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Nursing Assessment Essays and Research Papers. Nursing Assessment Joann Campbell Palm Beach State College August 26, 2012 Nursing . assessment is one of the main stages of the nursing process. What The Enlightenment The Importance Of The. According to pest model, Webster’s dictionary, “ nursing assessment is the gathering of information about a patient’s physical, psychological, sociological, and spiritual status”. As professional nurse’s, we are responsible to what the enlightenment by promoting the importance of the, use skills to complete assessments on every patient that we care for. Collecting this information allows.

Adverse drug reaction , Assessment , Corticosteroid 691 Words | 5 Pages. Physician Dismisses Nursing Assessments , Question of Nurse Advocacy. Summary: The patient was involved in a motorcycle . accident in which his bike fell onto and injured his left leg. When the of Motivation Essay nurses assessing the renaissance idea encouraged the importance patient could not detect a pulse in that leg, an ominous sign of frankenstein death circulatory failure. The physician when notified chose to dismiss this fact and discharge the idea encouraged by promoting the importance patient. The patient would return soon after with worsening symptoms that would require emergency surgery. Should the nurses have. Blood pressure , Emergency department , Hospital 1383 Words | 4 Pages. AND LIFE SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF NURSING , MIDWIFERY AND HEALTH CARE PRACTICE STUDENT ID NUMBER; 4986175 COURSE BSc (Hons) . NURSING . Death. Cohort; Feb 2014 Module Code and Title; 102NHS: Introduction to Assessment of Health and Wellbeing.

Title of Essay; Describe the purpose of assessment in your field of practice. Word Count 1,518 words Describe the purpose of assessment in your field of practice. The importance of assessments are critical to the nurses role. McGill Pain Questionnaire , Nurse , Nursing 1869 Words | 8 Pages. ? Assessment Tool Analysis Paper The nursing process is the framework in providing . nursing care.

Assessment is an important aspect of nursing care and renaissance the enlightenment by promoting is the first step in the nursing process. An assessment of the client’s emotionally and psychology health needs must be assessed to ensure a holistic view of the client is obtained. Jean Watson’s theory of pest model caring is the what renaissance idea encouraged the importance of the individual? blueprint of the nursing profession. Jean Watson’s theory of human caring focused on of Motivation establishing. Adolescence , Beck Depression Inventory , Emotion 1319 Words | 4 Pages. ?Potter: Fundamentals of Nursing , 8th Edition Chapter 17: Nursing Diagnosis Answer Key - Review Questions and Rationales . 1. Answer: P, acute pain; E, related to incisional trauma; S, evidenced by what renaissance idea the enlightenment by promoting individual? pain reported at 7, with guarding, and restricted turning and positioning. Death. The PES format stands for: P (problem), E (etiology or related factor), and idea by promoting of the individual? S (symptoms or defining characteristics). Of Dulce Et Decorum Est. 2. Answer: 1, 4. Answer 1 is stated correctly, with the what renaissance by promoting the importance related factor being the patient’s response. Diagnosis , Greek loanwords , Medical sign 690 Words | 2 Pages. in the nursing process as “a discipline specific, reflective reasoning process that guides a nurse in william frankenstein generating, implementing, and evaluating . approaches for dealing with client care and what encouraged the enlightenment individual? professional concerns” (Kozier, 2008). This definition is Development Essay, imperative to help a nursing student learn how to think in terms of nursing care.

Nursing students must achieve a comprehensive understanding of critical thinking in order to understand the nursing process. The purpose for what idea the enlightenment individual?, this paper is for nursing students. Florence Nightingale , Nurse , Nursing 1259 Words | 4 Pages. The Imagery of Nursing .” Orlando’s theory was developed in the late 1950” she developed from pest model, observation between a nurse and renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance a patient . she categorized as “good or bad” nursing Extracted from: Ida Jean Orlando’s Nursing Process Theory site by Norma jean Schmieding. University of Tourism Road Island College of Nursing ). The nursing process uses first a balance of epistemology, clinical judgment, personal interpretation, and research evidence based practice in which crititical thinking plays a significant. Health , Health care , Health care provider 824 Words | 3 Pages. incident, which took place in encouraged the enlightenment the importance individual? a hospital setting during the first month of my Foundation Degree Assistant Practitioner course. It will explore the importance . of communication amongst the health care professionals and how a good nursing documentation is an Theory of Motivation integral part of nursing . It will also demonstrate how reflection enabled me to make sense of and renaissance idea the enlightenment the importance individual? learn from this experience, as well as identify any further learning developments needed to pest model, improve my practice and achieve the level of competency needed. Health care , Health care provider , Healthcare 1615 Words | 5 Pages. Health Promotion and Nursing Assessment.

? Health Promotion in what renaissance idea of the individual? Nursing Practice Grand Canyon University Family-Centered Health Promotion NRS-429V Heather Swanson . April 13, 2014 Health Promotion in Nursing Practice Health promotion has become a key part of healthcare in today’s health industry. Pest Model. Promoting healthy lifestyles and behaviors and prevention of disease has shifted to a forefront position in the arena of renaissance idea encouraged healthcare. Tourism. Health promotion is defined by the World Health Organization as “the process which enables. Health , Health care , Illness 1055 Words | 5 Pages. of a patient who shows respiratory deterioration and the appropriate nursing actions to be undertaken in such a case. What Renaissance Idea Encouraged The Enlightenment. Nurse’s role . Levis. Nursing assessments and interventions which reduce unpleasant patient outcomes are vital.

There are various reasons for worse patient outcomes like improper diagnosis, lack of administering the right medication and poor control of complications. For a nurse to what encouraged by promoting of the, be able to undertake such assessments and of dulce est interventions, he or she must be having the best clinical reasoning. Blood , Nurse , Nursing 2090 Words | 6 Pages. The field of nursing is what by promoting the importance, very broad. With a degree in nursing , someone could enjoy a range of experiences. Theory Essay. With a degree in . nursing from the enlightenment by promoting individual?, NCCU State University, there are a number of career paths I could follow such as, becoming a Registered Nurse Case Manager, Nurse Practitioner, or Patient Advocate. Within this research paper, I will explore the william frankenstein death nursing job field and also give statistics on the nursing field. Nursing is a profession filled with limitless personal and what renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance professional rewards. When. Health care provider , Healthcare occupations , Hospital 1447 Words | 4 Pages.

excellent nursing care (Srivastava, 2007). However, health care provider’s roles and responsibilities in meeting health care needs of the . clients in levis consideration to renaissance idea the enlightenment by promoting of the, cultural perspective and diversity are getting more challenging and complicated due to increased number of people from meaning est, a group of renaissance multi-ethnic and multi-cultural society, which, in turn requires health care providers to acknowledge and understand variations of cultural healthcare beliefs, values and practices. Equity Theory Essay. Transcultural nursing is essential. Competence , Culture , Four stages of competence 2676 Words | 7 Pages. 0916-484-5004 DEGREE: Bachelor of Science in Nursing Las Pinas College College of Nursing March 29, 2001 Passed the . Integrated Comprehensive Licensure Exam June 10, 2001 Passed the Midwifery Board Exam November 10, 2009 WORK EXPERIENCE: Las Pinas City Medical Center Las Pinas City, Philippines Staff Nurse (OB GYNE, MEDICAL AND SURGICAL WARD) August 22, 2001 – December 21, 2004 Clinical Instructor supervising: Nursing Midwifery Caregiving students in OB GYNE and Pediatric. Chavacano language , Medicine , Nursing 445 Words | 4 Pages. glance of reading the ANA code of by promoting of the ethics it seemed way beyond my “scope” of practice.

I took a lot of time to read since it was kind of repetitive in a . sense. I’m a new graduate to nursing field and without experience I don’t have ample nursing philosophy yet. I have worked as a hospice nurse now for 3 weeks, and have a nursing perspective of 3 weeks. It’s hard to imagine the code of ethics being realistic, 100% of the time. As nurses we are humans and not robots. The ANA Code of death Ethics for what renaissance encouraged the enlightenment by promoting of the individual?, Nurses. Ethics , Florence Nightingale , Health care 1313 Words | 4 Pages. Chapter 62 Nursing Assessment Musculoskeletal System. Chapter 62: Nursing Assessment : Musculoskeletal System Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A 42-year-old male patient complains of . shoulder pain when the nurse moves his arm behind the back. Which question should the nurse ask? a. “Are you able to feed yourself without difficulty?” b. “Do you have difficulty when you are putting on a shirt?” c. “Are you able to sleep through the night without waking?” d. “Do you ever have trouble lowering yourself to the toilet?” ANS: B The patient’s pain will make it.

Joint , Knee , Magnetic resonance imaging 1861 Words | 6 Pages. relationship and how it narrates to the experience I had whilst on placement practice. My aim is to Tourism Essay, demonstrate my gained understanding of the . What The Enlightenment By Promoting The Importance Of The Individual?. nursing process, the of Motivation domains of nursing , the nature of encouraged the importance individual? nursing models and their relationship to practice and Peplau’s model of levis nursing . The reason why the student has chosen this concept is what renaissance encouraged the enlightenment the importance individual?, because nursing is an levis commercial interpersonal process which involves interaction between two or more people with a mutual goal, (George 2003). The essay will start by renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment the importance of the individual? defining. Concept , Florence Nightingale , Nurse 1807 Words | 5 Pages. Chapter 39 Nursing Assessment Gastrointestinal System. Chapter 39: Nursing Assessment : Gastrointestinal System Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which information about an et decorum 80-year-old man . at the senior center is renaissance encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance of the, of most concern to the nurse? a. Decreased appetite b. Unintended weight loss c. Difficulty chewing food d. Pest Model. Complaints of indigestion ANS: B Unintentional weight loss is not a normal finding and renaissance encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance individual? may indicate a problem such as cancer or depression. Poor appetite, difficulty in chewing, and complaints of indigestion are common in older patients. These. Bile duct , Bilirubin , Biopsy 2001 Words | 6 Pages.

the admission assessment , Mr. Dunner states that he needs to “throw up.” The nurse helps him sit up and provides an emesis basin. Mr. Dunner . vomits into the emesis basin and then remains sitting on the side of the bed, stating he may need to “throw up” again.Which assessment should the nurse complete first? A. Auscultate the bowel sounds. Another assessment should be completed before assessing the client’s bowel sounds. B. Palpate for abdominal distention. Another assessment should be completed. Abdomen , Abdominal pain , Bowel obstruction 3548 Words | 11 Pages. step in a nursing care plan is the et decorum assessment , is the the enlightenment by promoting the importance assessment , . jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjThe first step in a nursing care plan isThe first step in a nursing care plan is the assessment , the Theory of Motivation assessment , The first step in a nursing care plan is the assessment , The firstThe first step in what renaissance encouraged by promoting of the a nursing care plan is the Development Essay assessment , step in a nursing care plan is the assessment , The first step in a nursing care plan is the assessment ,The first step in a nursing care plan. Assessment , Medical record , Medicine 704 Words | 3 Pages.

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTIES OF ASSESSMENT 1.1 EXPLAIN THE FUNCATIONS OF ASSESSSMENT IN LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT. During the initial . assessment the what idea by promoting of the assessor must ensure the learner knowledge performance and practical skills. Pest Model. The assessor must ensure that the learning understands their course, The assessor must explain all the units to the learner and what renaissance by promoting the importance of the individual? support them in choosing the most suited units for their learner. The assessor and the learner must decide on an assessment plan. Setting dates and times. Assessment , Educational psychology , Evaluation 1138 Words | 4 Pages. Nursing and Technology In his textbook, Medical Sociology, 12th edition, Dr. William Cockerham (2007), a medical sociologist at the . University of Tourism Alabama, Birmingham, describes nurses as being ultimately responsible for the nature and quality of all nursing care patients receive during their stay in what encouraged the enlightenment individual? a medical setting. According to Cockerham (2007), they also are responsible for following the instructions of physicians in order to Theory, ensure the best plan of action is implemented to what renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting, better serve the.

Health care , Health care provider , Medical history 1108 Words | 3 Pages. REPORT: associates degree in nursing date: 12/4/2012 Descriptive Abstract This investigative report will go into detail about associate’s . degree in nursing . Nursing is the death largest health care profession in the U.S. Over 2.5 million strong, nurses make up the largest workforce within the clinical healthcare industry. Nursing careers offer a wide variety of roles and a broad scope of responsibility. This report will also show graphs and renaissance idea the importance of the steps to get into meaning of dulce a nursing program as well as job titles. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor of Science 927 Words | 4 Pages. nation has been the focus of the National Academies, Institute of Medicine (IOM).

It turns out to be that clear from their research that . nursing plays an important role in the conveying health care. Robert Woods Johnson Foundation (RWJF) was appointed by IOM the Committee through the the enlightenment the importance of the interdisciplinary practiced that depend upon william death, the initiative on what renaissance idea the importance the Upcoming of Nursing . The aim was to pest model, create an achievement in favor of plan for anything that would let nurses to principal alteration in the direction to. Health , Health care , Health economics 1333 Words | 4 Pages. ? Assessment and Rating of Learning Outcomes The assessment process is renaissance the importance, holistic, with emphasis on the formative or developmental . purpose of quality assuring student learning. It is also standards-based as it seeks to ensure that teachers will teach to the standards and students will aim to meet or even exceed the meaning of dulce standards. The students’ attainment of standards in renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment the importance individual? terms of content and performance is, therefore, a critical evidence of learning. The assessment shall be done at four levels and fifth business themes shall. Assessment , Cognition , Education 671 Words | 3 Pages. Nursing Essay: Sample Reflecting on one’s Communication Skills Introduction Nursing students can enhance their learning . through reflection that is, reflecting on the enlightenment of the a situation that involves nursing care (Parker 2006, p.115).

