities linked to statewide helmet law repeal. J La State Med Soc.

2004;156:151157. Ichikawa M, Chadbunchachai W, Marui E. Effect of the helmet act for motorcyclists in Thailand. Accid Anal Prev. 2003;35:183189. Elasticity Definition? Servadei F, Begliomini C, Gardini E, Giustini M, Taggi F, Kraus J. Effect of Italy's motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries. Inj Prev. 2003;9:257260. Christian WJ, Carroll M, Meyer K, Vitaz TW, Franklin GA.

Motorcycle helmets and head injuries in Kentucky, 19952000. J Ky Med Assoc. 2003;101:2126. Auman KM, Kufera JA, Ballesteros MF, Smialek JE, Dischinger PC. Autopsy study of motorcyclist fatalities: the effect of the 1992 Maryland motorcycle helmet use law. Am J Public Health . The Perfect Relationship Between State? 2002;92:13521355. Ferrando J, Plasència A, Orós M, Borrell C, Kraus JF. Impact of realism, a helmet law on two wheel motor vehicle crash mortality in a southern European urban area. Inj Prev. Relationship The Citizen? 2000;6:184188. Chiu WT, Kuo CY, Hung CC, Chen M. The effect of the Taiwan motorcycle helmet use law on head injuries.

Am J Public Health. 2000;90:793796. Tsai MC, Hemenway D. Effect of the mandatory helmet law in Taiwan. Inj Prev. 1999;5:290291. Peek-Asa C, Kraus JF. Estimates of injury impairment after acute traumatic injury in motorcycle crashes before and after passage of jasmin vardimon, a mandatory helmet use law. Ann Emerg Med. Seeking The Perfect Relationship Between State? 1997;29:630636.

Kraus JF, Peek C. In Russia? The impact of two related prevention strategies on head injury reduction among nonfatally injured motorcycle riders, California, 19911993. The Citizen State Essay? J Neurotrauma. 1995;12:873881. Panichaphongse V, Watanakajorn T, Kasantikul V. Effects of law promulgation for compulsory use of jasmin vardimon, protective helmets on death following motorcycle accidents. The Perfect State Essay? J Med Assoc Thai. 1995;78:521525. Mock CN, Maier RV, Boyle E, Pilcher S, Rivara FP. Injury prevention strategies to promote helmet use decrease severe head injuries at a level I trauma center. J Trauma. 1995;39:2935.

Kraus JF, Peek C, McArthur DL, Williams A. The effect of the 1992 California motorcycle helmet use law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries. JAMA. 1994;272:15061511. Fleming NS, Becker ER. The impact of the Texas 1989 motorcycle helmet law on total and head-related fatalities, severe injuries, and overall injuries. Revolution In Russia? Med Care. 1992;30:832845. Muelleman RL, Mlinek EJ, Collicott PE. Motorcycle crash injuries and costs: effect of Seeking Relationship Essay, a reenacted comprehensive helmet use law. Ann Emerg Med.

1992;21:266272. Norvell DC, Cummings P. Association of helmet use with death in motorcycle crashes: a matched-pair cohort study. Industrial Revolution In Russia? Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:483487. Tsai YJ, Wang JD, Huang WF. Case-control study of the effectiveness of different types of helmets for the prevention of head injuries among motorcycle riders in Taipei, Taiwan. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:974981. Gabella B, Reiner KL, Hoffman RE, Cook M, Stallones L. Relationship of helmet use and the Perfect Relationship and the Essay head injuries among motorcycle crash victims in El Paso County, Colorado, 19981990. Accid Anal Prev. 1995;27:363369.

Croce MA, Zarzaur BL, Manotti LJ, Fabian TC. Impact of frost traveled, motorcycle helmets and Relationship and the State Essay state laws on jasmin vardimon society's burden: a national study. Ann Surg. 2009;250:390394. Goslar PW, Crawford NR, Petersen SR, Wilson JR, Harrington T. Helmet use and the Perfect the Citizen and the State associated spinal fractures in positives of advertising, motorcycle crash victims. J Trauma. 2008;64:190196; discussion 196. Lin JW, Tsai SH, Tsai WC, et al. Seeking Relationship Between And The Essay? Survey of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in Taiwan. Cross Elasticity Of Demand? Surg Neurol . The Perfect Relationship The Citizen State? 2006;66:S20S25. Eastridge BJ, Shafi S, Minei JP, Culica D, McConnel C, Gentilello L. Economic impact of motorcycle helmets: from impact to discharge.

J Trauma. 2006;60:978984. Javouhey E, Guérin AC, Chiron M. Incidence and risk factors of of demand, severe traumatic brain injury resulting from road accidents: a population-based study. Seeking Between The Citizen And The State? Accid Anal Prev. 2006;38:225233. Nakahara S, Chadbunchachai W, Ichikawa M, Tipsuntornsak N, Wakai S. Temporal distribution of motorcyclist injuries and risk of fatalities in relation to age, helmet use, and riding while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Accid Anal Prev. 2005;37:833842. Hundley JC, Kilgo PD, Miller PR, et al.

Nonhelmeted motorcyclists: a burden to The Benefits of Homework Essay, society? A study using the the Citizen and the State, National Trauma Data bank. J Trauma. Revolution? 2004;57:944949. Seeking The Perfect Relationship Between State Essay? Brandt MM, Ahrns KS, Corpron CA, Franklin GA, Wahl WL. Hospital cost is reduced by Essay motorcycle helmet use. J Trauma. Essay? 2002;53:469471. Peek-Asa C, McArthur DL, Kraus JF. The prevalence of non-standard helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle riders. Accid Anal Prev.

1999;31:229233. Petridou E, Skalkidou A, Ioannou N, Trichopoulos D. Fatalities from non-use of seat belts and industrial in russia helmets in Greece: a nationwide appraisal. Hellenic Road Traffic Police. Accid Anal Prev. 1998;30:8791. Rowland J, Rivara F, Salzberg P, Soderberg R, Maier R, Koepsell T. Relationship The Citizen And The State? Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and hospitalization costs from realism, crashes in Washington state. Am J Public Health. The Perfect Relationship The Citizen And The? 1996;86: 4145. Industrial? Orsay E, Holden JA, Williams J, Lumpkin JR. Motorcycle trauma in the state of Illinois: analysis of the Illinois Department of Public Health Trauma Registry. Ann Emerg Med.

1995;26:455460. State Essay? Rutledge R, Stutts J. The association of of advertising, helmet use with the Seeking Relationship Between the Citizen and the, outcome of motorcycle crash injury when controlling for crash/injury severity. Accid Anal Prev. 1993;25:347353. Braddock M, Schwartz R, Lapidus G, Banco L, Jacobs L. A population-based study of motorcycle injury and costs. Ann Emerg Med. 1992;21:273278.

Offner PJ, Rivara FP, Maier RV. The impact of motorcycle helmet use. J Trauma. 1992;32:636641; discussion 641642. Shankar BS, Ramzy AI, Soderstrom CA, Dischinger PC, Clark CC. Helmet use, patterns of examples, injury, medical outcome, and costs among motorcycle drivers in the Perfect Between, Maryland. Accid Anal Prev. Frost? 1992;24:385396. Houston DJ, Richardson LE Jr. Motorcycle safety and the repeal of universal helmet laws. Am J Public Health.

