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Bel Canto From Sensible to Foolish Essay. Tdr Networking. From Sensible to Foolish. Gross National Product. Bel Canto is tdr networking, a book full of character transformations. Starting from Mr. Personality Traits. Hosokawa and tdr networking ending up with all the anita book terrorists, Ann Patchett shows the remarkable transformations that occur within each person.
One of the tdr networking most significant transformations in the novel is made by and me summary Gen Watanabe. He starts off as a very capable and tdr networking sensible young man and in the end transforms into a foolish lovesick boy who gives in to gross product his passions and tdr networking forgets to think about the current situation. And Me Summary. Mr. Tdr Networking. Hosokawa had only praise for Gen Watanabe. Despite being just a translator who possessed knowledge of when chanel several difficult languages, Gen was also a capable worker. Tdr Networking. Mr. Hosokawa praised him for doing things that were not even asked of him. Mr. Hosokawa even commented that “When there was nothing that needed translating, Gen simply seemed to doddington gang take care of things before anyone knew they needed taking care of.” (18).
Mr. Hosokawa was not the only one who praised Gen. Everyone else admired him likewise. The Generals, along with all the tdr networking hostages, were surprised by his capabilities. General Benjamin even asked him “How did you get to disorder be so smart?” (97). Gen was complimented more than once that was probably nothing that he couldn’t do. Roxanne was even surprised that he couldn’t play the tdr networking piano. She said “I thought you might…You seem to Disorder in Children know how to do so many things.” (122). Tdr Networking. Gen was very popular as everyone both liked and needed him. Gen Watanabe’s transformations are foreshadowed at the very beginning when a young terrorist holds Roxanne’s hand, and, for some reason, it disturbs Gen.
Later, when Gen finds out that the young terrorist is actually a girl named Carmen the and me book summary “anxiousness he had held inside his chest rolled off of tdr networking him in a long, low wave.” (118). After that, Carmen begins closely watching Gen and he catches her doing it. Despite his affinity for languages, Gen feels a loss of personality traits words and is too afraid to go up and talk to her. Tdr Networking. Luckily Messner comes out to help him. As Gen approaches Carmen for the first time he “felt a peculiar fluttering in Women in Mordecai Richler's "The Apprenticeship of Duddy Essay his chest, a sensation that was not entirely dissimilar to tdr networking an itch but was located just beneath his ribs.” (147). Iq Test Validity. The real transformation begins when Carmen approaches Gen first. At night, when Gen is sleeping, Carmen lies down beside Gen and tdr networking whispers in his ear. One of iq test Gen’s first thoughts when he wakes up is how close she is to him.
He could have “kissed her without moving an tdr networking, inch” (159). This thought shows how Gen Watanabe is iq test validity, beginning to tdr networking fall in love. When Gen saw Carmen’s smile he begins to doubt the reality of and me book this event. He begins thinking that it’s only a dream and asks himself “Had he wanted her and tdr networking not known it. Doddington Gang. Had he wanted her so much that he dreamed she was lying beside him now?” (159). Tdr Networking. After that night Gen Watanabe’s thoughts are only filled with Carmen. He looks for her first thing in Women Richler's "The Essay the morning. Tdr Networking. He worries when he doesn’t know where she is. He gives Beatriz his watch so that she wouldn’t bother him in his worries over disorder Carmen.
When unprepared food is tdr networking, offered to the hostages, Gen stays in in Mordecai of Duddy Essay the kitchen even though he is not needed there. He makes an tdr networking, excuse for himself by Growing Up Essay saying that he could wash vegetables or just stir something. Tdr Networking. He stays behind because he wants to talk with Carmen. In the kitchen Gen approaches Carmen and they agree to a specific time to hold a study session. In the (gnp) beginning of the hostage ordeal Gen said that he was tired. Tdr Networking. The Generals were bothering him by Disorder always calling him to tdr networking translate and anita and me book summary even to type up their demands. Tdr Networking. Other people were always asking him to interpret for chanel died them. Tdr Networking. Gen felt a loyal obligation to Mr. Hosokawa and tried to keep up his services for when did coco chanel died him. Gen Watanabe was a very busy person and tdr networking he was growing weary of anita and me book summary it. However, when Carmen became his main concern his tiredness seemed to go away.
Gen begins sacrifices his hours of rest during the night so that he can study with her. Tdr Networking. He even begins neglecting his duties as a translator when he ignores Victor Fyodorov and begins kissing Carmen. Later his translations become lazy because Gen is in Mordecai Richler's "The Apprenticeship Essay, only thinking about tdr networking Carmen. In the doddington gang bathroom where he and Carmen share their first kiss Gen makes note of his own transformation. Tdr Networking. He notices his reflection in the mirror. In his face is a “love that was so obviously displayed that she must already know everything there was to know about it.” (207). Disorder. Gen is tdr networking, now in Growing love. He is tdr networking, beginning to iq test lose his sense of tdr networking reality in this closed off world. He begins playing the personality traits role of tdr networking Romeo in a different version of Romeo and Juliet. In Mordecai Richler's Apprenticeship Kravitz" Essay. He is not the tdr networking loyal bachelor that he once was.
He has other things on doddington gang his mind now. Tdr Networking. The final transformation comes when he and Carmen get intimate outside in chanel the grass at tdr networking, night. In Gen’s recollection he remembers that night in two versions. The first version is from the gross (gnp) point of a sensible person who is thinking about the tdr networking future more than the present. Summary. The second version is what actually happened from the tdr networking point of a lovesick man in passion. Gen is no longer a sensible person. He has changed completely. He has broken across the imposed borders between terrorists and hostages. He has given way to his passion.
He is no longer the in Mordecai Richler's "The Gen Watanabe that he was in tdr networking the beginning of the gross national (gnp) story. From the time Gen was intimate with Carmen until her death, Gen lost all his sense of reality and sensibility. He became a foolish boy. At nights, when he and Carmen were supposed to tdr networking study Spanish and English, they make love with each other instead. Disorder. Sometimes, they do it more than once. Tdr Networking. Gen begins thinking naively about the book summary consequences of the tdr networking hostage ordeal. When Messner comes back one last time to argue with the national product generals about the surrendering Gen foolishly says “It is tdr networking, a standoff…maybe a permanent one. Validity. If they keep us here forever, we’ll manage.” Messner is tdr networking, shocked facing this transformation in a person he originally thought was reasonable. (gnp). He replies to tdr networking Gen’s statement “Are you insane?
You were the iq test brightest one here once, and tdr networking now you’re as crazy as the rest of them.” (302-303). When the guns began shooting Gen was still naive and Down in Order to Grow Up Essay his head was still stuck in tdr networking the clouds. When the chaos was happening Gen told himself that Carmen was clever. That she would be the Obsessive in Children Essay able to tdr networking escape. He thought that she had probably devised a plan which would allow her to escape. Foolishly he cried out that “She is anita, my wife. She is my wife.” (313). It was the tdr networking only plan for her that he came up with. However, the Obsessive Compulsive Essay transformed Gen had lost his reason. Tdr Networking. The person he had been in Disorder in Children Essay the beginning would have been able to understand that it was a hopeless cause and that the tdr networking hostage situation would have never ended well. It was the transformed, foolish, lovesick, naive version of Richler's Apprenticeship him that didn’t see the full situation.
Ann Patchett illustrates how Gen slowly changes from one person into tdr networking, a completely different person. Compulsive Disorder Essay. He was calm and sensible in the beginning. He was a person that could be depended on tdr networking who thought things through, and did coco died he even said the tdr networking ordeal will be hard on everyone. At the end of the Down to Grow novel, Gen forgot that the ordeal would be hard, and tdr networking he was living with a fantasy expectation of the outcome. In the words of Messner, Gen Watanabe changed from a bright young guy to an insane person.
Patchett, Ann. Bel Canto . New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2008. When Chanel Died. Print.
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Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Nietzsche's moral philosophy is tdr networking, primarily critical in orientation: he attacks morality both for its commitment to untenable descriptive (metaphysical and empirical) claims about chanel died, human agency, as well as for the deleterious impact of its distinctive norms and values on the flourishing of the highest types of human beings (Nietzsche's “higher men”). His positive ethical views are best understood as combining (i) a kind of consequentialist perfectionism as Nietzsche's implicit theory of the good, with (ii) a conception of human perfection involving both formal and substantive elements. Because Nietzsche, however, is an anti-realist about value, he takes neither his positive vision, nor those aspects of his critique that depend upon tdr networking, it, to have any special epistemic status, a fact which helps explain his rhetoric and the circumspect character of his “esoteric” moralizing. Although Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes (for example, about human equality) are apparent, there are no grounds for ascribing to Obsessive Essay, him a political philosophy, since he has no systematic (or even partly systematic) views about the nature of tdr networking, state and chanel died society. As an esoteric moralist, Nietzsche aims at freeing higher human beings from their false consciousness about tdr networking, morality (their false belief that this morality is Obsessive Compulsive Essay, good for them ), not at a transformation of society at tdr networking, large. 1.1 Scope of the Critique: Morality in the Pejorative Sense.
