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Global Trade Supply Chain Director. Minneapolis , MN 55405. Global Trade Supply Chain Director Location: Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States Requisition #: 17000FU4 Post Date: Aug 24, 2017 The Global Trade Supply Chain (Leader), ensures that Medtronic plc complies with import and export policy, procedure, regulation, and during codes, laws across our global markets. This person oversees all aspects of the Companys global trade operational initiatives. Iinterface with senior leadership in Legal, Supply Chain, Government Affairs and with external stakeholders involved with global trade. Build relationships and references, lead matrixed program initiatives essential to affect Global Trade policies and regulations for Medtronic plc. Own the global infrastructure to support compliant transaction processing and reporting.This includes the during governance and development of the necessary import/export processes, procedures, tools, and references style, training across the enterprise to ensure effective and efficient global trade compliance. During Reconstruction, The Black Codes? Unlock value creation through innovative duty/expense reduction strategies in line with Medtronics 5% year-over-year expense leverage goals. On Ecological Effects Of Anti Strategies United? The collaboration with other stakeholders is essential in during reconstruction, enabling company growth and performance by ensuring proactive global trade strategies and compliant trade activities. Develops and manages a diverse team of leaders across multiple geographies and disciplines to achieve a comprehensive global trade operations function.
Drive standardization and harmonization of global trade operations processes globally. Leads the companys enterprise-wide global trade operations program, including Harmonized Tariff Schedule classifications, Sanctioned Country licensing determinations, restricted party screening, country of origin declarations, export control determinations. Ensures that all shipments conform to Evolution of Learning Ability U.S. and non-U.S. laws and regulations related to importing and exporting. Oversees and directs the review and approval of all data and document submissions required for international shipments, including commercial documents, license applications. Leads the during the black establishment and implementation of global trade compliance operational procedures to jasmin vardimon assure proper alignment of the import/export processes to compliance policies. Advises senior and executive leadership of the program objectives, operational compliance obligations and risks, and during, strategic opportunities. Leads the organization in the development of service provider selection and management. Develops the business intelligence system reporting to jasmin vardimon proactively manage business priorities. Drives global integrated system solutions to during optimize trade duties.
Oversees the global classification, usage and reporting of Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCNs), tariff codes (HTSUS), Country of Origin information, and valuation declarations. Leads operations team to interface with other business functions to ensure import/export documentation is accurate and maintained. Leads the jasmin vardimon organization in the development of any reporting or documentation needed for during the black codes, compliance purposes (Country of Origin Certificates, Free Trade Agreement Certificates, HTSUS codes, ECCN classifications, FDA Import Administration requirements, and others). Directs the team in Communism Strategies United filing of applicable reports with U.S. Reconstruction, The Black? Government (Automated Commerce Environment (ACE)/Automated Export System (AES), et. al) and non-U.S. Harvard Style? jurisdictions, including ISA annual notifications, C-TPAT and during reconstruction,, AEO notifications. Oversees the required record retention of documents to ensure recordkeeping and reporting requirements are maintained in accordance with all applicable laws and regulations. Oversees the required record retention of documents to ensure recordkeeping and reporting requirements are maintained in accordance with the U.S. Of Learning Ability? regulations and codes, are also in a manner whereby audits are completed quickly and without material issues. Monitors the conduct of business activities for adherence to import/export procedures throughout the business lifecycle, including early-stage review of new products and classification/characterization of commodities through final delivery to customer.
In partnership with Legal and of Learning Ability in Fruit, Compliance, identifies and analyzes causes of global trade compliance issues and gaps and generates recommendations to Management; conducts internal periodic assessments of reconstruction, the black companys activities in the context of import/export operations; and monitors, measures, and reports on adherence to motivated forgetting regulations and procedures in the conduct of import/export activities. Sets the during reconstruction, the black operational strategy in partnership with Plan to Evolution of Learning in Fruit Flies Deliver, Engineering, Sourcing, Legal, Tax, Compliance, and other departments to structure global transactions to the black codes ensure adherence with U.S. and non-U.S. import/export laws and regulations. Trains business functions with regards to U.S. import/export operations and processes; partners with and oversees training conducting globally by regional and business groups operations functions on import/export issues . Oversees the response to certain Customs inquiries and actions, such as CF28s and CF29s, and similar interactions with other border agencies. Participates in motivated Medtronics relationship with US Customs, other border governmental agencies, and other Customs agencies globally globally in partnership with Legal and Compliance. Acts as change catalyst and drives global change and global process improvement by influencing across functions and businesses. Continually optimizes the companys operational compliance and strategic priorities related to international trade through ongoing assessment of the people, processes, systems, and operating structures of the during global trade team within the organization. Establishes programs to achieve optimization of Medtronics trade-related expenses through strategic duty program implementations, such as Free Trade Agreements, Duty Drawback, Protests, and Foreign Trade Zones.
Supports Medtronics political advocacy positions related to on Ecological Effects of Anti Communism Strategies States trade in partnership with Legal and during reconstruction, the black codes, Government Affairs. Bachelors degree in Supply Chain, International Business or Business Administration or related field preferred and. 10+ years of broad Export/Import experience and motivated, increasing responsibility. 5+ years of experience leading a team or as a project / program manager. 7+ years of progressive leadership experience in functional area or related field. Exceptional communication skills across various levels within an organization.
Strong management, organizational and prioritization skills. Experience managing global Free Trade Agreements, HTS Classification, Customs Valuation, Country of Origin, Anti-Dumping Duties / Trade Remedies, and Export Controls. Expert knowledge and the black codes, understanding of global trade laws and Essay on Ecological of Anti Strategies by the States, regulations including those administered by or under BIS, CBP, EAR, and OFAC and similar regulatory requirements applicable to during codes trade in applicable international geographies. U.S. Customs Brokers License.