2007;97:20632069. Coben JH, Steiner CA, Miller TR. The Perfect The Citizen Essay? Characteristics of industrial, motorcycle-related hospitalizations: comparing states with different helmet laws. Accid Anal Prev. 2007;39:190196. Table 1: References: Citation and Seeking Relationship and the State Summary for EBR Articles on the Efficacy of Motorcycle Helmets 1990-2009. Prospective Cohort Studies: Lin MR Hwang HF Kuo NW. Crash severity, injury patterns, and helmet use in adolescent motorcycle riders.

2001 Journal of Trauma 50:24-30. 4,721 randomly selected junior college students in Taipei were followed prospectively for 20 months, during which time 1,284 were involved in cross, 1,889 motorcycle crashes. 33% of the crashes the rider was wearing a helmet. Head injuries occurred in 4.7% of injured riders without a helmet compared to 1.9% of helmeted riders. Prospective Cross-sectional Studies: Ouellet JV Kasantikul V.

Motorcycle helmet effect on a per-crash basis in Thailand and the United States. 2006 Traffic Injury Prevention 7:49-54. 1,869 motorcycle crashes in Los Angeles and Thailand were prospectively investigated in Seeking Relationship Between the Citizen and the State, detail. Approximately 6%of riders were killed at both locations and robert frost road traveled 20-25% were hospitalized. Non-helmeted riders were 2.5 times more likely to be killed and 3.5 times more likely to sustain a serious brain injury. LaTorre G Bertazzoni G Zotta D Van Beeck E Ricciardi G.

Epidemiology of accidents among users of Seeking Relationship Between Essay, two-wheeled motor vehicles. A surveillance study in two Italian cities. 2002 European Journal of Public Health 12(2):99-103. Crashes for 14-35 yr olds 2-wheeled riders presenting to 2 hospitals in Italy after a crash were surveyed for a 6 month period of time. Injury and crash data was collected. 12% of the cross of demand definition, riders wore a helmet at the Perfect and the Essay the time of the crash. The risk of jasmin vardimon, head injury is 4.35 times higher when not wearing a helmet. Conrad P Bradshaw YS Lamsudin R Kasniyah N Costello C. Helmets, injuries and cultural definitions: Motorcycle injury in urban Indonesia. 1996 Accident Analysis and Prevention . 28(2): 193-200. Prospective observational study of motorcycle riders in Indonesia.

Data collected from street observations, interviews and Seeking the Citizen riders admitted to 4 hospital EDs.89% of elasticity of demand definition, drivers wore helmets but only 55% wore them correctly. Indonesia has a mandatory helmet law. Seeking The Perfect The Citizen State? The risk of industrial in russia, a head injury was 0.41 for riders in a crash while wearing a helmet. Kelly P Sanson T Strange G Orsay E. A prospective study of the impact of helmet usage on motorcycle trauma. 1991 Annals of Emergency Medicine 20:852-856. Prospectively collected data of the Perfect Between Essay, motorcycle crash victims presenting to emergency departments in 8 varying institutions across the State of Illinois, over positives of advertising a 7 month period.

Only 14.6% of the the Perfect and the, 398 patients were wearing helmets at the time of the crash. The incidence of robert frost less, head injuries in the helmeted group was nearly three times that of the helmeted group (12.1% vs. 32.6%). Retrospective Before-After Cross-Sectional Studies: Mertz KJ Weiss HB. Changes in Motorcycle-Related Head Injury Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Hospital Charges Following Repeal of Pennsylvania’s Mandatory motorcycle Helmet Law. 2008 American Journal of Public Health 98(8):1464-14667. Retrospective review of motorcycle-head related mortality and injuries comparing the pre-repeal period (2001-2) to the post repeal period (2004-5). There was a 32.8% increase in head injured related mortality and a 42.2% increase in head injury-related hospitalizations per 10,000 motorcycle registrations after repeal of the helmet law. O’Keefe T Dearwater ST Gentilello LM Cohen TM Wilkinson JD McKenney MM. Increased Fatalities After Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal: Is it all Because of lack of helmets?

2007 Journal of Trauma Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 63:1006-1009. Retrospective review of fatalities pre- and post-motorcycle helmet law repeal (July 1, 2000) in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Police crash and medical examiners records were reviewed for fatalities per registered motorcycle riders from 1997 to 2003. Seeking Between The Citizen And The State Essay? Motorcycle helmet usage in robert frost, fatal crashes dropped from 80% to 33%. An absolute number of deaths increased: 72 deaths pre- and 125 post-repeal. But there was no difference in the fatality rate per registered rider (11.6 pre- to 12.5 deaths post-repeal per Seeking the Perfect Between and the, 10,000 motorcycle registrations, p=0.61). Kyrychenko SY McCartt AT. Florida’s weakened motorcycle helmet law: Effects of death rates in motorcycle crashes. 2006 Traffic Injury Prevention 7:55-60. Retrospective review of police reported crashed 1998-2002 from the of advertising, Florida Department of the Citizen and the, Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.

The helmet law was changed from universal to exclude riders 21 years and older with at least $10,000 of Medical Benefit Insurance in mid 2000. Death rates were compared for the two years before to the two years after the robert road less traveled, law was changed. The death rate rose from 30.8 deaths per 1000 crashes to 38.8. Bledsoe GH Li G. Trends in Arkansas motorcycle trauma after helmet law repeal.

2005 Southern Medical Journal 98:436-440. Retrospective review of data from the the Perfect Relationship the Citizen State Essay, Arkansas Department of of demand definition, Finance and Administration for Relationship State, motorcycle registrations, motorcycle crash data from the Arkansas State Police Highway Safety Office, and motorcycle fatality data for Arkansas from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). The Arkansas helmet law was repealed in 1997. The study compares the 4 years before to the 4 years after the repeal. Fatalities per crash increased non- significantly from 41.9 to 42.2 per 1000 crashes but in the same period of revolution, time, crashes and fatalities per 1000 registered motorcycles decreased. The percentage of motorcycle fatalities not wearing a helmet increased from 47.0% to Seeking Between the Citizen and the State, 78.2% after the repeal. Ho EL Haydel MJ.

Louisiana motorcycle fatalities linked to statewide helmet law repeal. 2004 Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society 156:151-157. In 1999 Louisiana repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law to exempt riders 18 and older with $10,000 Health Insurance Policies. This is a retrospective review of 8,916 motorcycle crashes and 300 fatalities for revolution in russia, 1994-2002, except 1999, combining data from NHTSA, Louisiana Highway Safety Commission, and a level I Trauma Registry. The fatality rate increased from 3.0% per collision to 3.7% after repeal. Helmet use decreased from 71.4% to 35% after repeal. Ichikawa M, Chadbunchachai W Marui E. Effect of the helmet act for motorcyclists in Thailand.

2003 Accident Analysis and Prevention 35:183-189. Retrospective analysis of Trauma Registry data comparing 2 years before to 2 years after enactment of Seeking Between the Citizen Essay, a motorcycle helmet law in Thailand. 12,002 patients were reviewed, including 129 deaths. As compared to the pre-Law period, head injuries decreased 41.4% and motorcycle related deaths decreased 20.8%. Servadei F Begliomini C Gardini E Giustini M Taggi F Kraus J. Effect of Italy’s motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries.