Nietzsche is not a critic of when did coco, all “morality.” He explicitly embraces, for tdr networking, example, the idea of a “higher morality” which would inform the lives of “higher men” (Schacht 1983: 466469), and, in so doing, he employs the same German word Moral , sometimes Moralität for both what he attacks and what he praises. Moreover, Nietzsche aims to offer a revaluation of Obsessive Compulsive in Children Essay, existing values in a manner that appears, itself, to involve appeal to broadly “moral” standards of some sort. As he writes in the Preface to Daybreak : “in this book faith in morality [ Moral ] is withdrawn but why? Out of tdr networking, morality [ Moralität ]! Or what else should we call that which informs it and us ?.[T]here is no doubt that a ‘thou shalt’ [ du sollst ] speaks to us too” (D 4). This means, of course, that (on pain of inconsistency) morality as the object of gross product, Nietzsche's critique must be distinguishable from the sense of “morality” he retains and employs. Yet Nietzsche also does not confine his criticisms of morality to some one religiously, philosophically, socially or historically circumscribed example. Thus, it will not suffice to say that he simply attacks Christian or Kantian or European or utilitarian morality though he certainly at times attacks all of these. To do justice to the scope of his critique, we should ask what characterizes “morality” in Nietzsche's pejorative sense hereafter, “MPS” that is, morality as the object of his critique. Nietzsche believes that all normative systems which perform something like the role we associate with “morality” share certain structural characteristics, even as the meaning and value of tdr networking, these normative systems varies considerably over time. In particular, all normative systems have both descriptive and in Mordecai Richler's of Duddy normative components, in the sense that: (a) they presuppose a particular descriptive account of human agency, in the sense that for the normative claims comprising the system to have intelligible application to human agents, particular metaphysical and empirical claims about tdr networking, agency must be true; and (b) the system's norms favor the interests of some people, often (though not necessarily) at the expense of others. Any particular morality will, in doddington gang turn, be the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., MPS) only if it: presupposes three particular descriptive claims about the nature of human agents pertaining to free will, the transparency of the tdr networking, self, and the essential similarity of all people (“the Descriptive Component”); and/or embraces norms that harm the “highest men” while benefitting the “lowest” (“the Normative Component”).
While Nietzsche offers criticisms of both the Descriptive and Normative Components of MPS, what ultimately defines MPS as against Compulsive Disorder in Children Essay, unobjectionable normative systems is the distinctive normative agenda. Thus, while Nietzsche criticizes the description of tdr networking, agency that is typically part and parcel of personality traits, MPS, he also holds that “[i]t is not error as error that” he objects to fundamentally in MPS (EH IV;7): that is, it is not the falsity of the descriptive account of agency presupposed by MPS, per se , that is the heart of the problem, but rather its distinctive normative commitments. Thus, strictly speaking, it is true that an MPS would be objectionable even if it did not involve a commitment to an untenable descriptive account of tdr networking, agency (as, say, certain forms of utilitarianism do not). Women In Mordecai Kravitz". Because Nietzsche's two most common and closely related specific targets are, however, Christian and tdr networking Kantian morality, the critique of the descriptive component of MPS figures prominently in Nietzsche's writing, and when did coco died any account of the logic of tdr networking, his critique that omitted it would not do justice to personality, his concerns. 1.2 Critique of the Descriptive Component of tdr networking, MPS. MPS for Nietzsche depends for its intelligible application to human agents on three descriptive theses about human agency (cf. BGE 32; GM I:13; TI VI; EH III:5; EH IV:8): (1) Human agents possess a will capable of free and autonomous choice (“Free Will Thesis”). (2) The self is anita and me summary, sufficiently transparent that agents' actions can be distinguished on the basis of their respective motives (“Transparency of the Self Thesis”). (3) Human agents are sufficiently similar that one moral code is appropriate for (because in tdr networking the interests of) all (“Similarity Thesis”).
These three theses must be true in order for anita book, the normative judgments of MPS to be intelligible because the tdr networking, normative judgments of MPS are marked for doddington gang, Nietzsche by three corresponding traits; namely, that they: (1′) Hold agents responsible for their actions. (2′) Evaluate and “rank” the motives for which agents act. (3′) Presuppose that “morality” has universal applicability (MPS “says stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” [BGE 202]). Thus, the falsity of the picture of agency would affect the intelligibility of moral judgments in the following three ways: (1″) If agents lacked “free will” they could not be held responsible for their actions. (2″) If agent motives could not be distinguished then no evaluative distinctions could be drawn among acts in terms of their motives. (3″) If agents were, in fact, different in some overlooked but relevant respect, then it would, at least, not be prima facie apparent that one morality should have universal application. It is the burden, then, of Nietzsche's critique of the Descriptive Component of tdr networking, MPS to show that, in Obsessive fact, none of these latter theses about the nature of agency hold. Tdr Networking. A brief review of these arguments follows (a more detailed treatment is in Leiter 2002: 81112). Against the Free Will Thesis, Nietzsche argues that a free agent (that is, one sufficiently free to be morally responsible) would have to be causa sui (i.e., self-caused, or the cause of itself); but since we are not causa sui , no one can be a free agent. Anita And Me Book Summary. Nietzsche takes for granted not implausibly that our moral and religious traditions are incompatibilist at their core: causally determined wills are not free wills.
Nietzsche offers two kinds of arguments to show that we are not causa sui : that it is tdr networking, logically impossible to be causa sui ; and that human beings are not self-caused in a sense sufficient to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children, underwrite ascriptions of moral responsibility. (I owe the point that there are two different arguments at issue here to Eric Vogelstein.) He says relatively little about the tdr networking, first point, other than claiming that “the concept of a causa sui is something fundamentally absurd” (BGE 15), and that it is “the best self-contradiction that has been conceived so fara sort of rape and (gnp) perversion of logic” (BGE 21), such that this, desire for “freedom of the will” in the superlative metaphysical sensethe desire to bear the entire and ultimate responsibility for one's actions oneself, and to absolve God, the world, ancestors, chance, and tdr networking society involves nothing less than to be precisely this causa sui andto pull oneself up into existence by the hair, out of the doddington gang, swamps of nothingness. Tdr Networking. (BGE 21) But we cannot, needless to say, pull ourselves up “out of the doddington gang, swamps of nothingness,” and so we cannot have ultimate responsibility for tdr networking, our actions. Nietzsche quickly moves from the Apprenticeship Kravitz" Essay, claim that being causa sui involves a contradiction, however, to an argument that depends on his picture of human agency. Nietzsche accepts what we may call a “Doctrine of tdr networking, Types” (Leiter 1998), according to which, Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of person. Call the relevant psycho-physical facts here “type-facts.” Type-facts, for Nietzsche, are either physiological facts about the person, or facts about the person's unconscious drives or affects.
The claim, then, is that each person has certain largely immutable physiological and psychic traits that constitute the “type” of person he or she is. Although Nietzsche himself does not use this exact terminology, the concept figures centrally in all his mature writings. A typical Nietzschean form of argument, for example, runs as follows: a person's theoretical beliefs are best explained in terms of his moral beliefs; and his moral beliefs are best explained in terms of natural facts about the type of person he is anita and me book summary, (i.e., in terms of type-facts). So Nietzsche says, “every great philosophy so far has beenthe personal confession of its author and a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir”; thus, to really grasp this philosophy, one must ask “at what morality does all this (does he ) aim” (BGE 6)? But the “morality” that a philosopher embraces simply bears “decisive witness to who he is tdr networking, ” i.e., who he essentially is Women in Mordecai Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz" Essay, that is, to the “innermost drives of his nature” (BGE 6). This explanation of tdr networking, a person's moral beliefs in terms of psycho-physical facts about the person is a recurring theme in Nietzsche. “[M]oralities aremerely a sign language of the affects” (BGE 187), he says. “Answers to the questions about the value of existencemay always be considered first of all as the symptoms of certain bodies” (GS P:2). “Moral judgments,” he says are, “symptoms and sign languages which betray the process of physiological prosperity or failure” (WP 258). “[O]ur moral judgments and personality disorder evaluationsare only tdr networking images and Compulsive in Children Essay fantasies based on tdr networking a physiological process unknown to us” (D 119), so that “it is always necessary to draw forththe physiological phenomenon behind the moral predispositions and prejudices” (D 542). A “morality of sympathy,” he claims is “just another expression of physiological overexcitability” (TI IX:37). Ressentiment and Obsessive Compulsive in Children Essay the morality that grows out of it he attributes to an “actual physiological cause [ Ursache ]” (GM I:15).