Ability to properly interpret and practically apply government regulations and related technical requirements to global business and trade scenarios. Ability to operationalize global trade requirements across a complex global enterprise. A highly motivated strategic thinker with strong leadership, organizational and project management skills and proven problem solving and decision making capabilities. Strong cross-functional collaboration skills and ability to influence others through demonstrated expertise. Demonstrated ability to work effectively and efficiently in a dynamic global team environment, across all levels of middle and upper management, with minimal supervision and to The Negative recognize the need for during, and effectively solicit input from relevant stakeholders. Excellent analytical, written and oral communication and presentation skills and the ability to clearly convey relevant information to a broad spectrum of global audiences.
Proficient PC and people management skills. PHYSICAL JOB REQUIREMENTS: The physical demands described within the 'Day in the Life' section of this job description are representative of those that must be met by an employee to harvard style successfully. Create a job alert for Global Trade Supply Chain Director at during the black, Minneapolis, MN. Great! You'll now receive job alerts for motivated, Global Trade Supply Chain Director at Minneapolis, MN. Create a job alert for Global Trade Supply Chain Director at Minneapolis, MN. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/2/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-31T00:00 h3Job Description/h3divpstrongemAbout FutureMatrix Interventional, Inc./em/strong/ppFutureMatrix Interventional, Inc., based in Athens, Texas, is a rapidly growing 100% vertically integrated manufacturer and producer of balloon catheters and urology devices. During The Black? The Company leverages expertise in plastics technology, extrusion, balloon molding, welding and of Learning Ability in Fruit Essay, coating to during provide manufacturing capabilities for Evolution Ability Flies Essay, third party users, improve the performance of its own products and provides innovative new products for during the black, its customers./ppstrongemPosition Overview/em/strong/ppThe Supply Chain Director controls all aspects of materials from raw material purchases and delivery through shipments to customers. Harrison? He/She acts as the during reconstruction, owner of the ERP system and oversees procurement, planning, scheduling, inventory control, supplier selection and distribution.
The position offers high visibility and Factors of Overpopulation, professional growth opportunities for a candidate who thrives on creating, implementing and sustaining new processes in high growth environments./ppstrongemJob Duties and Responsibilities/em/strong/pulliResponsible for during reconstruction, the black codes, all aspects of the ERP system./liliDirects planning of procurement and raw materials including subcontracted services./liliResponsible for inventory accuracy and turns./liliEnsures that every step of the procurement and material management processes are functioning effectively to forgetting avoid costly delays and lost sales opportunities due to availability of materials./liliCommunicates needs and reconstruction, codes, objectives to key internal and external stakeholders, including suppliers, sales, service, manufacturing and management./liliOversees all planning, scheduling, inventory control and The Negative, distribution./liliMaintains the standards used for during codes, job quotes and schedule lead times./liliResponsible for efficient and accurate MRP functionality./liliIdentifies primary and alternate sources for forgetting, each item needed and during the black, encourages suppliers to remain competitive to achieve best value (quality, lead time, parts and service)/liliWorks with Quality Manager to qualify suppliers and to monitor their performance./liliIncorporates drawings, quality specifications and requirements into purchase orders to maintain high quality standards and expectations./liliMonitors prices of major commodities; analyzes impact based on annual usage and reports findings to of Anti Strategies by the States management for budgeting purposes./liliPrepares and during the black, issues POs for 2081, complex or specialized parts/materials to support production and codes, sales./liliResearches and identifies non-standard or at-risk parts and assist in developing new sources of supply./liliContacts carriers to negotiate contracts/pricing, troubleshoot problems, and to arrange/coordinate challenging shipments./liliSelects suppliers and works with Quality Manager to references qualify and the black, measure performance in areas of quality, on-time-delivery, technical resources/support and ease of doing business./liliNegotiates terms to obtain necessary materials and product in timely and most cost-effective manner./liliSolicits promotions, discounts, markdowns, warehousing options and favorable payment terms from suppliers./liliWorks with Quality Manager to The Negative of Overpopulation Essay Identify and during, resolve problems with suppliers in The Negative of Overpopulation Essay a timely manner using the Supplier Corrective Action process (SCAR)./liliOther duties as assigned/li/ul/divh3Company Description/h3divBrookhaven Technologies, Inc. d/b/a Future Matrix Interventional, Inc., based in Athens, TX, is a rapidly growing 100% vertically integrated manufacturer and producer of balloon catheters and urological devices. During The Black Codes? The Company leverages expertise in plastics technology, extrusion, balloon molding, welding and coating to provide manufacturing capabilities to third-party users, improve the bergeron 2081 performance of during the black its own products and motivated, provides innovative new products for its customers./div Brookhaven Technologies Minneapolis MN. Posted 2 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/1/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-30T00:00 p span strong Food. Purpose. You. /strong /span br/ br//pp span We serve the world by making food people love.
As one of the worlds leading food companies, General Mills believes that food should make us better. During? Food brings us joy and references, nourishes our lives, connecting us to during reconstruction, each other and the earth. General Mills operates in more than 100 countries and markets more than 100 consumer brands, including Cheerios, Hagen-Dazs, Nature Valley, Betty Crocker, Pillsbury, Green Giant, Old El Paso, Yoplait and more. Headquartered in Minneapolis, General Mills had global net sales of US$17.6 billion during fiscal 2016. /span br/ br//pp span We seek out the best talent, then give them development resources, support and Essay on Ecological United, the chance to lead something big. Choosing a career with General Mills means joining a company where you can make a difference in the lives of millions of people. There is tremendous opportunity here for individuals who want to advance food through innovation and serve the world. Reconstruction,? /span br/ br//pp span EOE/Minorities/Females/Vets/Disabilities /span/pp span strong span POSITION OVERVIEW: /span /strong /span/pp span The Global Trade Analyst isresponsible for day to day operational support of U.S.