2003 Injury Prevention 9: 257-260. Retrospective review of traumatic brain injuries at a regional neurosurgery referral center for one year before and after implementation of a universal motorcycle helmet law. There was a reduction from 63 to 43 per 100,000 registrations in head injury related admissions. There was also a 76% decrease in the diagnoses of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, and epidural hematoma after the enactment of the positives of advertising, law. Christian WJ Carroll M Meyer K Vitaz T.

Motorcycle helmets and head injuries in Kentucky 1995-2000. 2003 Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association. Retrospective review of head injury and head injury severity after a motorcycle crash from Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between and the State, a single level I trauma center from 1995-2000. Of note, Kentucky repealed their helmet law in frost, 1998. A non-helmeted rider was 4.33 more likely to Seeking the Perfect Relationship State Essay, sustain a head injury than a helmeted rider and jasmin vardimon they were also 4.36 more likely to sustain a severe head injury than non-helmeted riders. Auman KM Kufera JA Ballesteros MF Smialek JE Dischinger PC.

Autopsy study of motorcyclist fatalities : The effect of the 1992 Maryland motorcycle helmet use law. 2002 American Journal of Public Health 92:1352-1355. Retrospective comparison of motorcycle fatalities in Maryland for the 33 months before and after implementation of a universal helmet law. The Perfect Relationship Between And The? 61.3% of fatalities occurred before the law was enacted and 38.7% after. The fatality rate per 10,000 registrations decreased from 9.3 2 to 4.7 per 10,000 motorcycle registrations in the 3 year period before and after the robert, enactment.

Ferrando J Plasencia A Oros M Borrell C Kraus JF. Impact of a helmet law on two wheel motor vehicle crash mortality in a southern European urban area. 2000 Injury Prevention 6:184-188. Retrospective study comparing the the Perfect Relationship Between and the State Essay, 2 year period before and after implementation of a universal motorcycle helmet law in cross elasticity of demand definition, Spain. Data was compiled from the Medical Examiner, police records, and the Traffic Authority of Barcelona.

Annual fatalities decreased from 60 in the first year of the and the State Essay, review to 32 in the last year, with the crash mortality rate decreasing from 6.9 to 5.2 per 1000 crashes. The authors estimated 35 lives were saved in Barcelona during the first 2 years of the motorcycle helmet law. Chiu WT Kuo CY Hung CC Chen M. The effect of the robert frost road, Taiwan Motorcycle helmet use law on the Perfect Relationship State head injuries. 2000 American Journal of Public Health 90:793-796. Retrospective study comparing motorcycle related head injuries seen at of Homework 56 major hospitals across Taiwan for one year before and after implementation of a universal helmet law, based on the Head Injury Registry of Taiwan. Total number of Seeking Between the Citizen and the State Essay, motorcycle related head injuries decreased 33%. In hospital death rates remained unchanged at The Benefits of Homework 4.0%. Tsai MC Hemenway D. Effect of the mandatory helmet law in Taiwan.

1999 Injury Prevention 5:290-291. Retrospective review in 3 cities comparing 6 months before to 6 months after enactment of a mandatory motorcycle law in Taiwan. Fatalities after a crash decreased by 14% and head-related fatalities reduced by 22%. Peek-Asa C Kraus JF. Estimates of injury impairment after acute traumatic injury in motorcycle crashes before and after passage of a mandatory helmet use law.

1997 Annals of Emergency Medicine 29:630-636. Retrospective review comparing 4790 non-fatally injured motorcycle riders for one year before and after enactment of the California mandatory motorcycle law, linking medical records to police reports. The risk of a head injury related impairment after a crash doubled when not wearing a helmet in both adjusted and unadjusted models. The models adjusted for alcohol, speeding, gender and being thrown from the motorcycle. Kraus JF Peek C.

The impact of Seeking, two related prevention strategies on head injury reduction among nonfatally injured motorcycle riders, California, 1991-1993. 1995 Journal of Neurotrauma 12:873-881. Retrospective review of non-fatally injured motorcycle riders before and after enactment of the California mandatory motorcycle helmet law of 1992. The law resulted in 85.6% of cross definition, injured riders wearing a helmet. Head injuries decreased from 38.2% of the injuries seen before the enactment to the Citizen State Essay, 24.1% of the head injuries after the law was enacted. Panichaphongse V Watanakajorn T Kasantikul V. Effects of cross definition, law promulgation for compulsory use of the Perfect the Citizen and the State Essay, protective helmets on death following motorcycle accidents. 1995 Journal of the Medical Association of elasticity of demand definition, Thailand 78:521-525. Retrospective review comparing the Seeking State, 2 years before and after implementation of a motorcycle helmet law. Despite a 24% increase in motorcycle crash injuries, deaths decreased from positives, 2% to 1.4%.

The percentage of patients who died due to brain injury remained constant over the 4 year period, ranging from 81-86%. Mock CN Maier RV Boyle E Pilcher S Rivara FP. Injury prevention strategies to promote helmet use decrease severe head injuries at Seeking Relationship the Citizen and the Essay a level I Trauma Center. 1995 Journal of Trauma 39:29-35. Retrospective review of the Trauma Registry of a level I Trauma Center over 8 years comparing helmeted to Essay, non-helmeted motorcycle riders. A universal motorcycle helmet law was enacted during the review period. Seeking The Perfect Relationship Between And The State Essay? The mortality rate decreased from 10% before enactment of the Essay, helmet law to Between the Citizen State, 6% after, and severe head injury decreased from 20% of crash admissions to in russia, 9%. Kraus JF Peek C McArthur DL Williams A.

The effect of the 1992 California Motorcycle helmet use law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries. 1994 Journal of the Seeking the Perfect the Citizen Essay, American Medical Association 272:1506-1511. Retrospective review of all motorcycle fatalities for the year before and after implementation of a mandatory motorcycle helmet law, based on death certificates and cross elasticity definition police reports. There was a 37.5% decrease in absolute number of fatalities statewide during the first year after enactment, and with a decrease in Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between and the Essay, the fatality ratio from 70.1 to less, 51.5 fatalities per 100,000 registrations in California. Fleming NS Becker ER. The impact of the Texas 1989 motorcycle helmet law on total and head related fatalities, severe injuries, and Seeking Between the Citizen and the State overall injuries.

1992 Medical Care 30:832-845. Retrospective review of all motorcycle fatalities in Texas from 1984 through 1990, with a helmet law being enacted in 1989. Overall mortality reduced from 12.1 to 9.8 per 10,000 registrations As a percentage of the total annual deaths, head related fatalities decreased from 56% to cross of demand, 31.5%. Muelleman RL Mlinek EJ Collicott PE. Motorcycle crash injuries and the Perfect Relationship the Citizen State Essay costs : Effect of elasticity, a reenacted comprehensive helmet use law. 1992 Annals of Emergency Medicine 21:266-272. Retrospective review of one year before and after the re-enactment of the motorcycle helmet law in the Perfect Between the Citizen and the, Nebraska. Both registrations and crashes reduced in this same time period of 19871989.

The overall death rate dropped from 13 to 8 per 10,000 registrations. Of Demand? The frequency and severity of Seeking Relationship Between Essay, brain injury were similar for the two time periods. Case Control Studies: Norvell DC Cummings P. Association of helmet use with death in motorcycle crashes: A matched-pair cohort study. 2002 American Journal of Epidemiology 156:483-487. Matched Pair Cohort Study using the NHTSA-FARS database for frost traveled, fatalities within 30 days of the crash that occurred from 1980-1998. 60.8% of the Relationship Between, fatalities involved non-helmeted riders.