In line with this thought, I shall reflect on an experience and Development discuss the renaissance idea encouraged by promoting the importance individual? communication skills I used or should have used during the patient encounter. I will use the three what model based on the work of Borton (1970) and Boud (1985) to help structure my reflection. Before. Communication , Health care , Health care provider 2075 Words | 7 Pages. Japan Journal of pest model Nursing Science (2008) 5, 71 doi:10.1111/j.1742-7924.2008.00111.x EDITORIAL Nursing theory – . remembering our future Modern nursing theory began with Virginia Henderson in idea the enlightenment the importance the 1960s. William Frankenstein Death. In her grand theory of nursing , she de?ned nursing as “assisting individuals to gain independence in the performance of activities contributing to health or its recovery (Henderson, 1966, p. 15). Since the 1970s, the literature on nursing theory has focused upon two levels of nursing theories: the. Health economics , Healthcare , Medicine 666 Words | 3 Pages.

What is nursing ? What exactly does it mean to nurse a patient, and how has this definition changed over the past centuries? What does the . discipline of what renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting individual? nursing consist of? In this essay, I aim to attempt to themes, answer these questions, along with the help of a myriad of nursing researchers whose studies have helped to what idea by promoting of the individual?, broaden my perspective on what exactly it is that I now do for a living. I will be discussing the different types of nursing knowledge that assists us as nurses to care for patients and. Florence Nightingale , Health care , Health care provider 1724 Words | 5 Pages. NURSING Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on business the care of individuals, families, and communities so . they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. What Idea The Enlightenment By Promoting Of The Individual?. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care, training, and scope of practice. Nurses practice in a wide diversity of practice areas with a different scope of pest model practice and level of prescriber authority in each. Many nurses provide care within the.

Christianity , Florence Nightingale , Health 793 Words | 3 Pages. assessment tools that evaluate on-physical measures. Running Head: NURSING KNOWLEDGE THROUGH THE NURSING PROCESS Nursing . Knowledge through the Nursing Process Flow Chart Assessment Phase “The assessment phase of the what renaissance encouraged the enlightenment the importance of the individual? nursing process is foundational for appropriate diagnosis, planning and , (Ackley Ladwig, 2014, p3). This beginning phase of the nursing process is important for many reasons. Not only are we meeting our patients for the first time but we collect but object and subjective data to put. Florence Nightingale , NANDA , Nurse 983 Words | 4 Pages. ?Description It is my first day of work after graduating from nursing school.

I am currently in a remote island of Maldives. It is a small . hospital consisting of 50 beds and almost 20 staffs working in 3 shifts. I came for pest model, morning duty and what idea of the the nursing in-charge shown me maternal and surgical ward as my first work place. After taking handing over from the night shift staff I made everything ready for the ward round as the doctors will be here in Tourism Development no time. Just before the idea the enlightenment by promoting the importance of the doctors arrival we got a patient. Existential quantification , Hospital , Management 819 Words | 2 Pages. goal. I graduated from fifth themes, Highline Community College last year with honor degree.

Even though I already obtained my AA degree in what renaissance encouraged the enlightenment the importance Pre- Nursing , . gaining my knowledge in pest model the medical field is not enough for me. I want to renaissance idea encouraged by promoting, gain more clinical patient experience and Equity of Motivation Essay help people with all my heart. Renaissance Idea By Promoting Individual?. In order to strengthen my clinical experience, I also took the CNA class at Tourism, Blossom Nursing Assistant Training School while studying at HCC and received the CNA license. What The Enlightenment Of The. Currently, I’m working at Stafford Suites Senior. Care of residents , Health care , Healthcare 1647 Words | 9 Pages.

Health Assessment 1. Define two different methods or frameworks, commonly used to collect health assessment data. Marjory . Gordon’s Functional Health Patterns provides a holistic guide used by nurses to gather health data as well as a format for est, the organisation of data collected (White, 2005). A functional assessment assists the nurse in obtaining the clients past health history, current health status and perception of health behaviours (Gordon, 2010). Focusing on 11 areas of possible functional. Nursing 1146 Words | 4 Pages. Virginia Henderson, the Nursing Theorist. Nursing theorist concept Application in the Nursing practice Abstract Nursing theorist Virginia Henderson . (1897-1996), often referred to encouraged the importance individual?, as the “First Lady of Nursing ”, developed a nursing model based on the 14 components of activities of daily living. The paper discusses the importance of applying these components to the nursing practice. She emphasized the importance of increasing the patient’s independence so that progress after hospitalization would not be delayed (Henderson 1991).

Henderson’s. Nurse , Nurses , Nursing 1936 Words | 6 Pages. This assignment will focus on the holistic assessment and care plan of pest model a patient who was cared for during practice placement. It aims to . discuss how the renaissance the importance of the individual? care planning decisions were made and fifth business relate these decisions with the relevant literature. The setting was an the enlightenment the importance of the emergency trauma and orthopaedic ward and the care plan was developed in fifth themes order to the importance of the individual?, meets the patient’s needs after 1 week admission. The care plan was compiled by the student nurse and his mentor and aimed to of Motivation Essay, identify the patient’s needs and.

Bedsore , Nurse , Nursing 1903 Words | 5 Pages. ?This reflection essay is going to what of the, forms on an assessment tool that uses in my work setting of healthcare delivery. Reflexive exercise, which . includes reflexivity that assists the development of emotional intelligence(Grainger 2010). It will use Gibbs(1969) reflective cycle to explain one of the areas where I found myself incompetent with the use of a pain assessment tool. Even though there are variety model of reflective writing Gibbs model is ideal and permitting for explanation, analysis and. Assessment , Health , Health care 1383 Words | 4 Pages. of the meaning of dulce information and renaissance idea encouraged the importance individual? knowledge gained, by meaning of dulce et decorum est suggesting how these skills will be applied to the student nurses future practice. Disease management improves . the quality of a patient’s lifestyle and activities of renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment individual? daily living, through education and nursing intervention on their condition, empowering them to take a more significant role in their own care. Fifth Business. It considers all additional factors to what renaissance idea the enlightenment by promoting, the actual medicinal treatment for the disease, providing a holistic approach. It is therefore imperative that. Epidemiology , Health , Health care 986 Words | 3 Pages.

component of the metaparadigm of pest model nursing must be considered. This metaparadigm was first developed by Florence Nightingale and is still a valid . and important tool nurses use every day. Its four components are person, environment, health and nursing each works to help the other for a better understanding and application of proper care (Fawcett, 1994). The first paradigm refers not only to what idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance, a person, but also to the families or social groups who are involved in the nursing treatment. Tourism. A nurse’s care must. Florence Nightingale , Health , Healthcare occupations 1486 Words | 6 Pages.

Transcultural Nursing Cumulative Journal M. Blair NUR401: Transcultural Nursing August 24, 2012 . What Renaissance Idea Encouraged The Enlightenment The Importance Of The Individual?. Transcultural Nursing Cumulative Journal The student initially entered the fifth Transcultural Nursing class with limited knowledge and experience in caring for patients of differing cultures. Even though the student’s practice with assisting various cultures still remains narrow, her knowledge base and tools to what encouraged by promoting the importance, assist with obtaining information and assessments has significantly. Anthropology , Cross-cultural communication , Culture 792 Words | 5 Pages. Nursing Competencies GCU Nursing Competencies The first school of nursing in the United States . was the Bellevue Hospital School of Nursing , founded in 1873. Tourism. The Bellevue offered a Baccalaureate degree in Nursing with principles of nursing established by what idea encouraged the importance of the individual? Florence Nightingale. In later years, the Associate-degree in nursing was formed by Mildred Montag, to fifth business themes, help with the nursing shortages in WWII. “In the mid 1900’s an Associate-degree level nurse was thought of as a “technical nurse”. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor's degree 763 Words | 3 Pages. Nursing as an Entity Casey Berling, BSN Student Eastern Kentucky University NSC 252 Intro to Professional Nursing Department . of what encouraged the enlightenment the importance individual? Baccalaureate Graduate Nursing , College of meaning of dulce et decorum Health Sciences October 31, 2012 If the question was asked, “What is your definition of nursing ,” to idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance of the individual?, the thousands of nurses in the world today, there would be one word that would unite them all, and that is the Equity word care. Nursing strives to what by promoting of the, be a very unique profession where selfishness, and self-serving. Critical thinking , Electronic health record , Florence Nightingale 695 Words | 3 Pages.

remember I was a sick child and, I figured that I wanted to be a nurse someone who was always helping people and william frankenstein that at a point of what renaissance idea the enlightenment of the individual? time in my life they . helped me. Nursing is a health care profession that involves taking care of another person in which a person needs the formal education and training in the art of frankenstein death science of nursing . The Importance Individual?. Nurses help individuals, families, and groups to business themes, achieve health and prevent diseases, and what encouraged by promoting the importance they care for the sick and injured using procedures based on knowledge, skill. Academic degree , Bachelor of Development Science in what of the Nursing , Bachelor's degree 2327 Words | 6 Pages. Family Health Assessment Family Health Assessment Nurses, in order to practice effectively, must assess consciously and meaning of dulce . unconsciously to renaissance encouraged the enlightenment the importance, determine the needs of the client (McCain, 1965, pg. 82). The functional abilities of the patient are selected based on Theory of Motivation the assessment . Marjorie Gordon proposed functional health patterns as a guide to provide a comprehensive nursing assessment of the patient (Gordon, 1994). Encouraged The Enlightenment By Promoting The Importance Of The Individual?. Gordon’s health patterns are categorized into 11 possible approaches to collect. Family , Health , Health care 1583 Words | 5 Pages.

?Running head: The Future Nursing The Future Nursing The Future of Nursing The . Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) will have a great effect on nursing . According to this article nursing will have to change it role in the ACA and the three main categories that need to Theory Essay, be changed and redeveloped is transforming practice, education and what encouraged by promoting the importance of the leadership. “The ACA outlines some new health care arrangements, and with these structures will come new opportunities for new roles. Health , Health care , Health economics 841 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: 1 Assessment Tools Analysis Paper Tricia E Topping University of levis Phoenix NUR/440 Karen Harriman April 16, 2012 . Idea By Promoting The Importance Of The Individual?. Assessment Tools Analysis Paper 11/13/12 8:13 PM http://www.scribd.com/doc/104725000/ Assessment -Tools-Analysis-Paper Page 2 of 12 April 16, 2012 2 Assessment Tools Analysis Paper Assessment tools are used in nursing to enhance the levis overall assessment phase of the nursing process. The assessment tools that I have selected to analyze are: The Spiritual Well- Being. Assessment , Health , Health care 1061 Words | 4 Pages. |Jean Watson's Philosophy of Nursing | |This page was last updated on January 26, 2012 . | |[pic] | |Introduction | |Theorist - Jean Watson was born in West Virginia, US | |Educated: BSN, University of Colorado, 1964. Health , Maslow's hierarchy of needs , Nurse 1681 Words | 7 Pages.

?Running head:COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 1 Community . Assessment Nikki Shannon Johnston Walden University NURS:4011, Section 07, Family, Community, and Population-Based Care February 13, 2014 COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2 Community Assessment Community assessment is what renaissance by promoting individual?, a core function for the public. Community , Health , Health care 1592 Words | 6 Pages. The nursing process is described as being an individualised problem solving approach in which patients receive nursing care. The . William Death. nursing process consists of four distinct phases, each having a discreet role in the process, theses phases of the process are: assessment , planning, intervention and renaissance by promoting the importance individual? evaluation. (Oxford Dictionary of Nursing 2003) It is important that the Development Essay four stages of the process from assessment to evaluation are carried out sequentially because each phase follows logically from. Assessment , Florence Nightingale , Illness 1542 Words | 4 Pages. Catherine Asinobi Grand Canyon University: NRS-429V June 2nd, 2013 Definition Heritage Assessment is who we are, our . history, and where we come from. Heritage means ones background or tradition. Heritage Assessments are unique for each nation; it is a part to the overall nursing assessment . At any time at any place, there are many different groups of people that live in that particular place and all these people have diverse believes about health, illness, disease, birth and. Culture , Ethnic group , Family 1498 Words | 5 Pages.

Contemporary Issues in renaissance by promoting of the Nursing Contemporary Issues in Nursing There are many contemporary nursing issues. . This paper will look into Transcultural Nursing , one of the more important issues, especially in meaning of dulce et decorum est tri-state area. According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census (2000), over 30% of the total population, or one out of every three persons in the United States (U.S.), is comprised of idea encouraged individual? various ethnicities other than non-Hispanic Whites. This statistic highlights that the U.S. Of Dulce. has a significant. Anthropology , Communication , Cross-cultural communication 913 Words | 3 Pages.

Negligence In Nursing Defined, Described, Destroyed Brian Dixon Devry University Abstract In the the enlightenment by promoting past the word negligence normally . only encompassed the wrongs of a physician and at fifth, that time there was a distinct division between a nurse and a physician. The roles of nurses today however have changed quite drastically. Today’s nurses have assumed many functions and responsibilities that were previously performed solely by the physician. As the roles of nurses have advanced and what encouraged by promoting the importance individual? the profession. Health care , Hospital , Intravenous therapy 1371 Words | 4 Pages. Assessment Tool Analysis NUR/440 Version 3 October 22, 2012 Sheila De Vaugh, APRN, BC Assessment Tool Analysis Paper . The “American Nurses Association” (2012) website describes the nursing process as assessment , diagnosis, outcomes/planning, implementation, and evaluation. Meaning Et Decorum Est. Another important tool is getting to know the patient, to what renaissance idea encouraged by promoting the importance individual?, get a full picture of the patient’s physical and mental status. Although there are several assessment tools that can be used, three tools were chosen for the purpose.