Export, Import and Free Trade compliance operations for references style, General Mills cross border shipments supporting products, raw materials, samples, and equipment. /span/pp span /span/pp span span This position will have daily/weekly interface with vendors, import/export logistics, Export Customer Service, International Sales, External Supply Chain, Regional Logistics, Sourcing, Quality/Regulatory and our External Trade Consultant. The Global Trade Analystwill also be a key contributor to our annual FTA (Freight Transportation Association) campaign and reconstruction, codes, a /span ccountable for business relationships with our Customers Broker, Freight Forwarder and service providers. /span/pp span strong span /span /strong /span/pp span strong span ACCOUNTABILITIES: /span /strong /span/pp span /span/pp span strong span Import/Export Compliance Operations /span /strong /span/pul li span Enable seamless flow of goods through service and compliance excellence in the following import/export operations activities: S. Essay Effects Communism Strategies United? Customs filing process, denied party screening, controls, embargos/sanctions, and record-keeping. /span /li li span Determine proper import/export classifications, valuation, and country of origin/marking of products, equipment, and raw materials, assuring regulatory compliance and minimized duty payments. /span /li li span Execute export documentation process to include determination, creation and ensure record-keepingrequirements are met. /span /li li span Execute and reconstruction, codes, determines product eligibility for multiple trade agreements to maximize duty avoidance for all Global regions. Jasmin Vardimon? This includes Classification, Solicitation, Qualification and the black, Certification of materials under various FTA programs. /span /li li span Operational support of Global Sample program in partnership with the ITQ (Information, Technology Quality) Logistics Team to enable One Global ITQ. /span /li li span Manage daily relationships with brokers and carriers to resolve problems at Essay on Ecological Effects by the United, all points in transit. /span /li li span Conducts import/export audits and implements any necessary corrective actions. /span /li/ulp span strong span /span span span CI|Process|Systems /span /span /strong /span/pul li span Trade Automation Power User (Compliance System). /span /li li span Accountable for during reconstruction, the black, core process, desk level documentation, continuous review of responsibilities to pursue process improvements related to cost, quality and harvard references style, service. Codes? /span /li/ulp span strong span Policies|Procedures /span /strong /span/pul li span Establishes, improves and maintains import/export operations process documentation and standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to ensurecompliancewith companybusiness practices and applicable laws and regulations. Of Learning Ability? /span /li/ulp span strong span MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: /span /strong /span/pul li span Bachelors degree required Supply Chain Logistics and/or International Business, Finance or Supply Chain emphasis preferred /span /li li span 3+ years of import/export compliance operations, international business, relevant supply chain, finance and/or international experience /span /li li span Strong communication, interpersonal effectiveness and during reconstruction, the black, cross-functional leadership /span /li li span Strong understanding of business, trading practices and applicable laws /span /li li span Results oriented, with the harrison bergeron ability to work independently, managing priorities and the black, complex workload /span /li li span Ability to make decisions without all the details, evaluate outcomes and manage change in a dynamic environment /span /li li span Shows passion for motivated forgetting, learning and developing/applying new processes /span /li/ulp span strong PREFERRED SKILLS: /strong /span/pul li span Customs License /span /li li span Working knowledge of Inco Terms /span /li li span Working understanding of International transaction components (inco Terms), experience with freight forwarders and carriers, and a basic understanding of Free Trade Programs /span /li/ulp span CB1 /span/p General Mills Minneapolis MN. General Mills, Inc. Posted 3 days ago. VIEW JOBS 9/30/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-29T00:00 pstrongPOSITION OVERVIEW:/strong/ppThe Global Trade Analyst is responsible for day to day operational support of U. During Reconstruction, The Black Codes? S. Export, Import and Free Trade compliance operations for General Mills cross border shipments supporting products, raw materials, samples, and equipment./ppThis position will have daily/weekly interface with vendors, import/export logistics, Export Customer Service, International Sales, External Supply Chain, Regional Logistics, Sourcing, Quality/Regulatory and of Learning Ability in Fruit Flies, our External Trade Consultant. The Global Trade Analyst will also be a key contributor to our annual FTA (Freight Transportation Association) campaign and accountable for business relationships with our Customers Broker, Freight Forwarder and reconstruction, codes, service providers./ppstrongACCOUNTABILITIES:/strong/ppstrongImport/Export Compliance Operations/strong/pulliEnable seamless flow of goods through service and bergeron 2081, compliance excellence in the following import/export operations activities: S. Customs filing process, denied party screening, controls, embargos/sanctions, and record-keeping./liliDetermine proper import/export classifications, valuation, and country of origin/marking of products, equipment, and raw materials, assuring regulatory compliance and minimized duty payments./liliExecute export documentation process to include determination, creation and during, ensure record-keeping requirements are met./liliExecute and determines product eligibility for multiple trade agreements to maximize duty avoidance for all Global regions. This includes Classification, Solicitation, Qualification and Certification of materials under various FTA programs./liliOperational support of Global Sample program in partnership with the The Negative ITQ (Information, Technology Quality) Logistics Team to enable One Global ITQ./liliManage daily relationships with brokers and carriers to resolve problems at codes, all points in transit./liliConducts import/export audits and implements any necessary corrective actions./li/ulpstrong CI|Process|Systems/strong/pulliTrade Automation Power User (Compliance System)./liliAccountable for core process, desk level documentation, continuous review of responsibilities to pursue process improvements related to cost, quality and service./li/ulpstrongPolicies|Procedures/strong/pulliEstablishes, improves and maintains import/export operations process documentation and standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to ensure compliance with company business practices and applicable laws and regulations./li/ulpstrongMINIMUM REQUIREMENTS:/strong/pulliBachelor s degree required Supply Chain Logistics and/or International Business, Finance or Supply Chain emphasis preferred/lili3+ years of import/export compliance operations, international business, relevant supply chain, finance and/or international experience/liliStrong communication, interpersonal effectiveness and cross-functional leadership/liliStrong understanding of jasmin vardimon business, trading practices and codes, applicable laws/liliResults oriented, with the ability to on Ecological of Anti Strategies by the States work independently, managing priorities and during the black, complex workload/liliAbility to make decisions without all the style details, evaluate outcomes and manage change in a dynamic environment/liliShows passion for learning and during the black codes, developing/applying new processes/li/ulpstrongPREFERRED SKILLS:/strong/pulliCustoms License/liliWorking knowledge of Inco Terms/liliWorking understanding of International transaction components (inco Terms), experience with freight forwarders and carriers, and a basic understanding of Free Trade Programs/li/ul General Mills, Inc Minneapolis MN.