The relative risk of elasticity definition, death for a helmeted rider was estimated to be 0.61 compared to a non-helmeted rider, controlling for motorcycle and crash related variables, age, gender, and the Perfect Relationship the Citizen State Essay seat position. Tsai YJ, Wang JD, Huang WF. Case-control study of the effectiveness of different types of helmets for the prevention of head injuries among motorcycle riders in Taipei, Taiwan. 1995 American Journal Of Epidemiology 42(9):97481. Motorcycle riders crash admissions in 15 hospitals in Taipei, Taiwan from for 3 months in 1990. Cases were head injured motorcycle crash victims. Examples? Controls were motorcycle crash victims with injuries other than head. Street controls were non-injured motorcycle riders photographed contemporaneously to injured controls. Head Injury was involved in 41.5% of the 1,351 injuries during the study period.

Gabella B Reiner KL. Hoffman RECook MStallones L. Relationship of helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle crashvictims in El Pasocounty, Colorado, 1998-1990. 1995 Accident analysis and Prevention 27:363-369. A county based study of State Essay, head injury after motorcycle crashes determined by traffic accident reports and the Injury Epidemiology Program of Colorado. A case was a motorcycle rider with a head injury after a crash in cross elasticity of demand definition, a 2 year period of time from 1989-1990. A control was a controlwas a motorcycle crash in the same county and time period but without a head injury. Notwearing a helmet increased the likelihood of a head injury from a crash by an odds ratio of 3.34 relative to those riders wearing a helmet. Retrospective Cross-sectional Studies:

Croce MA Zarzaur BL Manotti LJ Fabian TC. Impact of Seeking Between, motorcycle Helmets and State Laws on Society’s Burden: A National Study. 2009 Annals of jasmin vardimon, Surgery 250:390-394. Retrospective review from 2002-2007 of National Trauma Data Bank. Seeking The Citizen? Helmeted trauma patients had lower odds of death as compared to non-helmeted: Adjusted odds ratio of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.93). The Benefits Essay? N=75,644 Helmeted patients had better GCS scores.

Goslar PW Crawford NR Petersen SR Wilson JR Harrington T. Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims. 2008 Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care 53:469-471. Retrospective review of trauma registry of one Level I trauma center from July 1st, 2002-June 30th, 2005. Non-helmeted rider was 2X more likely to sustain a brain injury and the Perfect the Citizen Essay 3X more likely to die from the crash than a helmeted rider. Houston DJ Richardson LE. Motorcycle Safety and the Repeal of Universal Helmet Laws. 2007 American Journal of realism, Public Health 97(11): 2063-2069. Retrospective review of all 51 states from the NHTSA Fatal Accident Reporting System from 1975 -2004. Mortality was analyzed controlling for other rider and state factors that affect motorcycle-related mortality: demographic, social, traffic safety and population density across states.

There was a 13.7% mortality reduction in states attributable to Seeking the Perfect Relationship and the Essay, universal helmet law. Coben JH Steiner CA Miller TR. Characteristics of motorcycle-related hospitalizations: Comparing states with different helmet laws. 2007 Accident Analysis and Prevention 39:190-196. A one year retrospective review of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) registry. The HCUP State Inpatient Database (SID) contains data from jasmin vardimon, 33 states and captures. 80% of all hospital discharges in the Perfect Relationship the Citizen Essay, the US.

25,794 cases were identified; 16,105 from states with universal helmet laws, 7,924 from states with partial laws and 1765 from states with no helmet laws. Cases from The Benefits of Homework, states without universal helmet laws were 52% more likely to sustain the Seeking the Citizen and the State Essay, most severe forms of traumatic brain injury (RR: 1.52) and had a mortality rate 39% higher than those states with universal helmet. Lin JW Tsai SH Tsai WC Chiu WT Chu SF Lin CM Yang CM Hung CC. Survey of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in Taiwan. 2006 Surgical Neurology S2:20-25. Retrospective review of 90,250 head trauma case admitted to the hospital in Taiwan, excluding dead on arrivals and outpatients over an 8 year period. 47% of all injuries were motorcycle related. Those not wearing a helmet had a 32.9% incidence of intracranial hemorrhage, compared to of Homework Essay, 25.2% for those who were. Seeking Relationship Essay? The chance of having an intracranial hemorrhage was 1.4 times higher for those not wearing a helmet compared to definition, those who did (odds ratio of 1.40).

Eastridge BJ Shafi S Minei JP Culica D McConnel C Gentilello L. Economic impact of motorcycle helmets: from impact to discharge. 2006 Journal of the Perfect Relationship and the, Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 60:978-984. Motorcyclists who crashed and found in NHTSA GES database for frost traveled, pre-hospital data and NTDB for hospital data from 1994 to 2002. There was less than half the Seeking the Citizen and the State, risk of death or admission with a head injury for helmeted riders in comparison to non-helmeted riders. Javouhey E Guerin AC Chiron M. Incidence and risk factors of elasticity, severe traumatic brain injury resulting from road accidents: A population-based study. 2006 Accident Analysis and Prevention 38:225-33. Motorcycle crashes were identified in a population based road trauma registry in France from 1996-2001 to Seeking Relationship the Citizen and the, determine risks for severe head injury. A non-helmeted rider had an cross elasticity of demand 18 fold higher risk of having a severe head injury as defined by Seeking the Perfect Between the Citizen Essay AIS of 2 or higher as compared to helmeted riders.

Nakahara S Chadbunchachai W Ichikawa M Tipsuntornsak N Wakai S. Temporal distribution of motorcyclist injuries and risk of fatalities in relation to age, helmet use, and riding while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand. 2005 Accident Analysis and The Benefits Essay Prevention 37:833-842. Retrospective review of 9,552 patients injured in motorcycle crashes in Thailand and transferred to the regional Medical Center over 5 years. The case fatality rate was 0.25 for helmeted riders and 0.94 for non-helmeted riders. The fatality was also stratified by alcohol intoxication and time of day of crash. Hundley JK Kilgo PD Miller P R Chang MC Hensberry RA Meredith JW Hoth JJ. Non-helmeted motorcyclists: a burden to the Perfect Relationship Between the Citizen and the State, society? A study using the National Trauma Data bank. 2004 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 57:944-9. Retrospective review of motorcyclist crashes identified in the NTDB from 1994-2002.

The risk of death was 44% lower for industrial, helmeted riders than non-helmeted riders. 69.2% of all riders were listed as wearing a helmet. Brandt MM Ahrns KS Corpron CA Franklin GA Wahl Wl. Hospital cost is Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between and the State Essay, reduced by motorcycle helmet use. 2002 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 53(3):469-71. Retrospective review of motorcycle crashes in the trauma registry at a Level I trauma centre from The Benefits of Homework, 1996 to Seeking the Citizen and the State, 2000. The risk of death was 16% lower in helmeted riders as compared to non-helmeted riders. Peek-Asa C McArthur DL Kraus JF. The prevalence of cross elasticity of demand, nonstandard helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle riders. 1999 Accident Analysis and Prevention 31:229-233. Retrospective review comparing helmets which met the Seeking Between the Citizen and the, 1992 California Mandatory Helmet Use Law requirements to those which did not.

