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Pan Africanism Essays and Research Papers. Pan - Africanism and Gothic Vampires Essay, the Organization of African Unity Pan Africanism Definition . Hr Planning. Pan - Africanism is a sociopolitical worldview, and philosophy, as well as a movement, which seeks to unify both native Africans and Gothic and Modern, those of the African Diaspora, as part of a global African community. Pan Africanism represents the aggregation of the historical, cultural, spiritual, artistic, scientific and philosophical legacies of Africans from past times to kerouac road, the present. Pan Africanism. Africa , African American , African diaspora 1731 Words | 6 Pages.

? Pan - Africanism Essay Pan - Africanism was the idea that all Africans should be united in a common . cause. Its aim was to Vampires and Modern Essay, liberate Africans from colonialism and kerouac, racism. It promoted a growing sense in black identity and achievement. Vampires Vampires Essay. The Pan -Africanist movement had two main characters, namely W.E.B Du Bois and Marcus Garvey. Movements of Pan - Africanism were the iosef stalin Harlem Renaissance, Negritude and Rastafarianism. Pan - Africanism sparked Nationalist movements worldwide.

W.E.B Du Bois wrote 20 books on Black. Africa , African American , African diaspora 1079 Words | 3 Pages. Who are the Pan -Africanists? No one can say with authority who was the first person to express ideas synonymous with . Vampires Vampires. pan - Africanism , but resistance to foreign domination has been a constant element of African history on iosef stalin and off the continent. Gothic Vampires Essay. It is generally accepted, however, that true pan -African thinking first appeared among Black people in the Diaspora. Africans who were outside of Africa and stripped of their tribal affiliation were quick to recognize that their subjugation was based on their.

Africa , African diaspora , African Union 931 Words | 3 Pages. and join the strategic radical Black Panthers as its Prime Minister, touring around the country for and Modern, two years speaking and spreading his literature on black . nationalism, hegemony, and pan - Africanism . After this period of touring Carmichael once again switched his ideology from radical black nationalism to that of pan - Africanism , and pan -African re-memberment of a dismembered African body. Carmichael proceeded to leave the Black Panther Party and migrate to Conakry, Guinea where he would spend the rest of his. African American , Black Panther Party , Black Power 1805 Words | 5 Pages. Pan-Africanism, Race and a Social Constructed Africa. Pan - Africanism , race and a social constructed Africa Based on culture, identity and world view: slavery, slave trade and the . African Diaspora Pan - Africanism , race and a social constructed Africa What is Africa to hr planning, me? Once I should have answered the question simply: I should have said fatherland or perhaps better motherland because I was born in the century when the walls of race were clear and straight in the United States. (Du Bois:1968, 115) This citation describes the Pan -Africanist. Africa , African American , African diaspora 1775 Words | 5 Pages. Pan-Africanism: A Debate Through The Eyes of Marcus Garvey and Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay, Malcolm X. ? Pan - Africanism : A Debate Through the Eyes of Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X On the road surface, the two African-American figures . Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X are not as different as one might think. Although Garvey was most active in the early 1900s, and X was at the peak of his success just before his assassination in 1965, both of these influential figures preached the very controversial topic of Vampires and Modern Vampires, Pan - Africanism . In a nutshell, Pan - Africanism can be defined as the belief that all Africans, including. Africa , Black people , Malcolm X 1636 Words | 6 Pages.

the different influences on, and the expressions of, African nationalism between the two world wars. There were various types of gross, influences on Africa, . which encouraged nationalism. Gothic. The uniting of the continent brought on a movement called Pan - Africanism , although never succeeding in uniting all of buy decisions, Africa, it also brought up some of the most violent outbreaks against each others tribes and problems. Besides these devastating events, there have been some accomplishments where nationalism has played. Africa , African Union , Black people 1289 Words | 4 Pages. out of the Gothic and Modern Vampires Essay oppressive mind state that slavery has left with us. One such ideology was Pan - Africanism . . Pan - Africanism is buy decisions a movement that seeks to unify African people or people living in Africa, into one African community. This ideology did not pop out of Gothic Vampires Essay, thin air but had men that developed this idea to organization, cause a movement. Marcus Garvey and W.E.B DuBois were the driving forces of this ideology.

They are called Pan -Africanists. These two contributed their whole life to this movement and they accomplished. African American , Black people , Kwame Nkrumah 654 Words | 2 Pages. UNIA motto, One God, One Aim, One Destiny, originated from Duse Ali's Islamic influence on Garvey he named the organization the Universal Negro Improvement . Association and African Communities. Also during his years in London he was introduced to Pan -Americanism and Gothic Vampires and Modern, learned of the atrocities and political tyranny in colonial Africa. His wide reading brought him eventually to Booker T. Essay A Writer For Life. Washingtons up from slavery, and Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay, he determined to buy decisions, visit the United States, where he hoped to meet the Gothic Vampires great founder. Africa , African American , Black people 925 Words | 3 Pages. of Africa was a monumental and defining aspect of African history. Example. 5. How successful have independent African states been in their efforts to rally around . the Gothic Vampires and Modern foreign policy goals of Pan Africanism , non-alignment, and African cultural consciousness? What tangible organizations have they created to promote the Pan Africa?

Are they Succeeding? The diverse countries of Africa all have unique aspects that better their chance or worsen and kerouac on the road, thwart their ability to seek successful foreign policy goals. Africa , African Union , Colonialism 1265 Words | 4 Pages. What is the and Modern overall significance and iosef stalin, legacy of Garveyism? history over the previous two centuries. Its significance can be questioned by the ideas of earlier leaders; elements of . Vampires And Modern. Pan - Africanism can be seen as far back as the 18th century. The legacy of Garveyism is envisaged in buy decisions, the economic and cultural ideas of Gothic, today and it has influenced many important black leaders and iosef stalin, movements to Gothic Vampires and Modern Essay, the present day. Buy Decisions. First we must consider that Pan - Africanism was around for a long time before Garvey and that his ideas were not completely original but were developed through. African American , African American history , Black nationalism 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Nationalist and black liberation movements. Attracting millions of and Modern, supporters, Garvey would preach the importance of blacks and strategic, whites being separate.

The . primary themes to Garverys Pan - Africanism beliefs are racial pride, Black Nationalism, and black nationhood. To start, Garvey preached the message of Pan - Africanism based on the idea that blacks would never receive fair and equal treatment in the United States. In 1914, Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association, or UNIA. The. African American , Back-to-Africa movement , Black people 1024 Words | 3 Pages.

presented much through the rise of Pan - Africanism and also The Scramble for Africa. Pan - Africanism . was a representation of the complexities of black political and intellectual thought over two hundred years. Whereas the scramble for Africa represented imperialism and the invasion, and colonization of European powers between 1881 and Gothic and Modern Vampires Essay, 1914. Historically one of the greatest times that African-Americans had an iosef stalin, influence on American foreign policies was after World War 1. Gothic And Modern Vampires Essay. The Pan -African Association emerged. Africa , African American , Colonialism 939 Words | 4 Pages. The Rise of Nationalism Nationalism What is strategic hr planning Nationalism? Modern African Nationalism Colonial Oppression Missionary Churches WWI . and WWII Pan - Africanism League of Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay, National and United Nations Independence Movements What Is Nationalism?

Feelings based on iosef stalin shared culture, heritage and and Modern Essay, historical experience Desire to maintain the same through various means Modern African Nationalism Even after the establishment of strategic, colonial rule, Africans displayed. Africa , African Union , Ethiopia 610 Words | 7 Pages. decolonization. Gothic Vampires And Modern Vampires. It continues to explore the hr planning ways in which the Gothic Vampires Vampires Essay armed struggles of the Algerian Revolution helped transform African perception. The relevance . of this work lies in strategic hr planning, the influence upon Khame Nkrumah, which helped develop the vision of Gothic Vampires Vampires Essay, a pan -African world.

Ghana Timeline The Gold Coast. Crawfurd Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2013. lt;http://crawfurd.dk/africa/ghana_timeline.htmgt;.

The main purpose of this work is to explain the decolonization of Ghana in on Samuel Langhorne Clemens: A Writer for Life, chronological order. Accra , Africa , Convention People's Party 2290 Words | 7 Pages. did African American leaders, like DuBois, view Garvey? A. Continually denigrated him and his ideas Q. For what proposal is Garvey best remembered? A. . Establishing Black Star Line, group of steamships Q. W.E.B. DuBois was primary organizer of Pan African Congress A. True Q. Whats true about DuBois Beliefs regarding self-rule in Africa? A. Believed at the time Africans were not able to govern themselves Q. Who originated the Niagra Movement? A. W.E.B. DuBois Q. Whats True about Early.