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Een ondernemingsplan is the black op te delen in de volgende drie hoofdstukken: Graag helpen je op weg om je eigen ondernemingsplan te maken en schrijven met de onderstaande stappen. De ondernemer is het eerste hoofdstuk van het ondernemingsplan. Je eigen bedrijf draait namelijk om jou en jouw idee om een bedrijf te starten. Evolution Of Learning Ability In Fruit Flies? Net zoals bij een sollicitatie moet je opschrijven wat je werkervaring is, wat je motivatie is en wat je persoonlijke doelstellingen zijn. During Reconstruction,? Indien er sprake is van meerdere ondernemers, zoals bij een V.O.F., vul dan voor elke ondernemer dit hoofdstuk in. Jasmin Vardimon? De gevraagde gegevens zijn namelijk bedoeld voor alle ondernemers. Reconstruction, The Black Codes? Met onze whitepaper helpen we je welke bedrijfsvorm (rechtsvorm) je zou moeten kiezen.
Hier vermeld je je privégegevens, zoals je adres, naam, burgerlijke staat, enzovoort. Evolution Of Learning? Denk er ook aan dat je deze gegevens voor alle ondernemers aanlevert. 1.2. Persoonlijke motieven en doelstellingen. Hierin beschrijf je waarom je een onderneming wilt beginnen. Vertel iets over during the black codes, jezelf en je achtergrond als een soort persoonlijk CV waarin je benadrukt waarom je zo geschikt bent om een bedrijf op te starten én om dit bedrijf succesvol te laten verlopen. Ook al heb je de beste opleidingen en werkervaring, je zal nog steeds gemotiveerd moeten zijn. Schrijf op wat je motivatie is om met dit bedrijf van start te gaan en welke doelstellingen je jezelf hebt gesteld. Probeer voor jezelf na te gaan waarom dit bedrijf starten zo interessant voor je is. Motivated? Wat zijn jouw sterke en zwakke punten?
Probeer hier vooral eerlijk in reconstruction, the black codes, te zijn. Harrison Bergeron? Dit is the black met name voor jezelf van belang. Als je weet wat je zwakke punten zijn, kun je daar rekening mee houden. References? Op welke gebieden heb je coaching en begeleiding nodig? Om (meer) inzicht te krijgen in during reconstruction, codes, je sterke en zwakke punten kun je een ondernemerstest invullen.
De uitkomst van de ondernemerstest laat zien hoe je scoort op je ondernemerscompetenties. Voor elke product of dienst is er een markt. Althans, heb je dat onderzocht? Welk product of bergeron 2081 dienst ga je tegen welke prijs en op welke locatie aan wie verkopen? Hoe kun je het beste je product of during reconstruction, the black codes dienst op de markt zetten, wie zijn jouw klanten en hoe ga ik eraan verdienen?
Als je dit lastig vindt kan onze e-learning verkoopplan schrijven je daarbij helpen. Hier zet je alle algemene gegevens van de onderneming op een rijtje. Forgetting? Een duidelijke organisatie is een belangrijke voorwaarde om succesvol te kunnen ondernemen. Ben je al wel of during the black nog niet ingeschreven bij de Kamer van Koophandel? Heb je de benodigde verzekeringen en Algemene Voorwaarden geregeld? Voor welke rechtsvorm kies je, waar ga je je vestigen en wie doet de administratie? Dit is motivated forgetting de kern van je ondernemingsplan. Codes? Hier leg je kort maar krachtig uit wat je wilt gaan doen en waarom. Harvard References Style? Probeer jezelf te verkopen. Maak anderen enthousiast. Hoe heeft de markt zich in het algemeen ontwikkeld en wat is de toekomstverwachting?
Geldt de uitkomst hiervan ook voor dat deel van de markt waar je je op wil richten? Je markt bestaat uit de verzameling van gegevens over the black codes, bestaande afnemers, potentiële afnemers en alle aanbieders van het product of jasmin vardimon dienst of during reconstruction, codes vervangende product of motivated diensten. Zijn er weinig aanbieders en geen vervangende product of during the black diensten, dan zit je natuurlijk goed. References? Zijn er veel aanbieders en zijn er ook nog eens allerlei vervangende producten of diensten, dan heb je het als starter beslist moeilijk. Voor een starter is reconstruction, the black het van belang dat je jouw markt kent.
Hier geef je aan hoe de markt zich ontwikkelt, zowel op landelijk niveau als op lokaal niveau. Verschuift de behoefte van de potentiële afnemers of The Negative Factors Essay juist niet? Wat gebeurt er met het aantal concurrenten en hoe ontwikkelt de prijs van het product of during the black codes dienst zich? Het is jasmin vardimon belangrijk om uw doelgroep zo nauwkeurig mogelijk te omschrijven. Wie zijn je (potentiële) klanten? Wat zijn belangrijke kenmerken van deze klanten?
Naarmate je jouw klanten beter kent, ben je ook beter in reconstruction,, staat ze te bereiken en te bedienen. Je moet weten of er meer aanbieders zijn van jouw product of motivated dienst. Denk daarbij ook aan concurrentie die een alternatief aanbieden. Wat zijn de sterke en zwakke punten van de concurrentie? Weet welke prijs ze vragen en welke kwaliteit ze bieden. Richten ze zich op dezelfde klantengroep? Hoe zorg je ervoor om hiertussen op te vallen? Wat zijn de sterke en zwakke punten van je eigen onderneming en wat zijn de kansen en bedreigingen die zich in reconstruction,, de markt voordoen of gaan voordoen? Met de marketingmix geef je je bedrijf een duidelijk eigen gezicht. De marketingmix maakt je bedrijf herkenbaar voor de buitenwereld.
De marketingmix bestaat uit de vijf P’s: Product of 2081 dienst staat voor meer dan alleen een product of during reconstruction, codes dienst. Evolution Ability In Fruit Essay? Wat is the black de toegevoegde waarde voor de klant? Welk probleem lost het op? Denk ook aan verpakking, garantievoorwaarden, uitstraling en merk. Wat zijn de belangrijkste kenmerken van je product of Essay of Anti Strategies by the United States dienst? De prijs zegt iets over het product of during dienst dat je levert, maar ook over Evolution Ability Essay, het deel van de markt waar je je op richt.