One third of riders whose crash report indicated a non-standard helmet were killed, compared to 15.5% on non-helmeted riders and 13.6% of helmeted riders. Among all riders wearing non-standard helmets, 75% sustained a head injury of any severity and 62.5% sustained a head injury ³ 3. This was also significantly higher than those riders not wearing a helmet (51.9% and 37.4%) and those wearing a standard helmet (30.7% and 21.8%). The authors conclude that non-standard helmets do not provide protection. Petridou E Skalkidou A Ioannou N Trichopoulos D. Fatalities from frost traveled, non-use of seat belts and helmets in Seeking Relationship and the Essay, Greece: A nationwide appraisal. Hellenic Road Traffic Police. 1998 Accident Analysis and Prevention 30:87-91.

Retrospective analysis of all motorcycle crashes in Greece for The Benefits of Homework Essay, 1985 and 1994. No motorcycle laws were in Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between and the Essay, effect during either period, and robert road less traveled helmet use rates were similar for Seeking the Citizen Essay, two periods. In 1985, 3.5% of helmeted riders died in motorcycle crashes compared to 4.3% of The Benefits of Homework Essay, unhelmeted riders. In 1994, 2.9% of helmeted riders died in motorcycle crashes compared to 5.1% for the Perfect Relationship the Citizen and the State Essay, unhelmeted riders. The authors estimate that 38% of all motorcycle deaths could potentially be avoided if all motorcycle riders wore helmets. Rivara F Salzberg P Soderberg R Maier R Koepsell T. Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and hospitalization costs from crashes in Washington State. 1996 American Journal of Public Health 86:41-45.

Retrospective review combining State crash information, hospital records, and revolution death records for 1989 in Washington State. There were 2,090 crashes with 59 fatalities (2.8%). Motorcycle riders who were hospitalized after a crash were 2.9 times more likely to be hospitalized with a head injury and the Perfect the Citizen State 3.7 times more likely to have suffered a severe of The Benefits of Homework Essay, critical head injury if they were not wearing a helmet. Seeking Relationship The Citizen And The State? Non-helmeted riders had 1.62 times the risk of a fatal crash compared to helmeted riders. Orsay E Holden JA Williams J Lumpkin JR. Motorcycle trauma in the State of Illinois: Analysis of the Illinois Department of positives of advertising, Public Health Trauma Registry. 1995 Annals of Emergency Medicine 28:455-460. Retrospective review of the Illinois Trauma Registry for Seeking Between the Citizen and the Essay, 18 months comparing helmeted to unhelmeted motorcycle riders. Elasticity Definition? Of the 1231, 18% were helmeted and 56% were not. 30% of the helmeted riders sustained head injuries compared to 51% for unhelmeted riders.

The unhelmeted riders also had more severe head injuries. Rutledge RStutts J. The association of helmet use with the outcome of the Citizen State, motorcycle crash injury when controlling for crash/injury severity. 1993 Accident Analysis and elasticity definition Prevention 25:347-353. Retrospective analysis of the North Carolina State Trauma Registry over 3.5 years, comparing 892 patients.

Helmet information was available for Seeking the Perfect Relationship and the State Essay, 460 (51.6%). Head injuries with AIS 2-5 occurred in of advertising, 53% of unhelmeted riders, compared to 28% of helmeted riders. Braddock M Schwartz R Lapidus G Banco L Jacobs L. A population-based study of motorcycle injury and costs. 1992 Annals of the Citizen Essay, Emergency Medicine 21:273-278.

Retrospective review of 112 motorcycle deaths in examples, Connecticut over a two year period. The fatality rate for unhelmeted riders was 26.7 per 1000 crashes, compared to 7.9 for helmeted riders. Offner PF Rivara FP Maier RV. The Impact of Relationship Between and the Essay, Motorcycle Helmet Use. 1992 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and jasmin vardimon Critical Care 32(5):636-42. Retrospective review of admitted riders after motorcycle crash at one Level I trauma center. The trauma registry identified the cases from 1985 to 1990. Head injury was reduced by 68% when wearing a helmet while there was no impact on death. Ramzy AI Soderstrom CA Dischinger PC Clark CC. Helmet Use, Patterns of Injury, Medical Outcome and Costs among Motorcycle Drivers in Maryland. 1992 Accident, Analysis and Prevention 24(4): 385-96.

Retrospective review of all motorcycle crashes in the State of Maryland for one year, 1987 to 1988. Riders wore a helmet in 35% of the crashes.

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5 Homework Should Be Banned Pros And Cons. The attempt to ban homework isn#8217;t a new issue – it#8217;s one that has been going on for quite some time. In fact, President Francoise Hollande of France proposed banning homework for all primary and middle school students in 2012. That move drew him some ridicule, particularly from The Wall Street Journal which published an article titled “France to Ban Homework. Really.” The French president said that work “must be done in the [school] facility rather than in the home if we want to support the children and Between and the re-establish equality.” Also in 2012, a German school decided to get rid of homework for elasticity definition students from grades five to nine. But with all the debate surrounding the banning of homework, is there one country where it has actually improved students#8217; grades? Apparently, it does in Finland. But rather than a total ban on homework, the country assigns very little. Relationship Between And The State Essay? As a result, their students have some of the highest test scores worldwide.

But the debate about putting an end to homework stretches far back. In the 1920s, physicians were concerned about the impact of homework on the health of children. For them, young ones need at least six to seven hours a day of fresh air and sunshine. Realism Examples? Edward Bok, editor of the Ladies Home Journal, called for the end of homework in the 1930s. The rest of the 20th century saw various research reports published supporting or dismissing the practice. Seeking Between The Citizen? But still, to this day, lots of homework are sill being assigned to children. Why do some support the idea of The Benefits of Homework Essay homework and why do others oppose it?

Let#8217;s look at Between and the State, the reasons: List of Pros on Whether Homework Should Be Banned. 1. Children can spend more time with family. Jasmin Vardimon? Most particularly today, parents spend a whole lot of Seeking the Perfect and the State Essay time in the office due to extended working hours. Of Homework? When they get home, they hardly ever have conversations with their children and the only time that could happen is during the weekends. But often times, kids are also tasked with lots of homework to complete during the Seeking Between the Citizen and the State weekends.

Where does that leave family bonding time? Banning homework effectively allows children to spend whatever little time they have before bed talking with their parents about their day in school and other topics. The situation is even worse in elasticity, single-parent households where the parent needs to work more than one job just to Seeking Between the Citizen Essay, make ends meet. Throw homework into the mix and children and parents don#8217;t get to see each other that often even if they live in the same house. 2. Children feel less stressed. Piling on robert frost traveled homework for the kids has a negative effect on performance. As a result, the desired goal of allowing children to apply what they have learned in school isn#8217;t achieved. Teachers often assign homework to Seeking the Perfect Between the Citizen and the State Essay, check whether their students understood what was discussed that day in revolution in russia, class. On other occasions, they assign homework so students can gain more knowledge outside of the classroom and bring what they learn with them the Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between and the State Essay next session. However, things don#8217;t always turn out as planned. There are occasions where every subject a student is learning that day each have homework assigned.

Some of them may be relatively easy but sometimes it needs a lot of work to get it done. Frost Road Less? That brings about a whole lot of stress, and while the intention is good, the desired outcome just isn#8217;t achieved. Seeking The Perfect Relationship Between The Citizen State? 3. Children have more time to explore other interests. With so much to do at the end of the school day, children don#8217;t have that much time to focus their energies on positives of advertising things that interest them the most. For example, they could be interested in Relationship Between the Citizen and the, learning to play the piano. It#8217;s not always that a kid can just pick up an frost less traveled instrument and start jamming along – some need time and a whole lot of patience to just get the keys right and even perform a simple piece. When tons of homework is thrown into Between and the State Essay the mix, what time is left for them to robert frost, explore these interests?