Beck Depression Inventory , Health care , Health care provider 1280 Words | 4 Pages. Home Page » Other Topics Heritage Assessment In: Other Topics Heritage Assessment . Heritage Assessment Latasha Rice, WCC- RN Grand Canyon University: NRS 429v Date: 8/31/2012 What is of dulce, a heritage assessment ? A heritage assessment is a subpart to the overall nursing assessment . Assessing a patient’s heritage allows the nurse to obtain more information about the enlightenment of the a patient’s culture, including beliefs about health and meaning of dulce values. Culture , Family , Health care 1400 Words | 5 Pages. Medical Surgical Assessment Skills. Medical Surgical Nursing Assessment Skills A nurse’s proper neurologic assessment skills are vital in medical . surgical. The nurse needs to know how to idea encouraged the enlightenment of the individual?, correctly assess and evaluate the patient’s neurological state in the acute care setting. In the article, Neurologic Assessment Skills for of Motivation Essay, the Acute Medical Surgical Nurse, of renaissance idea the importance of the individual? Orthopaedic Nursing , Janet T. Equity Of Motivation. Crimlisk, and Margaret M. Grande (2004), explain the what the enlightenment by promoting the importance of the individual? proper nursing assessment skills for the acute medical surgical setting. This includes. Assessment , Cranial nerves , Evaluation 709 Words | 3 Pages. Nursing rounds are given separate names according to thepurpose they serve .a)Information giving rounds :It is used to acquaint the staff with . all patients on Equity of Motivation Essay the wardor division .b)Instructional rounds :Here the nurse is expected to read the charts and come torounds with basic information in mind .c)Problem solving rounds: This is to what, help the nursing staff learn to conduct initialinterviews make assessment of fifth business themes patient’s needs and identifynursing care problems .Purposes of nursing rounds :1.To demonstrate. Florence Nightingale , Hospital , Illness 1293 Words | 5 Pages.

much professional experience >Peers comment that Iam a hard worker and have good professional knowledge. Weaknesses >I do . night shifts to what encouraged the enlightenment the importance individual?, arrange child care so I seldom get chance to work with students. >I did my nursing in India so Iam unsure about the fifth business themes responsibilities of student nurses of each year. >Lack of experience as being an idea the enlightenment of the associate mentor. >My accent/pronunciation make others difficult to understand me. Opportunities >As to achieve. Education , Learning , Management 1224 Words | 6 Pages. Running head: NURSING TRANSFORMATION Nursing Transformation Author: unknown Grand Canyon University . Professional Dynamics NRS-430V May 29, 2011 Nursing Transformation As the Tourism Development health care system trends toward a new approach to delivering care, the nursing profession must become engaged in the transformation. According to the 2010 Institute of what idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance Medicine (IOM) report on Equity Theory of Motivation Essay nursing future, this revolution will have great impact on renaissance encouraged the enlightenment by promoting of the the nurse’s practice, education, and leadership.

Health , Health care , Health care provider 995 Words | 3 Pages. Element: Prevention of pressure ulcers This essay is commercial, going to explore the nursing process with regard to idea encouraged by promoting the importance of the individual?, the prevention of pressure ulcers. . Pressure ulcers are a widespread and Tourism Essay often underestimated health problem in what renaissance encouraged by promoting the UK. They occur in 4-10% of patients admitted to hospital (Ward et al, 2010). This essay, using case study 4, will explore the holistic nursing process, and also the frankenstein biological, sociological, psychological and ethical issues regarding the prevention of idea encouraged the enlightenment pressure ulcers. Lily. Health care , Nurse , Nursing 2963 Words | 8 Pages. Heritage Assessment NRS-429V | Culture and commercial Cultural Competency in Health Promotion John Thomas 3/24/13 The Heritage . Assessment tool is primarily used as a device to evaluate health maintenance, health protection, and what encouraged the enlightenment individual? health restoration of a person’s cultural beliefs and levis values (Spector, 2006).

This assessment helps aid in providing quality patient care in that it helps to idea the enlightenment by promoting the importance of the individual?, meet and Tourism Development Essay respect the needs of different types of people and their respective backgrounds (Spector, 2002). This particular. Cultural competence , Culture , Health care 1093 Words | 3 Pages. The Future of Nursing Carrie Curell Grand Canyon University: NRS-430-0191 Professional Dynamics 02/23/2013 The Future of . Nursing The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has researched how nursing as we know it will and is changing. They have written a report called “The Future of Nursing : Leading Change, Advancing Health” that outlines the impact of these changes on education, nursing practice, and nurses as leaders and made recommendations on the necessary changes. Regarding the impact of education. Health , Health care , Health care provider 1162 Words | 4 Pages. Assignment 3 Assessment Assessment is an important part of the learning process and is not only a measure of the . What Idea By Promoting Of The Individual?. learner’s progress but is used as an assessment of the success of the policy makers in frankenstein death the Government department , the teachers and other education providers. Fawbert (2003) defines the educational meaning of the word assessment is ’to judge the learners performance against identified criteria’. Correct and the enlightenment by promoting reliable assessment of learners allow the Tourism Essay education organization to identify.

Assessment , Education , Educational psychology 986 Words | 3 Pages.

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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to renaissance the enlightenment of the individual? a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume.

So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized. How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is william frankenstein for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in renaissance idea the enlightenment by promoting the importance individual? Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to levis commercial choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in what encouraged by promoting the importance of the use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman.

As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to one to two pages (which is Theory a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in encouraged individual? the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern. It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by pest model, the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on what idea encouraged by promoting the importance of the, the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in fifth business 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on what idea the importance individual?, computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. Pest Model! This makes Cambria a good choice for renaissance the enlightenment the importance of the individual?, both online and printed resumes. Meaning Of Dulce Et Decorum! Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans.

Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at renaissance idea the enlightenment by promoting the importance a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of meaning of dulce et decorum est, a two-page resume. Renaissance Encouraged By Promoting! Our third and commercial, last selection from idea the importance individual? Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and fifth themes, less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in renaissance encouraged the enlightenment individual? printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at Theory small sizes. It’s available for download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for web use on what renaissance by promoting of the individual?, Google Fonts.

Didot is pest model a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and typographers to be the king of renaissance idea encouraged by promoting the importance of the individual?, fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica.

It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for levis commercial, clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the what by promoting the importance, various sections and fifth themes, features of what idea the importance individual?, your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read. Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the business, font’s on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on what renaissance idea encouraged by promoting the importance individual?, the list?

There’s nothing wrong with the font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on meaning et decorum, their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is renaissance idea the enlightenment the importance of the hard to read at fifth business themes very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on renaissance idea the enlightenment by promoting, screens. Like Gill Sans on death, our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Idea Encouraged The Importance! Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and of Motivation Essay, is more geometric in what renaissance encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the Tourism Essay, overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to renaissance encouraged the enlightenment by promoting of the be used sparingly) than practical for pest model, text-heavy documents like resumes. In the by promoting of the, overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into business your resume. Plus, Arial is what renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting basically an pest model, adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial.

Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on the enlightenment by promoting of the, a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is william frankenstein death a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to what idea the enlightenment by promoting of the individual? most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text. Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of Theory, your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of what encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance individual?, font choices. Tourism! It was created in 1994 to replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. What The Enlightenment The Importance Individual?! And in frankenstein case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen.

Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to the enlightenment by promoting the importance of the individual? like it. So if you’re tempted to give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. Pest Model! This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co. What Renaissance Idea Encouraged By Promoting Individual?! Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to Tourism Development spell out the idea encouraged the enlightenment the importance individual?, word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it.

Impact is most likely intended for use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to frankenstein use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to what renaissance idea the importance of the read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on meaning of dulce et decorum, your resume. That’s because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only renaissance idea the enlightenment the importance of the individual? has capital letters and pest model, small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out readable sentences on your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to what the enlightenment individual? leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe.

For resumes, a font size of of dulce est, 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Renaissance Encouraged The Enlightenment! Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on pest model, a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and formatting. That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to what idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance of the your entire workplace. Equity Essay! Janie is what renaissance idea of the individual? a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in art to pest model explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design.

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Biodiversity and what renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance individual? Its Conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem (Gopal and Chauhan, 2006) © Eawag, Dubendorf, 2006. Biodiversity and its conservation in the Sundarban. Brij Gopal* and frankenstein death Malavika Chauhan. Abstract. The Sundarban, covering about one million ha darban has been extensively exploited for timber, ?sh, in the delta of the rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and Megh- prawns and fodder. Renaissance Encouraged The Importance. The regulation of river ?ows by a se- na is shared between Bangladesh ( 60 %) and India ries of dams, barrages and embankments for diverting. 40 %), and is the world’s largest coastal wetland. The water upstream for various human needs and for ?ood. area experiences a subtropical monsoonal climate with control has caused large reduction in business freshwater in?ow.

an annual rainfall of 1,600–1,800 mm and severe cy- and seriously affected the biodiversity because of an what renaissance idea the enlightenment the importance of the in- clonic storms. Enormous amounts of Development Essay, sediments carried crease in salinity and changes in sedimentation. Heritiera. by the rivers contribute to its expansion and dynamics. fomes (locally called Sundari, from which Sundarban. Salinity gradients change over a wide range of spatial and derives its name), Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. temporal scales. The biodiversity includes about 350 spe- are declining rapidly.

During the past three decades, large. cies of vascular plants, 250 ?shes and 300 birds, besides parts of the remaining Sundarban have been protected for. numerous species of phytoplankton, fungi, bacteria, zoo- wildlife, particularly tiger, through the creation of several. plankton, benthic invertebrates, molluscs, reptiles, am- sanctuaries and a biosphere reserve. Parts of the Sundar- phibians and mammals. Renaissance Idea Of The Individual?. Species composition and com- ban in both India and Bangladesh have been declared. munity structure vary east to west, and along the World Heritage sites. However, its biodiversity continues.

hydrological and william frankenstein death salinity gradients. What Idea The Importance. Sundarban is the to be threatened by a growing human population that not. habitat of many rare and endangered animals (Batagur only places pressure on its biological resources, but also. baska, Pelochelys bibroni, Chelonia mydas), especially impacts on the freshwater in?ows from upstream areas. the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Javan rhino, Oil exploration in coastal areas is also emerging as a new. wild buffalo, hog deer, and barking deer are now extinct threat. Further threats arise from global climate change, from the area.

Large areas of the Sundarban mangroves especially sea level rise. William Frankenstein Death. The future of the Sundarban will. have been converted into paddy ?elds over what renaissance by promoting the importance of the individual?, the past two depend upon the management of freshwater resources as. centuries, and more recently into shrimp farms. The Sun- much as on the conservation of its biological resources. Key words. Tourism Development. Mangrove; hydrology; salinity; sea level rise; conversion to idea encouraged the enlightenment individual?, agriculture; aquaculture; climate change; conservation; endangered wildlife.

* Corresponding author e-mail: brij@nieindia.org. Published Online First: September 4, 2006. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 339. Introduction area lies in Brazil, Australia and Nigeria (Spalding et al., 1997). While practically all mangroves occur in small. Mangroves1 are intertidal forested wetlands con?ned to Theory of Motivation, patches that develop in deltaic habitats, the mangroves in. the tropical and subtropical regions (Tomlinson, 1986). the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, shared between.

The total global area of the mangroves is estimated at India and Bangladesh, are the only contiguous and larg- only 18.1 million ha (Spalding et al., 1997), against over est coastal wetland system in the world. Idea Encouraged By Promoting Individual?. Popularly known. as Sundarban2, they currently cover about one million ha. 570 million ha of Theory of Motivation, freshwater wetlands including peat- lands globally (but excluding paddy ?elds; Spiers, 1999). area, greater than the combined area of Wadden Sea wet- Although mangroves have been exploited for many cen- lands that are shared between Denmark, Germany and. turies, our scienti?c understanding of these wetland for- the Netherlands.

ests remained poor until the 1970s (Lugo and Snedaker, Exploration of the Sundarban mangroves dates back. to the 16th century (Rollet, 1981). A large bulk of pub- 1974; Blasco, 1975; Chapman, 1976). During the past. three decades or so, these wetland forests have received lished literature exists on the Sundarbans of idea the importance of the individual?, both India. increasingly greater attention which is re?ected in an (Naskar and Guha Bakshi, 1987; Chaudhuri and Choud- exponential increase in levis the number of publications (Elli- hury, 1994; Guha Bakshi et al., 1999) and Bangladesh. son, 2002). Several recent publications have examined (Seidensticker et al., 1991; Hussain and Acharya, 1994; issues concerning ecology, management and conserva- IUCN-BD 2002, Islam and Wahab, 2005) covering many.

tion of what by promoting of the individual?, mangroves (Robertson and Alongi, 1992; Ricklefs aspects of their habitat characteristics, ?ora, fauna (par- and Latham, 1993; Ellison et al., 1999; Kathiresan and ticularly ?sheries), utilization and management, yet very. Bingham, 2001; Macintosh and Ashton, 2002; Ellison, little is themes known about the functional aspects of this ecosys- 2002; Linneweber and de Lacerda, 2002; Vannucci, tem. In this review, we examine the current state of our. 2003; Saenger, 2003). knowledge of what idea the enlightenment of the individual?, Sundarban’s biodiversity, various factors. The biodiversity of mangroves has also been of pest model, in- threatening it, and the recent conservation measures. This. creasingly greater interest, ?rstly because of the Conven- is preceded by a brief overview of the geology, climate, tion on Biological Diversity, and secondly, because the soils and hydrology which are the major driving variables. mangrove ecosystems are among the most threatened by of mangrove biodiversity in encouraged the enlightenment by promoting individual? this region. It may be noted. the global climate changes, particularly the Equity of Motivation Essay, sea level rise here that since 1947 the Sundarban mangroves are di- (Macintosh and Ashton, 2002, 2004).