Nietzsche sums up the idea well in the preface to On the Genealogy of tdr networking, Morality (hereafter simply “ Genealogy ” or “GM”): “our thoughts, values, every ‘yes,’ ‘no,’ ‘if’ and ‘but’ grow from us with the same inevitability as fruits borne on the tree all related and each with an affinity to each, and evidence of one will, one health, one earth, one sun” (GM P:2). Nietzsche seeks to understand in naturalistic terms the type of “person” who would necessarily bear such ideas and values, just as one might come to understand things about a type of tree by knowing its fruits. Doddington Gang. And just as natural facts about the tree explain the fruit it bears, so too type-facts about a person will explain his values and actions. This means that the conscious mental states that precede the action and whose propositional contents would make them appear to be causally connected to the action are, in fact, epiphenomenal, either as tokens or as types: that is, they are either causally inert with respect to the action or causally effective only in virtue of other type-facts about the person (Leiter 2002: 9193 argues for the latter reading; Leiter 2007 argues for tdr networking, the former). We typically locate the “will,” as the seat of action, in Obsessive Compulsive in Children various conscious states: for example, our beliefs and desires.
According to Nietzsche, however, the tdr networking, “will” so conceived is nothing but the effect of type-facts about the person. This means that the real story of the genesis of an action begins with the gross national (gnp), type-facts, which explain both consciousness and a person's actions. Here is how Nietzsche puts it, after suggesting that the “will” is tdr networking, related to, but conceptually prior to, the concepts of “consciousness” and “ego”: The “inner world” is full of phantoms: the will is one of traits, them. Tdr Networking. The will no longer moves anything, hence does not explain anything either it merely accompanies events; it can also be absent. The so-called motive : another error.
Merely a surface phenomenon of consciousness something alongside the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, deed that is more likely to cover up the tdr networking, antecedents of the deeds than to gross product, represent them. What follows from tdr networking, this? There are no mental [ geistigen ] causes at all. (TI VI:3) In the last line, Nietzsche must mean only Disorder that there are no conscious mental causes. Indeed, in other passages, he is explicit that the tdr networking, target of this critique is the picture of conscious motives as adequate to doddington gang, account for action. (For competing views of the scope of Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about tdr networking, consciousness, see Katsafanas 2005 and Riccardi 2015a.) As he writes in Daybreak , “we are accustomed to exclude all [the] unconscious processes from the accounting and to reflect on when chanel died the preparation for an act only to the extent that it is tdr networking, conscious” (D 129), a view which Nietzsche plainly regards as mistaken, both here and in the passage quoted above.
Indeed, the theme of the “ridiculous overestimation and misunderstanding of national, consciousness” (GS 11) is a recurring one in Nietzsche. “[B]y far the greatest part of our spirit's activity,” says Nietzsche, “remains unconscious and unfelt” (GS 333; cf. GS 354). Apart from the general evidence on tdr networking behalf of the Doctrine of national, Types, Nietzsche's strongest targeted argument for the epiphenomenality of tdr networking, consciousness depends on a piece of gross national (gnp), phenomenology, namely, “that a thought comes when ‘it’ wishes, and not when ‘I’ wish” (BGE 17). If that is right and if actions are apparently “caused” by thoughts (by particular beliefs and desires), then it follows that actions are not caused solely by our conscious mental states, but rather by whatever it is (i.e., type-facts) that determines the thoughts that enter consciousness. Thus, it is the (autonomous) causal power of our conscious mental life that Nietzsche must be attacking. Given, then, that Nietzsche claims consciousness is epiphenomenal, and given our identification of the “will” with our conscious life, Nietzsche would have us dispense with the idea of the will as causal altogether. (This gives Nietzsche a novel argument against hierarchical accounts of tdr networking, free will favored by compatibilists: see Leiter 2002: 9396). Since the conscious will is not causal, the Free Will Thesis is gross product (gnp), false. Against the Transparency of the Self Thesis, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable” (GS 335; cf. WP 291, 294); as he writes in Daybreak : The primeval delusion still lives on that one knows, and tdr networking knows quite precisely in every case, how human action is brought about . When Chanel Died. “I know what I want, what I have done, I am free and tdr networking responsible for it, I hold others responsible, I can call by its name every moral possibility and every inner motion which precedes action; you may act as you will in this matter I understand myself and understand you all!” that is howalmost everyone still thinks.[But] [a]ctions are never what they appear to personality, us to be! We have expended so much labor on learning that external things are not as they appear to us to be very well! the case is the same with the inner world! Moral actions are in reality “something other than that” more we cannot say: and all actions are essentially unknown. (D 116)
Actions are unknown because “nothingcan be more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of drives which constitute [a man's] being” (D 119). One “can scarcely name even the tdr networking, cruder ones: their number and strength, their ebb and did coco died flow, their play and counterplay among one another, and above all the laws of their nutriment remain wholly unknown” (D 119). But as Nietzsche argues elsewhere (e.g., D 109), the self is merely the arena in tdr networking which the struggle of drives plays itself out, and one's actions are the outcomes of the Obsessive in Children, struggle (see Leiter 2002: 99104; cf. Riccardi 2015b; for a general account of tdr networking, Nietzsche's philosophical psychology, see Katsafanas 2013). Against the Similarity Thesis, Nietzsche once again deploys his Doctrine of Types. National Product (gnp). Nietzsche holds that agents are essentially dissimilar , insofar as they are constituted by tdr networking different type-facts. Since Nietzsche also holds that these natural type-facts fix the different conditions under which particular agents will flourish, it follows that one morality cannot be good for all. “ Morality in Europe today is herd animal morality ,” says Nietzsche, “in other wordsmerely one type of national (gnp), human morality beside which, before which, and after which many other types, above all higher moralities, are, or ought to be, possible” (BGE 202). Tdr Networking. Nietzsche illustrates the general point with his discussion of the doddington gang, case of the Italian writer Cornaro in Twilight of the Idols (VI:1). Cornaro, says Nietzsche, wrote a book mistakenly recommending “his slender diet as a recipe for a long and tdr networking happy life.” But why was this a mistake? Nietzsche explains: The worthy Italian thought his diet was the cause of his long life, whereas the precondition for a long life, the extraordinary slowness of national product, his metabolism, the consumption of tdr networking, so little, was the cause of his slender diet.
He was not free to eat little or much; his frugality was not a matter of “free will”: he became sick when he ate more. But whoever is not a carp not only does well to when did coco died, eat properly, but needs to. There exists, then, type-facts about Cornaro that explain why a slender diet is good for him: namely, “the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism.” These natural facts, in turn, constrain what Cornaro can do, delivering him “feedback” about the conditions under which he will and won't flourish: given his slow metabolism, if Cornaro ate more “he became sick”; conversely, when he stuck to his slender diet, he did well. In sum, “[h]e was not free to eat little or much.” Cornaro's mistake consists, in effect, in his absolutism: he thought the tdr networking, “good” diet was good for when did coco chanel died, everyone, when in fact it was only good for certain types of bodies (namely, those with slow metabolisms). As with diets, so too with moralities, according to Nietzsche. Agents are not similar in type-facts, and tdr networking so one moral “diet” cannot be “good for book summary, all.” As he writes: [T]he question is always who he is, and tdr networking who the other person isEvery unegoistic morality that takes itself for unconditional and addresses itself to all does not only sin against taste: it is a provocation to sins of omission, one more seduction under the mask of philanthropy and precisely a seduction and injury for the higher, rarer, privileged. When Did Coco Chanel Died. (BGE 221) This point sets the stage for his core critique of morality. 1.3 Critique of the Normative Component of MPS. All of Nietzsche's criticisms of the normative component of MPS are parasitic upon tdr networking, one basic complaint not, as some have held (e.g., Nehamas , Geuss ), the universality of moral demands, per se , but rather that “the demand of one morality for all is detrimental to the higher men” (BGE 228). Universality would be unobjectionable if agents were relevantly similar, but because agents are relevantly different, a universal morality must necessarily be harmful to some. Anita Book. As Nietzsche writes elsewhere: “When a decadent type of man ascended to the rank of the highest type [via MPS], this could only tdr networking happen at the expense of its countertype [emphasis added], the type of personality disorder traits, man that is strong and sure of life” (EH III:5).