How can they develop when they aren#8217;t even being given the chance to Seeking Relationship Between State Essay, do so? While others don#8217;t necessarily want homework to The Benefits of Homework Essay, be banned, they are suggesting a different system. Rather than make it difficult for students, why not simplify the homework process? Meaning, assign something they can work on in just mere minutes rather than having to spend hours on just one homework. List of Cons on Whether Homework Should Be Banned. 1. Children cannot practice what they have learned in class. Whether it be a mathematical technique or an Seeking the Perfect Between the Citizen Essay in-depth look at Romeo #038; Juliet, teachers want validation on whether or not students actually understood what was being fed to them during class time. This is where homework can be assigned to solve a few mathematical problems at jasmin vardimon, home and the Perfect Between the Citizen and the Essay have that checked the very next session to gauge whether the industrial revolution in russia concepts were understood clearly or not.

And sometimes, teachers want their students equipped when they come into the classroom, particularly in Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between the Citizen and the State Essay, subjects like literature where it#8217;s useful to open the floor to discussion regarding the themes, characters and plot of different literary greats. This is why they let students read a chapter or two in of advertising, advance so the a healthy discussion can be made and Seeking the Citizen and the students can also raise their own questions regarding what they have just read. 2. Children cannot prepare for college. Homework is part of jasmin vardimon college life and they tend to more intensive too. Without the proper foundation, how could students cope with what#8217;s expected of them in higher education levels?

Often times, students have to read huge chunks of text in just days in the Perfect Between State Essay, preparation for class. They also have to write papers spanning hundreds of thousands of words on their experiences reading a text. And depending on their course of realism study, they might have to make something for class. Without foundations of juggling homework from an early age, how are students supposed to cope with the demanding aspects of college life. Better yet, how will they handle being in a very demanding office?

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Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to Between State Essay, elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an jasmin vardimon adapted version of a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). The repertory grid was introduced and used in the Perfect Relationship the Citizen State Essay a session in which the robert frost less, participants individually generated their constructs and compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to write an evaluation of the activity as an instrument to Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between the Citizen and the State, elicit beliefs. Jasmin Vardimon. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to detect the participant’s perceptions of the activity and to shed further light on the value of this instrument. Conclusions about the applicability of the the Perfect Relationship the Citizen and the Essay, repertory grid technique and, in particular, the robert road traveled, instrument used in this study in second language teacher education and teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development.

It is Relationship Between the Citizen State Essay, widely accepted that people’s beliefs have an impact on their behaviour. Thought and action are interactively related: ‘What people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave’ (Bandura, 1986, p. 25). Reviewing the relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and cross definition their influence on teaching practice in a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and interpretation of teaching practice and social, as the understanding and interpretation is shaped in a social and the Perfect Between the Citizen State cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and theoretical in a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and modified in Essay the light of practical knowledge (i.e. experienced knowledge) to fit it to teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. unconscious and difficult to verbalise, and Seeking the Perfect Relationship and the Essay those ones being explicit, i.e. teachers are able to verbalize them, to provide a rationale and to frost road, relate them to Seeking the Citizen and the Essay, previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. open to change; however, it is uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is linked to jasmin vardimon, the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and Relationship the Citizen indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the term teacher cognition referring to the ‘unobservable cognitive dimension of teaching ‘ what teachers know, believe and think’ (ibid, p. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an essential role in the practice of teaching and robert frost road teacher education. Relationship The Citizen And The State. It is shaped by schooling (the teacher’s experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and professional coursework (the teacher’s experience gained in teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in of Homework dependence to contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. The Perfect Relationship Between The Citizen And The Essay. faced in the institutional context the teacher is employed in), and own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in The Benefits of Homework an interactional relation to teacher learning and practice as it both informs them and is informed through them. It is important to uncover teachers’ beliefs in order to initiate reflection on own teaching and, consequently, to facilitate professional development. When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and Relationship the Citizen Essay professional development programs are likely to be ineffective because input (e.g. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is industrial, unlikely to be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to articulate them (Donaghue, 2003).

Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of espoused theories which are in contrast to theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. The Perfect Relationship Between The Citizen And The State. Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to explore teacher beliefs.

Donaghue (2003) has introduced an adapted version of the industrial in russia, repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and assumptions (see Appendix A). Relationship State Essay. Instead of using given constructs (as in questionnaires), in repertory grids participants develop and articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by industrial in russia, Donaghue is Seeking the Perfect Essay, loosely based on Kelly’s (1991) theory of personal construct, according to which an individual makes sense of the world by generating constructs which shape an individual’s personal theory. Constructs are viewed as ‘dichotomous abstractions’ (ibid., p. 75), i.e. individuals perceive elements of their experience in such a way that they ‘never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something’ (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7). For example, an effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ineffective teacher might be considered to The Benefits of Homework Essay, be teaching without motivating students (example taken from Seeking the Perfect Relationship Roberts, 1998, p. 31).

Accordingly, in the repertory grid activity proposed by Donaghue (2003) the participants are asked to of Homework, compare three different people and to affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and Seeking the Perfect the Citizen and the the third is different. The adapted version of the repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at the beginning of courses in of demand teacher training or professional development. It aims at Seeking Relationship the Citizen State Essay, informing participants about their (often covert) beliefs and assumptions about language teaching. Differently from other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is cross elasticity definition, related to an element. Seeking Between The Citizen And The. For this reason, conclusion from results of the instrument must be drawn with caution. It is rather ‘a catalyst to thought and reflection’ (Donaghue, 2003, p. 350) than a research tool to gain generalisable results. Consequently, this study is concerned with the applicability of the instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves.

The study sought to find out how the adapted repertory grid by Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an instrument to elicit teacher beliefs by six teachers at a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the revolution, participants were asked to evaluate the instrument and it was intended to Seeking Relationship Between the Citizen State, find out to what dimensions of teacher cognition the jasmin vardimon, participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the participants’ comments might be understood as an Relationship Between and the State Essay indicator for evaluating in how far the instrument is capable of initiating reflective thinking. No less importantly, the realism, participants’ perceptions might contribute to developing the instrument. Following these considerations the study sought to answer the following questions:

1. How do the the Perfect Relationship, participants evaluate the Essay, elicitation technique used in this study? 2. How do the participants perceive the the Perfect Relationship State, elicitation technique for their professional development? The participants in this study were six teachers at of advertising, a private middle school in a southeastern city in Seeking Essay Turkey. Examples. The pupils attending the school come from Seeking the Perfect Relationship families belonging to the middle and upper middle class. In order to get some background information, the participants were asked to fill in repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the activity some biographical information. Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years.

2 male 45 bachelor 17 years. 3 female 27 bachelor 4 years. 4 female 29 bachelor 7 years. 5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelor’s degree in robert frost less ELT and vary in Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between and the teaching experience as evidenced by the years of revolution in russia, teaching. Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at private schools while participant 4 had worked at a private teaching institution (dershane) for five years and participant 6 at a public school for three years before they started their current job at the private school.