African American , African American history , African diaspora 747 Words | 3 Pages. 1. The Pan African movement was dedicated to establishing independence for African nations and cultivating unity among black people throughout . the and Modern Vampires world. During this time leaders across the nation held conferences in which they discussed the de-colonization process in Africa. The primary leader during this movement was W.E.B Dubois. Formal Organization. He attended many conferences where many people believed him and followed in his direction. The first conference was held in London in Gothic Vampires Essay, 1900 and was convened by kerouac road Henry Sylvester-. Africa , British Empire , Caribbean 1158 Words | 3 Pages.

songs of religious faith, social and political issues. With his songs he put reggae protest music on the map for many nations and made it a major cultural . and political force in Jamaica. The lyrics of Redemption Song are from a speech given by the Pan -African orator Marcus Garvey and to this day it is considered to be one Bob Marley's most influential songs. This Song can be interpreted in many ways but the repetition of some key words and Essay, the artists main message throughout his career, makes us. Bob Marley , Jamaica , Pan-Africanism 969 Words | 3 Pages. Marcus Garvey and Booker T. Washington influences on the African Diaspora. and Diasporization: A View form Tuskegee . n.d. Harlan, Louis R. Documenting the American South. Gross National (gnp). docsouth.unc.edu.

Edited by Vampires Essay Raymond W. Smock. n.d. . http://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/washington/bio.html (accessed March 23, 2014). Jr., Everett Jenkins. Pan -African Chronology. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company, Inc., 2001. Jr., Nevin R. Frantz The Contributions of Booker T. Washington and W. E. Iosef Stalin. B. Gothic Vampires And Modern Vampires. DuBois in the Development of Vocational Education. Edited by Dr. Iosef Stalin. Robert T. Howell. Journal. African American , African diaspora , Afro-Latin American 1154 Words | 6 Pages. years, Egypt must still hold onto its true origins by rediscovering and challenging its own history in order to and Modern Vampires, reinvent it as an Afrocentric nation that . founded a unique Afrocentric cultural ideology that deals with the jack on the road self determination of the Pan -African ideology in culture, philosophy, and and Modern Vampires Essay, history. Critical Review of Scholarship: In an article by Shahira Amin, an Egyptian journalist, that discussed how modern day Egyptians perceive themselves, their history, and their culture.

Surprisingly. Africa , Afrocentrism , Ancient Egypt 1078 Words | 4 Pages. WILLIAMS THE PAN AFRICAN MOVEMENT. 10/27/14 Williams: The Pan African Movement Pan Africanism is a philosophy and development that . supports the national solidarity of Africans around the world. It is focused around the conviction that solidarity is imperative to monetary, social, and political advancement and means to bind together and elevate individuals of African plunge. Gothic Vampires. The philosophy attests that the destiny of all African people groups and iosef stalin, nations are interwoven. At its center Pan - Africanism is a conviction that African people. Africa , African diaspora , African Union 694 Words | 3 Pages.

self-actualization person that in 1964 Malcolm X left the Nation of Islam and drifted from the primarily spiritual philosophy of the Nation of Islam to a . Vampires. more political black nationalism and tentatively, to kerouac road, a more internationalist philosophy, Pan Africanism . Malcolm X was murdered on February 21, 1965. Peter Goldman, The Death and Life of Malcolm X, 2d ed., 1979. Michael Eric Dyson, Making Malcolm: The Myth and Vampires and Modern Essay, Meaning of Malcolm X, 1995. Harold Bloom, ed., Alex Haley Malcolm X's The Autobiography. Abraham Maslow , Black supremacy , Human behavior 453 Words | 2 Pages. combined forces of the Ghana people secured independence from British imperialism p.1. He continued to organization, highlight the achievements of his regime such as the . strides he made in supporting other African countries to become independent, and his strong pan Africanist credentials. They cannot destroy what we have taken years to build. For what we have achieved is built on rock foundations and is indestructible. Forward ever, backwards never. There is victory for Vampires, us, p.3.

This tone of defiance continues. Africa , Ahmed Sekou Toure , Ghana 568 Words | 2 Pages. Africans who globally postulated a Black identity or essence (Irele). Negritude was similar to the concept of pan - Africanism , . Buy Decisions. identified by Kwame Appiah and challenged because it was founded on the concept of the Vampires Negro world, which in turn was founded on the concept of the geographical Africa, which in turn was a European invention (Appiah). Francophone Negritude and its Anglophone cousin pan -African derived not just from the collision of Essay Clemens: A Writer, Europe with Africa, but with the Essay assimilationist politices that. Africa , Chinua Achebe , Colonialism 543 Words | 2 Pages. return journey to Africa, Return to Goli (1953); and a memoir, Tell Freedom (1954). While in London, he lived with his wife, Daphne, at jack kerouac, Loughton.

He met . several important black leaders and writers, including George Padmore, a leading figure in the Pan -African community there, Kwame Nkrumah of the Gold Coast and Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, both later heads of state of their respective countries. In 1956, Abrahams published a roman a clef about the political community of which he had been a part in London: A. Africa , African Union , George Padmore 477 Words | 2 Pages. stroke, but survived until he read a false obituary of Vampires Essay, himself stating he had died broke, alone, and unpopular, thus leading to his fatal second stroke. . Marcus Garvey died on gross product (gnp) June 10, 1940. Garveys main ideas were closely distinguished with the Pan -African movement in England, where he lived most of his life. His goals were to unify people of Vampires Essay, color against imperialism all over strategic, the world (McKissack 79) Works Cited McKissack, Patricia. African American , African American history , Black people 534 Words | 2 Pages. as The Crisis and the Journal of Negro History discussed the African dominance in Vampires Essay, ancient Egypt and investigated the history of formal, black Africa.

As editor of . The Crisis W.E.B. Dubois researched West African culture and made attempts at constructing a Pan Africanist value system based on Gothic and Modern Vampires West African traditions. On Samuel Clemens:. Dubois is also credited as the creator of the Gothic Vampires Essay term Afrocentrism as early as 1961 in his typescript draft of proposed plans for an Encyclopedia Africana, which was to be unashamedly Afro-Centric. Africa , African diaspora , Afrocentrism 4492 Words | 11 Pages. Africa Our Hope.Speech by Cliff Mboya. transition which is strategic about to take shape in Gothic Vampires Vampires, Africa. Have seen it in my vision and am happy to meet other people whom share the same vision. Am very much . delighted, humbled and privileged to formal example, stand before you for by standing hear am already leaving the pan -African dream that many have wished for but have not seen it.

Being a God fearing person allow me to give thanks to our almighty father for Gothic Vampires Essay, making these day a reality. Iosef Stalin. Thank you Father. I stand here today not for me ,my family ,nor my friends. Africa , Continent , Pan-Africanism 437 Words | 2 Pages. African Wordview on the Place of Gothic Vampires, Women in the Society. society. Strategic. 8 Njogu Kimani Orchardson-Mazrui Elizabeth, Gender Inequality And Women's Rights In The Great Lakes: Can Culture Contribute To Women's . Vampires And Modern Essay. Empowerment? p.2 9 Nwoko, K. C. Strategic. (2012) Female Husbands in Igbo Land: Southeast Nigeria The Journal of Pan African Studies, Vol.5, No.1, March 2012, p.70 10 Bannerman, J.Y., Mantse-Akan Mbebusen (Ghanaian Proverbs), Accra, 1974, p.19 Page 3 of 10 It is worthy of note that despite the roles women play, the men were not idle and did not depend on their. Africa , African Union , Colonialism 6085 Words | 16 Pages. context: A review and research agenda for sub-Saharan Africa.

Journal of Occupational Organizational Psychology, 84(3), 440-452. Nwagbara, U. (2012). . Gothic Vampires Vampires. Leading a Postmodern African Organisation: Towards a Model of Prospective Commitment. The Journal of buy decisions, Pan African Studies, 4(9), 67-84. Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Aryee, S. (2011). Leadership and management research in Vampires Vampires, Africa: A synthesis and suggestions for buy decisions, future research. Journal of Occupational Organizational Psychology, 84(3), 425-439. . Africa , Culture , Ghana 451 Words | 3 Pages.

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Captain Hook , Fairy , Hook 1568 Words | 4 Pages. Victorian Influences on iosef stalin Literature In 1904 J.M. Vampires And Modern Vampires Essay. Barrie published the book Peter Pan . A Writer For Life. The novel first started as a play, and since . then been reproduced into many different version. It published a few short years after Queen Elizabeth passed away and Gothic Vampires Essay, the Victorian Era had come to an end. The characters have specific characteristics that represent the buy decisions time period. The Darlings represent the way Barrie saw the Victorian Era. We see this through the Vampires and Modern Vampires characterization of Mr. Darling, Nana.

British Empire , J. M. Barrie , London 1495 Words | 4 Pages. Pan Tadeusz or The Last Foray in Lithuania By Adam Mickiewicz Mickiewicz's Pan Tadeusz is gross a Romantic poem with a strong . emphasis on the nation. Vampires And Modern Essay. Mickiewicz dedicated his life and creative work to the cause of the liberation of Poland, and this work is a fine example. Strategic Hr Planning. The plot may have typical elements of a romantic, historical, and descriptive novel, but the treatment transforms it into a national epic. Vampires And Modern Vampires Essay. It clearly represents what Mickiewicz saw as the basis of a nation: a unity of kerouac road, people, united. Adam Mickiewicz , Nationalism , Pan Tadeusz 2048 Words | 6 Pages. Comparison of Lord of the Flies with Peter Pan. books Lord of the Flies by William Golding, and Peter Pan by Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay J.M. Buy Decisions. Barrie, have similar characteristics that will be compared and contrasted . in this paper. Lord of the Gothic Vampires Essay Flies takes place on a deserted island where about (gnp), 20 British boys have crashed during World War II. Peter Pan , dissimilarly, tells the tale of a boy who doesnt want to and Modern, grow up and strategic, lives on the magical island of Neverland with the Lost Boys. Both Lord of the Flies and Peter Pan have common themes, symbols, and characters, but, at.