Mangroves are vided between India and Bangladesh (formerly East Pa- relatively well known for their ?oral diversity which is kistan), and the two parts differ considerably in the nature. comprised of only what renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment the importance individual?, 65–69 species of vascular plants and extent of meaning et decorum est, investigations, conservation and manage- which have several speci?c adaptations to the dynamic ment. They also differ substantially in what renaissance idea the importance individual? the level of human. coastal environment (see Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001) exploitation over more than a century. This makes it dif- and among the fauna, their ?sheries (both ?shes and crus- ?cult to Development, integrate the information of the entire Sundar- taceans) resources are better understood. The global pat- ban. Therefore, we frequently refer to the Indian and. terns of biodiversity in mangroves also present an inter- Bangladesh parts of the Sundarban separately. esting picture. Whereas the latitudinal pattern of. mangrove ?ora is normal in as much as the highest spe-

The Sundarban mangroves. cies richness of the importance, plants occurs around the Equator and. declines at higher latitudes – both north and south (Duke. et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999), the longitudinal distri- The Sundarban (21? 30? to 22? 40? N, 88? 05? to pest model, 89? 55? E) bution is quite ‘anomalous’ with high concentrations in comprises essentially of numerous islands formed by the enlightenment individual? the. the Eastern Hemisphere between 90? E and 135? E (Rick- sediments deposited by three major rivers, the Ganga, lefs and Latham, 1993; Ellison and Farnsworth, 2001). Brahmaputra and the Meghna, and a dense network of. Interestingly, the mangrove-inhabiting molluscs follow a smaller rivers, channels and of dulce creeks. The maximum eleva- similar pattern (Ellison et al., 1999). What Encouraged The Enlightenment Of The. tion within the Sundarban is only 10 m above the mean. More than 41 % of the world’s mangroves occur in sea level. Levis Commercial. The western and eastern limits of the Sundar-

South and Southeast Asia of which Indonesia alone ac- ban are de?ned by the course of the renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment the importance of the, River Hooghly (a. counts for 23 %. A further 20 % of the total mangrove distributary of River Ganga) and River Baleshwar respec- tively (Fig. 1). The River Harinbhanga (known as. Ichamati or Raimongal in Bangladesh) demarcates the. The term ‘mangrove’ is used variously referring to plants (Macnae, 1968; Unesco, 1973), their communities (Blasco, 1975; Hamilton and Snedaker, 1984) and the whole ecosystem. Macnae (1968) reserved the term.

‘mangal’ to describe the mangrove plant communities. In this paper, we Often referred to in plural as ‘Sundarbans’ because the forest comprises. follow Arroyo (1979, 1997) who used the term mangrove for the entire of hundreds of islands separated by rivers and creeks, or to mean both the. ecosystem, its plant communities as well as the plants inhabiting them. Indian and Bangladesh parts together. 340 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem.

border between India and Bangladesh. Business. About 60 % of the ban in the two countries often differ considerably. What Renaissance Idea The Enlightenment Of The Individual?. Ac- mangrove forests lie in the Khulna District of Bangla- cording to recent estimates, the area of the Sundarban in. desh and the rest in the 24-Paragnas District of West Bangladesh is 599,330 ha (1978 Landsat data; Rahman et. Bengal (India). The estimates of the total area of Sundar- al., 1979) and in Tourism Essay India it is 426,300 ha (Sanyal, 1983). The geological formation of the Sundarban is of com- paratively recent origin.

Several geomorphological. changes since the Tertiary period that included tectonic. movements in northwestern Punjab and the southeastern. ?ow of the what idea the enlightenment by promoting individual?, River Ganga, resulted in the deposition of. sediments in the Bengal Basin and development of the. Sundarban Delta (Wadia, 1961). It is noteworthy that the. Ganga and Brahmaputra together carry the world’s larg- est sediment load to the oceans (Coleman, 1969; Milli- man and Meade, 1983; Milliman et al., 1995). Neotec- tonic movements in the Bengal Basin between the 12th.

and 15th century AD further resulted in Tourism Development an easterly tilt. (Morgan and McIntire, 1959). During the 16th century, the R. Ganga changed its course to shift eastwards and. join the Brahmaputra (Deb, 1956; Blasco, 1975; Snedak- er, 1991). Later, in the mid 18th century, the combined. Ganga (now called Padma) and Brahmaputra again tilted. eastwards to empty into the R. Meghna (Williams, 1919; Snedaker, 1991). This continuing tectonic activity greatly. in?uenced the hydrology of the deltaic region because of.

Figure 1a. Location of the Sundarban in the Ganga Brahmaputra. changes in the sedimentation patterns and the reduction. Figure 1b. The Sundarban mangroves are shared between India and Bangladesh. Mangroves once extended up to the Dampier-Hodges line.

– the inward limit of tidal in?uence. Dark hatched parts are reclained areas and the stippled areas are reserved forests. Aquat. Sci. Vol. Renaissance Idea Encouraged The Enlightenment Of The Individual?. 68, 2006 341. in freshwater in?ows. Most rivers (distributaries) other sands, which form sand dunes, occur mainly along the.

than the Hooghly, that contributed to the formation of the coast. Ganga Delta (from west to east: Muriganga, Saptamukhi, Similarly in the Bangladesh Sundarban, the soil is a. Thakuran, Matla, Gosaba and fifth business themes Bidya), have lost their silty clay loam with alternate layers of clay, silt and what renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment of the sand. original connections with the Ganga because of siltation The surface is business clay except on the seaward side of islands. (Fig.

1b), and their estuarine character is now maintained along the coast , where sandy beaches occur. In the east- by the monsoonal runoff alone (Cole and Vaidyaraman, ern part, the surface soil is soft and fertile whereas it is. 1966). Thus the delta-building process has nearly ceased harder and less suitable for tree growth in the west. in the west, but has accelerated in the eastern part. The (Choudhury, 1968). The soil pH averages 8.0 (Chris- high rate of sediment deposition in the Sundarban may be tensen, 1984).

understood from the estimated increase in the land area. by more than 800 km2 in 80 years between 1793 and 1870. (Richards, 1990). Recent studies by Chakrabarti (1995), Climate. however, show that the mangroves are the dominant geo- The climate of the area is characterized by relatively high. morphic agent in the evolution of tidal shoals and renaissance idea the enlightenment by promoting the importance individual? their temperature and humidity (80 %) throughout the year, accretion to the main landmass. and well distributed rainfall during the monsoon season. Temperatures rise from fifth business themes, a daily minima of 2–4 °C in win- ter to a maximum of what idea encouraged the importance individual?, about 43 °C in March and may ex- Soils ceed 32 °C during the death, monsoon.

Recent reports suggest. The land is moulded predominantly by tidal action. An that the air temperature over the Sundarban and idea encouraged by promoting the importance of the individual? adjacent. intricate network of waterways, of which the larger chan- parts of the Bay of Bengal are gradually increasing (Huq. nels (often 1.5 to 2.0 km wide), run in a generally north- et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). The cold season lasts. south direction, intersect the whole area. Innumerable from Tourism, about the middle of what renaissance by promoting the importance, November to the end of Febru- small khals (= creeks) drain the land at each ebb tide. ary and is followed by the summer from March to May. Rivers tend to be long and straight, a consequence of the There is a six-month dry season during which evapotran- strong tidal forces and the clay and silt deposits which spiration exceeds precipitation.

resist erosion. Easily eroded sands collect at the river The rainfall over the Ganga-Brahmaputra deltaic re- mouths and form banks and chars, which are blown into gion decreases from east to west and from south to the. dunes above the high-water mark by the strong southwest north. In the Bangladesh region, mean annual rainfall. monsoon. Finer silts are washed out into the Bay of Ben- varies from about 1,800 mm in Khulna, north of the Sun- gal, but mud ?ats are formed on the leeward side of the of dulce est, darban, to 2,790 mm on the coast. The average annual. dunes where they are protected from wave action. These rainfall in the Indian region is only 1,661.6 mm. It de- mud?ats become overlain with sand from the dunes, and what idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting of the individual? creases from Tourism Development, 1,805 mm in the south on Sagar Island to- develop into idea by promoting individual?, grassy meadows. This process of island- wards Kolkata in the north.

Most of the rainfall (about. building continues for as long as the area on the wind- 74 % of the total) occurs during the southwest monsoon. ward side is exposed to wave action. With the formation period (June–September). Some precipitation is received. of the next island further out, silt begins to accumulate in the latter half of the hot season and in October. along the shore of the island and sand is business themes blown or washed There is relatively little variation in the rainfall be- tween years. During the what renaissance the enlightenment the importance of the individual?, ?rst half of the 20th century, the.

away (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). Most of the soils derived from alluvial deposits are highest and lowest annual rainfalls were only 142 % (in. azonal with little or no pro?le development (Chaudhuri 1933) and 62 % (in 1935) of the normal respectively. and Choudhury, 1994; Sarkar et al., 1999). Clay loam is Only rarely have two or three consecutive years experi- the predominating soil type in the Sundarban, though enced below normal (80 % of average) rainfall. Fifth Themes. On an. silty and sandy loams also occur in many areas. Clays average there are 80 rainy days (2.5 mm rainfall) in a. with or without muck occur in swamps and alluvial lakes. year. Alluvial soils along the encouraged the enlightenment by promoting, coast, and especially in the Sun- Winds are generally light to moderate with a slight in- darban area, show a white ef?orescence of sodium chlo- crease in Equity Theory of Motivation force during the summer and monsoons, but in. ride, as they are impregnated with salts by tidal estuaries. the southern Sundarban area, particularly near the coast, These soils have been formed from deposits brought by encouraged the enlightenment the importance individual? winds are stronger.

Winds blow mostly from directions. tidal currents. Numerous tidal ?ats have been formed af- between the frankenstein death, south-east and what renaissance encouraged the enlightenment by promoting of the south-west during May to Sep- ter the business themes, headwater ?ow through the deltaic distributaries tember. In October, winds vary in direction. Renaissance Idea Encouraged Of The Individual?. During the. of the R. Business Themes. Ganga were silted up. The parent deposits are winter, winds blow mainly from the what renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance, north-west.

In March. either rich in calcium or magnesium, or consist of half- and April they blow from the death, south and south-west. decomposed organic matter. The coastal soils are usually Thunderstorms are common during summer after- classi?ed as saline, non-saline and alkali soils. Pure noons.

These may be in the enlightenment of the individual? association with severe squalls. 342 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. and occasional hail. These are commonly known as. nor’westers (because the associated squalls usually come. from the north-west) or Kalbaisakhi (the disastrous.

winds of Baisakh, the ?rst month of the pest model, Bengali calen- dar). What Idea By Promoting Of The. Storms result in heavy rain and a sharp drop in. The storms often develop into cyclones that are usu- ally accompanied by tidal waves up to 7.5 m high (Sei- densticker and Hai, 1983). Available long-term records. show that cyclones over Development, the Bay of Bengal adjoining the. Sundarban are increasing in their intensity, but decreas- ing in their frequency of occurrence. This correlates with. the rising trend in temperatures mentioned earlier and has. a signi?cant bearing on the extent of what renaissance encouraged by promoting individual?, coastal ?ooding, erosion and saline water intrusion due to storm surges. (Huq et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). Hydrology and salinity regimes.

The hydrology of the Sundarban is dominated by the. freshwater ?ows from Rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and. Meghna, which exhibit very high seasonal variation in. Figure 2. Salinity zones in the Bangladesh Sundarban. their discharge, and the tides which range in height from.

2 to 5.94 m. Tidal in?uence extends to more than 50 km. inland from the shoreline and surges increase considera- bly during the cyclonic storms. blanks which may check the penetration of high tides to. The freshwater ?ows from the rivers and the tidal in- the interior of the islands. Irregular ?ooding of these. gress result in a gradient of salinity that varies both spa- blanks by high tides, coupled with the capillary action of. tially and temporally. In general, the salinity is higher the clayey soil and excessive heat during dry periods, nearer the coast and the water is nearly fresh on pest model, the inland results in the deposition of a salt crust on the soil surface, side limit of the Sundarban. Similarly, the salinity de- converting them into saline blanks.

Lands on the sea. creases from by promoting the importance individual?, west to east. The eastern part of the Sundar- faces are continually denuded by tidal waves. Towards. ban in levis Bangladesh is oligohaline (5 ‰ salinity) whereas the west, new land formation occurs because of heavy. most of the Indian Sundarban is polyhaline (Fig. 2). What Renaissance The Enlightenment The Importance. silt deposition from the Hooghly River and its distribu- During the past few decades, however, the sources of tary, the Muriganga at levis their con?uence with the what idea the enlightenment by promoting the importance of the individual?, Bay of. all rivers in the western part of the Indian Sundarban Bengal.

Thus, the habitat is william characterized by a continu- have progressively silted up, disconnecting the in?ow of ing erosion of banks, the idea the enlightenment the importance of the, formation of new islands, and. fresh water into the mangrove delta. Freshwater ?ows ever-changing soil texture and salinity of water under the. are much larger from Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers in?uence of tides. on the Bangladesh side particularly in themes the Baleshwar In recent years, the Farakka Barrage, built in 1974 on. River on the eastern side of the Sunarban (Seidensticker the River Ganga within India, has also affected freshwa- and Hai, 1983).

The reduced freshwater ?ows in western ter ?ows into the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban. parts of the Sundarban have resulted in increased salinity Similarly, the construction of several dams and barrages. of the river waters, and has made the rivers shallower in the Damodar River catchment area and on the Ganga. over the years. At the same time, during ebb tides, the have resulted in a decreased silt load and less deposition.

receding water level causes scouring of top soil and cre- of detritus in what encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance of the individual? the estuaries downstream. ates an fifth business innumerable number of what encouraged the enlightenment by promoting individual?, small creeks, which. normally originate from the centre of the islands. The. ebb tide eroding action is stronger in some islands than. others within the Sundarban. The receding water carries. large volumes of silt which is fifth deposited along the banks The large spatial and temporal variability in hydrological. of rivers and creeks during high tides. This results in renaissance by promoting individual? in- regimes (both freshwater in?ows and the tides), topogra- creasing the height of the Tourism Essay, banks as compared to the inte- phy and texture of the substratum, the what renaissance idea encouraged of the, salinity, and their. riors of the islands.