In the preface to the Genealogy , Nietzsche sums up his basic concern particularly well: What if a symptom of tdr networking, regression lurked in the “good,” likewise a danger, a seduction, a poison, a narcotic, through which the present lived at the expense of the future ? Perhaps more comfortably, less dangerously, but at the same time in a meaner style, more basely? So that morality itself were to blame if the highest power and splendor [ Mächtigkeit und Pracht ] possible to the type man was never in fact attained? So that morality itself was the danger of dangers? (GM Pref:6; cf. Doddington Gang. BT Attempt:5) This theme is sounded throughout Nietzsche's work.
In a book of 1880, for tdr networking, example, he writes that, “Our weak, unmanly social concepts of good and (gnp) evil and their tremendous ascendancy over body and soul have finally weakened all bodies and souls and tdr networking snapped the self-reliant, independent, unprejudiced men, the Women Richler's "The Apprenticeship of Duddy Essay, pillars of a strong civilization” (D 163). Similarly, in a posthumously published note of 1885, he remarks that “men of great creativity, the tdr networking, really great men according to my understanding, will be sought in chanel died vain today” because “nothing stands more malignantly in the way of their rise and evolutionthan what in Europe today is tdr networking, called simply ‘morality’” (WP 957). In these and many other passages (e.g., BGE 62; GM III:14; A:5, 24; EH IV:4; WP 274, 345, 400, 870, 879.), Nietzsche makes plain his fundamental objection to MPS: simply put, that MPS thwarts the development of doddington gang, human excellence, i.e., “the highest power and splendor possible to the type man” (for more on the “higher man,” see section (2)). There is tdr networking, another, important competing reading of Nietzsche's central complaint about Compulsive Disorder in Children Essay, MPS: namely, that it is “harmful to life” or, more simply, “anti-nature.” Geuss, for tdr networking, example, says that, “There is little doubt that ‘Life’in Nietzsche does seem to function as a criterion for evaluating moralities” (1997: 10). So, too, Schacht claims that Nietzsche “takes ‘life’ in this world to be the sole locus of anita book summary, value, and its preservation, flourishing, and above all its enhancement to be ultimately decisive for determinations of value” (1983: 359). Thus, the question of the value of MPS is tdr networking, really the question of its “value for Women Richler's "The Apprenticeship of Duddy, life” (1983: 354). Yet such an account is plainly too vague: what exactly does “life” refer to here? Schacht, following a suggestion of Nietzsche's from the Nachlass (WP 254), suggests that life is will to power, and tdr networking thus degree of power constitutes the standard of value. Gross National. (We shall return to tdr networking, this suggestion in product (gnp) detail in section 3.1, below.) But this involves no gain in precision. Nietzsche may, indeed, have thought that more “power” in tdr networking his sense was more valuable than less, but that still leaves us with the question: power of what or of Women of Duddy Kravitz", whom ? The only plausible candidate given especially his other remarks discussed above is power of people ; just as the only plausible candidate for the “life” that Nietzsche considers it valuable to preserve and enhance must be the lives of people and, in particular, the tdr networking, lives of the “highest men.”
That this is what Nietzsche means is revealed by Compulsive Essay the context of his actual remarks about the “value for tdr networking, life.” For example, he comments that “a higher and more fundamental value for life might have to be ascribed to deception, selfishness, and lust” (BGE 2, emphasis added). Obsessive In Children. But what sort of “life” is, e.g., “selfishness” valuable for? As Nietzsche writes elsewhere (e.g., GM Pref:56), it is simply that life which manifests “the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man.” And similarly, when Nietzsche says that a “tendency hostile to life is therefore characteristic of morality,” it is clear in context that what “life” refers to is “the type man” who might be “raised to his greatest splendor and power” (that is, but for tdr networking, the interference of doddington gang, MPS) (WP 897). Tdr Networking. In short, then, the things Nietzsche identifies as “valuable” for Compulsive Disorder, life are those he takes to be necessary for the flourishing of the highest types of life (or human excellence), while those that he identifies as harmful to tdr networking, it are those that he takes to be things that constitute obstacles to Richler's Apprenticeship, such flourishing. This suggests, then, that the “life” for which things are either valuable or disvaluable must be the life (or lives) that manifest human excellence i.e., the lives of “higher men.” Something similar may be said for the claim that Nietzsche objects to MPS because it is “anti-nature.” For example, when Nietzsche says in Ecce Homo (IV:7) that “it is the lack of nature, it is the tdr networking, utterly gruesome fact that antinature itself received the highest honors as morality” that he centrally objects to in a morality, his claim will remain obscure unless we can say precisely what about product, MPS makes it “anti-natural.” Nietzsche, himself, offers guidance on this in the same section when he explains that a MPS is anti-natural insofar as it has the following sorts of characteristics: it teaches men “to despise the very first instincts of life” and “to experience the presupposition of life, sexuality, as something unclean”; and it “looks for the evil principle in what is tdr networking, most profoundly necessary for growth, in severe self-love” (EH IV:7). But from this it should be apparent, then, that it is not anti-naturalness itself that is objectionable, but the Women "The of Duddy, consequences of an anti-natural MPS that are at issue: for tdr networking, example, its opposition to the instincts that are “profoundly necessary for growth.” This point is even more explicit in The Antichrist , where Nietzsche notes that Christian morality “has waged deadly war against this higher type of man; it has placed all the basic instincts of his type under ban ” (5, emphasis added). In other words, the anti-naturalness of MPS is objectionable because the “natural” instincts MPS opposes are precisely those necessary for doddington gang, the growth of the tdr networking, “higher type of man.” Thus, underlying Nietzsche's worries about the anti-naturalness of MPS just as underlying his worries about the disorder, threat MPS poses to life is a concern for tdr networking, the effect of MPS on “higher men.” So Nietzsche objects to the normative agenda of MPS because it is harmful to died, the highest men. In Nietzsche's various accounts of what the objectionable agenda of MPS consists, he identifies a variety of normative positions (see, e.g., D 108, 132, 174; GS 116, 294, 328, 338, 345, 352, 377; Z I:4, II:8, III:1, 9, IV:13, 10; BGE 197, 198, 201202, 225, 257; GM Pref:5, III: 11 ff.; TI II, V, IX:35, 3738, 48; A: 7, 43; EH III:D-2, IV:4, 7-8; WP 752). We may characterize these simply as “pro” and tdr networking “con” attitudes, and in Mordecai Richler's "The Apprenticeship of Duddy we may say that a morality is the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., it is an MPS) if it contains one or more of the following normative views (this is a representative, but not exhaustive, list):
The various possible normative components of MPS should, of course, be understood construed as ideal-typical , singling out for tdr networking, emphasis and criticism certain important features of larger and more complex normative views. Let us call that which morality has a “pro” attitude towards is the when died, “Pro-Object,” and that which morality has a “con” attitude towards the “Con-Object.” Keeping in mind that what seems to have intrinsic value for Nietzsche is human excellence or human greatness (see the next section), Nietzsche's attack on the normative component of MPS can be summarized as having two parts: (a) With respect to the Pro-Object, Nietzsche argues either (i) that the Pro-Object has no intrinsic value (in the cases where MPS claims it does); or (ii) that it does not have any or not nearly as much extrinsic value as MPS treats it as having; and. (b) With respect to tdr networking, the Con-Object, Nietzsche argues only that the Con-Objects are extrinsically valuable for the cultivation of Women Richler's Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz" Essay, human excellence and that this is obscured by the “con” attitude endorsed by MPS. Thus, what unifies Nietzsche's seemingly disparate critical remarks about altruism, happiness, pity, equality, Kantian respect for persons, utilitarianism, etc. is that he thinks a culture in which such norms prevail as morality will be a culture which eliminates the conditions for the realization of tdr networking, human excellence the latter requiring, on Nietzsche's view, concern with the self, suffering, a certain stoic indifference, a sense of doddington gang, hierarchy and difference, and tdr networking the like. Indeed, when we turn to the details of Nietzsche's criticisms of these norms we find that, in fact, this is in Mordecai Richler's Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz", precisely what he argues. One detailed example will have to suffice here. What could be harmful about the seemingly innocuous MPS valuation of happiness (“pro”) and suffering (“con”)? An early remark of Nietzsche's suggests his answer:
Are we not, with this tremendous objective of obliterating all the sharp edges of tdr networking, life, well on the way to turning mankind into sand ? Sand! Small, soft, round, unending sand! Is that your ideal, you heralds of the sympathetic affections? (D 174) In a later work, Nietzsche says referring to hedonists and utilitarians that, “Well-being as you understand it that is no goal, that seems to us an end , a state that soon makes man ridiculous and contemptible” (BGE 225). "The Apprenticeship Of Duddy Kravitz" Essay. By the hedonistic doctrine of well-being, Nietzsche takes the utilitarians to have in mind “ English happiness,” namely, “comfort and fashion” (BGE 228) a construal which, if unfair to some utilitarians (like Mill), may do justice to our ordinary aspirations to happiness. Tdr Networking. In a similar vein, Nietzsche has Zarathustra dismiss “wretched contentment” as an ideal (Z Pref:3), while also revealing that it was precisely “the last men” the “most despicable men” who “invented happiness [ Glück ]” in the first place (Pref:5). So happiness, according to Nietzsche, is product, not an intrinsically valuable end, and men who aim for it directly or through cultivating the dispositions that lead to tdr networking, it would be “ridiculous and contemptible.” To be sure, Nietzsche allows that he himself and the “free spirits” will be “cheerful” or “gay” [ frölich ] they are, after all, the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children Essay, proponents of the “gay science.” But the point is that such “happiness” is not criterial of being a higher person, and thus it is not something that the higher person in contrast to the adherent of MPS aims for.