Captain Hook , Hook , J. M. Barrie 1701 Words | 4 Pages. The Barrie book and Vampires and Modern Essay, the Disney film present a big number of elements that match and of facets that are completely distinct. Firstly, the 1953 movie respects . the narrative lines and the main personal characteristics. Peter Pan , for example, is as cocky, courageous and forgetful as he is in the book, just as Tinker Bell is buy decisions as jealous, but possibly in a slightly less sexual way. The most important moral values followed by the book are also maintained by the Disney feature, such as the pricelessness. Captain Hook , Hook , J. M. Barrie 905 Words | 3 Pages. Peter Pan Essay: the Idealization of Gothic Vampires Essay, Motherhood. Peter Pan Essay: The Idealization Of Motherhood J.M. Barries Peter Pan is a childrens story about a boy who never wants to . grow up, but it has serious themes. Among these is the theme of the idealization of strategic hr planning, motherhood.

Although the concept of the Gothic Vampires mother is idealized throughout Peter Pan , it is motherhood itself that prevents Peter Pan and others from maturing into responsible adulthood. Hr Planning. The novel begins with a scene in the nursery of the Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay Darling household, and it will end in the nursery too. Family , Hook , J. M. On Samuel Clemens: A Writer For Life. Barrie 1254 Words | 4 Pages. A book report on Peter Pan by James Barrie. with Walker, London, during the production of which he met his future wife--the actress--Mary Ansell. Barrie wrote Peter Pan as a tribute to . the sons of his friends Sylvia and Arthur Llewelyn Davies. It was distinctly different from the previous, more mature material that Barrie had written and would write. Peter Pan was a fantasy, but not any mere fairy tale.

Like Peter Pan himself, Barrie was a boy who refused to grow up. Barrie took such elements of life as his awkwardness with, yet dependence. Captain Hook , Hook , J. M. Barrie 896 Words | 4 Pages. Tin Pan Alley was the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music . of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century.The start of Tin Pan Alley is Gothic usually dated to about 1885, when a number of music publishers set up shop in the same district of Manhattan.Tin Pan Alley was originally a specific place, West 28th Street between Broadway and Sixth Avenue in Manhattan.The name Tin Pan Alley was originally. Blues , Jazz , Music industry 850 Words | 3 Pages. Tin Pan Alley The 1920s was the beginning of jack road, a decade of change in the American arts. Jazz, along with such inventions as the phonograph, . radio and sound movies, transformed the music industry. By the Vampires end of the decade, 40% of all Americans had radios in their homes. Not surprisingly, 58% of households in New York City owned a radio.

New York became the center of the music world, and at the center of New York was a small area called Tin Pan Alley. Radios initially provided the young century's second. Broadway theatre , George Gershwin , Jazz 1990 Words | 5 Pages. Comparison of the Idea of Fairyland in kerouac, Peter Pan and in William Allinghams Poem the Fairies. stray near their homes. They then die their hats with their victims blood. What Allingham presents here is Gothic Vampires Vampires a warning to the reader to both fear and respect . the Irish heritage. Tinkerbell is the only visual representation of the strategic fairies in Peter Pan , although fairies as a race are mentioned often.

It is in this text that Barrie presents a solitary figure that has little contact with her own kind. From this it becomes clear that Allingham and Barrie are describing two different types of fairy. It. Child , Fairy , J. M. Barrie 2123 Words | 5 Pages. Of Mice and and Modern, Men by Steinbeck, Peter Pan by Barrie, and Inception by Nolan. It is the buy decisions fear of being completely alone, whether in life or in a situation that nobody else understands.

Its a feeling that is impossible to fake because . it is basically born from fear. Looking at the texts Of Mice and Men by Vampires John Steinbeck, Peter Pan by J.M Barrie and Inception written and iosef stalin, directed by Christopher Nolan, the Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay aspects of alienation is shown through the isolation of going through different situations that no one else can truly understand. Of Mice and Men tells a tale of two men surviving. Captain Hook , Great Depression , Hook 1394 Words | 3 Pages. Is never learning anything a necessary condition of buy decisions, remaining a child? J.M.

Barrie's Peter Pan and Philippa Pearce's Tom's Midnight Garden. Peter Pan is the Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay main protagonist of product, J.M. Barries novel Peter Wendy. Gothic Vampires. He is buy decisions introduced as a boy who refuses to grow up and therefore remains . a child forever, roaming the mythical Neverland with his companions. One of his essential traits is his forgetfulness he is never able to recall past actions or even his friends. Vampires And Modern Essay. Margaret Hourihan argues that, due to said forgetfulness, Peter can only ever live in the moment and buy decisions, thus never learns anything, which she considers the necessary condition of. Captain Hook , Hook , J. M. Barrie 1545 Words | 4 Pages. Much has been written in recent years about terrorist attacks and weapons of Gothic Vampires and Modern Essay, mass destruction. Explosives are the weapon of choice for many terrorists as . reported by the media on hr planning a routine basis.

The bombing of the Pan Am Flight 103 that occurred on December 21, 1988 over and Modern Vampires Essay, Lockerbie and Galloway was no different. This bombing became the largest criminal investigation that was led by the smallest police force. (CIA) The New York bound flight fell out of the sky being in hr planning, the air less than 40 minutes. Bomb , Explosive material , Explosive weapons 841 Words | 3 Pages. professional bakers. They are a good, all-purpose pan and can be used for everything from Gothic Vampires, baking cookies to toasting nuts. Jelly Roll . Pans : Jelly Roll pans are the same as a baking sheet. National Product (gnp). They have a raised edge all around, usually ? to Gothic Vampires, 1 inch high. The most all-purpose size to have is a 12? x 17? by 1 inch Jelly Roll Pan . Jelly roll pans are most often used to make bar cookies, shortbread, sponge cakes, sheet cakes, focaccia breads, and more.

A jelly roll pan is iosef stalin also good to Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires, place under a fruit pie as. Baking , Bread , Bundt cake 2277 Words | 7 Pages. you've had an introduction on the basics, let's get started. The following steps must be followed exactly for on Samuel for Life, a cheesecake to turn out Vampires and Modern just right. . First, you should gather your materials and ingredients. A ten inch spring form pan is the formal example baking pan required for this recipe. You'll also need a hand mixer, a large mixing bowl and a medium mixing bowl. A small pot or microwave safe bowl will be needed for melting butter in. You'll also want to have a spatula handy for scraping. Baking , Butter , Cheesecake 1077 Words | 6 Pages. Coffee maker 4. Covered skillet or chicken fryer 5. Double broiler Pan used to gently cook foods in an upper pan while . it sits above another pan of hot to boiling water. 6. Dutch oven 7. Egg poacher 8. Frying pan 9. Griddles 10.

Kitchen tongs Utensil used to lift and hold foods while they are being cooked or served. 11. Pressure cooker 12. Racks-assorted to fit saucepans 13. Gothic Vampires. Roaster pans with rack 14. Saucepans 15.

Saucepots 16. Steamer 17. Turner. Casserole , Cooking utensils , Cookware and bakeware 931 Words | 4 Pages. than fiction. The first paragraph of Essay Langhorne Clemens:, James Barrie's classic story Peter Pan introduced its central theme: All children except one, grow up. . They soon know that they will grow upthis is the beginning of the Vampires Vampires Essay end. It sounds innocent enough, but a look at Barrie's life gives it a more sinister twist. Organization Example. Although J.M.Barrie wrote many plays and stories, it was said that All of Barrie's life led up to the creation of Peter Pan , wrote James Merritt, one of his biographers. A pivotal point came in 1866. George Bernard Shaw , Great Ormond Street Hospital , J. M. Barrie 1306 Words | 4 Pages. Baking and Gothic and Modern Vampires Essay, Other Kitchen Tools and iosef stalin, Equipment.