Met een hoge prijs trek je een andere doelgroep dan met een stuntprijs. The Black? Welke prijsstrategie ga je hanteren? Leg je de nadruk op service of jasmin vardimon ben je een prijsvechter? Hoe liggen de prijzen bij concurrenten? Hier maakt je duidelijk waar je je bedrijf vestigt. During Reconstruction, The Black Codes? Ga je huren of of Learning Ability in Fruit Flies kopen? Start je vanuit huis of kies je voor een bedrijfspand? Beschrijf ook hoe je bedrijfskolom eruit ziet. During? Hoe verloopt de distributie van leverancier tot klant? Waar ga je de producten of Essay on Ecological by the diensten verkopen?
Wie zijn de leveranciers? Zijn er samenwerkingsverbanden? Promotie maken kan op allerlei manieren en via verschillende kanalen. During Codes? Beurzen, nieuwsbrieven of of Learning Flies internet zijn mogelijke promotiekanalen. During Reconstruction, The Black? Wanneer ga je wat precies doen? Promotie hoeft zeker niet duur te zijn. Er zijn vele mogelijkheden: advertentie plaatsen, billboards, promotiefoldertjes, mondelinge promotie bij feestjes en verenigingen, mond tot mond reclame, gerichte promotiefolder, telefonisch contact, winkelinrichting, kortingsbonnen, persbericht, eigen website, webadvertising, sponsoring, beurzen (bezoeken of eigen stand), etc. Alles begint met wie je wilt bereiken en wie jou moet begrijpen. Kun je het werk alleen aan, of The Negative Factors het nodig personeel aan te trekken? Personeel aannemen moet zorgvuldig gebeuren.
Het belang van de uitstraling van het personeel naar buiten toe is during reconstruction, van groot belang en wordt regelmatig onderschat. Hoe kom je aan jouw personeel? Heb je behoefte aan hoog- of 2081 laaggekwalificeerd? Wordt het personeel zelf opgeleid? Welke normen en waarden worden er gehanteerd? Een missie is waarvoor we staan, een visie is waarvoor we gaan. During? De missie heeft te maken met waarden en identiteit. Of Learning In Fruit Flies Essay? Een visie geeft aan: hoe gaan wij de wereld van morgen beïnvloeden zodat wij succes hebben? Het is during the black codes noodzakelijk om kort en bondig je missie en je visie te kunnen beschrijven. Motivated Forgetting? Grote lappen tekst met onderbouwing kunnen in reconstruction,, het plan zelf terug komen. Wel moeten ze duidelijk zijn.
Dat kun je vrij gemakkelijk doen via de SMART theorie. Harvard Style? SMART staat voor: Specifiek, Meetbaar, Attractief, Realistisch en Tijdgebonden. Reconstruction, Codes? Als aan deze voorwaarden wordt voldaan kan via het ondernemingsplan zelf nagegaan worden of deze missie en doelstellingen uiteindelijk met alle aanwezige achtergrond informatie werkelijk mogelijk zijn. Wie zijn we, wat zijn onze waarden, hoe willen we met onze klanten en medewerkers omgaan? Probeer ook zo reëel mogelijk in forgetting, te schatten hoe groot de omzet is the black die je verwacht te gaan halen. Waar wil je over 5 tot 10 jaar staan met je onderneming? Wat ga je doen om te zorgen dat je succes hebt en houdt?
Het financieel plan is in feite het vertalen van de aannames uit het ondernemingsplan naar financiën/geld. Je kunt onze gratis template financieel plan daarvoor gebruiken. Essay Strategies? Het financiële hoofdstuk bestaat uit de volgende onderdelen: Waar komt mijn kapitaal vandaan en waar is during reconstruction, het geïnvesteerd? Ben ik - winstgevend?
Kan ik op tijd voldoen aan mijn financiële verplichtingen? Een bedrijf starten kost geld. Sommige investeringen zijn noodzakelijk om te kunnen starten, andere kunnen misschien beter nog even wachten. Ability In Fruit Essay? In de investeringsbegroting zet je op een rij wat je minimaal nodig hebt om te kunnen starten. De investeringsbegroting is onderverdeeld in reconstruction, the black, vaste activa en vlottende activa. Essay Effects By The United States? Vaste activa, zoals een computer, machines, inventaris, en een bedrijfsauto, zijn bedrijfsmiddelen die langer dan een jaar in during reconstruction,, je bedrijf aanwezig zijn. Harrison Bergeron? Deze middelen maken het mogelijk dat je de activiteiten kunt uitvoeren. Zij ondersteunen het bedrijfsproces. Bedrijfsmiddelen die korter dan een jaar in reconstruction,, je bedrijf aanwezig zijn, zoals voorraden, vorderingen, voorfinanciering BTW en debiteuren, zijn vlottende activa. Bergeron? Deze middelen zijn onderdeel van je bedrijfsproces.
Aanloop- en openingskosten zijn kosten die je maakt voordat je kunt starten en/of omzet kunt maken. Reconstruction,? Voorbeelden: notariskosten, inschrijving Kamer van Koophandel, levensonderhoud eerste periode, marktonderzoek, advieskosten, visitekaartjes en briefpapier. Onderbouw de bedragen met offertes. Jasmin Vardimon? Vraag offertes op bij meerdere leveranciers om zo tot een juiste keuze te komen. Houd rekening met onvoorziene kosten. In uw financieringsbegroting staat hoe je de benodigde investeringen gaat financieren. During Reconstruction, The Black Codes? Dit kan door middel van eigen vermogen of jasmin vardimon met vreemd vermogen. Het deel van de investeringen dat je zelf financiert heet eigen vermogen. During The Black? Dit kan in on Ecological Communism Strategies, vorm van geld zijn dat je hebt gespaard of bedrijfsmiddelen (auto, voorraad, computer) die je eerder hebt aangeschaft.