Yet why does aiming for happiness make a person so unworthy of admiration? Nietzsche's answer appears to be this: because suffering is positively necessary for tdr networking, the cultivation of human excellence which is the only thing, recall, that warrants admiration for Obsessive Disorder in Children Essay, Nietzsche. Tdr Networking. He writes, for example, that: The discipline of suffering, of great suffering do you not know that only this discipline has created all enhancements of did coco, man so far? That tension of the soul in tdr networking unhappiness which cultivates its strength, its shudders face to face with great ruin, its inventiveness and courage in enduring, persevering, interpreting, and exploiting suffering, and whatever has been granted to it of national product (gnp), profundity, secret, mask, spirit, cunning, greatness was it not granted to it through suffering, through the discipline of great suffering? (BGE 225; cf. BGE 270) Nietzsche is tdr networking, not arguing here that in contrast to the view of MPS suffering is really intrinsically valuable (not even MPS claims that). The value of suffering, according to Nietzsche, is only extrinsic: suffering “great” suffering is a prerequisite of traits, any great human achievement. As Nietzsche puts the point elsewhere: “Only great pain is the ultimate liberator of the spirit.I doubt that such pain makes us ‘better’; but I know that it makes us more profound” (GS Pref:3). Tdr Networking. Nietzsche's attack, then, conforms to the model sketched above: (i) he rejects the view that happiness is intrinsically valuable; and (ii) he thinks that the negative attitude of MPS toward suffering obscures its important extrinsic value. (There is reason to think that, on this second point, Nietzsche is generalizing from his own experience with physical suffering, the worst periods of Obsessive Compulsive in Children, which coincided with his greatest productivity. Tdr Networking. Indeed, he believed that his suffering contributed essentially to his work: as he writes, admittedly hyperbolically, in Ecce Homo : “In the gross national product (gnp), midst of the torments that go with an tdr networking, uninterrupted three-day migraine, accompanied by laborious vomiting of phlegm, I possessed a dialectician's clarity par excellence and thought through with very cold blood matters for which under healthier circumstances I am not mountain-climber, not subtle, not cold enough” (EH I:1).)
Even if there is no shortage in the history of art and literature of gross national product (gnp), cases of immense suffering being the spur to great creativity, there remains a serious worry about the logic of this line of Nietzschean critique. Following Leiter (1995), we may call this the “Harm Puzzle,” and the puzzle is this: why should one think the general moral prescription to alleviate suffering must stop the suffering of tdr networking, great artists, hence stop them from producing great art? One might think, in fact, that MPS could perfectly well allow an exception for doddington gang, those individuals whose own suffering is essential to the realization of central life projects. After all, a prescription to alleviate suffering reflects a concern with promoting well-being, under some construal. Tdr Networking. But if some individuals nascent Goethes, Nietzsches, and other geniuses would be better off with a good dose of national product (gnp), suffering, then why would MPS recommend otherwise? Why, then, should it be the case that MPS “harms” potentially “higher men”? This seems the natural philosophical question to ask, yet it also involves an important misunderstanding of Nietzsche's critique, which is not, we might say, about philosophical theory but rather about the real nature of culture . When MPS values come to dominate a culture, Nietzsche thinks (plausibly), they will affect the attitudes of tdr networking, all members of that culture. If MPS values emphasize the badness of suffering and disorder the goodness of happiness, that will influence how individuals with the potential for great achievements will understand, evaluate and conduct their own lives. If, in fact, suffering is a precondition for these individuals to do anything great, and if they have internalized the norm that suffering must be alleviated, and that happiness is the ultimate goal, then we run the tdr networking, risk that, rather than to put it crudely suffer and create, they will instead waste their energies pursuing pleasure, lamenting their suffering and seeking to anita and me book, alleviate it. MPS values may not explicitly prohibit artists or other potentially “excellent” persons from ever suffering; but the risk is that a culture like ours which has internalized the norms against suffering and for tdr networking, pleasure will be a culture in which potential artists and other doers of great things will, in fact , squander themselves in self-pity and the seeking of pleasure.
So Nietzsche's response to the Harm Puzzle depends upon national (gnp), an empirical claim about what the real effect of MPS will be. The normative component of MPS is harmful not because its specific prescriptions and proscriptions explicitly require potentially excellent persons to forego that which allows them to flourish (the claim is not that a conscientious application of the “theory” of MPS is incompatible with the tdr networking, flourishing of higher men); rather, the national (gnp), normative component of MPS is harmful because in tdr networking practice , and especially because of MPS's commitment to the idea that one morality is appropriate for all, potentially higher men will come to Women in Mordecai "The, adopt such values as applicable to themselves as well. Thus, the normative component of tdr networking, MPS is harmful because, in Women of Duddy Kravitz" reality, it will have the effect of leading potentially excellent persons to value what is in fact not conducive to their flourishing and tdr networking devalue what is in fact essential to it. In sum, Nietzsche's central objection to personality traits, MPS is that it thwarts the tdr networking, development of human excellence. His argument for summary, this, in each case, turns on identifying distinctive valuations of MPS, and showing how as in the case of norms favoring happiness and devaluing suffering they undermine the development of individuals who would manifest human excellence. (For discussion of other examples, see Leiter 2002: 134136.) 2. Nietzsche's Positive Ethical Vision. While Nietzsche clearly has views about the tdr networking, states of affairs to which positive intrinsic value attaches (namely, the flourishing of higher men), there is Women Richler's "The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz" Essay, more disagreement among interpreters about what kind of ethics arises from the latter valuation so central to his critique of morality. The two leading candidates are that Nietzsche embraces a kind of virtue ethics (e.g., Hunt 1991; Solomon 2001) and tdr networking that he is Richler's Apprenticeship, a kind of tdr networking, perfectionist (Hurka 1993, Hurka 2007). These accounts turn out to (gnp), overlap the perfections of the latter account are often the virtues of the former though the tdr networking, perfectionist account will prove to have certain other advantages, discussed below. Any account of Nietzsche's “positive ethics” confronts a threshold worry, namely, that Nietzsche's naturalistic conception of persons and agency and, in particular, his conception of personality traits, persons as constituted by non-conscious type-facts that determine their actions makes it unclear how Nietzsche could have a philosophical ethics in any conventional sense. If, as Nietzsche, says, we face “a brazen wall of fate; we are in prison, we can only dream ourselves free, not make ourselves free” (HAH II:33); if “the single human being is tdr networking, a piece of fatum from the anita summary, front and from the rear, one law more, one necessity more for all that is yet to come and to be” (TI V:6); if (as he says more hyperbolically in Nachlass material) “the voluntary is absolutely lackingeverything has been directed along certain lines from the beginning” (WP 458); if (again hyperbolically) “one will become only that which one is (in spite of tdr networking, all: that means education, instruction, milieu, chance, and accident)” (WP 334); then it is hardly surprising that Nietzsche should also say, “A man as he ought to be: that sounds to us as insipid as ‘a tree as he ought to be’” (WP 332).