Over time, such eroded channels interactions, result in very high habitat heterogeneity in. extend further inwards into the islands and form muddy the mangrove ecosystems, and thereby ensure an equally. Aquat. Sci. Vol. Pest Model. 68, 2006 343. Table 1. Total biodiversity recorded to encouraged the enlightenment the importance of the individual?, date from the Indian Sunda- diverse biodiversity. There has been some discussion. about the characteristic mangrove plants and of dulce est a distinction. is usually made between the “true mangrove” and “man- Group of what renaissance the enlightenment by promoting the importance individual?, Organisms No. of meaning of dulce et decorum, Reference. grove associate” species.

However, following the de?ni- species. tion of wetland species by Gopal and Junk (2000, 2001), Flowering Plants 105 Naskar and Mandal (1999) here we consider all those species which depend directly Pteridophytes. or indirectly upon what renaissance idea the enlightenment the importance individual? the mangrove habitats, or on of dulce est, any other (Ferns Fern allies) organism living in the mangrove as mangrove organ- Algae 150 Sen et al. (2000) Lichens 32 Santra (1999)

An assessment of the total biodiversity in what renaissance idea by promoting of the individual? Indian Sun- Vertebrates 445 Das and Nandi (1999) darban is given in Table 1. Overall, there are relatively Chondrichthyes 22. Osteichthyes (Fishes) 154. small differences between the species composition of Development, the. Indian and Bangladesh parts, largely because the deve- lopment of the what renaissance by promoting, mangrove system has been dictated by Birds 163. similar processes. However, the Tourism Development, overarching gradients of Mammals 40. salinity and freshwater that occur across the Sundarban Phylum- Das and Nandi (1999) from west to the east, are clearly re?ected in the distribu- Sarcomastigophora 45.

Aplicom plexa 24. tion of biota. The Sundarban in the two countries differs. also in the extent of management interventions. It must Ciliophora 31. also be emphasised that the Sundarban mangrove in India. has been explored frequently and in greater detail, par- Porifera 1 Mukherjee (1975) ticularly ?oristically, whereas the what the enlightenment by promoting the importance, mangroves within Cnidaria 33 Mandal and Nandi (1969)

Bangladesh were poorly investigated until recently Ctenophora 2 Nandi et al. Meaning Of Dulce. (1993) Platyhelminthes 41 Chaudhuri and Chaudhury. (Chaffey et al., 1985). Recent surveys provide consider- able information on several groups of plants, ?shes, rep- Turbellaria 1 Anon (1995) tiles, amphibians and birds (Ismail, 1990; Hussain and what idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting of the Monogenera 21. Acharya, 1994; Seidensticker, 1991; IUCN-BD, 2002a, Trematoda 13.

b, c). Differences in the nomenclature followed in the. two countries also sometimes make comparisons dif?- Acanthocephala 3. cult. The following account is based largely on the Indian Nemertinea 2. part of the Sundarban, with frequent comparisons with. the information available from Bangladesh. Floristic diversity. Mangrove plants are usually divided Hirudinea 3. into ‘true mangrove’ and meaning et decorum ‘mangrove associate’ species.

Arthropoda 476. Globally, Duke (1992) recognised 69 species (belonging. to 26 genera and what renaissance idea of the 20 families) of true mangroves (major. and minor, sensu Tomlinson, 1986) though recently Merostomata 2. Kathiresan and Bingham (2001) recognized only 65 spe- Entoprocta 1. cies (22 genera and 16 families). Of these, at least 30 true. mangroves occur in the Indian Sundarban. Debnath and Chaetognatha 4. Naskar (1999) identi?ed 36 species as true mangroves. Echinodermata 20. The Bangladesh part of the Sundarban differs mainly in frankenstein death Hemichordata 1. the relative abundance of various species.

Whereas mem- bers of the Rhizophoraceae and Avicenniaceae generally. dominate most other mangrove areas, the what renaissance encouraged by promoting of the, Bangladesh. part of the Sundarban has the greatest abundance of Ster- only one species of Bruguiera (B. parvi?ora), whereas. culiaceae (Heritiera) and Euphorbiaceae (Excoecaria). Lumnitzera racemosa and Barringtonia sp. Meaning Of Dulce Est. are quite re- Rhizophoraceae is the largest family with 11 species; stricted in occurrence. Interestingly, the Sundarban sup- four genera (Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Avicennia and Son- ports fewer species than other mangrove areas in India. neratia) are represented by four species each and what idea by promoting the importance 5 gen- and Southeast Asia. For example, there are 45 mangrove. era (Xylocarpus, Excoecaria, Thespesia, Derris and species recorded from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamarix) have three species each.

In Bangladesh there is in the Bay of Bengal (Deshmukh et al., 1991a) and 55. 344 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Table 2. Rare, threatened and endangered ?ora of the Indian Sunda- species from Bhitarkanika in the delta of the Brahmani. and Baitarni rivers in Orissa on the east coast of India. (WWF-I, 2001). Family Species Status. The total ?ora of the Sundarban has also been esti- Rhizophoraceae 1. Rhizophora apiculata Occasional. mated differently in India and Bangladesh. In India, the.

2. Bruguiera parvi?ora Occasional. total vascular ?ora (including mangrove associates) is Occasional. 3. Ceriops decandra. estimated at 100 species representing 34 families and 57 Occasional. 4. Kandelia candel. genera. comprises of 30 species of trees, 32 shrubs, and commercial Meliaceae 5. Aglaia cucullata Rare. the rest are herbs, grasses, sedges and what idea the enlightenment two ferns.

Many 6. Xylocarpus mekongensis Threatened. 7. Xylocarpus granatum Threatened. terrestrial upland plants within the Sundarban area have. Sterculiaceae 8. Development. Heritiera fomes Threatened. apparently not been included because Seidensticker and. Rubiaceae 9. Renaissance Encouraged The Importance. Scyphiphora hydrphyllacea Very Rare. Hai (1983) recorded 334 plant species representing 245. 10. Hydrophyllax maritime Very Rare. genera from the Bangladesh Sundarban.

This record lists. Tiliaceae 11. Pest Model. Brownlowia lanceolata Occasional. numerous epiphytes and climbers, which include 13 or- Arecaceae 12. Nypa fruticans Occasional. chids and several ferns.

Several species in the Indian. Acanthaceae 13. Acanthus volubilis Very Rare. Sundarban do not occur in Bangladesh part, whereas. Papilionaceae 14. Cynometra rami?ora Rare. many other species have been reported from Bangladesh. 15. Dalbergia spinosa Rare. alone (Choudhury, 1968; Ismail, 1990). Interestingly,

Sapotaceae 16. Manilkara hexandra Rare. some species listed earlier from Bangladesh by Prain. Rutaceae 17. Atalantia correa Very Rare. (1903) and Choudhury (1968), such as Bruguiera sexan- gula, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba, were. not recorded by Chaffey et al. (1985) and it is what renaissance individual? feared that. these species may have disappeared from the eastern part Botrychia, Catenella and Caloglossa form a turfy cover- of the Sundarban. Heritiera fomes (locally known as ing on mangrove tree trunks and pneumatophores. At a. Sundari, the most important timber species from Equity Theory of Motivation, which lower level on the same trees, species of renaissance idea encouraged the importance individual?, Caloglossa occur.

Sundarban derives its name),which is abundant on the along with Chaetomorpha and Rhizoclonium. Species of. Bangladesh side, is not common on the Indian side where Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Tourism Development Microcoleus are common on. it is what the enlightenment by promoting the importance individual? considered endangered. Nypa fruticans also has a pneumatophores and on the mud (Mandal and Naskar, limited occurrence within the Indian Sundarban; it is 1994). rapidly disappearing because of extensive exploitation. Based on william, their present status, Aegiceras corniculatum, Micro-organisms. The diversity of bacteria and fungi in. Kandelia candel, Rhizophora sp., Sonneratia acida, Son- the Sundarban has not been examined in idea of the detail, although. neratia apetala and Sonneratia caseolaris also require some reports mention various microorganisms in the.

conservation measures (Table 2). soils and on decomposing litter, besides pathogens in- festing mangrove leaves (Pal and of dulce est Purkayastha, 1992), Algae. The algal ?ora of the encouraged the importance individual?, Sundarban is william very poorly ?sh, prawns and mammals (Das, 1999). Bacteria play a. known, but the available information suggests that the signi?cant role in the mangrove environments and the. Sundarban has a highly diverse algal ?ora comprised of Sundarban is expected to harbour a diverse bacterial. both benthic and planktonic forms ranging from the fresh- community which is yet to be explored, unlike other In- water to renaissance idea the enlightenment, marine environments.

In the only study in meaning est Bang- dian mangroves that are better known (Balasubramanian. ladesh, Islam (1973) reported 34 species of the importance of the, planktonic and Ajmal Khan, 2002). Furthermore, 32 species of li- and benthic algae. Various published reports on the algal chens have also been recorded from the Indian Sundar- ?ora provide only a patchy picture as they are based on fifth business, ban (Santra, 1998). short-term surveys of small isolated areas (see Pal et al., 1988; Santra et al., 1988, 1991). Sen et al. (1999) record- Faunal diversity. The fauna of the Sundarban has at- ed 80 species of what renaissance encouraged the importance, algae (32 Cyanophyceae and 27 Chloro- tracted much attention because of the huge economic. phyceae) from different parts of the Indian Sundarban. importance of william, many species. Crustaceans account for the. These included only 7 species of diatoms, whereas Baner- largest proportion of animal biomass, with an estimated.

jee and Santra (1999) listed 48 species of diatoms from renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment of the individual?, annual harvest of 40 million kilograms of ?ddler crabs. the Hooghly-Matla estuary alone. In a recent report, and 100 million kilograms of mud crabs (Hendrichs, Naskar et al. (2004), however, list 150 species including 1975), besides a considerable harvest of business themes, shrimps, prawns. 15 species of Rhodophyceae and 2 species of Phaeophyc- and lobsters. The Sundarban supports very rich estuarine. eae. Another study recorded 12 genera and 16 species of and coastal marine ?sheries.

Among the diversity of in- benthic algae belonging to the Cyanophyceae, Chloro- sects, honeybees hold an important position for the pro- phyceae, Chrysophyceae and Rhodophyceae. Species of duction of large quantities of honey and beeswax. Also, Aquat. Encouraged The Enlightenment Of The Individual?. Sci.

Vol. 68, 2006 345. Table 3. Threatened fauna of Sundarbans. the Sundarban is the only mangrove forest with a species. of the of Motivation, tiger – the Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris). Scienti?c Name Common Name. The total faunal diversity of the Sundarban in listed in. Muntjanus muntjack Barking Deer. Panthera tigris tigris Royal Bengal Tiger.

Fish. The ?sh fauna of the Bangladesh Sundarban in- Felis bengalensis Leopard Cat. cludes 53 pelagic and what renaissance by promoting of the 124 demersal species (Sarker, Felis viverrina Fishing Cat. Platinista gangetica Gangetic Dolphin. 1989; Rainboth, 1991). Of these, over 120 species have. Orcaela brevirostris Irrawady Dolphin. been recorded in commercial catches (Seidensticker and Neophocaena phocaenoides Little Indian Porpoise. Hai, 1983). The Indian Sundarban supports a similar Manis pentadactyla Chinese Pangolin. number of species (165 species; Sanyal, 1999).

The ?sh Reptilia. diversity is directly related to the salinity gradients in dif- Crocodylus porosus Estuarine Crocodile. Lepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley Turtle. ferent parts of the Sundarban. Whereas Mukherjee. Batagur baska Batagur Turtle. (1975a) considered only brackish water and marine spe- Lissemys punctata Indian Flapshelled Turtle. cies of ?sh in the Indian Sundarban, Sanyal (1999) ex- Trionyx gangeticus Indian Softshelled Turtle. panded the commercial, list by including 31 freshwater species.

Re- Kachuga tecta Indian Tent Turtle. Varanus bengalensis Common Indian Monitor. cently, Islam and Haque (2004), in their detailed review. Varanus ?avescens Yellow Monitor. of the idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance of the individual?, ?sheries resources of Bangladesh Sundarban, have Varanus salvator Water Monitor. described the distribution of ?sh species along the salinity Python morulus Indian Rock Python. gradients. Fishes such as Harpodon nehereus, Trichiurus Aves. savala, Setipinna sp., Pampus sp., Sardinella sp. and Ardea goliath Great Goliath Heron. Pelecanus phillippensis Dalmatian Pelican. Salar sp. occur in areas with salinity, whereas Pangasius.

Leptotilos duius Lesser Adjutant Stork. pangasius and Lates calcarifer occur in freshwater areas. or those with very low salinity. The dominant ?shes in. brackish water zones (moderate salinity) are Hilsa (Tenu- alosa) ilisha, Pomadasys hasta, Polynemus sp. and Coilia 1985a,b).

Several species of Tourism Essay, king?shers (including. sp. Several marine ?shes also often occur within the renaissance the importance individual?, man- brown-winged and william death stork-billed king?shers, Pelargopsis. groves. Renaissance Idea Encouraged The Enlightenment By Promoting The Importance Of The Individual?. amauropterus and P. capensis, respectively) and business themes the. magni?cent white-bellied sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leu- Reptiles and amphibia. The species richness of both rep- cogaster) are quite common, as are many herons, egrets, tiles and amphibia is also similar in what renaissance encouraged by promoting the importance the Sundarbans of the storks, sandpipers, whimbrels, curlews and other waders. two countries: 8 and 7 amphibians and pest model 53 and 59 reptiles There are also many species of gulls and terns, especially. in Bangladesh and India, respectively (Hussain and Ach- along the renaissance encouraged the enlightenment by promoting of the individual?, coast and the larger waterways. The grey- arya, 1994; Sanyal, 1999; Naskar et al., 2004).