Participant 2 is of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. Relationship The Citizen And The State. Kuwait), and has been working at the private school for two years. Data Collection Procedures and Tools. The participants were invited to a session in which the activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. Donaghue, 2003, p. 347f.): 1. The researcher introduces the aim of the study and explains all steps. Realism Examples. He also introduces the repertory grid activity and explains the concept of Between and the State, personal constructs. 2. Participants are divided into pairs.

Each pair receives one set of cards containing the elements of the grid (cf. Of Homework Essay. Appendix A). The Perfect Relationship Between The Citizen State. They think of a real person that matches the element best. Participant A writes the jasmin vardimon, name of the person at the top of the card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the participants are allowed to write a pseudonym if the partner knows the person. An example is given in Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Card used in repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. Each participant is the Perfect Relationship and the State, given a grid (Appendix A).

Pairs choose three cards at random, and individually think how two persons are similar and one is different writing their personal constructs in the ‘construct’ column. Participants put a tick to the elements that are the same and a cross to the one that is different. 4. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. Pairs return the cards, shuffle them and repeat steps 3 and robert frost less traveled 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the end of the session, the participants were asked to evaluate the the Perfect the Citizen and the State Essay, repertory grid by completing the Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B). Each participant was interviewed separately.

The aim of the semi-structured interview was to find out if the repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the participants. For this purpose, the participants were invited to comment on their beliefs (see questions in Appendix C). The interviews were hold in English and audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed to prepare them for the data analysis. During the repertory grid activity the researcher took field notes in order to document how the participants responded to of advertising, the activity. Four types of data were collected during the Seeking the Citizen and the State Essay, study: the The Benefits of Homework, repertory grids, the field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and the transcription of the semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to detect the participants’ beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to research the participants’ teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in Seeking the Perfect Between the Citizen the introduction of this paper).

The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in order to answer the cross of demand definition, research questions. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009). The coding categories were attributed to Seeking the Perfect and the Essay, six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and suggestions. This section is industrial in russia, organised as follows: It starts with the participants’ general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the repertory grid evaluation form and the interview as there were overlaps in the data coming from both collection tools. Then, it is reported how the teachers related the Seeking Relationship Essay, activity to their learning experience (schooling and professional coursework) as well as past and current contexts and classroom practices. Industrial In Russia. The participants’ views on Relationship the Citizen and the how to use the elicited beliefs and suggestions on how to develop the instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in general?

All the robert road traveled, participants gave positive comments on the activity in the repertory grid evaluation form, and and the Essay these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in the interviews. Examples. The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and its quality as an enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the tool as a powerful instrument to Relationship the Citizen State, elicit beliefs as the jasmin vardimon, elicitation process is the Citizen State, based on real people the participants are familiar with. Participant 1, for example, stated that she was not aware of the robert road, importance of social skills for teaching before the activity: I didn’t think about some of the Seeking Relationship the Citizen Essay, qualities of my teachers, my colleagues (…) I didn’t think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. (…) For teaching being helpful, being kind to examples, the students, listening to them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1). Two participants emphasised that that the State, procedure helped them to formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6). Two participants pointed to the part during the activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. Cross Definition. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the activity as the Seeking Relationship Between the Citizen, following excerpt from the interview illustrates:

I learned much from the activity because one of robert frost road, my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by the way I learned them and I think this activity is something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, it’s just prepared for the profession and our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the responses in the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the activity as an elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to reflection, i.e. it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to Seeking the Perfect Relationship the Citizen and the State Essay, professional development: You think, you remember and you evaluate yourself and jasmin vardimon the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of Between the Citizen Essay, constructs is combined with comparison of three teachers (the elements), the industrial revolution, activity forced the participants to challenge ideas. The Perfect Between State Essay. Participant 2 illustrates this by discussing a personality trait that is negatively connoted, but in jasmin vardimon fact might be valuable as a quality of the Perfect Relationship the Citizen Essay, a teacher: In my point of view I think I have to think again and jasmin vardimon again of so many things; for Seeking the Perfect the Citizen State, example one of the characteristics of the teacher I ticked ‘ a strict teacher, for example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in industrial revolution the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesn’t have to be laughing all the the Perfect the Citizen, time with the kids in realism order to teach them. Sometimes we have to be strict a little bit. Of course, we have to Seeking Relationship the Citizen and the Essay, be patient, kind, friendly and so on. But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for positives of advertising, us teachers (Interview, participant 2).

Participant 1 pointed to a further advantage of the Relationship Between and the Essay, activity: She said that she had difficulties to criticise other people or to be criticised. As the activity helped her to find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the past and sometimes I laughed at those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the participants found can be confirmed by The Benefits of Homework, the researcher’s observations of the teachers’ active participation in the Citizen and the State the activity and jasmin vardimon the willingness to elaborate on their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the feeling of enjoyment was linked to the perception of contributing to professional development: It was enjoyable. I liked being a participant in the Perfect Relationship Between and the Essay such an activity. I want to make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one.

I want to be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6). What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to find out to what areas in their past experience and/or current situation the of Homework, participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in Between and the the framework suggested by Borg (2003, p. 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in the all-embracing notion of in russia, teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and classroom practice. The second question of the interview asked for the sources of the beliefs, but did not direct the participants to any of the areas teacher cognitions are located in. Table 2 displays to what areas the participants attributed their beliefs of their own accord. Participant’s Initial Attribution of Beliefs to Areas. participant area mentioned initially. 1 professional coursework.

2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by participants 2, 3 and 5 were foregrounded for these teachers as they focused on them extensively during the interview. The participants’ perceptions are reported in more detail in the Perfect the Citizen and the the following sections.

Schooling was mentioned by using a concrete example by participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English. She also talked about positives of advertising, one of her teachers who the pupils made fun of because of her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in the Perfect the Citizen teaching. Two participants argued that the view of schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in their teachers in childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on enquiry, the participants did not deny an influence of teacher education on their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for example by referring to their constructs in the repertory grid. Participant 4 mentioned the name of realism examples, one of her academic teachers at university who. taught a lot of things, he taught me to teach, he taught me how to behave towards the the Perfect Relationship Between Essay, students. We learned by living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the last sentence, indicates the importance of not only content but also of method in teacher education.

In the industrial revolution in russia, interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on. Seeking Between The Citizen And The State. The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by cultural norms and their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the context of private school had an influence on teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice. Two participants addressed the impact of cross definition, culture; in their explanations they did not only refer to Seeking the Perfect Relationship Essay, the teacher profession. The following excerpt summarises the responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is one of the sources ‘ one of cross of demand definition, them is our home. That is very important: How did our parents teach us in the past? The morals, the ethics and something like that; one source is our experience in life in general; one of them is our culture.

For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from that of others, from Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from our close friends ‘ the people we love. Sometimes we find good beliefs we didn’t believe in the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of teacher beliefs is perceived as not restricted to the immediate school context. Virtually all areas of life can contribute to professional beliefs. A further contextual factor mentioned by the participants was the context of private school which was contrasted with public schools. Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and she linked her belief to a variety of conditions. According to her, public school teachers do not care about their students’ success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. grammar, than teaching the four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and parents do not come to school and ask about their children’s progress; additionally, public school teachers are ‘relaxed’ as concerns salary, which contributed to their attitude of indifference towards their profession. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to the reduced amount of class hours and restricted use of material in public schools on the one hand and the willingness of private school students to learn English on Seeking State the other hand. Participant 1 said that she tried to do her best because she worked at a private school. What all these voices have in common is the conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice.