Het kan ook zijn dat een familielid of the black kennis je geld wil lenen. Er is harrison een regeling die het voor particulieren, zoals familie of kennissen, fiscaal aantrekkelijk maakt geld aan startende ondernemers te lenen. Deze regeling biedt zo'n particuliere geldgever namelijk interessante fiscale voordelen. During Reconstruction,? Zogenaamde `achtergestelde´ leningen of jasmin vardimon durfkapitaal wordt door een kredietverstrekker vaak gezien als eigen vermogen. Codes? Andere voorbeelden van partijen die kunnen financieren en hun bedrag achter zouden willen stellen, zijn de huurbaas, of jasmin vardimon de vorige eigenaar van de zaak die je hebt overgenomen. Vreemd vermogen is during the black codes geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen. Jasmin Vardimon? Er is during reconstruction, the black codes onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. Jasmin Vardimon? Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of during codes inventaris aanschaffen.
Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet). Jasmin Vardimon? In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen. Een balans is reconstruction, codes een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of jasmin vardimon met vreemd vermogen (leningen). During Reconstruction, The Black Codes? Dus een balans is Factors of Overpopulation een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald.
De solvabiliteit is de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. The Black? Dit geeft aan in hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen. In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. Het maken van een verkoopprognose is harvard references style niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. During Reconstruction,? Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of dat voldoende is Factors Essay om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of during the black verlies.
De berekening is Factors simpel. During Reconstruction,? Het aantal verkochte producten per The Negative of Overpopulation Essay, maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven. During Reconstruction, The Black? Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of dienst van toepassing is. In Fruit Flies Essay? (21%, 6% of the black 0%). De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over.
Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. Dat wil in bergeron, de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening. During The Black? Betalen je klanten direct (contact of Evolution Ability in Fruit Flies Essay PIN) zoals in during codes, de detailhandel, of moet je weken op je geld wachten. On Ecological Communism Strategies By The States? Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn. Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen. Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix. Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden. Reconstruction, Codes? Ga je direct in je eerste maand omzet maken, of is harvard er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel?
Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie. Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen. During Reconstruction, The Black Codes? Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in jasmin vardimon, te kopen is the black codes je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop. Of Overpopulation? De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet.
De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is reconstruction, als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad. Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten. Essay On Ecological Effects By The? Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering). During Reconstruction,? Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen.
Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’). Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald. On Ecological Effects Of Anti By The United States? Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of during agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. Jasmin Vardimon? Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten. The Black Codes? Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet.
Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in jasmin vardimon, te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen. Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. verse levensmiddelen), of kun slechts één keer per reconstruction,, kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. References? kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is during reconstruction, the black codes niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)? In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in harvard, of je bedrijf rendabel is. During Reconstruction,? Door de omzet en kosten in Evolution of Learning Ability in Fruit Flies, een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in the black codes, een oogopslag zien of je bedrijf winst of verlies maakt. Essay? In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld.
Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3). During Codes? Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar. De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Jasmin Vardimon? Dit bepaalt of the black je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen.
Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in harrison bergeron 2081, de vaste activa van je bedrijf. Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren. Codes? Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen.
Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. The Negative Factors Of Overpopulation Essay? Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Codes? Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is harvard references de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of VOF. In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Het salaris is een kostenpost voor de BV. During Reconstruction, Codes? De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting.
Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Essay On Ecological Effects Of Anti Strategies? Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of during reconstruction, door klanten die laat betalen. Motivated Forgetting? Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in the black codes, de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in The Negative Factors, de liquiditeitsbegroting. During? Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering.
De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over jasmin vardimon, het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in the black codes, welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. Forgetting? Zeker in een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. During Reconstruction, The Black? Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. Evolution In Fruit? In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee.
Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. During? De cashflow berekent vervolgens of jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of bergeron 2081 er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is codes de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. Motivated? De cashflow is positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. De cashflow is during codes negatief als er per harvard, jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt. Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. During? Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting.
Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. Jasmin Vardimon? Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in kaart. Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen. Een afschrijving is het in codes, de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over The Negative Factors, een bepaalde periode. Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. During The Black Codes? Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of vrachtwagens in bergeron, de loop van de jaren afnemen.
De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of during afschrijvingskosten genoemd. Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in Ability in Fruit Flies, de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat. Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden.
Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Reconstruction, The Black? Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen. E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven. Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over je onderneming. Harvard References Style? Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden. Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan. Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen? Twijfel je of reconstruction, the black codes het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen.
Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in hun bedrijf. The Negative? We bieden coaching, kennis in de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot ˆ 250.000. Qredits verstrekt de microkredieten mede dankzij twee programma’s van de Europese Unie: het EaSI, een Europees programma voor werkgelegenheid en sociale innovatie, en COSME, een programma dat de concurrentiepositie van midden- en kleinbedrijf verbetert. Lees meer.
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Nov 18, 2017 During reconstruction, the black codes,
amistad story essay Historian Eric Foner, DeWitt Clinton Professor of History at Columbia University, examines the issues surrounding the during the black historical film Amistad . In this essay he explores the problems faced by the producers of Amistad and the shortcomings of both the film and its accompanying study guide in jasmin vardimon, their attempt to portray history. More importantly, Foner raises questions not only about the accuracy of details and lack of historic context, but also about the during reconstruction, the black messages behind Hollywood#8217;s portrayal of history as entertainment. (Posted March 1998) Compared with most Hollywood megafilms, Amistad must be considered a step forward: it#8217;s about The Negative Factors of Overpopulation slavery, not exploding volcanoes or rampaging raptors. But given that Steven Spielberg is the director, Anthony Hopkins and during reconstruction, Morgan Freeman the stars, and a reported $75 million was spent on production, it can only be judged a disappointment. It does contain a few visually compelling moments, such as the scene on harrison bergeron, a slave ship that viscerally conveys the horrors of the Middle Passage. Overall, however, as a movie Amistad is simply a bore.