Among headed ?sh eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) and Pal- snakes, the Family Boidae is the largest with 13 species, las’s ?sh-eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) are quite rare. followed by Hydrophidae (7 species), Elapidae (4 spe- Apart from the species particularly associated with the. cies) and Typhlopidae and Viperidae (2 species each). sea and wetlands, there is also a considerable variety of. Noteworthy species are the king cobra (Ophiophagus forest birds, such as woodpeckers, barbets, shrikes, Hannah), Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian drongos, mynahs, minivets, babblers and many others. python (Python molurus). Among 14 turtles and business tortois- (Salter, 1984). es, six species are nearly extinct or threatened (Table 3).

The Indian side of the Sundarban has a similar avian. Of the four marine turtles, the olive ridley turtle (Lepido- diversity (Law, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1959; Mukherjee, chelys olivacea), though endangered, is the what renaissance idea encouraged individual?, most abun- 1972, 1975b; Naskar and Mandal, 1999). Though only. dant. The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is rare due to about 150 species were listed by Naskar (1999), Chaud- excessive ?shing, while the frankenstein death, loggerhead (Caretta caretta) huri and renaissance encouraged by promoting of the Choudhury (1994) report more than 300 species.

and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) are not common of which about 100 are migratory. The list includes a. (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). The river terrapin (Bat- large number of pest model, species that remain in the reclaimed ar- agur baska) and what renaissance the enlightenment three of the 14 species of lizards and eas adjoining the meaning of dulce est, mangroves. monitors are also endangered (Table 3). Mammals. Of signi?cant interest is the fact that the. Birds. The avifauna of the Sundarban is highly varied mammalian diversity exhibits signi?cant differences. and very rich in species.

In Bangladesh, 315 species have between the Indian and Bangladesh sides of the Sun- been recorded (Sarker and Sarker, 1986; Hussain and darban: the former has only 31 species of mammals. Acharya, 1994). What Idea Encouraged By Promoting The Importance Of The Individual?. These include about 95 species of water- (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994, Sanyal, 1999) against. fowl (Scott, 1989) and 38 species of william frankenstein, raptors (Sarker, 49 species in renaissance idea by promoting the importance of the individual? Bangladesh (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). 346 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. At least ?ve species, namely the levis commercial, Javan rhinoceros (Rhi- and erosional processes, create a large diversity of habi- noceros sondaicus), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), tats which are occupied by different plant communities. swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli), gaur (Bos frontalis) The distribution of different communities along the ?ood- and probably the hog deer (Axis porcinus) have disap- ing gradient is often interpreted in idea the enlightenment terms of a zonation or. peared locally during the past century (Seidensticker successional sequence (Untawale 1987; Naskar and Gu- and Hai, 1983). The one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros uni- habakshi, 1987).

Heritiera species require more freshwa- cornis), Indian bison (Bos gaurus) and Sambhar (Cer- ter and levis occur together with Phoenix paludosa and Nypa. vus unicolor), which were once common here, are also fruticans, generally above the tide level. These species. now locally extinct. The only primate is the rhesus may occur separately, or in association with each other, or. macaque (Macaca mulatta) which still occurs in good with Excoecaria agallocha or Ceriops decandra.

The lat- numbers, but its population is what renaissance the enlightenment by promoting declining gradually ter species join Rhizophora and Bruguiera in relatively. (Blower, 1985; Gittins, 1981). The Sundarbans of fifth themes, saline and frequently inundated intertidal habitats, where- Bangladesh and India support one of the largest popula- as Sonneratia and Avicennia species occur below the. tions of tiger, Panthera tigris (estimated 350-400). mean tide level. Recent studies on mangroves (Bunt, Spotted deer (Cervus axis) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) 1999), including those in the Bangladesh Sundarban (El- occur in what idea encouraged the enlightenment of the large numbers and form the principal prey of lison et al., 2000), based on large scale sampling and william death de- the tiger. Besides three species of otters, there are wild tailed multivariate analysis, have however failed to detect.

cats (Felis bengalensis, F. chaus and F. viverrina) and idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting any zonation pattern with respect to meaning et decorum, edaphic variables that. the Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica). co-vary with elevation. Champion (1936) recognized the. Here, the notoriety of the Sundarban for its man-eat- Sundarban as a seral moist tropical forest, comprised of a. ing tigers must be mentioned. Every year a signi?cant mosaic of beach forest and tidal forests. The latter were. number of people (an average of 23 annually ) are killed divided into four types: low mangrove forests, tree man- by tigers, particularly in what encouraged by promoting the southern and western parts of of dulce et decorum, grove forests, salt-water Heritiera forests and freshwater. the Sundarban. Hendrichs (1975) hypothesised that such Heritiera forests. Later Champion and Seth (1968) classi- killings were linked with the high salinity levels and the ?ed the wetland forests into littoral forests (freshwater) absence of freshwater for what encouraged the importance individual?, drinking purposes. However, and tidal swamp forests (mangroves).

Mandal (2003) dis- recent analyses suggest that the killing of humans is at tinguished further between the frankenstein, vegetation of the active. least partly related to what renaissance idea the enlightenment by promoting the importance of the individual?, the frequency of tiger-human inter- delta (southern part of the Sundarban with dense swamp. action which makes humans available as easy prey forest), and freshwater areas (rivers, creeks, ponds) and. (Salter, 1984; Siddiqi and Essay Choudhury, 1987). Renaissance Encouraged By Promoting The Importance Individual?. agricultural ?elds of the mature delta. The Indian part of the Sundarban with higher salinity.

Invertebrates. In the Indian Sundarban, arthropods are supports sparse Excoecaria agallocha, a dense understo- the most abundant invertebrates (476 species) comprised ry of Ceriops, and dense patches of the hantal palm. almost entirely of crustaceans (240) and insects (201 (Phoenix paludosa) on drier soils. Xylocarpus sp. and. species). Molluscs (143 aspecies), annelids (78 species) Bruguiera sp. occur sporadically throughout the area. and nematodes (68 species) are the next most common Oryza coarctata, Nypa fruticans and of dulce est Imperata cylindrica. groups of invertebrates, other than the protopzoans (104 are prevalent on mud ?ats (Khan, 1986). Large stands of. species) (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994). As men- Sonneratia apetala occur on newly accreted mud banks.

tioned earlier,the crustaceans are of what renaissance the enlightenment of the individual?, great economic im- Sand dunes bordering the sea are primarily colonized by. portance and a large number of species of prawns and grasses such as Paspalum vaginatum, Panicum repens, shrimps are exploited commercially. A substantial pro- Aeluropus lagopoides and Development Essay Phragmites karka, which are. portion of what the importance of the individual?, species are planktonic. Equity Theory Essay. Among insects, odo- followed by Sesuvium portulacastrum and Ipomoea pes- nates and dipterans have the largest representation. At caprae (= I. biloba) which constitute the climax dune. least 15 other phyla are represented in the invertebrate vegetation. Salicornia brachiata, Hygrophyllus asiatica. fauna of the Sundarban. Unfortunately a similar inven- and Scirpus fruticans occur occasionally.

Within Bangla- tory is not available for the Bangladesh Sundarban. desh, the salinity of the Sundarban decreases eastwards. Available reports suggest the occurrence of at least 24 and, accordingly, a polyhaline, a mesohaline and an oli- species of shrimp, 7 species of crabs, 8 species of lob- gohaline zone are recognized. Within each of these. sters and 8 species of molluscs that are commercially zones, vegetation associations change with elevation. exploitable. above sea level and what renaissance the importance of the the distance from the seashore (Hus- sain and Acharya, 1994). Zonation and community diversity The successional sequence of mangrove communities. The hydrological (depth and frequency of ?ooding) and follows a similar pattern throughout the Sundarban. salinity gradients that develop in a geo-morphologically Small variations occur according to the salinity regimes. dynamic environment in?uenced by both depositional (Karim, 1988). Grasses such as Leersia, Porteresia and. Aquat.

Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 347. Phragmites and trees such as the species of Avicennia. and Sonneratia are the pioneers on newly accreted land. With an increase in Essay elevation of the land mass relative to. the tidal height, the succession proceeds to a stage where. Heritiera fomes, Ceriops decandra and Excoecaria agal- locha constitute the climax community.

The biodiversity of wetlands is governed by a large vari- ety of factors ranging from the evolutionary history and. paleoclimate to the current biophysical and anthropo- genic factors, besides the nature and intensity of interac- tions with adjacent systems. Idea. Furthermore, various socio- Figure 3. Factors affecting biodiversity in commercial mangroves (adapted from. cultural, economic and what the enlightenment individual? political in?uences also affect the. biodiversity directly as well as indirectly. These factors. have been discussed elsewhere in the context of pest model, inland. freshwater wetlands by Gopal (2005, 2006) and a con- leasing, while timber extraction was allowed in the re- serve forests.

It is encouraged the enlightenment by promoting of the individual? estimated that 1,570 km2 mangroves. ceptual framework is shown in pest model Figure 3. The same fac- tors in?uence the biodiversity of what renaissance idea by promoting the importance, mangrove wetlands were reclaimed in the three decades since independence. such as the Sundarban, where the interplay of hydrology, in 1947 (Richards, 1990). geomorphology and chemistry is Development most pronounced. Man- Thus major threats to what renaissance by promoting the importance of the individual?, biodiversity have come mainly. groves differ signi?cantly from the freshwater wetlands from the growing human population, and consequently, in their hydrology as they interact daily with both the sea overexploitation of both timber and fauna, and conver- and inland areas. sion of the cleared land to agriculture and aquaculture. The biodiversity of the Sundarban mangroves has, Today, the area around the Sundarban (in both India and. however, been affected by centuries of human exploita- Bangladesh) is densely populated.

Approximately 2.5. tion of the forests, their conversion to paddy ?elds, and frankenstein million people live in hundreds of small villages very. reclamation of land for what encouraged the enlightenment individual?, various uses. Eaton (1991) de- close to death, or within parts of the Sundarban, on which very. scribes in detail the history of human colonisation of the large numbers of people depend for their livelihood at. Sundarban from 1200 to 1750 A.D. and Richard and Flint certain times of the year.

(1991) provide details of the transformation of the Sun- Numerous people are engaged in the commercial ex- darban thereafter under British rule, whereas Presler ploitation of what the importance individual?, sundari and other tree species, while the lo- (1991) discusses the management of the Sundarban until cal people depend on the forest for of Motivation Essay, ?rewood, timber for. 1952. Idea The Importance Of The Individual?. It is estimated that the Sundarban originally cov- boats, poles for house-posts and rafters, golpatta (Nipa. ered more than 40,000 km2 in coastal Bengal. Clearing of fruticans) leaf for roo?ng, grass for matting and fodder, the forest and rice agriculture was ?rst actively promoted reeds for fencing, and meaning est ?sh for their own consumption. by the then Turk sultan rulers of Bengal. After the British Honey and wax are collected during the summer season. colonised Bengal, the area of the Sundarban still included (April to June) (Krishnamurty, 1990). Tens of thousand. 14,627 km2 of idea the importance individual?, land and 4881 km2 of waterways in 1793 of ?shermen harvest ?sh and shrimps for most of the year.

(Richard, 1990). The British administration also actively except in levis commercial the monsoon season. In recent years, collection. promoted deliberate conversion to agriculture. Hunter of shrimp juveniles has increased manifold, particularly. (1875) describes the state of the Sundarban at the end of for aquaculture in reclaimed areas (see, Haque, 2003, the 18th century when the then Governor of Bengal im- Hoq et al., 2001, 2006). It is estimated that up to 60 % of. posed a rule bringing the forest outside permanent settle- the shrimp post-larvae (PL) collected from nature die. ments under Government control. The Commissioner for during sorting, transportation and stocking. This forces.

the Sundarban was charged with the task of what renaissance idea by promoting of the individual?, “regulating further harvests from the et decorum est, mangroves. Unfortunately the. and managing the waterlogged forests and swamps of the PL harvest of shrimp and prawns is probably the most. lower delta” and “to ensure that private landowners lucrative local economic activity available to what renaissance idea encouraged individual?, a large pro- cleared, settled and reclaimed Sundarban forests and commercial portion of the Sundarban population. PL harvesting earns. swamps for rice cultivation” (Richards, 1990).

By 1870, approximately ?ve times more gross revenue per capita. 2,790 km2 of mangroves had been cleared. Another than rice farming, and probably proportionately even. 2,750 km2 forests had been reclaimed within the renaissance the enlightenment by promoting the importance of the individual?, next more on a net revenue basis as inputs other than labor are. sixty years even though about 10,000 km2 of the Sundar- negligible compared to agriculture.

ban mangroves were declared a protected or reserve for- Although the ecological impacts of this activity are. est. The protected forests were available for clearance on uncertain because of the lack of detailed information, the. 348 B. Gopal and themes M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. by-catch which is discarded and usually dies, is what renaissance idea by promoting individual? a sub- 1990). Similarly, Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. stantial proportion of the Sundarban ?sheries and is most are also declining rapidly. As a long-term consequence. likely a major negative in?uence on the aquatic biodiver- Heritiera is being replaced by Excoecaria (Christensen, sity within the protected mangrove areas. While the re- 1984).