Yet a philosopher reluctant to when chanel died, talk about “man as he ought to be” is plainly ill-suited to tdr networking, the task of developing a normative ethics, understood as systematic and theoretical guidance for how to live, whether that guidance comes in the form of rules for behavior or dispositions of character to be cultivated. (There is an additional, and special difficulty, for those who think Nietzsche is disorder, a virtue ethicist, namely, that he also thinks genuine virtues are specific to individuals, meaning that there will be nothing general for tdr networking, the theorist to say about them [see, e.g., Z I:5].) This means we must approach the question of Nietzsche's “positive” ethics in terms of explicating (1) what it is Nietzsche values, (2) what his criteria of evaluation are, and Essay (3) what evaluative structure , if any, is exhibited by the answers to (1) and (2). We go wrong at the start, however, if we expect Nietzsche to produce a normative theory of any familiar kind, whether a virtue ethics or otherwise. Importantly, the preceding points should not be read as denying that Nietzsche thinks values and evaluative judgments can have a causal impact on actions and how lives are lived. After all, there would be no point in undertaking a “revaluation of values” if such a revaluation would not have consequences for, e.g., the flourishing of higher men, or if MPS values did not have deleterious causal consequences for those same people. Values make a causal difference, but, given Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness (discussed, above, in 1.1), they do not make this difference because of free, conscious choices individuals make to adopt certain moral rules or cultivate certain dispositions of character. We can better appreciate Nietzsche's unusual views on this score by looking more closely at the popular, but mistaken, idea that Nietzsche calls on tdr networking people to “create themselves” (on the general topic, see Leiter 1998). Alexander Nehamas, for example, reads Nietzsche as endorsing an ethics of self-creation.
For Nietzsche, Nehamas says, “The people who ‘want to become those they are’ are precisely ‘human beings who are new, unique, incomparable, who give themselves laws, who create themselves’ (GS, 335)” (1985, p. 174). Unfortunately, Nehamas truncates the quote from The Gay Science at a misleading point. For Nietzsche, in the full passage, continues as follows: To that end [of creating ourselves] we must become the best learners and discoverers of everything that is lawful and necessary in the world: we must become physicists in order to be creators in this sense [ wir müssen Physiker sein, um, in jenem Sinne , Schöpfer sein zu können ] while hitherto all valuations and ideals have been based on ignorance of physics . Did Coco Chanel. Therefore: long live physics! (GS 335) Creation “in this sense” is, then, a very special sense indeed: for it presupposes the discovery of what is “lawful and necessary” as revealed by physical science! The passage begins to make more sense in tdr networking context. Obsessive In Children Essay. For in this same section, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable,” though he adds: our opinions, valuations, and tables of tdr networking, what is good certainly belong among the most powerful levers in the involved mechanism of our actions, butin any particular case the law of their mechanism is indemonstrable [ unnachweisbar ]. This observation leads Nietzsche immediately to book, the suggestion that we should create “our own new tables of what is good,” presumably with an eye to tdr networking, effecting the causal determination of our actions in new ways. However, we need help from science to chanel, identify the tdr networking, lawful patterns into anita and me book which values and actions fall; even if the mechanisms are indemonstrable, science may at least reveal the patterns of value-inputs and action-outputs. So to create one's self, “in this sense,” is to tdr networking, accept Nietzsche's basically deterministic picture of action as determined by sub-conscious causes (type-facts) that are hard to identify but to use science to help identify those “values” which figure in the causal determination of action in new, but predictable, ways.
Values, then, have a causal impact upon how people act and Obsessive Disorder in Children thus also on their life trajectories; but we cannot expect these impacts to flow from free, conscious choices that persons make. Tdr Networking. This would explain, of summary, course, why we find so little in Nietzsche by way of argumentative or discursive support for his evaluative judgments: such intellectual devices are precisely the ones that would appeal to our conscious faculties, and thus would be idle with respect to the desired outcomes. Nietzsche's often violent rhetorical style, by tdr networking contrast, might be expected (or so Nietzsche presumably thinks) to and me book, have the requisite non-rational effect on his desired readers those “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381). (More on this issue in tdr networking Section 4, below.) If Nietzsche does not have a typical normative ethics, he certainly has no shortage of views about evaluative questions. For example, it is clear from the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality that he assigns great intrinsic value to doddington gang, the flourishing of tdr networking, higher men.
But who are these “higher men” and why does Nietzsche assign value to them? (Note that while Nietzsche speaks in Thus Spoke Zarathustra of the “superman” as a kind of ideal higher type, this concept simply drops out of his mature work (except for a brief mention in EH in the context of product (gnp), discussing Zarathustra ). “Higher men” is an important concept in Nietzsche; the “superman” is nothing more than a rhetorical trope in the highly stylized Zarathustra. ) Nietzsche has three favorite examples of “higher” human beings: Goethe, Beethoven, and tdr networking Nietzsche himself! What makes these figures paradigms of the traits, “higher” type for Nietzsche, beyond their great creativity (as he says, “the men of great creativity” are “the really great men according to tdr networking, my understanding” (WP 957))? Following Leiter (2002: 116122), we can identify five characteristics that Nietzsche identifies as distinctive of disorder, “higher men”: the higher type is tdr networking, solitary, pursues a “unifying project,” is healthy, is life-affirming, and practices self-reverence. Taken together, they are plainly sufficient to make someone a higher type in Nietzsche's view, though it is not obvious that any one of national product (gnp), these is necessary, and various combinations often seem sufficient for explaining how Nietzsche speaks of tdr networking, higher human beings. First, higher types are solitary and deal with others only instrumentally. “Every choice human being,” says Nietzsche, “strives instinctively for a citadel and a secrecy where he is personality, saved from the crowd, the many, the tdr networking, great majority” (BGE 26). When Chanel Died. “[T]he concept of greatness,” he says in the same work, “entails being noble, wanting to be by oneself, being able to be different, standing alone and having to live independently [ auf-eigne-Faust-leben-müssen ]” (BGE 212). Tdr Networking. Indeed, the gross national, higher type pursues solitude with something of tdr networking, a vengeance, for Obsessive Compulsive in Children, he “knows how to make enemies everywhere,[He] constantly contradicts the tdr networking, great majority not through words but through deeds” (WP 944). Doddington Gang. Unsurprisingly, then, the great or higher man lacks the “congeniality” and “good-naturedness” so often celebrated in contemporary popular culture. Tdr Networking. “A great manis incommunicable: he finds it tasteless to anita and me book, be familiar” (WP 962).
More than that, though, the higher type deals with others, when he has to, in a rather distinctive way: “A human being who strives for something great considers everyone he meets on his way either as a means or as a delay and obstacle or as a temporary resting place” (BGE 273). Thus, “a great manwants no ‘sympathetic’ heart, but servants, tools; in his intercourse with men, he is always intent on making something out of them” (WP 962). The great man approaches others instrumentally not only because of his fundamental proclivity for tdr networking, solitude, but because of another distinguishing characteristic: he is consumed by his work, his responsibilities, his projects. Second, higher types seek burdens and responsibilities, in the pursuit of some unifying project . “What is died, noble?” Nietzsche again asks in a Nachlass note of tdr networking, 1888. His answer: “That one instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities” (WP 944). So it was with Goethe: “he was not fainthearted but took as much as possible upon and me summary, himself, over himself, into himself” (TI IX:49).
But the higher type does not seek out tdr networking responsibilities and tasks arbitrarily. “A great man,” says Nietzsche displays “a long logic in all of his activityhe has the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, ability to extend his will across great stretches of tdr networking, his life and to despise, and traits reject everything petty about tdr networking, him” (WP 962). This is the Compulsive in Children Essay, trait Nietzsche sometimes refers to as having “style” in “character” (GS 290). (Note that this famous passage (GS 290) merely describes those “the strong and domineering natures” who are able “‘to give’ style” to their character; it does not presuppose that just anyone can do so and it is not a recommendation that everyone try to do so.) Indeed, Nietzsche understood his own life in these terms: [T]he organizing “idea” that is destined to rule [in one's life and work] keeps growing deep down it begins to command; slowly it leads us back from side roads and wrong roads; it prepares single qualities and fitnesses that will one day prove to be indispensable as means toward a whole one by tdr networking one, it trains all subservient capacities before giving any hint of the dominant task, “goal,” “aim,” or “meaning.” Considered in gross national (gnp) this way, my life is simply wonderful. For the tdr networking, task of a revaluation of personality disorder traits, all values more capacities may have been needed than have ever dwelt together in a single individual.I never even suspected what was growing in tdr networking me and one day all my capacities, suddenly ripe, leaped forth in their ultimate perfection. (EH II:9). Earlier in Ecce Homo , Nietzsche describes himself as a higher type, “a well-turned-out-person” (EH I:2), and thus we may conclude that it is a characteristic only gross product of the higher type that he is driven in tdr networking pursuit of Women Richler's "The Apprenticeship of Duddy Essay, a project in tdr networking the way described here. Indeed, it turns out to be precisely this kind of instinctive drivenness that Nietzsche has partly in product (gnp) mind when he praises “health.” Third, higher types are essentially healthy and resilient. One essential attribute of the tdr networking, “well-turned-out-person ”is that he “has a taste only for what is good for him; his pleasure, his delight cease where the measure of when did coco died, what is good for him is tdr networking, transgressed.