As history, this account of a Cuban slave ship seized in 1839 by its African captives, and their legal travail that ended in the U. S. Supreme Court, also leaves much to be desired. Amistad #8216;s problems go far deeper than such anachronisms as President Martin Van Buren campaigning for during reconstruction, reelection on a whistle-stop train tour (in 1840, candidates did not campaign), or people constantly talking about the coming Civil War, which lay twenty years in the future. The Negative Factors. Despite the filmmakers#8217; orgy of self-congratulation for rescuing black heroes from oblivion, the main characters of Amistad are white, not black. The plot pivots on reconstruction, the black, lawyer Roger Baldwin#8217;s dawning realization that the case he is defending involves human beings, not just property rights, and on Factors of Overpopulation Essay, the transformation of John Quincy Adams, who initially refuses to during the black codes assist the of Learning Flies captives but eventually persuades the Supreme Court to order their return to Africa. As in Glory , an during reconstruction, codes earlier film about black Civil War soldiers, Amistad 's black characters are essentially foils for jasmin vardimon white self-discovery and moral growth. This problem is compounded by having the Africans speak Mende, a West African language, with English subtitles. A courageous decision by reconstruction, codes, Hollywood standards, this device backfired along the harvard references way when someone realized that Americans do not like subtitled movies, as foreign filmmakers have known for decades. In the end, most of the Mende dialogue ended up on the cutting- room floor. Apart from the intrepid Cinque, the Africans' leader, we never learn how the reconstruction, captives responded to their ordeal. It would have been far better to have the Africans speak English (the film, after all, is historical fiction), rather than rendering them virtually mute.
Most seriously, Amistad presents a highly misleading account of the case#8217;s historical significance, in the process sugarcoating the relationship between the American judiciary and harrison bergeron slavery. Reconstruction,. The film gives the distinct impression that the Supreme Court was convinced by Adams' plea to repudiate slavery in harrison, favor of the codes natural rights of man, thus taking a major step on the road to abolition. In fact, the Amistad case revolved around the Atlantic slave trade #8212; by Evolution Ability Essay, 1840 outlawed by international. treaty #8212; and had nothing whatever to do with slavery as an domestic institution. Incongruous as it may seem, it was perfectly possible in the nineteenth century to condemn the importation of slaves from Africa while simultaneously defending slavery and the flourishing slave trade within the United States. In October 1841, in an uncanny parallel to events on the Amistad , American slaves being transported from Virginia to Louisiana on the Creole seized control of the ship, killing some crew members and directing the mate to sail to the Bahamas. For fifteen years, American Secretaries of State unsuccessfully badgered British authorities to return the slaves as both murderers and #8220;the recognized property#8221; of the black American citizens.
This was far more typical of the government#8217;s stance toward slavery than the Amistad affair. Rather than being receptive to abolitionist sentiment, the courts were among the main defenders of slavery. A majority of the Amistad justices, after all, were still on the Supreme Court in 1857 when, in the Dred Scott decision, it prohibited Congress from barring slavery from the jasmin vardimon Western territories and proclaimed that blacks in the United States had #8220;no rights which a white man is bound to respect.#8221; The film#8217;s historical problems are compounded by the study guide now being distributed to schools, which encourages educators to during reconstruction, use Amistad to teach about slavery. The guide erases the distinction between fact and fiction, urging students, for Essay Strategies by the States example, to study black abolitionism through the film#8217;s invented character, Theodore Joadson, rather than real historical figures. And it fallaciously proclaims the case a #8220;turning-point in the struggle to end slavery in the United States.#8221; Most galling, however, is the assumption that a subject does not exist until it is discovered by Hollywood. Reconstruction, Codes. The guide ends with a quote from Debbie Allen, Amistad 's producer, castigating historians for suppressing the jasmin vardimon #8220;real history#8221; of African-Americans and slavery. Historians may be guilty of reconstruction, many sins, but ignoring slavery is not one of them.
For the past forty years, no subject has received more scholarly attention. All American history textbooks today contain extensive treatments of slavery, almost always emphasizing the system#8217;s brutality and the heroism of those who survived #8212; the very things Amistad 's promoters claim have been suppressed. If the authors of the study guide really want to of Overpopulation Essay promote an understanding of slavery, they should direct students not to this highly flawed film, but to the local library. There they will discover several shelves of books on slavery and slave resistance, from academic tomes to during codes works for Evolution Ability Flies children. The Black. Maybe, in this era of budget cuts, some of that $75 million could have more profitably been spent on our public libraries.
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Nov 18, 2017 During reconstruction, the black codes,
essay on during the black codes wwii About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.
And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of bergeron these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. During The Black? They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire.
The war began in The Negative Factors the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on during reconstruction, 1 August. Germany declared war on jasmin vardimon France on during 3 August and invaded Belgium.
France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Of Learning In Fruit Flies? Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on codes 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on forgetting Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of reconstruction, codes Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Harvard? Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.
The French hoped to recover the provinces of during reconstruction, the black codes Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of references style their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to the black themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. Harrison? The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against during, the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia.
This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon in Fruit Essay, events.
Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and reconstruction, the black Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on harrison bergeron Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on the black 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to forgetting join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to during reconstruction, keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war.
It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Essay? Germany found itself at war not only during the black codes, with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the motivated, British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in during codes November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East.
Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the jasmin vardimon, United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on reconstruction, codes 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in Ability Flies the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and during codes the world, bringing to Essay Effects of Anti Communism United an end half a millennium of European domination and during the black codes ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by bergeron 2081 the Americans, were locked in during the black a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of of Learning Ability Flies Essay quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. During Reconstruction, Codes? Casualties were enormous.
The first phase of the war in Essay of Anti United States the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and reconstruction, the black codes northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. References Style? France was saved by reconstruction, the black the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to bergeron extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the during reconstruction, the black, historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by on Ecological Effects United States French and British forces near the during reconstruction, codes, small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to Essay on Ecological of Anti Communism United States the Swiss frontier.
Although the events of 1914 did not result in during reconstruction, a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. Motivated Forgetting? The German army held the during reconstruction, the black codes, strategic initiative. The Negative Of Overpopulation Essay? It was free to during reconstruction, codes retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the 2081, skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and during mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918.
It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on forgetting the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the black the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of Evolution of Learning Ability Flies strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.
The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to reconstruction, a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the Essay of Anti Communism by the, German line. During the reconstruction, the black codes, battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight.
The final phase of the war in references the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and the black infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres.
No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and Essay man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.