Utensils Baking pans Square cake pan Round layered cake pan Cookie or baking sheet Pie pan . Loose bottom cake pan Cake cooler or wire rack Oven thermometer Tube rectangular cake pan Tube or sponge cake pan Bread loaf pan Ring mold for and Modern, puddings Roasting or Broiling pan Muffin pan or Cup cake pan Custard cups Baking Tools and Equipment and their Use A. Baking Tools and iosef stalin, Equipment 1. Vampires Vampires. Spatula small spatulas are used to remove muffins and molded cookies from pans which is five. Baking , Bread , Bread pan 1031 Words | 5 Pages. ingredients. You have to pick out a frying pan and wash it (preferably a non-stick pan ). Iosef Stalin. Once you wash the pan you . have to cut the pieces of salami that you will be eating and the pieces of cheese that you will be eating and get the carton of eggs out. Once you do that you can prepare the pan for frying. You have to put it on the stove and turn the fire on to about four or five. You have to let the water dry from on Gothic Vampires Essay top of the pan before putting the oil in the pan . When the water is completely dry then. Cooking , Egg yolk , Frying 1041 Words | 3 Pages.

has against me. Of course, I am here to make an strategic hr planning, appeal to the court to Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay, acknowledge that I did not have any intention to kill Peter Pan . I . didnt mean to hr planning, severely injure him by any means, but you must understand that he tried to attack me and take someone I dearly cared for. I therefore urge you to listen to my version of the events which happened between me and Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires, Peter Pan . I am sure that few of strategic hr planning, you have been in an imaginary world before, and even less have been pirates. I therefore plead to you. Attack , Captain Hook , Hook 956 Words | 3 Pages. Peter Pan . Ill never grow up! (Peter Pan The Movie). J.M. Barries story about the boy who wouldnt grow up, depicts a boy who . does not want to have the Gothic and Modern Vampires harsh life that consists of growing old and having responsibilities. Peter Pan is a boy who goes away to Neverland to live with the Clemens: for Life Lost Boys, fairies, and other mythical creatures. While in and Modern, Neverland Peter shows Wendy and iosef stalin, her brothers the beauty of having no responsibilities and never having to grow up. Even a Disney movie like Peter Pan can tell.

Arianna Huffington , J. M. Barrie , Neverland 984 Words | 3 Pages. ?Peter Gets Hooked In the Essay film Hook, Robin Williams plays the fictional character Peter Banning. Hook is another look in to the popular story of formal example, Peter . Pan . This new look into Peter Pan is interesting even for someone who has never seen the original movie. This movie at times seemed to be a little cliche and Vampires Essay, a little childish, but to some extent it was kind of the purpose for it to be childish. This childishness in itself is a hidden messages, as are many key ideas throughout the movie, which.

Captain Hook , Hook , Lost Boys 1090 Words | 3 Pages.

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Nov 18, 2017 Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay,

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Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. President and Mrs. Kennedy arrive at Gothic Vampires Essay, Love Field, Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Product? Photograph by Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay, Cecil Stoughton, White House, in buy decisions the John F. Vampires? Kennedy Presidential Library and Essay on Samuel Langhorne Museum, Boston. Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at the moment of his death, was John F. Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam?

It’s one of the big questions, alternately evaded and disputed over four decades of historical writing. It bears on Kennedy’s reputation, of course, though not in Gothic Vampires an unambiguous way. And today, larger issues are at stake as the United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and that, perhaps, also cannot be won. The story of Vietnam in 1963 illustrates for strategic hr planning, us the struggle with policy failure. More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to look the reality of our own history in the eye. One may usefully introduce the issue by Gothic, recalling the furor over Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect. Reaction then focused mainly on McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for kerouac on the, the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the Secretary of Gothic, Defense responsible for it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to the book’s contribution to history.

In an editorial on April 12, 1995, the New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the only value of “In Retrospect” is to remind us never to forget that these were men who in the full hubristic glow of their power would not listen to logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that. David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and the Brightest] to his rendering of the tale 23 years ago, told it better in many ways than Mr. McNamara does now. So too, did the Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of documents assembled at Mr. McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to history. In view of buy decisions, these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the table of contents and sees this summary of Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of Gothic Essay, 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”: A pivotal period of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, punctuated by three important events: the formal organization example overthrow and assassination of South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on October 2 to begin the withdrawal of Gothic Vampires Essay, U.S. forces ; and his assassination fifty days later. (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on October 2, 1963, to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to gross national Frankel, this is not something you will find in Halberstam. You will not find it in Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in the Gravel edition of The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to establishing the case for a Kennedy decision to withdraw were published in that edition. Nor, with just three exceptions prior to last spring’s publication of Howard Jones’s Death of a Generationa milestone in Gothic the search for formal organization, difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in 30 years of historical writing on Gothic and Modern Vampires Vietnam.

Did John F. Kennedy give the order to withdraw from Vietnam? Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the question worth posing. They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the war and jack kerouac road also that Kennedy especially had expressed to friends his desire to get out sometime after the 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in Vietnam and gradually escalate the Vampires Essay war in iosef stalin 1964 and 1965is held by left, center, and right, from Noam Chomsky to Kai Bird to William Gibbons. It was promoted forcefully over the years by the late Walt Rostow, beginning in 1967 with a thick compilation for Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on and Modern Essay Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s.

Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 [1963], Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the U.S. commitment to Vietnam and the continuation of hr planning, Vietnam programs and policies of the Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in Essay his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on the Saigon coup, makes no mention at all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. Gary Hess offers summary judgment on jack on the the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the problems of Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of Vampires Essay, McGeorge and William Bundy briefly reviews the discussions of withdrawal reported to have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to strategic hr planning quit. So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and did not include withdrawal without negotiation. All this (and more) is in Vampires Vampires Essay spite of evidence to the contrary, advanced over hr planning the years by a tiny handful of authors. In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on Gothic Vampires in making the case for organization example, continuitywas in fact a departure from Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in Gravel’s edition of The Pentagon Papers. Arthur M. Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and and Modern His Times tells in a few tantalizing pages of the buy decisions “first application” in October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in 1992, with the publication of John M. Newman’s JFK and Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in 1994 Newman was a major in the U.S. Army, an Vampires Essay, intelligence officer last stationed at iosef stalin, Fort Meade, headquarters of the National Security Agency. As an historian, his specialty is deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to the CIA’s long-hidden archives on Lee Harvey Oswald.

Newman’s argument was not a case of “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in an early response.2 It was not about what might have happened had Kennedy lived. Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to begin. Here is the chronology, according to Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the report of a mission to Saigon by McNamara and Gothic Vampires Essay Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The main recommendations, which appear in Section I(B) of the McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by the end of 1965 and that the “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1,000 out of iosef stalin, 17,000 U.S. Gothic Vampires And Modern? military personnel stationed in Vietnam by buy decisions, the end of 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for withdrawal. (2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision.

Newman quotes the minutes of the meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to remove 1,000 U.S. advisors by December of Vampires and Modern Essay, this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Instead the action should be carried out routinely as part of strategic hr planning, our general posture of Gothic and Modern Vampires Essay, withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in fact made on that day, and (b) that despite the earlier announcement of McNamara’s recommendation, the October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to begin withdrawal irrespective of Diem or his reactions. (3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the military recommendations contained in section I B (1-3) of the gross national product (gnp) report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the implementation of Gothic, plans to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963.

In other words, the withdrawal recommended by McNamara on October 2 was embraced in secret by organization, Kennedy on October 5 and implemented by his order on Gothic Vampires and Modern October 11, also in secret. Gross National (gnp)? Newman argues that the secrecy after October 2 can be explained by Gothic Vampires, a diplomatic reason. Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to interpret the withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved). Buy Decisions? There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the withdrawal was a result of progress toward the and Modern Essay goal of jack kerouac on the road, a self-sufficient South Vietnam. The alternative would have been to withdraw the troops while acknowledging failure. And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to do if it became necessary. He saw no reason, however, to take this step before it became necessary. If the troops could be pulled while the Gothic and Modern Vampires Essay South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the better.4 But from October 11 onward the CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Official optimism was replaced by a searching and comparatively realistic pessimism. Gross National Product (gnp)? Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the previous July, was a response to NSAM 263. It represented an effort by the CIA to undermine the ostensible rationale of withdrawal with success, and therefore to obstruct implementation of the plan for withdrawal.

Kennedy, needless to say, did not share his full reasoning with the and Modern CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the buy decisions coup in Saigon and the assassination of Diem and Nhu. At a press conference on November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals. Vampires And Modern Vampires Essay? They were “to intensify the struggle” and “to bring Americans out of there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in a similar statement on September 12, was no longer on product the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of Gothic Vampires, senior cabinet and military officials on November 2021 was called to (gnp) review plans in the wake of the Saigon coup. The military and Vampires and Modern Vampires the CIA, however, planned to use that meeting to pull the rug from jack road under the false optimism which some had used to rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory. It follows that the changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of Gothic Vampires and Modern Essay, what would eventually be NSAM 273.

The plan was to present it to jack kerouac Kennedy after the meeting ended. Dated November 21, this draft reflected the and Modern change in military reporting. Buy Decisions? It speaks, for example, of Gothic and Modern Vampires, a need to “turn the Essay on Samuel Langhorne Clemens: A Writer for Life tide not only of battle but of belief.” Plans to intensify the struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for actions against the North underscores the role of Vietnamese forces: 7. With respect to action against North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for the development of Vampires Vampires Essay, additional Government of Vietnam resources , especially for jack road, sea-going activity, and such planning should indicate the time and investment necessary to achieve a wholly new level of effectiveness in this field of action. Gothic Vampires And Modern? (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for presentation. This plan called for intensified sabotage raids against the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of this plan, it had not been shown to McNamara. Tab E of the meeting’s briefing book, also approved by Taylor and buy decisions also not sent in advance to McNamara, showed that the withdrawal ordered by Kennedy in October was already being gutted, by the device of Vampires Essay, substituting for hr planning, the withdrawal of Vampires and Modern Vampires, full units that of individual soldiers who were being rotated out of Essay on Samuel for Life, Vietnam in any event.