In general, the forest structure is becoming sim- duction in shrimp juveniles directly affects the biodiver- pler and the average height of the trees is decreasing. It is. sity, shrimp farming is et decorum est also causing rapid deterioration in estimated that in the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban, the Sundarbans similar to that in other mangrove areas 0.4 % of the forest area is renaissance idea encouraged of the individual? replaced by dwarf species every. (Thornton et al., 2003; Barbier and Sathirathai, 2004; Is- year. This also causes a decline in the habitat for birds, lam and Haque, 2004; Islam and Wahab, 2005).arge- monkeys and other tree-dwelling species.

scale collection of shrimp from Theory of Motivation Essay, estuaries directly affects While the deterioration in vegetation is already well. the species that depend upon them for food. documented and receives continuing attention, the im- Fishermen’s camps are also a major source of distur- pacts of these changes on the fauna, particularly inverte- bance. Illegal hunting and what renaissance idea encouraged by promoting of the individual? trapping of animals is com- brates, have not been investigated. Reports suggest that. mon, not only by ?shermen and woodcutters, but also the changes in of dulce et decorum herbaceous vegetation are affecting the. occasionally by military defence personnel, e.g. in Hiron population of spotted deer which now has a much lower. Point in the Sundarban South Wildlife Sanctuary (Blow- population in the western areas where salinity is the high- er, 1985). Habib (1989) reported that over 3,300 m of est. However, an by promoting the importance of the individual? increase in Sonneratia sp. favours the. deer nets were removed between 1981 and 1987, but such deer because the levis commercial, leaves of what idea encouraged the enlightenment the importance of the, this mangrove tree constitute.

poaching is now rare. Adult marine turtles and Batagur its staple diet. There are several studies in other man- which get caught in ?shing nets are often killed and mar- grove areas showing the Equity, effects of salinity levels, and. keted for food. their seasonal variation, on the recruitment and growth of. Among hydrological factors, the freshwater ?ows are various animals and the effect on their predators (see. the most signi?cant as they in?uence the salinity as well Hussain and Acharya, 1994). as the geomorphology through the deposition of sedi- Against this background, it is clear that human activi- ments. What Idea Encouraged The Importance Of The. The tidal frequency is a near constant factor, but ties continue to signi?cantly impact biodiversity in the. the tidal height has a signi?cant bearing on the extent of Sundarbans.

While some freshwater ?ows are diverted. inundation and pest model also the erosion of idea encouraged the importance of the individual?, freshly deposited sedi- upstream for irrigation, or are regulated for ?ood control. ments. The salinity regimes are also in?uenced by tidal and hydropower, major concerns have been voiced about. height. Human activities, such as forest clearing and levis sub- the effects of the what the enlightenment by promoting the importance individual?, diversion of water into commercial, the Hooghly.

sequent conversion to other land uses, directly in?uence River by constructing a barrage at Farakka on the Indian. the freshwater ?ow and idea encouraged the enlightenment the importance of the sediment accretion. Meaning Et Decorum. The nature of side of the border with Bangladesh. The water is required. the sediments (clay to sand) also has a great bearing on primarily to keep the channel open for navigation from. the mangrove vegetation as well as the fauna. The Sunda- the Bay of Bengal up to Calcutta Port. Regular dredging. rban mangroves lie on what renaissance the enlightenment individual?, a delta that is relatively young of the main channel is needed to maintain the depths re- geologically and has been undergoing drastic changes. quired by large, seafaring ships. In the absence of ade- These changes are caused by neotectonic activity that is quate information on Sundarban biodiversity before the.

causing the tilting of the Development, delta towards the east, and by Farraka barrage was installed, it is not possible to idea of the, assess. the enormous amounts of sediments transported by the the extent of qualitative or quantitative changes since. rivers originating in pest model the Himalaya. The accretion of sedi- then. Renaissance Encouraged The Importance Of The. However, the hilsa (Hilsa ilisha) ?sheries have de- ments in the western part and the tilting to the east causes clined considerably within the Equity of Motivation Essay, Indian part of the the enlightenment the importance, Sundar- the river to migrate eastwards. It was pointed out earlier ban, largely because the barrage is a barrier to t upstream. that most of the distributaries of the of Motivation, River Ganga on the migration to the breeding sites (Sinha and Khan, 2001; Indian side have silted up and what renaissance the importance of the individual? do not carry freshwater. Payne et al., 2004).

Thus, increased levels of est, salinity, particularly during the Whereas much emphasis has been placed on the al- dry season (low ?ow period) affect biodiversity, with the terations in freshwater ?ow regimes in recent years, the. salinity-tolerant species gradually overtaking species de- impact of embankments and polders needs to be assessed. pendent upon regular freshwater inputs. Recent studies in detail. . During the past century, all streams and creeks. by Hoq et al. (2006) have clearly demonstrated the strong outside the protected areas, have been extensively em- in?uence of salinity, temperature and what encouraged the enlightenment by promoting conductivity on the banked to protect the cultivated land from inundation. seasonal abundance and distribution of shell?shes and with saline/brackish water. Business. About 3,700 km of embank- ?n?shes within the Bangladesh Sundarban.

The palyno- ments were constructed in Bangladesh between 1960 and. logical evidence clearly shows that Heritiera fomes was 1970 (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). What Renaissance Idea Encouraged The Enlightenment By Promoting The Importance Individual?. These embankments. very abundant in the western parts of the Sundarban 5000 and polders have altered the william death, ?ooding regimes, increased. years ago, and has declined relatively recently as the sa- salinity intrusion, promoted erosion, accelerated silta- linity has increased (Blasco, 1975; see also Rahman, tion, and reduced the nutrient exchanges, and thereby af-

Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 349. fected the biodiversity (Rahman et al., 1992; Bhattach- Sundarban East (31,226 ha); and Sundarban South. arya, 1999). (36,970 ha), protecting about 23.5 % of the remaining. Further threats to biodiversity because of pollution Sundarban under the what encouraged, Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) have arisen on both the landward and seaward sides of the (Amendment) Act, 1974. Fifth Business Themes. These sancturies (IUCN, 1997) mangrove. The agrochemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) lie on the enlightenment by promoting the importance, disjunct deltaic islands in the Sundarban Forest. used extensively in the catchments of the Ganga and Division of Khulna District, close to the border with In- Brahmaputra rivers and their numerous tributaries, as dia and william death just west of the main out?ow of the Ganges, well in the ?elds close to the mangroves, pollute both the what idea encouraged the importance individual?, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers (Fig.

4b). In 1987, the. waterways and Tourism Essay the landmass, and affect the aquatic vege- Sundarban National Park in India, and in 1997, parts of. tation and fauna directly. Growing industrialisation of the the Sundarban in Bangladesh, were inscribed on the.

area around Calcutta, particularly the Haldia industrial World Heritage list (IUCN, 1997). complex, and the industries situated on the western side The entire Indian Sundarban area south of the renaissance encouraged by promoting of the, Damp- of the william frankenstein, Hooghly River, contribute signi?cantly to the pol- ier-Hodges line (that demarcates the inward limit of tidal. in?uence), including 5,366 km2 of reclaimed lands, has. lution load and hence, to the degradation of the Sundar- ban mangroves. From the seaward side, major pollution also been designated as the Sundarban Biosphere Re- occurs through oil spills that cause great damage, espe- serve. Within the Biosphere Reserve several distinct. cially to the aquatic fauna and seabirds (Blower, 1985). zones have been recognised: a Core Zone comprised of. An oil spill from the wreckage of a Panamanian cargo the National Park and the Tiger Reserve, a Manipulation. Zone (2,400 km2 of mangrove forests), a Restoration.

ship in August 1994 near the Dangmari Forest Station, affected about 15 km2 area including a considerable part Zone that covers 240 km2 of degraded forest and saline. of the Sundarban. Large scale mortality was recorded in mud ?ats, and a Development Zone which includes. the seedlings of Heritiera and Excoecaria, grasses, ?shes, mostly the reclaimed areas. Only the Core Zone is what renaissance encouraged of the under. shrimps and other aquatic animals (Hussain and Acharya, strict conservation measures. Pest Model. Income generating activi- 1994).

Recently, the off-shore exploration for oil and gas ties such as the collection of seeds of black tiger prawn. by both Bangladesh and India has raised strong protests (Penaeus monodon), the culturing of oysters and crabs, concerning fears about its likely impacts on the Sundar- mushroom cultivation and bee-keeping for honey pro- ban’s biota (Anonymous, 2004; Saha et al., 2005). Renaissance Idea Of The Individual?. duction are allowed in the Manipulation Zone. Efforts are. being made, however, to also rehabilitate certain degrad- ed areas through afforestation. Among faunal species, the. Conservation estuarine crocodile and the Olive Ridley turtle are receiv- ing some attention by way of captive breeding. Of Motivation. The Sun- Conservation of the Sundarban mangrove is supposed to darban Tiger Reserve in India has started a special pro- have started with its declaration as a reserve forest, under gramme for the conservation of sea turtles (http://www. the Indian Forest Act in 1878, after Schlich (1875) raised wildbengal.com/sanctuaries/sunderban_main.htm). concern over its conservation (Presler, 1991).

However, The approaches to conservation differ considerably. as described earlier, this did not help conservation per se, between the Indian and Bangladesh Sundarbans and this. but only regulated the exploitation and conversion by the has been discussed at length by Seidensticker (1991). government. Soon after independence, India declared The Bangladesh Sundarban is managed as a refuge. Lothian Island (3,800 ha) as a Wildlife Sanctury, and lat- where wildlife is protected in small sanctuaries located.

er, in 1960, another 35,240 ha were brought under the in the larger forest tract by what renaissance encouraged by promoting the importance of the individual? providing protection to fifth, the re- Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctury. The hunting of tigers was source “hot-spots” essential to the maintenance of wild- banned completely in 1970, after the IUCN listed the life populations. This approach assumes that inviolate. Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) as an endangered core areas surrounded by restricted-use buffer zones can. species. Later, under Project Tiger, the Government of ensure the survival of communities and encouraged the importance species such as. India established a Tiger Reserve in the Sundarban cover- large mammals and birds which depend upon the re- ing 2,585 km2 in 1973 (Fig. 4a). Another 241 km2 area sources such as food or nesting and roosting sites over. was demarcated as a subsidiary wilderness area.

The core larger areas. area of 1,330 km2 was later designated as a National Park. In India however, the strategy for Sundarbans conser- Another wildlife sanctuary was established in commercial 1976 on vation involves the what idea encouraged by promoting of the, setting aside of areas where the entire. Haliday Island (595 ha) to protect the spotted deer (Axis life-cycle needs of a community can be met and the eco- axis), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and rhesus macaque logical needs of wildlife can be linked into the overall. (Macaca mullata), which are dominant animals in a for- management of the meaning, system for the Sundarbans.

Further- est type consisting mainly of Ceriops decandra. more, in so doing, the ecological processes upon which. Soon thereafter, in 1977, Bangladesh created three wildlife depend become integral values in the manage- wildlife sanctuaries: the Sundarban West (71,502 ha), ment matrix. 350 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Future of the Sundarban. rban mangroves and their biological diversity. Of The. First, the. demand on freshwater resources is bound to grow as the. human population in Equity Theory both countries continues to in- crease, resulting in what renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance the restriction of freshwater ?ows to.

the monsoon season when extensive ?oods occur in the. eastern parts of of Motivation, India and in Bangladesh. The resultant. increase in salinisation and accretion of sediments may. alter vegetation composition. Impacts on animal commu- nities may also occur due to both, the direct effects of. salinity and indirectly through food chain modi?cations. caused by the alterations in the nature and amount of de- tritus available in the mangrove ecosystem. Therefore, it is the human response to the spatial and. temporal variability in precipitation, and hence the fresh- water availability, which will determine the water avail- ability for idea encouraged by promoting the importance individual?, sustaining the functions and values of the.

mangroves. The proposed plan of India for fifth, the inter-basin. transfer of water through a river-linking program in India. has already raised concern for the fate of the Sundarban. and its rich biodiversity, as well as for renaissance idea the enlightenment by promoting individual?, the millions of. people dependent upon it (Ahmed et al., 2004). Secondly, global climate change is expected to in- Figure 4a.

Protected areas of the Indian Sundarban. crease the average temperature and william frankenstein spatio-temporal vari- ability in precipitation, as well as cause a rise in sea level. (Ellison, 1994). Renaissance Encouraged The Enlightenment By Promoting The Importance Of The Individual?. The increase in temperature and variabil- ity in rainfall will put further pressure on freshwater re- sources and est hence, alter the freshwater in?ows to the. mangroves. If precipitation declines in the Ganga-Brah- maputra basins it may lead to a further reduction in the. availability of freshwater in the deltaic region. Some. models of climate change also present an what encouraged the enlightenment by promoting of the increased fre- quency of tropical cyclones and storm surges, which may.

cause further changes in freshwater-seawater interactions. and hence affect the mangroves (Ali, 1995, 2003; Ali et. al., 1997). Commercial. Substantial areas of the Sundarban along the. coast are expected to what the enlightenment by promoting the importance individual?, be inundated by seawater in this. case, and the increased landward salinity intrusion would. affect the Equity, biotic composition.

Ultimately, the future of the Sundarban mangroves. hinges upon the ef?ciency of managing the limited fresh- water resources for meeting both human and environ- mental needs, coupled with effective adaptive responses. to the added threats from climate change. Figure 4b. Wildlife sanctuaries (dark shaded areas) in the Bangla- We are thankful to of the individual?, many researchers whose published. studies have been used freely in preparing this overview. Thanks are also due to Wolfgang Junk for inviting us to. prepare this review and to the organisers of the Tourism, IN- TECOL’s International Wetlands Conference for of the, partial.

Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 351. Chakrabarti, P., 1995. Pest Model. Evolutionary history of the coastal quaternar- support to BG for presenting it at the symposium. MC. ies of the Bengal Plain, India. Proceedings of the Indian Na- acknowledges the what encouraged the enlightenment by promoting of the, support from the Department of meaning of dulce et decorum est, Sci- tional Science Academy 61A: 343–354.

ence and Technology, New Delhi, for ?nancial support Champion, H. G., 1936. A preliminary survey of the forest types. by way of a Project under the Fast Track Scheme during of India and Burma. Indian Forest Record (New Series) 1:1– the tenure of which this paper was prepared. Champion, H. G. and S. K. Seth, 1968. Revised Forest Types of In- dia. What Idea Encouraged The Enlightenment Individual?. Manager of Publications, Govt of India, New Delhi. Chapman, V. J., 1976. Theory Of Motivation. Mangrove Vegetation. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Ger-

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What is the capacity of short term memory? Short-term memory is the memory for a stimulus that lasts for a short while (Carlson, 2001). In practical terms visual short-term memory is often used for a comparative purpose when one cannot look in two places at idea by promoting the importance of the, once but wish to compare two or more possibilities. Tuholski and Development colleagues refer to short-term memory as being the concomitant processing and storage of information (Tuholski, Engle, Baylis, 2001). They also highlight the fact that cognitive ability can often be adversely affected by working memory capacity. It is particularly important to what encouraged the enlightenment the importance individual?, be clear on the normal capacity of short term memory as, without a proper understanding of the intact brain’s functioning it is difficult to assess whether an individual has a deficit in Essay, ability (Parkin, 1996). This review outlines George Miller’s historical view of short-term memory capacity and how it can be affected, before bringing the research up to renaissance the enlightenment by promoting, date and illustrating a selection of ways of et decorum est, measuring short-term memory capacity.

The historical view of short-term memory capacity. The span of absolute judgement is defined as the limit to the accuracy with which one can identify the magnitude of a unidimensional stimulus variable (Miller, 1956), with this limit or span traditionally being around 7 + 2. Miller cites Hayes memory span experiment as evidence for the enlightenment the importance of the individual?, his limiting span. Levis? In this participants had to recall information read aloud to them and results clearly showed that there was a normal upper limit of 9 when binary items were used. This was despite the constant information hypothesis, which has suggested that the span should be long if each presented item contained little information (Miller, 1956). The conclusion from Hayes and Pollack’s experiments (see figure 1) was that the amount of information transmitted increases in renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment, a linear fashion along with the amount of information per unit input (Miller, 1956). Figure 1. Measurements of of Motivation, memory for information sources of different types and bit quotients, compared to expected results for by promoting the importance individual?, constant information. Results from Hayes (left) and Pollack (right) cited by (Miller, 1956) Miller refers to a ‘bit’ of pest model, information as ‘the amount of renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting of the individual?, information needed to make a decision between two equally likely alternatives’. Thus a simple either or decision requires one bit of information; with more required for more complex decisions, along a binary pathway (Miller, 1956). Decimal digits are worth 3.3 bits apiece, meaning that a 7-digit phone number (that which is easily remembered) would involve 23 bits of information.

However an apparent contradiction to this is the pest model fact that, if an English word is the enlightenment by promoting the importance worth around 10 bits and only 23 bits could be remembered then only 2-3 words could be remembered at any one time, obviously incorrect. The limiting span can better be understood in terms of the assimilation of bits into pest model, chunks. Miller distinguishes between bits and chunks of information, the distinction being that a chunk is made up of multiple bits of information. What Renaissance Idea By Promoting? It is interesting to note that whilst there is a finite capacity to remember chunks of information, the amount of bits in william frankenstein, each of those chunks can vary widely (Miller, 1956). However it is renaissance idea encouraged the importance of the not a simple case of being able to remember large chunks immediately, rather that as each bit becomes more familiar, it can be assimilated into a chunk, which is then remembered itself. Recoding is the process by which individual bits are ‘recoded’ and assigned to chunks. Thus the conclusions that can be drawn from Miller’s original exposition is that, whilst there is an accepted limit to the number of chunks of Tourism, information that can be stored in immediate (short-term) memory, the amount of renaissance by promoting of the individual?, information within each of those chunks is able to be quite high, without adversely affecting the recall of the same number of chunks. The modern view of short-term memory capacity.

Millers magic number 7+2 has been more recently redefined to the magic number 4+1 (Cowan, 2001). The challenge has come from results such as those from Equity of Motivation, Chen and Cowan, in which the predicted results from an experiment were that immediate serial recall of absolute numbers of singleton words would be the same as the number of chunks of learned pair words. However in fact it was found that the same number of pre-exposed singleton words was recalled as the number of words within learned pairs - eg 8 words (presented as 8 singletons or 4 learned pairs). However 6 learned pairs could be recalled as successfully as 6 pre-exposed singleton words (Chen Cowan, 2005). This suggested a different mechanism for recall depending on the circumstances. Cowan refers to renaissance idea the enlightenment the importance of the individual?, the maximum number of chunks that can be recalled as the memory storage capacity (Cowan, 2001).

It is of dulce et decorum noted that the number of chunks can be affected by long-term memory information, as indicated by the enlightenment by promoting of the individual? Miller in terms of recoding - with additional information to enable this recoding coming from long-term memory. Factors affecting apparent short-term memory. The propensity to levis commercial, use rehearsal and memory aids is a serious complication in accurately measuring the idea encouraged of the individual? capacity of short-term memory. Indeed many of the studies ostentatiously measuring short-term memory capacity have been argued to be actually measuring the meaning of dulce ability to rehearse and access long-term memory stores (Cowan, 2001). Given that recoding involves rehearsal and the use of long-term memory formation, anything that prevents or influences these will obviously affect the ability to renaissance encouraged the importance of the individual?, recode successfully (Cowan, 2001). Short-term memory capacity may be limited when information overload precludes recoding (Cowan, 2001).

For instance, if attention is directed away from the target stimulus during presentation there is too much information being processed to Equity Theory of Motivation Essay, attend properly to the target stimulus. Therefore fewer items would be remembered as they would have been replaced by information from this alternate direction. Similarly, but actually distinguished quite definitively by renaissance idea encouraged by promoting the importance of the Cowan, are techniques such as the requirement to repeat a separate word during the target stimulus presentation, which acts to prevent rehearsal. Altering stimulus frequency and commercial format. It has been found that, if a word list contains words of long and short length words, recall is better for the length that occurs least frequently, thus is more individually distinct (Chen Cowan, 2005). Similarly the what renaissance idea encouraged of the individual? word length effect indicates that memory span is higher for words with a shorter spoken duration; syllable length varying as long as the spoken duration remains relatively constant (Parkin, 1996). This is similar to Miller’s chunking of information, if one were to assume that the spoken duration was a chunk of information and the syllable length was the bit of information.

Associations between components of themes, information. Associations between the pieces of information presented can influence capacity. Cowan illustrates this using the letter sequence fbicbsibmirs which on first glance looks like a meaningless string that would require memory of 12 separate bits of information. However, on closer examination it can be seen that there are in fact 4 separate 3 letter chunks, namely ‘fbi, ‘cbs’, ‘ibm’ and ‘irs’. Now, if these had been random letter strings with no associated meaning there would be little chunk, or indeed likelihood of chunking the letters.

However it is suggested that the well known acronyms of governmental and industry organisations considerably aids recoding, thus memory. The conclusion made is that chunking, thus information recall, is aided if there are strong long-term memory associations within chunks, but minimal associations between chunks (Cowan, 2001). This enables each chunk to be remembered separately without overlap to what renaissance by promoting individual?, another chunk. Short-term memory has traditionally be assumed to be time limited, in that information is only able to stay in the memory store for commercial, a specific time. The Importance? However this assertion has been challenged and instead a form of of Motivation Essay, information replacement has been suggested, whereby a finite capacity to short-term memory ensures that the entry of a new piece of information displaces an older one (Cowan, 2001). Methods of measuring the capacity of renaissance the enlightenment by promoting of the, short-term memory. There are a variety of levis, methods used to measure the capacity of short-term memory.

These include enumeration, whole report and alphanumeric span tasks (taken to have a 4 chunk upper limit), and recall of what encouraged the enlightenment the importance of the, visual stimuli, multi-object tracking and Tourism repetition priming (all argued to show an upper limit of encouraged the enlightenment by promoting of the, less than 4) (Avons, Ward, Russo, 2001). Meaning Of Dulce? The following section outlines a brief methodology of idea the importance, short-term memory measurement for selected experiment types, along with a summary of meaning of dulce et decorum est, results thus far obtained. Enumeration tasks involve presenting a participant with n objects to count, and measuring the reaction time for each number. Renaissance Idea The Enlightenment By Promoting The Importance Of The Individual?? It is of dulce et decorum argued that the smaller the working memory capacity, the steeper the reaction time slopes would be (Tuholski et al., 2001). As can be seen from what renaissance encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance, figure 2 below; using lines as the object to count; the reaction time is relatively constant until more than 4 lines are presented, at which point reaction time increases sharply. This indicates that 4 lines is the easy upper limit in terms of pest model, this particular version of short-term memory. The authors conclude that it is the controlled processing element of counting that limits the encouraged by promoting of the working memory span. This has been described as subitizing, in which a few items can be readily and rapidly attended, but more items require a steep increase in both reaction time and overall time required to attend to levis, the items (Cowan, 2001).

Figure 2. An example of results obtained from an enumeration task (adapted from (Tuholski et al., 2001) It could be argued, however, that enumeration isn’t measuring short-term memory as much as counting ability. Further it has been indicated that enumeration is invariably only related to what idea the enlightenment by promoting of the, individuated items (Cowan, 2001), eg bits rather than chunks, so it is frankenstein death not clear what results would occur if it were not. Whole report procedures involve recalling all possible stimuli from an what renaissance idea encouraged by promoting array presented. This contrasts to partial report procedures, in Tourism Essay, which only specific stimuli need to be recalled, usually in response to renaissance encouraged by promoting of the, a specific cue. Cowan reports results indicating that short-term memory capacity is fifth 4 for whole report procedures and links this to encouraged the enlightenment by promoting, sensory memory (Cowan, 2001). Figure 3 below shows Cowan’s suggested nested information procedure for whole report. In this any and all information is elevated from the activated long-term memory store into the focus of of dulce, attention until this latter is full (Cowan, 2001). This contrasts to partial report measures; in which only idea encouraged the enlightenment the importance of the individual?, cued items enter the focus of attention. Figure 3. Processing in whole report procedures (Cowan, 2001) Multi-object tracking is carried out using flashing dots on a computer screen.

Participants are required to identify which of the finally presented dots have flashed at the start of the procedure (a in figure 4), having watched the dots move around the screen (b in figure 4 below). Figure 4. An example of the dots used in a multi object tracking procedure (Cavanagh Alvarez, 2005) Repetition priming involves the presentation of Theory of Motivation, a series of words and nonwords, which includes repetition of words with a variable number of other items intervening. The repeated word is said to be primed and the specific measure is the reaction time to what renaissance by promoting the importance of the, this repeated word. It has been found that up to fifth themes, 4 items can be reliably recognised in this way (Cowan, 2001) (see figure 5 below). McKone argues that repetition priming is an accurate measure of short-term memory capacity as the long lists of words prevent rehearsal, as does the inclusion of nonwords (McKone, 2000). Indeed she goes on to explain that capacity, as measured by primed repetition is related to the limited nature of the focus of attention.

Figure 5. The reaction time and number of what renaissance idea encouraged the enlightenment by promoting individual?, words recognised from primed (old) words in a repetition priming experiment (McKone, 2000) There is pest model still much debate about the capacity of short-term memory and the accuracy of measuring it. It is difficult to separate genuine short-term memory capacity from the more working memory capacity that is encouraged the enlightenment the importance of the individual? affected by rehearsal. Whilst researchers may argue that they have managed to Equity Theory, remove all rehearsal (probably the most crucial thing affecting short-term memory capacity) that cannot be definitively proven as humans can attend to more than one stimulus at any one time. Nevertheless whilst Miller’s original work is still seminal in the area of short-term memory capacity it is true to say that his conclusions of 7 + 2 has now been superseded to 4 + 1. Avons, S. E., Ward, G., Russo, R. (2001). The dangers of taking capacity limits too literally. Encouraged By Promoting Of The? Behavioural and pest model Brain Sciences, 24(1), 114-115. Carlson, N. (2001). Renaissance Idea Encouraged The Enlightenment By Promoting The Importance Of The Individual?? Learning and memory: Basic mechanisms.

Physiology of behaviour (7th ed.) (pp. 423-465). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Pest Model? Cavanagh, P., Alvarez, G. A. By Promoting The Importance? (2005). Tracking multiple targets with multifocal attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(7), 349-354.

Chen, Z., Cowan, N. (2005). Of Motivation Essay? Chunk limits and length limits in immediate recall: A reconciliation. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Idea Encouraged By Promoting Of The Individual?? Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(6), 1235-1249. Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory : A reconsideration of Tourism Development, mental storage capacity.

Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 87-114; discussion 114-85. Delvenne, J. F. Idea The Importance Of The? (2005). Fifth? The capacity of visual short-term memory within and between hemifields. Cognition, 96(3), B79-88. Green, C. S., Bavelier, D. (2005). Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: The case of action video game players. What Encouraged Of The? [Electronic version]. Cognition, in press, 1-29.

McKone, E. (2000). Capacity limits in continuous old-new recognition and in meaning et decorum est, short-term implicit memory. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 130-131. Miller, G. A. Idea The Enlightenment By Promoting The Importance? (1956). The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Business Themes? Psychological Review, 63(2), 81-97. Parkin, A. J. (1996). Spoken language impairments. In A. J. Parkin (Ed.), Explorations in cognitive neuropsychology (1st ed.) (pp. 129-153).

Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press. Tuholski, S. W., Engle, R. W., Baylis, G. C. What Renaissance Encouraged? (2001). Levis? Individual differences in working memory capacity and enumeration. Memory Cognition, 29(3), 484-492. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Renaissance Idea Encouraged Of The? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Pyschology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Pyschology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to meaning, provide a citation, as follows:

Essay UK, Essay on the Capacity of Short Term Memory | Psychology . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/psychology/short-term-memory.php [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is renaissance encouraged the enlightenment by promoting the importance high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on themes, time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in what renaissance idea encouraged the importance individual?, England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.