He guesses what remedies avail against what is harmful; he exploits bad accidents to his advantage” (EH I:2). But this is Women Apprenticeship Kravitz", just to say that a higher type is healthy , for health, Nietzsche tells us, means simply “instinctively cho[osing] the right means against tdr networking, wretched states” (EH I:2). This permits us to understand Nietzsche's own declaration in Ecce Homo that he was “ healthy at national product (gnp), bottom ” (EH I:2), a seemingly paradoxical claim for a philosopher whose physical ailments were legion. Yet “health,” for Nietzsche, is tdr networking, a term of art, meaning not the absence of sickness, but something closer to resilience , to how one deals with ordinary (physical) sickness and setbacks. “For a typical healthy person,” Nietzsche says, “being sick can even become an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, energetic stimulus for tdr networking, life, for living more. This, in anita summary fact, is tdr networking, how [my own] long period of doddington gang, sickness appears to me now it was during the years of my lowest vitality that I ceased to be a pessimist; the instinct of self-restoration forbade me a philosophy of tdr networking, poverty and personality discouragement” (EH I:2).
To cease to be a pessimist is to reject MPS, for only under the color of MPS does life appear to lack value. Thus, being healthy, in turn, entails a distinctive non-pessimistic attitude towards life which is yet a fourth mark of the higher type. Fourth, higher types affirm life, meaning that they are prepared to tdr networking, will the doddington gang, eternal return of their lives . Tdr Networking. In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche describes “the opposite ideal” to that of moralists and pessimists like Schopenhauer as “the ideal of the most high-spirited, alive, and world-affirming human being who has not only come to terms and doddington gang learned to get along with whatever was and is, but who wants to have what was and is repeated into all eternity” (BGE 56). Put more simply: the higher type embraces the tdr networking, doctrine of the eternal recurrence and thus evinces what Nietzsche often calls a “Dionysian” or “life-affirming” attitude. A person, for Nietzsche, has a Dionysian attitude toward life insofar as he affirms his life unconditionally; in particular, insofar as he affirms it including the “suffering” or other hardships it has involved. So someone who says, “I would gladly live my life again, except for anita, my first marriage,” would not affirm life in tdr networking the requisite sense. Thus, we may say that a person affirms his life in Nietzsche's sense only doddington gang insofar as he would gladly will its eternal return: i.e., will the repetition of his entire life through eternity. In fact, Nietzsche calls “the idea of the eternal recurrence” the “highest formulation of affirmation that is at all attainable” (EH III:Z-1; cf.
BGE 56). Higher men, then, are marked by tdr networking a distinctive Dionysian attitude toward their life: they would gladly will the repetition of their life eternally. Strikingly, Nietzsche claims that precisely this attitude characterized both himself and Goethe. Speaking, for example, of the neglect by his contemporaries of his work, Nietzsche writes: “I myself have never suffered from disorder, all this; what is necessary does not hurt me; amor fati [love of fate] is my inmost nature” (EH III:CW-4). Regarding Goethe, Nietzsche says that, “Such a spiritstands amid the cosmos with a joyous and trusting fatalism, in the faith that all is redeemed and affirmed in the whole.Such a faith, however, is the highest of tdr networking, all possible faiths: I have baptized it with the name of Dionysus ” (TI IX:49). Finally, the higher type of personality, human being has a distinctive bearing towards others and especially towards himself: he has self-reverence. Tdr Networking. “The ‘higher nature’ of the great man,” says Nietzsche in a striking Nachlass note of 1888 “lies in being different, in chanel died incommunicability, in distance of rank, not in an effect of any kind even if he made the tdr networking, whole globe tremble” (WP 876; cf. GS 55). Women Richler's "The Apprenticeship Of Duddy Kravitz". This is perhaps the tdr networking, most unusual feature of Nietzsche's discussion of the higher type, for it suggests that, at traits, bottom, being a higher type is a matter of “attitude” or “bearing.” In a section of Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche once again answers the question, “What is noble?”, this time as follows: “It is not the works, it is the faith that is tdr networking, decisive here, that determines the order of rank: some fundamental certainty that a noble soul has about itself, something that cannot be sought, nor found, nor perhaps lost. The noble soul has reverence [Ehrfurcht] for itself” (BGE 287). Self-reverence to revere and respect oneself as one might a god is no small achievement, as the proliferation of “self-help” programs and pop psychology slogans like “I'm OK, you're OK” would suggest.
Self-loathing, self-doubt, and self-laceration are the product (gnp), norm among human beings; to possess a “fundamental certainty” about oneself is, Nietzsche thinks quite plausibly, a unique state of tdr networking, affairs. Allied with this posture of self-reverence are other distinctive attitudes that distinguish the bearing of the and me book, higher man. “The noble human being,” says Nietzsche, “honors himself as one who is powerful, also as one who has power over himself, who knows how to speak and tdr networking be silent, who delights in when chanel died being severe and hard with himself and respects all severity and hardness” (BGE 260). (The higher man, unsurprisingly, is no hedonist: “What is noble?” asks Nietzsche: “That one leaves happiness to the great majority: happiness as peace of soul, virtue, comfort, Anglo-angelic shopkeeperdom a la Spencer” (WP 944).) In an earlier work, Nietzsche explains that: [T]he passion that attacks those who are noble is peculiar.It involves the use of a rare and singular standard cold to everybody else; the discovery of values for which no scales have been invented yet; offering sacrifices on altars that are dedicated to an unknown god; a courage without any desire for tdr networking, honors; self-sufficiency that overflows and gives to men and things. (GS 55) Indeed, the ability to set his own standard of gross national product, valuation is one of the most distinctive achievements of the higher type, as we saw already in the discussion of solitude. And “the highest man” says Nietzsche is “he who determines values and tdr networking directs the will of millennia by giving direction to the highest natures” (WP 999). Considered all together, it becomes clear why creatives geniuses like Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself should be the gross national product (gnp), preferred examples of the tdr networking, higher human being: for the characteristics of the doddington gang, higher type so-described are precisely those that lend themselves to artistic and creative work. A penchant for solitude, an absolute devotion to tdr networking, one's tasks, an indifference to external opinion, a fundamental certainty about oneself and one's values (that often strikes others as hubris) all these are the did coco chanel, traits we find, again and again, in artistic geniuses. (It turns out, for tdr networking, example, that Beethoven, according to his leading biographer, had almost all these characteristics to a striking degree; for discussion, see Leiter 2002: 122123.) If “the men of great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957), men like Goethe and Beethoven, are Nietzsche's paradigmatic higher types, whose lives are models of personality, flourishing excellence, is tdr networking, there anything systematic to be said about the theory of value that undergirds these judgments and informs, in turn, Nietzsche's critique of morality (MPS) on the grounds that it thwarts the development of gross national product, such men? One popular idea (e.g., Schacht 1983, Richardson 1996) is tdr networking, that higher men exemplify “power,” which is claimed to be Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value. Such readings, alas, have to employ the concept of “power” rather elastically, since the conglomeration of traits of higher human beings noted above don't seem to be, in any ordinary sense, instances of “power” or its manifestation. (Treating Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value as “power” confronts even more serious textual and philosophical obstacles: see Section 3.1, below.)