(8) The final version of Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay, NSAM 273, signed by Johnson on November 26, differs from the buy decisions draft in several respects. Most are minor changes of wording. The main change is that the Gothic Essay draft paragraph 7 has been struck in its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on the November 21 draft), and replaced with the following: Planning should include different levels of possible increased activity, and in each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Iosef Stalin? Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. The plausibility denial; C. Vietnamese retaliation; D. Other international reaction. Plans submitted promptly for approval by authority. The new language is incomplete. Gothic Vampires? It does not begin by declaring outright that the subject is attacks on the North.

But the thrust is gross, unmistakable, and the restrictive reference to “Government of Vampires, Vietnam resources” is now missing. Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for U.S.directed combat actions against North Vietnam. Planning for these actions began therewith, and iosef stalin we now know that an OPLAN 34A raid in August 1964 provoked the North Vietnamese retaliation against Gothic and Modern Vampires Essay the destroyer Maddox, which became the first Gulf of Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to the confused incident a few nights later aboard the Turner Joy, to reports that it too had been attacked, and to Johnson’s overnight decision to gross (gnp) seek congressional support for “retaliation” against North Vietnam. From this, of course, the larger war then flowed. A reply to Newman’s book appeared very quickly. Gothic Vampires Vampires Essay? It came from Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for gross national, Lyndon Johnson or the war. Chomsky despises the Kennedy apologists: equally the old insiders and the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and Gothic Vampires Vampires Oliver Stoneand the historical memory of “the fallen leader who had escalated the attack against Vietnam from terror to aggression.” He reviles efforts to organization portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for reasons quite different from Gothic Vampires Vampires those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. First, did Kennedy plan to withdraw without victory?

Or, were the plans of NSAM 263 contingent on a continued perception of success in battle? Second, did the change in NSAM 273 between the draft (which was prepared for Kennedy but never seen by him) and iosef stalin the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in policy? Chomsky is Vampires, categorical on both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is not a phrase in gross national the voluminous internal record that even hints at and Modern Essay, withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on the assumption that Kennedy realized that the optimistic military reports were incorrect. . Kerouac? . . Vampires? Not a trace of iosef stalin, supporting evidence appears in the internal record, or is suggested [by Newman].” And, as for the changes to NSAM 273: “There is no relevant difference between the two documents [draft and final], except that the LBJ version is weaker and more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the new version of paragraph 7 in the final draft of NSAM 273 signed by Johnson on November 26 opened the way for Gothic Vampires Vampires Essay, OPLAN 34A and formal organization the use of U.S.directed forces in covert operations against North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the Johnson version as applying only to Government of Vietnam forces, even though the language restricting action to those forces is no longer there.

Peter Dale Scott, the former diplomat, professor of English at the University of California, Berkeley, and and Modern author of part of the Pentagon Papers, replied to gross national Chomsky on Vampires Vampires Essay both points almost immediately. On the first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in response to an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . . But in Essay on Samuel Langhorne Clemens: for Life fact the planning was first ordered by McNamara in May 1962. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in part on Gothic Vampires and Modern Essay a proposal to the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on to point out that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for McNamara’s order. Hr Planning? But there is good reason to believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on Vietnam.6 As for the proposition that no evidence hinting at withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the most part the Pentagon Papers“is in fact an edited version of the primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is conspicuously defective” for November 1963. “[I]n all three editions of the Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the five [coup] cables of October 30 and McNamara’s memorandum of December 21; the 600 pages of documents from the Kennedy Administration end on Vampires and Modern Essay October 30.” On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and ignoring “early accounts of it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and I. F. Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to President Johnson of January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to “prepare to escalate operations against North Vietnam.”

In the course of this controversy, the ground had narrowed sharply. After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from Vietnam. Instead, the disagreements focused on hr planning four questions: Did the withdrawal plans depend on the perception of victory? Did Kennedy act on his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at Vampires Essay, Diem or a ploy for the American public, or were they for real? And were the hr planning OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from previous U.S. policy or merely a “Government of Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the war in the South? The publication of McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of debate.

Some key source materials, including the texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and those of NSAM 263 and 273, have been in the public domain for years. Vampires Vampires? McNamara’s 1995 account of his September 1963 mission to Vietnam makes substantial use of the buy decisions McNamara-Taylor report and the quotations presented are a study in ambiguity. And Modern Vampires Essay? He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the war could be won by the end of 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and political stability” and describes the impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the South Vietnamese government was capable of the effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and continues to progress. . . Organization Example? . There are serious political tensions in Saigon. Vampires Vampires Essay? . On The? . . Vampires Essay? Further repressive actions by Diem and Nhu could change the present favorable military trends. . . . It is not clear that pressures exerted by Essay Langhorne Clemens:, the U.S. will move Diem and Nhu toward moderation. . . . The prospects that a replacement regime would be an improvement appear to be about 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the Diem government is failing and there is no reason to think a replacement would be better. But the references to “great progress” leave room for doubt. Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the precise wording of the military recommendations from Section I(B) of the report: We recommend that: [1] General Harkins review with Diem the military changes necessary to complete the Vampires Vampires military campaign in buy decisions the Northern and Central areas by the end of 1964, and in the Delta by the end of Essay, 1965. Strategic? [2] A program be established to Essay train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by U.S. military personnel can be carried out by on Samuel Langhorne for Life, Vietnamese by Gothic Essay, the end of 1965.

It should be possible to withdraw the bulk of U.S. Buy Decisions? personnel by that time. [3] In accordance with the program to train progressively Vietnamese to take over military functions, the Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel by buy decisions, the end of 1963. The report then went on to make a number of recommendations to “impress upon Diem our disapproval of his political program.” These matters dealt with the repression of the Buddhists and Vampires and Modern related issues; the buy decisions recommendation to announce plans to withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over the military situation, as well as the vague “it should be possible” wording of the second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the National Security Council meeting of October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and training had progressed to the point where we could begin to Gothic Vampires withdraw. A second faction did not see the war as progressing well and did not see the South Vietnamese showing evidence of successful training.

But they, too, agreed that we should begin to withdraw. . . . The third faction, representing the majority, considered the South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in place long enough to achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on deposit at strategic hr planning, the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to what would follow. The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the president endorsed our recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by December 31, 1963. Vampires Vampires Essay? He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. In any event, because objections had been so intense and because I suspected others might try to get him to reverse the decision, I urged him to announce it publicly. That would set it in hr planning concrete. . . Gothic Vampires? . The president finally agreed, and national product (gnp) the announcement was released by Pierre Salinger after the meeting. Before a large audience at the LBJ Library on May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of this meeting and stressed its importance. He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the first 1,000 out by the end of Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay, 1963, and (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. McNamara also added the critical information that there exists a tape of this meeting, in the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, to which he had access and on which his account is iosef stalin, based. The existence of a taping system in JFK’s oval office had become known over the years, particularly through the Gothic release of partial transcripts of the historic meeting of the “ExComm” during the Cuban Missile Crisis of buy decisions, October 1962.

But the full extent of Kennedy’s taping was not known. And, according to Gothic Vampires and Modern Essay McNamara, access to particular tapes was tightly controlled by representatives of the strategic Kennedy family. When McNamara spoke in Austin, only he and his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of listening to the actual tape recordings of Kennedy’s White House meetings on Vietnam. In 1997, however, this situation changed. The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for the release of millions of pages of official records deemed relevant to Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to Vietnam decision-making should be released.

In July the JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the Gothic Vampires and Modern withdrawal meetings on October 2 and hr planning 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is essentially accurate and even to some degree understated. One can hear McNamarathe voice is unmistakablearguing for a firm timetable to Gothic Vampires Vampires withdraw all U.S. forces from Vietnam, whether the war can be won in 1964, which he doubts, or not. McNamara is emphatic: “We need a way to get out of iosef stalin, Vietnam, and this is a way of Essay, doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to iosef stalin withdraw ends at Gothic Vampires and Modern, this point.

McNamara makes no mention of buy decisions, NSAM 263. However, on Gothic Essay the tape of the meeting of formal organization example, October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for “formal approval” of “items one, two, and three” on a paper evidently in front of Gothic, them. It is clear that one of these items is the recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by the end of formal example, 1963, the rationale being that they are no longer needed. This short exchange is thus unmistakably a request for a formal presidential decision concerning the McNamara-Taylor recommendations. After a short discussion of the possible political effect in Vietnam of announcing this decision, the voice of JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on and Modern Vampires Essay ahead and do it,” followed by a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about gross national (gnp) it.” Unfortunately, the last White House tape from the Kennedy administration is dated November 7, 1963.

The archivists at the JFK Library have no information on why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for Vampires Essay, later dates. McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the Honolulu Conference that he was sent to chair on November 20, 1963. The President of the United States does not make decisions in a vacuum. Agencies have to be notified, plans have to iosef stalin be made, actions have to be taken. Part of the enduring doubt over Kennedy’s decision to withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the Vampires Vampires Essay failure of this decision to cast a shadow in the primary record, and particularly in the Pentagon Papers, on which so many historians have relied for so many years. Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to the “it should be possible” language of the buy decisions McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of 1965 as leaving an Vampires Vampires, “out” for organization example, the case where the military situation might turn sour. Gothic And Modern Essay? In two years and two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to Chomsky in 1993, the primary record available to date has been heavily edited. Essay On Samuel A Writer For Life? Documents from November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing.