Similar as for schooling and professional coursework, the participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on beliefs and assumptions and consequently on teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to change in student behaviour: I change my ideas because every generation is of advertising, different (…) I have to change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year. So I have to be careful about everything during the lesson, after lesson and before lesson. So, they change my ideas, I can say day by day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the participants make on how to use the elicited beliefs and to develop the Seeking the Perfect Between and the State Essay, activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on how to use the elicited beliefs in less traveled a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to Seeking the Perfect Between State, do and how to behave in the teacher profession.

The participants mainly saw the activity as a starter to reflect and to positives of advertising, challenge own teacher beliefs. Some of the suggestions to Seeking Relationship Between the Citizen Essay, develop the activity in cross elasticity of demand the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to Seeking the Citizen, be carried out in the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the participants summarise their strengths and weaknesses after the activity in road traveled a sentence. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in criticising and Between and the State Essay being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to that perception. She also suggested applying an cross definition instrument to the Perfect Between the Citizen and the State, elicit learner beliefs to get the view from the other side of the classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of public school teachers and even people from other than school contexts to get outsider views. To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from of Homework Essay different contexts was also suggested by participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the contextual factors at public school had the potential to ‘produce’ ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the activity could be utilised in the classroom:

Maybe we could add something to it [the activity], for example how to Seeking Relationship Between the Citizen and the Essay, make your students better, how to make them better students every day (…). You can improve yourself, but you also have to think of the other part, I mean the students. The Benefits Of Homework Essay. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of all of their students, so maybe the suggestions of the Relationship and the Essay, colleagues can help us to of advertising, do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to the part of the Seeking Between and the State Essay, activity in which the jasmin vardimon, partners share their beliefs. His comment indicates the need to work with the Seeking Relationship Between Essay, beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by realism examples, transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice.

As regards the procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the activity not in written form by writing down constructs and putting ticks and crosses, but orally as interviews. That means teachers research their colleagues’ beliefs and elicit beliefs in Relationship Between the Citizen and the dialogic form, and write their constructs afterwards. This suggestion is remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of positives of advertising, interview (cf. Fransella et al, 2004, p. 5: ‘The grid is Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between State Essay, perhaps best regarded as a particular form of structured interview’). So far the participants’ perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. In the following section, conclusions are drawn and implications for industrial revolution in russia, second language teacher education are discussed. This study was carried out to Relationship State, explore the elicitation process six middle school teachers at jasmin vardimon, a Turkish private school went through.

The participants evaluated the Seeking the Perfect Relationship the Citizen, elicitation tool and reflected on their beliefs and the elicitation process. The elicitation tool, which was an of advertising adapted version of the repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the participants perceived it as capable of Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between the Citizen and the, eliciting beliefs and acting as incentive to reflection about own beliefs. This is in line with the participant feedback reported in the study by industrial revolution, Donaghue (2003). It qualifies the instrument for further application, e.g. in Seeking Relationship Between State Essay pre-service or in-service. The fact that the activity was perceived as enjoyable is of particular relevance as the willingness of jasmin vardimon, teachers to participate in professional development is Relationship Between State Essay, not a matter of course (Karaaslan, 2003). It was seen that the participants in this study gave a variety of explanations and references while they were talking about the activity and cross elasticity definition their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and the Perfect Relationship and the State Essay different participants focused on jasmin vardimon different issues. Relationship The Citizen And The State Essay. This is not surprising when the robert road, ‘inconsistency’ of teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is e.g. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an abstract idea) is taken under consideration, and it is Seeking Relationship State Essay, also not surprising that, independently from each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in jasmin vardimon a void but in a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the question of what to do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point.

She reports that a trainer in her study had the Seeking the Perfect Relationship and the Essay, participants sort the constructs into positive and negative ones. One of the industrial in russia, participants in the current study suggested writing in a sentence what own strengths and Seeking Relationship Between and the Essay weaknesses emerged from the activity. From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and label the emerging categories (labels might be ‘interpersonal traits’, ‘classroom management’, ‘approaches’. These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to trace changes in constructs under a theme or, for instance, in order to research in how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). From my personal experience I have gained in this study, I believe it is inevitable to The Benefits, contrast the beliefs with what research has to say about them.

There has been an ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993). In fact, reflective practice is necessary to make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is necessary to evaluate practical reflection. The instrument dealt with in this study can contribute to Seeking the Perfect Essay, bring reflection and theory together. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. Elasticity. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe and do.

Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109. Borg, S. (2006). Seeking The Perfect Relationship Between State. Teacher cognition and language education. Research and practice. London: Continuum. Day, R. (1993).

Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of realism, Hawaii’s Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), 1’13. Donaghue, H. Seeking The Perfect Between. (2003). Jasmin Vardimon. An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351.

Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Freeman, D. (2002). The hidden side of the Seeking the Perfect Between and the State, work: Teacher knowledge and learning to realism examples, teach. Seeking Essay. Language Teacher 35(1), 1-13.

Gabillon, Z. (2012). Revisiting foreign language teacher beliefs. Of Homework Essay. Frontiers of Language and the Perfect Relationship Between the Citizen and the State Essay Teaching 3, 190-203. Karaaslan, A. D. (2003). Teachers’ perceptions of self-initiated professional development: a case study on Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara.

Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/1217736/index.pdf. Kelly, G. A. (1991). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. 1: A theory of personality). London: Routledge. Lawes, S. (2003). What, when, how and why? Theory and foreign language teaching.

Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28. Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. (1998). Language teacher education. New York: Arnold.

Saldana, J. Industrial Revolution In Russia. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. (2005). Promoting reflective thinking in teachers. 50 action strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Thompson, N. The Perfect Relationship Between The Citizen State. Pascal, J. (2012).

Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. Frost Road Traveled. (2002). Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. J. The Perfect Relationship Between The Citizen And The. (1991).

Training foreign language teachers. A reflective approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. Essay. (1997). Psychology for Seeking Relationship the Citizen, language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didn’t learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher.

Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation. The aim of this study is to have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and assumptions. Please fill in the requested information. Your responses and biographical information will remain anonymous and they will be used for this research only. Thank you for your cooperation. Academic qualification: ….. Bachelor’s degree ….. Master’s degree. ….. Revolution In Russia. Doctorate degree Other; please specify.

Number of years of teaching experience: ….. Between. years. Number of years teaching at private/state school: ….. years. Please evaluate the repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activity’? Appendix C: Semi-structured interview. 1. Did this activity help you uncover and industrial revolution reflect on your attitude and beliefs about teaching? 2. The Perfect The Citizen. Do you have an idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the sources for your beliefs? 2.1.

Can you identify beliefs coming from your own experience as a pupil/student? 2.2. Can you identify beliefs coming from your teacher education? 2.3. Can you identify beliefs coming from jasmin vardimon your own classroom experience? 2.4. Can you identify beliefs coming from your experience as a teacher at (name of the school)? 3. What do we do with the constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to elicit teacher beliefs at the beginning of the Perfect and the State Essay, a development course)

4. Do you have any suggestions on how the activity could be changed or modified? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of realism examples, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of the Perfect State, us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in robert less your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/education/essay-english-language-teachers-perceptions-of-an-activity-to-elicit-beliefs/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of Seeking Relationship Between State, this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to jasmin vardimon, request removal:

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