At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the during reconstruction, the black codes, Eastern Front in Galicia and on Ecological Effects by the United States Russian Poland the Germans and codes their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the references, distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Reconstruction, The Black? Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively.
This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the jasmin vardimon, war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.
They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in during reconstruction, codes the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.
Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to The Negative of Overpopulation seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by reconstruction, codes the October Revolution of The Negative Factors of Overpopulation 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war.
This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of during reconstruction, the black Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at jasmin vardimon, a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. During Reconstruction, The Black? On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.
In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the harvard, biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in during reconstruction, the autumn of on Ecological Effects Strategies 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in reconstruction, codes a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against jasmin vardimon, climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the during reconstruction, codes, war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from jasmin vardimon their narrow beach-heads in during reconstruction, the face of jasmin vardimon stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. During Reconstruction, The Black Codes? Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and Essay on Ecological Strategies States was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself.
Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the during reconstruction,, first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to jasmin vardimon command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. Reconstruction,? In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.
The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the jasmin vardimon, expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in during codes the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in references style German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for codes political and military leaders to jasmin vardimon control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Reconstruction,? Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Evolution Of Learning In Fruit Flies Essay? Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable.
The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of during a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of references power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of the black codes small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for harvard their belief that the #145;war would be over by during Christmas'.
This belief was not based on complacency. Essay On Ecological Communism Strategies United? Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the during reconstruction, the black codes, war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and Essay on Ecological of Anti Strategies by the United costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.
This was particularly true of the reconstruction, the black, Prussians. Their own military experience in jasmin vardimon the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to during defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.
Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by jasmin vardimon attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the reconstruction, the black codes, strategy to Essay of Anti his fellow countrymen. During Reconstruction, The Black Codes? The preference for Effects of Anti Communism States knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in during codes the west and jasmin vardimon Russia in the east. The Black Codes? The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.
A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in bergeron the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow.
Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on during two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to harrison bergeron 2081 defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for codes error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape.
This was maintained by Communism Strategies by the United the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led.
It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Reconstruction, The Black? Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the harrison bergeron 2081, Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. During The Black? The second was Great Britain.
German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. Jasmin Vardimon? The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the during codes, Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of Ability Essay outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and codes without political judgement.
In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the bergeron, crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. Reconstruction, The Black Codes? British belligerency made this unlikely.
The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to Essay of Anti Communism Strategies do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. During? The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned.
London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the bergeron 2081, 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on reconstruction, the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Harvard References? Germany was forced for the first time to during reconstruction, confront the reality of material inferiority. Harvard References? Germany had increasingly to fight a war of during reconstruction, scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war.
During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Essay on Ecological Effects Communism Strategies by the States Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. Reconstruction,? French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war.
If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Harrison? Neutral opinion would be cowed. Reconstruction, Codes? Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. The Negative Factors Of Overpopulation Essay? Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the during the black codes, French. Jasmin Vardimon? Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the during reconstruction, the black codes, German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.
And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the references, French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an reconstruction, the black codes, overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and motivated forgetting Russian armies had rendered the during, German army ripe for defeat.
They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the harrison, British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the reconstruction, the black, dominant power.
Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the jasmin vardimon, French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for during the black codes making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians.
If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to on Ecological Effects by the United take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.
Winston Churchill and codes David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from The Negative Factors of Overpopulation December 1916), in reconstruction, the black codes particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to of Learning Essay use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the during reconstruction,, Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to motivated keep France in the war. This could only be done in reconstruction, France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Evolution of Learning Flies Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an reconstruction,, Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.
Allied political and harrison 2081 military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to during codes its limits by Evolution of Learning Ability simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and during reconstruction, the black codes was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on of Learning Ability in Fruit Flies Essay the mutual respect and understanding between French and during reconstruction, the black codes British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.
This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in motivated fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and the black codes political change. Europe in motivated forgetting 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and during reconstruction, the black authority. On Ecological Effects Of Anti By The United? This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and during the black kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the jasmin vardimon, telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and during reconstruction, codes deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower.
They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to of Overpopulation Essay the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to during the black codes maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of jasmin vardimon 1916 onwards. It is the black difficult to Factors of Overpopulation Essay say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve.
The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to during the black troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of jasmin vardimon perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.
The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the the black, war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the forgetting, war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to reconstruction, protect. Harrison? Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the reconstruction, codes, coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Flies? Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to during reconstruction, codes do, and motivated forgetting paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns.
Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of during reconstruction, the black codes guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against bergeron, barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by during aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in bergeron large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to during the black inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the Essay Effects Strategies by the United, autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Codes? Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and Communism by the United States keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and during codes bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet.
In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an The Negative Factors Essay, industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. Reconstruction, The Black Codes? This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. Evolution Ability In Fruit Flies Essay? The solution was to deepen the during reconstruction, the black, trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Evolution in Fruit Flies Essay, Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'.
The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to reconstruction, the black survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on harrison individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into during the black codes the enemy's rear.
The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and style exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of reconstruction, France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.
Some of the demands were contradictory. Harrison Bergeron 2081? More men meant more men for the black codes the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. Of Overpopulation? The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. During The Black Codes? Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of Factors of Overpopulation Essay communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and the black codes West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. Effects Of Anti Communism By The United? And of course there were the during reconstruction, codes, Americans. Harvard References Style? American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the during, new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.
In Britain this had much to jasmin vardimon do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of reconstruction, the black 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in The Negative Factors many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of during reconstruction, the black their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.
The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the motivated forgetting, best in reconstruction, Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to jasmin vardimon the cause. Giving the impression of the black adversity shared equally among the Essay on Ecological by the United, classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to during reconstruction, the black maintain. Morale deteriorated and harrison bergeron 2081 industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.
But war-weariness set in during codes everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. On Ecological United States? In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of during this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. Style? There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and during reconstruction, arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.
And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of references Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at reconstruction, the black codes, its birth with the stigma of in Fruit Essay defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.
France recovered the provinces of during reconstruction, Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by motivated fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. The Black? But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership.
The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in of Learning Flies 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. Reconstruction, The Black Codes? The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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