So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the supervision of the ARRB, about 900 pages of Gothic Vampires Vampires Essay, new materials were declassified and formal example released from the JCS archives. These include important records from May 1963, from October, and from the period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in 1989 but were not declassified at that time. They clarify considerably the nature of the “presently prepared plans” referred to in the McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and Vampires Vampires they give the military leadership’s interpretation of the direction they were getting from JFK. Since it is well known that the Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to Essay Langhorne Clemens: assume that if wiggle room existed in the President’s instructions it would surface in these documents. Many of the new documents relate to the Eighth Secretary of Defense Conference, held in Honolulu on May 6, 1963. Here one gets a taste of and Modern, McNamara’s skepticism and the replies of the brass. For instance, at one point the secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for hr planning, effective control the border should be defined, marked and cleared similar to the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.”

Turning to the development of a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of a phase-down in the U.S. Gothic Vampires? presence. For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over equipment now in U.S. Buy Decisions? units supporting the Vietnamese as rapidly as possible. He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per year in foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1. Draw up training plans for the RVNAF that will permit us to Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay start an earlier withdrawal of buy decisions, U.S. personnel than proposed under the plans presented.” And: “d. Vampires? Plan to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel from RVN by Essay on Samuel Langhorne A Writer for Life, December 1963.” Further discussion of the 1,000 man withdrawal is recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to gather up 1,000 U.S. personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc. This would have a bad effect on the Vietnamese, to be pulling out Vampires Essay, just when it appears they are winning.

SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to be handled carefully due to buy decisions the psychological impact. However, there should be an intensive training program of RVNAF to allow removal of Gothic and Modern Essay, U.S. units rather than individuals. There follows considerable discussion of proposals to launch raids on North Vietnam. For Geneva convention reasons, it is agreed that these must be covert. Use of Langhorne, Laos is not feasible; there are no land entries through the demilitarized zone. As for Gothic and Modern Vampires, sea entry, available boats are susceptible to formal organization weather and Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires too slow.

Sea is the only means of exfiltration. Strategic Hr Planning? However, for Vampires and Modern Essay, any major operation the RVN naval craft are not qualified to tangle with DRV craft. On Samuel Langhorne Clemens: A Writer For Life? . . . Build-up in CIA resources by end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in addition to 9 in country. New high speed armed boats will be available for infiltration and exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an Gothic Essay, answer to one of the critical questions separating Newman and Scott from Chomsky. Road? OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in November, would be a CIA operation. It could not be otherwise, for the Government of Vietnam did not possess the boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to projected force structures, and a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by major unit, of the projected American commitment through 1968. McNamara’s reaction to this timetable is recorded clearly: In connection with this presentation, made by COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the Secretary of Defense stated that the phase-out appears too slow. He directed that training plans be developed for the GVN by Gothic and Modern Vampires Essay, CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of U.S. forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for pilot training with the view to accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the desirability of speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the Vietnamese our copters and thus be able to move our own forces out.

ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. (Emphasis added.) The May conference thus fills in the primary record: plans were under development for the complete withdrawal of U.S. National Product (gnp)? forces from Vietnam. On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by the end of 1963, and to get almost all the rest out by the end of 1965. There followed, on October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from General Maxwell Taylor to his fellow Joint Chiefs of and Modern Vampires Essay, Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. The program currently in progress to train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and accelerated as necessary to insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for the projected operational environment, to include those now performed by U.S. military units and personnel, can be assumed properly by gross, the Vietnamese by the end of Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay, calendar year 1965. All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for iosef stalin, the withdrawal of all U.S. special assistance units and personnel by the end of calendar year 1965. (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. There is no contingency here, or elsewhere in this memorandum. The next paragraph reads: c. Execute the Vampires Vampires Essay plan to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963 per your DTG 212201Z July, and as approved for iosef stalin, planning by Gothic and Modern, JCS DTG 062042Z September. Iosef Stalin? Previous guidance on the public affairs annex is altered to the extent that the action will now be treated in Gothic and Modern Vampires Essay low key, as the initial increment of U.S. forces whose presence is no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to assume the function involved; or (b) the function for formal organization, which they came to Vietnam has been completed. (Emphasis added.) This resolves the question of how the initial withdrawal was to be carried out. It was not to be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to please either U.S. opinion or to change policies in Gothic Vampires Vampires Essay Saigon. It was rather to be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to a process that would play out over the following two years.

The final paragraph of Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against kerouac on the which progress can be evaluated on Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay a quarterly basis.” There is strategic hr planning, much more in the JCS documents to show that Kennedy was well aware of the evidence that South Vietnam was, in fact, losing the Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay war. Buy Decisions? But it hardly matters. The withdrawal decided on was unconditional, and did not depend on Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay military progress or lack of it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into organization example policy. It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the people and government of South Vietnam to Vampires Vampires win their contest against the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and without the application of overt U.S. military force. But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for covert action against North Vietnam by CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Buy Decisions? Yes, the “central objectives” remained the same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. military force.” But covert force is Gothic Vampires and Modern, still “U.S. military force.” And that was introduced or at least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of gross national (gnp), Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on the meaning of Gothic Vampires Vampires Essay, NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and iosef stalin 26after the Honolulu meeting had adjourned and probably after Kennedy died.

A final military document is relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is titled “Department of Defense Actions to Vampires and Modern Implement NSAM No. 273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. C. Dalby; it is from CINCPAC files and is labeled “Group 1Excluded from Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the recent discussions of South Vietnam which occurred in Honolulu and after discussing the formal organization matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the President directed that certain guidance be issued to various Government Agencies. This was promulgated in the form of National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is no reference to the change of Gothic Vampires Essay, commander in chief, which had occurred within the kerouac road time frame indicated by the opening sentence. The particular importance of this document is its reference to paragraph 7 of Vampires Vampires Essay, NSAM 273. Planning for jack on the road, intensified action against North Vietnam was directed following the Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in the form of a 12-month program. . . . A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to CINCPAC and COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from COMUSMACV on December 3. CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that: CIA guidance to Saigon Station for intensified planning was dispatched following the Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the CIA began developing intensified plans to implement OPLAN 34A, the program of seaborne raids and sabotage against and Modern Essay North Vietnam that would lead to the Gulf of Tonkin incident and eventually to the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the directive authorizing that action. How this happened, and its precise significance, remains to be determined.9.

John F. Kennedy had formally decided to withdraw from Essay on Samuel Clemens: for Life Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of withdrawal had been ordered. The final date, two years later, had been specified. These decisions were taken, and even placed, in an oblique and Vampires Vampires Essay carefully limited way, before the public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to this tale. One of Essay Langhorne Clemens:, them is simply range, depth, and completeness. His recent book Death of a Generation is a full history of how the assassinations of Diem and then of and Modern Vampires, JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. Langhorne A Writer For Life? Where this essay has presented the story-within-a-story of Vampires Vampires Essay, just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to the start of the 1960s, chronicling the struggle for Essay A Writer for Life, power and policy that marked the whole of Kennedy’s thousand days. And he presents a reasonably complete account of the archival record surrounding the withdrawal decisions of October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to Saigon.

In a long and fascinating section he outlines the intrigues that led to Gothic Vampires the murders of Diem and buy decisions his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on November 1, 1963. Gothic And Modern? Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at its worst. It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the forces it faced in Vietnam. Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the monk Quang Duc to burn himself on a Saigon street in June 1963, traumatized the White House. And following that incident, Madame Nhu and her remarks about “barbecued bonzes” were an Essay, irritant out of proportion to their importance.

Thus, in part, the decision to dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the opportunity to foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the absence of the most senior officials over a Washington weekend. Then, having set events in Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay motion, the White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible. Jack On The? Partly as a result it had limited contact with the conspirators and was unable to protect Diem and Nhu when the Gothic Vampires Essay coup came. Diem was indefensible in many ways.

But the coup went forward with no alternative in view; and as the French ambassador to Saigon put it at the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on the Americans, will be obedient to them in all things, and strategic so there will be no chance for Gothic Vampires and Modern Essay, peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of what might have been. Was Nhu in discussions with intermediaries for Ho Chi Minh, with the hr planning possibility that there might have been a deal between North and South to boot the Americans from Vietnam? It appears that he was. And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. policy over Vietnam changed again in late November1963. The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against targets in Gothic Vampires the North. The decision to launch covert attacks on North Vietnam does not by itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in the making. Product (gnp)? He feared that a catastrophe would follow.

In this respect, Johnson and Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to avoid the disaster. He acceded to Gothic proposals for covert action, and he promised the military, on November 24, that they could have what they wanted. And so the sequence of events that led to A Writer the Tonkin Gulf, to our retaliation, to the North Vietnamese decision to introduce their own main forces in the South, and to our decision to introduce main forces, played out. The days from Honolulu to NSAM 273, November 20 to 26, 1963, simply marked the first turning point. It is not difficult to understand why Johnson felt obliged to assert his commitment to Vietnam in November 1963.

To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to maintain the illusion of continuity, and thisin the moment of trauma that followed the assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. Moreover, delay in the resolution of the Vietnam problem in late 1963 did not necessarily entail the war that followed. Our commitment then was still small.

Tonkin Gulf and its aftermath lay almost a year into the future. Notwithstanding the commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and cursed the fates. And Modern Essay? But ultimately he committed us to war that he knew in advance would be practically impossible to win. Nothing can erase this. And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to an invasion of the North, direct conflict with China, and nuclear confrontation. He bided his time, until the trauma of Tet in January of 1968 and his own departure from politics in national (gnp) March liberated him to do what Kennedy had done over Gothic and Modern Vampires Essay Laos in 1961: send Harriman to hr planning end it at the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for sucess.

He was not crazy. His political fate in 1964 did not depend on a show of Gothic Vampires Essay, toughness. But one possibility is that the on the alternatives, as he saw them, were worse. To appreciate this possibility, one needs to grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the Vampires Essay strategic balance in the early 1960s on the one hand, and that of the assassination of John F. Jack Kerouac On The Road? Kennedy on the other. In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the two black holes of the modern history of the United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to withdraw from Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for he approved a calendar of events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of a sequence that included the Laos and Berlin settlements in and Modern Vampires 1961, the non-invasion of Cuba in 1962, the Test Ban Treaty in iosef stalin 1963. Kennedy subordinated the timing of these events to politics: he was quite prepared to and Modern leave soldiers in harm’s way until after his own reelection. His larger goal after that was to settle the Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in JFK’s commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963. And that was, partly, a question of atomic survivala subject that can only be said to organization have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in Vampires Vampires those days, and for very good reason. The Soviet Union, which had at that time only four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the U.S. Kerouac On The Road? mainland, was not the danger that rational men most feared.

The United States held an Gothic Vampires, overwhelming nuclear advantage in late 1963. Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over buy decisions a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to Gothic and Modern Essay carrying out those plans at the appropriate moment. In July 1961, the nuclear planners had specified that the optimal moment for on Samuel Langhorne Clemens:, such an attack would come at the end of 1963. And yet, standing against them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at the time), the civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to allow U.S. nuclear weapons to be used firstnot in Laos or Vietnam, nor against Gothic China, not over Cuba or Berlin, nor against buy decisions the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into thinking of the and Modern Essay atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the deepest secret of the example time. Was it also a deadly secret? Did LBJ have reason to fear, on the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for 40 years. But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the idea that Kennedy really had decided to quit Vietnam. Vampires And Modern? Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the Vietnam puzzle. Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the need to recognize and cope with policy failure.

And as for the truth behind the formal organization example darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the victims of September 11, 2001, don’t have to Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires wait as long. James K. Strategic Hr Planning? Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. 1 JFK and Vietnam has an odd story, in which I should acknowledge a small role. On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in the New York Times Book Review. But of some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to Newman) only about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the hardcovera fact I discovered on my own in the fall of 1993, when I attempted to assign it to a graduate class. I met Newman in November 1993, partly through the good offices of the LBJ Library. I carried his grievance personally to an honorable high official of Time Warner, whose intervention secured the return of his rights. Still, the hardback was never reissued, and no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and Gothic Vampires Vampires NSAM 273,” mimeo for national product, a conference at the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and Vampires and Modern 273: Manipulating History” in Lloyd C. Gardner and Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of Texas Press, 1997). 3 Reeves, author of President Kennedy: Profile of Power, made this argument in a televised lecture at the LBJ Library in early 1995.

4 In a contribution to buy decisions Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on October 2, allowed McNamara and Gothic Vampires Vampires Taylor to announce, as their recommended target date, that the withdrawal be completed by 1965. It would have been awkward to follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the timetable was, in fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of these commandos surfaced in the New York Times of 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in prison, many were denied immigration to the United States because of a lack of service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an open mind.” 7 I requested release of the tapes in a letter to the ARRB in November 1996. 8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to gross national (gnp) JFK, according to Gothic Vampires Essay Newman. 9 According to Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at iosef stalin, his first Vietnam meeting as President on November 24, and McGeorge Bundy attributed the escalatory language in NSAM 273 to this. However, by any standard the CIA moved quickly, and by this account it relied on the discussions at Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in this narrative deliberately underplayed the role of my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to deliver arguments in favor of disengagement from Gothic Essay Vietnam, and strategic hr planning whose 1962 recommendation for Vampires Vampires Essay, phased withdrawal was probably the basis of the 1963 orders.

My father did not know that the actual decision was taken in October 1963, but he is in buy decisions no doubt as to Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in 1962 saying to Vampires him privately and unmistakably that withdrawal from Vietnam, as that from Laos and organization the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of Vampires Vampires Essay, LBJ’s words to him, in private, on one of their last meetings before the Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and I documented these nightmares in organization example an article published in 1994 entitled “Did the U.S. Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is still available on the website of the American Prospect. Gothic Vampires? When once I asked the late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the National Security Council meeting of iosef stalin, July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the one where they wanted to blow up the world?” 13 There is no doubt that the danger of nuclear war was on Johnson’s mind. Vampires? It also explains important points about his behavior in those days, including his orders to Earl Warren and Richard Russell (the latter in a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the C-SPAN website) as to how they would conduct their commission. The point to appreciate is that there is only one way a war could have started at that time: by preemptive attack by the United States against the Soviet Union.

19972003 by iosef stalin, James K. Galbraith. All rights reserved. Originally published in Gothic Vampires and Modern Essay the October/November 2003 issue of Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on politics, literature, and more in your inbox. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. Kenya#039;s New Electoral Authoritarianism. Business as Usual: The Long History of buy decisions, Corporate Personhood. Searching for Mao in Xi Jinping#039;s China.

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What is the capacity of short term memory? Short-term memory is the memory for a stimulus that lasts for a short while (Carlson, 2001). In practical terms visual short-term memory is Gothic Essay often used for a comparative purpose when one cannot look in two places at formal, once but wish to compare two or more possibilities. Tuholski and colleagues refer to short-term memory as being the concomitant processing and storage of information (Tuholski, Engle, Baylis, 2001). They also highlight the fact that cognitive ability can often be adversely affected by working memory capacity. It is particularly important to be clear on the normal capacity of Gothic and Modern Vampires Essay, short term memory as, without a proper understanding of the hr planning, intact brain’s functioning it is difficult to assess whether an individual has a deficit in ability (Parkin, 1996).

This review outlines George Miller’s historical view of short-term memory capacity and how it can be affected, before bringing the Vampires and Modern Essay, research up to buy decisions, date and illustrating a selection of ways of measuring short-term memory capacity. The historical view of short-term memory capacity. The span of absolute judgement is defined as the limit to the accuracy with which one can identify the magnitude of Vampires Essay, a unidimensional stimulus variable (Miller, 1956), with this limit or span traditionally being around 7 + 2. Miller cites Hayes memory span experiment as evidence for his limiting span. In this participants had to buy decisions, recall information read aloud to Gothic Vampires, them and results clearly showed that there was a normal upper limit of 9 when binary items were used. This was despite the constant information hypothesis, which has suggested that the span should be long if each presented item contained little information (Miller, 1956). The conclusion from Hayes and Pollack’s experiments (see figure 1) was that the amount of information transmitted increases in on Samuel for Life, a linear fashion along with the Vampires, amount of information per unit input (Miller, 1956). Figure 1. Measurements of memory for information sources of different types and bit quotients, compared to expected results for constant information.

Results from Hayes (left) and on Samuel Pollack (right) cited by (Miller, 1956) Miller refers to a ‘bit’ of information as ‘the amount of information needed to make a decision between two equally likely alternatives’. Thus a simple either or decision requires one bit of information; with more required for more complex decisions, along a binary pathway (Miller, 1956). Decimal digits are worth 3.3 bits apiece, meaning that a 7-digit phone number (that which is easily remembered) would involve 23 bits of information. Gothic Essay! However an apparent contradiction to this is the fact that, if an English word is worth around 10 bits and only 23 bits could be remembered then only 2-3 words could be remembered at any one time, obviously incorrect.

The limiting span can better be understood in terms of the assimilation of bits into chunks. Miller distinguishes between bits and chunks of information, the distinction being that a chunk is made up of multiple bits of information. Strategic! It is interesting to note that whilst there is a finite capacity to remember chunks of Vampires Vampires, information, the road, amount of bits in each of those chunks can vary widely (Miller, 1956). However it is not a simple case of being able to Gothic Vampires and Modern Essay, remember large chunks immediately, rather that as each bit becomes more familiar, it can be assimilated into a chunk, which is then remembered itself. Recoding is the process by which individual bits are ‘recoded’ and assigned to organization example, chunks. Thus the conclusions that can be drawn from Gothic Vampires and Modern, Miller’s original exposition is that, whilst there is an buy decisions accepted limit to Gothic and Modern Vampires Essay, the number of chunks of information that can be stored in immediate (short-term) memory, the amount of information within each of gross product (gnp), those chunks is able to be quite high, without adversely affecting the recall of the same number of Vampires Essay, chunks.

The modern view of short-term memory capacity. Millers magic number 7+2 has been more recently redefined to gross, the magic number 4+1 (Cowan, 2001). The challenge has come from results such as those from Chen and Vampires Essay Cowan, in which the predicted results from an experiment were that immediate serial recall of absolute numbers of singleton words would be the same as the number of chunks of learned pair words. However in fact it was found that the iosef stalin, same number of pre-exposed singleton words was recalled as the Gothic Vampires Vampires Essay, number of words within learned pairs - eg 8 words (presented as 8 singletons or 4 learned pairs). Jack Road! However 6 learned pairs could be recalled as successfully as 6 pre-exposed singleton words (Chen Cowan, 2005). Vampires And Modern Vampires Essay! This suggested a different mechanism for recall depending on the circumstances. Cowan refers to the maximum number of chunks that can be recalled as the memory storage capacity (Cowan, 2001). It is noted that the number of chunks can be affected by long-term memory information, as indicated by Miller in terms of recoding - with additional information to enable this recoding coming from long-term memory. Factors affecting apparent short-term memory. The propensity to use rehearsal and memory aids is a serious complication in accurately measuring the capacity of short-term memory. Indeed many of the studies ostentatiously measuring short-term memory capacity have been argued to formal organization, be actually measuring the ability to rehearse and access long-term memory stores (Cowan, 2001).

Given that recoding involves rehearsal and the use of long-term memory formation, anything that prevents or influences these will obviously affect the ability to Gothic Vampires and Modern Essay, recode successfully (Cowan, 2001). Short-term memory capacity may be limited when information overload precludes recoding (Cowan, 2001). Jack Road! For instance, if attention is directed away from the target stimulus during presentation there is too much information being processed to attend properly to the target stimulus. Vampires! Therefore fewer items would be remembered as they would have been replaced by information from this alternate direction. Similarly, but actually distinguished quite definitively by Cowan, are techniques such as the requirement to repeat a separate word during the iosef stalin, target stimulus presentation, which acts to prevent rehearsal. Altering stimulus frequency and format. It has been found that, if a word list contains words of long and short length words, recall is Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires better for the length that occurs least frequently, thus is more individually distinct (Chen Cowan, 2005).

Similarly the word length effect indicates that memory span is higher for words with a shorter spoken duration; syllable length varying as long as the strategic hr planning, spoken duration remains relatively constant (Parkin, 1996). This is similar to Gothic, Miller’s chunking of jack on the road, information, if one were to assume that the spoken duration was a chunk of information and Gothic Vampires the syllable length was the bit of information. Associations between components of information. Associations between the pieces of information presented can influence capacity. Cowan illustrates this using the letter sequence fbicbsibmirs which on first glance looks like a meaningless string that would require memory of formal organization example, 12 separate bits of Vampires and Modern Essay, information. However, on closer examination it can be seen that there are in fact 4 separate 3 letter chunks, namely ‘fbi, ‘cbs’, ‘ibm’ and ‘irs’. Now, if these had been random letter strings with no associated meaning there would be little chunk, or indeed likelihood of chunking the letters. However it is suggested that the well known acronyms of governmental and industry organisations considerably aids recoding, thus memory. The conclusion made is that chunking, thus information recall, is aided if there are strong long-term memory associations within chunks, but minimal associations between chunks (Cowan, 2001).

This enables each chunk to be remembered separately without overlap to strategic, another chunk. Short-term memory has traditionally be assumed to be time limited, in that information is only able to stay in the memory store for a specific time. And Modern Essay! However this assertion has been challenged and instead a form of gross national product, information replacement has been suggested, whereby a finite capacity to short-term memory ensures that the entry of a new piece of information displaces an older one (Cowan, 2001). Methods of measuring the capacity of short-term memory. There are a variety of methods used to Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires Essay, measure the capacity of gross national (gnp), short-term memory. These include enumeration, whole report and Gothic Vampires Essay alphanumeric span tasks (taken to have a 4 chunk upper limit), and recall of visual stimuli, multi-object tracking and repetition priming (all argued to show an upper limit of less than 4) (Avons, Ward, Russo, 2001). The following section outlines a brief methodology of short-term memory measurement for selected experiment types, along with a summary of results thus far obtained. Enumeration tasks involve presenting a participant with n objects to jack road, count, and measuring the reaction time for each number. It is argued that the smaller the working memory capacity, the steeper the reaction time slopes would be (Tuholski et al., 2001).

As can be seen from figure 2 below; using lines as the object to count; the reaction time is relatively constant until more than 4 lines are presented, at which point reaction time increases sharply. This indicates that 4 lines is the easy upper limit in terms of this particular version of short-term memory. The authors conclude that it is the controlled processing element of counting that limits the Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires, working memory span. This has been described as subitizing, in which a few items can be readily and rapidly attended, but more items require a steep increase in both reaction time and overall time required to buy decisions, attend to the items (Cowan, 2001). Figure 2. An example of results obtained from an enumeration task (adapted from (Tuholski et al., 2001) It could be argued, however, that enumeration isn’t measuring short-term memory as much as counting ability. Further it has been indicated that enumeration is invariably only Gothic and Modern Vampires Essay, related to individuated items (Cowan, 2001), eg bits rather than chunks, so it is national product not clear what results would occur if it were not. Whole report procedures involve recalling all possible stimuli from an Essay array presented. This contrasts to partial report procedures, in which only kerouac road, specific stimuli need to be recalled, usually in response to a specific cue. Cowan reports results indicating that short-term memory capacity is 4 for Vampires, whole report procedures and links this to sensory memory (Cowan, 2001).

Figure 3 below shows Cowan’s suggested nested information procedure for gross national product, whole report. Vampires Vampires! In this any and all information is elevated from the activated long-term memory store into the focus of iosef stalin, attention until this latter is full (Cowan, 2001). This contrasts to partial report measures; in which only cued items enter the focus of attention. Figure 3. Processing in whole report procedures (Cowan, 2001) Multi-object tracking is carried out using flashing dots on a computer screen. Gothic Vampires Essay! Participants are required to product (gnp), identify which of the finally presented dots have flashed at the start of the procedure (a in figure 4), having watched the dots move around the screen (b in figure 4 below).

Figure 4. Gothic Essay! An example of the dots used in a multi object tracking procedure (Cavanagh Alvarez, 2005) Repetition priming involves the presentation of a series of words and nonwords, which includes repetition of words with a variable number of other items intervening. Jack! The repeated word is said to be primed and Vampires and Modern Vampires the specific measure is the reaction time to this repeated word. It has been found that up to 4 items can be reliably recognised in strategic hr planning, this way (Cowan, 2001) (see figure 5 below). McKone argues that repetition priming is an accurate measure of short-term memory capacity as the long lists of words prevent rehearsal, as does the inclusion of and Modern Vampires, nonwords (McKone, 2000). Indeed she goes on formal example to explain that capacity, as measured by primed repetition is related to the limited nature of the focus of attention. Figure 5. The reaction time and number of Vampires, words recognised from primed (old) words in a repetition priming experiment (McKone, 2000) There is still much debate about the capacity of short-term memory and iosef stalin the accuracy of measuring it. It is difficult to Gothic Vampires Vampires, separate genuine short-term memory capacity from the more working memory capacity that is affected by rehearsal.

Whilst researchers may argue that they have managed to remove all rehearsal (probably the most crucial thing affecting short-term memory capacity) that cannot be definitively proven as humans can attend to more than one stimulus at any one time. Nevertheless whilst Miller’s original work is still seminal in the area of short-term memory capacity it is true to say that his conclusions of 7 + 2 has now been superseded to 4 + 1. Avons, S. Jack Kerouac! E., Ward, G., Russo, R. (2001). The dangers of taking capacity limits too literally. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 114-115. Carlson, N. (2001). Learning and memory: Basic mechanisms. Physiology of behaviour (7th ed.) (pp. 423-465). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Cavanagh, P., Alvarez, G. A. (2005).

Tracking multiple targets with multifocal attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(7), 349-354. And Modern Vampires! Chen, Z., Cowan, N. (2005). Chunk limits and length limits in immediate recall: A reconciliation. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(6), 1235-1249. Jack Kerouac Road! Cowan, N. (2001).

The magical number 4 in Gothic Vampires, short-term memory : A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 87-114; discussion 114-85. Formal Organization Example! Delvenne, J. F. (2005). The capacity of visual short-term memory within and between hemifields. Gothic Essay! Cognition, 96(3), B79-88. National Product (gnp)! Green, C. S., Bavelier, D. (2005). Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: The case of action video game players. [Electronic version]. Cognition, in Gothic Vampires and Modern Vampires, press, 1-29. McKone, E. (2000). Capacity limits in continuous old-new recognition and in iosef stalin, short-term implicit memory. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 130-131.

Miller, G. A. (1956). Gothic Vampires! The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81-97. Parkin, A. J. (1996). Spoken language impairments. Organization Example! In A. J. Parkin (Ed.), Explorations in cognitive neuropsychology (1st ed.) (pp. 129-153).

Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press. Tuholski, S. W., Engle, R. W., Baylis, G. C. (2001). Individual differences in working memory capacity and Gothic Vampires Vampires enumeration. Memory Cognition, 29(3), 484-492. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is example qualified to a high level in our area of Vampires and Modern Essay, expertise, and hr planning we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and and Modern Vampires Essay you could have your customised Pyschology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Pyschology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.

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