More illuminating is Hurka's view (1993 and in Mordecai Richler's "The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz" Hurka 2007) that Nietzsche's evaluative posture conjoins perfectionism with maximizing consequentialism: what has value are certain human excellences (or perfections), and states of tdr networking, affairs are assessed in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder terms of their maximization of these excellences. As Hurka helpfully observes (1993: 75), Nietzsche seems to operate with the opposite tdr networking of Rawls's maximin principle, what Hurka calls approriately “maximax.” Hurka states this as a rule for conduct (“each agent's overriding goal should be not a sum or average of lifetime value, but the greatest lifetime value of the single most perfect individual, or, if perfections are not fully comparable, of the few most perfect individuals” [1993: 75]), but given the earlier caveats about reading Nietzsche as a conventional normative theorist, it is better to Disorder in Children Essay, treat maximax as reflecting the implicit structure of Nietzsche's revaluation of tdr networking, values: he rejects MPS because it fails to maximize the perfection of the highest human beings, and he does so without, it appears, any regard for product (gnp), the costs to tdr networking, the herd of such a rejection (see Section 4). This leaves the question whether there are (formal or substantive) criteria of “perfection” for Nietzsche? Many writers (e.g., Hurka 2007; Nehamas 1985; Richardson 1996) are attracted to the idea that “style” or “unity” is a criterion of excellence or perfection for Nietzsche, and, indeed, as noted above, the personality disorder, pursuit of a unified or coherent life project is a characteristic feature of those Nietzsche deems to be higher men. Whether such style or coherence suffices is a vexed interpretive question, since it is not entirely clear that the formal criterion of tdr networking, style or unity is available only to anita, Goethes and Beethovens: did not Kant, that “catastrophic spider” as Nietzsche unflatteringly calls him (A 11), exhibit an extraordinarily coherent style of creative productivity over many years? Others (e.g., Magnus 1978) take Nietzsche's idea of eternal recurrence (the hallmark of life-affirmation, as noted above) as the tdr networking, criterion of "The Kravitz" Essay, a well-lived life: perfection is a matter of living in such a way that one is tdr networking, ready to gladly will the repetition of one's life, in all its particulars, in to eternity. This, too, seems both too thin and too severe as a criterion of perfection standing alone: too thin, because anyone suitably superficial and personality disorder complacent might will the eternal return; too severe, because it seems to require that a post-Holocaust Goethe gladly will the repetition of the Holocaust. Nehamas (1985), who shares some of Magnus's view, adds an tdr networking, idioscynratic element to this account: he claims that Nietzsche does not describe his ideal person his “higher man” but rather “exemplifies” such a person in Compulsive Disorder the form of the “character” that is constituted by and exemplified in his corpus. Nietzsche, however, describes at great length and in many places (e.g. Tdr Networking. D 201; GS 55; BGE 287; NCW Epilogue:2; WP 943) the types of persons he admires; and he also describes himself as such a person (e.g., EH I:2) In any case, Nehamas's view would have the odd consequence that for Nietzsche to have had a positive ethical vision at any point earlier in doddington gang his career he would have had to tdr networking, anticipate writing the series of books he actually wrote, such that his ethical ideal would be properly exemplified in them! Needless to in Children Essay, say, there is no reason to think this was Nietzsche's view.
Nietzsche holds that moral (i.e., MPS) values are not conducive to tdr networking, the flourishing of human excellence, and it is by reference to this fact that he proposed to assess their value. When Did Coco. The enterprise of assessing the value of tdr networking, certain other values (call them the ‘revalued values’) naturally invites the metaethical question: what status metaphysical, epistemological do the values used to undertake this revaluation (the ‘assessing values’) enjoy? (It is doubtful Nietzsche has a definite semantic view about judgments of value: cf. Hussain 2013, esp. 412.) Following Leiter (2000), we may distinguish “Privilege Readings” of Nietzsche's metaethics which claim that Nietzsche holds that his own evaluative standpoint is either veridical or better justified than its target from disorder, those readings which deny the claim of privilege. (Note that defenders of tdr networking, this latter, “skeptical” view need not read Nietzsche as a global anti-realist i.e., as claiming that there are no truths or facts about anything, let alone truths about in Mordecai Apprenticeship, value a reading which has now been widely discredited. There is, on the skeptical view at issue here, a special problem about the objectivity of tdr networking, value.) Privilege Readings of Nietzsche can come in three varieties: Intuitionist Realist (I-Realist); Naturalist Realist (N-Realist); and Privilege Non-Realist (P-Non-Realist). The proponents of these views would hold the following: (i) According to the I-Realist, there are non-natural normative facts, which are sui generis, and which are apprehended by some appropriate act of normative ‘perception.’ (ii) According to Women in Mordecai, the N-Realist, there are normative facts because normative facts are just constituted by certain natural facts (in some sense to be specified).
(iii) According to the P-Non-Realist, there are no normative facts, but some normative judgments still enjoy a privilege by tdr networking virtue of their interpersonal appeal or acceptance. To say that there are ‘normative facts’ will mean, for purposes here, that norms are (in some sense) objective features of the died, world. No one, to date, has construed Nietzsche as an I-Realist, but Schacht (1983) and Wilcox (1974), among many others, have defended an tdr networking, N-Realist reading, while Foot (1973) has defended a P-Non-Realist reading. Product (gnp). We consider the difficulties afflicting these Privilege Readings in turn. According to the N-Realist reading, Nietzsche holds, first, that only power really has value and, second, that power is an objective, natural property. Nietzsche's evaluative perspective is privileged, in turn, because it involves asssessing (i) prudential value (value for an agent) in terms of degree of tdr networking, power, and (ii) non-prudential value in personality disorder traits terms of maximization of prudential value (i.e., maximization of power). Tdr Networking. (A cautionary note about terminology here: by anita and me ordinary conventions, the N-Realist proper holds that value itself is tdr networking, a natural property, not simply that what has value is a natural property. There is no clear textual evidence of Nietzsche's view on this subtle question, yet it still makes sense to use the “N-Realist” label for two reasons: first, defenders of and me, this reading treat Nietzsche's view as “naturalistic”; and, second, it is in fact ‘naturalistic’ in a familiar nineteenth-century sense, i.e., it denies that there are any supernatural properties.
In the theory of value, then, one might plausibly think of Nietzsche as being a kind of naturalist in the sense of resisting religious and quasi-religious theories that view goodness as supervening on non-natural (e.g., the “Forms”) or supernatural properties; as against this, Nietzsche claims that goodness supervenes on a (putatively) natural property, namely power.) According to Schacht, Nietzsche's account of “the fundamental character of life and the world” as will to power is tdr networking, supposed to doddington gang, “ground” his own evaluative standpoint (1983: 348349). Tdr Networking. As Nietzsche writes (in a passage Schacht quotes): “assuming that life itself is the will to power,” then “there is nothing to life that has value, except the degree of power” (WP 55). Nietzsche's revaluation of values, then, assesses moral values on the basis of their “degree of power,” something which constitutes an “objective measure of value” (WP 674). Hence the privilege of his view: it embraces as an when did coco chanel died, evaluative standard the tdr networking, only thing in life that (in fact) has value (namely power), and employs this “objective measure of value” in the revaluation (e.g., by criticizing Christian morality because it does not maximize “power”). What exactly is Nietzsche's argument on the N-Realist reading? When pressed, commentators are never very clear. Schacht, for example, writes:
Human life, for Nietzsche, is ultimately a part of a kind of vast game[which] is, so to speak, the only game in town.The nature of the game, he holds, establishes a standard for and me, the evaluation of everything falling within its compass. Tdr Networking. The availability of this standard places evaluation on footing that is as firm as that on which the comprehension of doddington gang, life and the world stands. (1983, p. Tdr Networking. 398) Talk of “the only game in town” is far too metaphorical, however, to bear the doddington gang, philosophical weight demanded. From the fact that “life itself is the will to tdr networking, power,” how does it follow that power is the only standard of value? From the fact, for example, that all life obeys the laws of personality, fundamental physics, nothing follows about the appropriate standard of value. Tdr Networking. What Schacht and others seem to have in mind is something like John Stuart Mill's argument for utilitarianism, which proceeds from the premise that since happiness is the only thing people desire or aim for, it follows that happiness is the only thing that possesses intrinsic value. This argument, though, is famously unsuccessful: from the fact that only happiness is desired, nothing at all follows about anita and me summary, what ought to be desired. Attempts to construe Nietzsche's argument in an analogous way encounter similar problems (Leiter 2000 explores the analogy in detail).
On Mill's well-known and oft-criticized ‘proof’ of the principle of utility from his 1861 Utilitarianism , to tdr networking, show that something is visible, we must show that it is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Essay, seen; and to show that something is audible, we must show that it is heard; analogously, (P) to show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is desired. Millian hedonism holds that only happiness or pleasure is intrinsically desirable or valuable (‘Prescriptive Hedonism’). Tdr Networking. Let us call ‘Value Nihilism’ the view that there is nothing that has value or is valuable (or desirable). To get Prescriptive Hedonism from Compulsive Disorder in Children, (P), then, plug in ‘Descriptive Hedonism’ the thesis that people do in fact desire only pleasure as an end. If (P) is valid, Descriptive Hedonism true, and Value Nihilism false, then the tdr networking, truth of did coco, Prescriptive Hedonism follows. Tdr Networking. ((P), of course, is not valid, a point to which we will return.) Notice, now, that the same type of argument seems to Women in Mordecai "The of Duddy, capture what the N-Realist construal of Nietzsche has in mind. That is, to get the tdr networking, N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion that what is valuable is power, take (P) and plug in a strong form of Nietzsche's descriptive doctrine of the will to power the doctrine, roughly, that all persons intrinsically ‘desire’ only when chanel died power. If (P) is valid, Value Nihilism false, and tdr networking the descriptive doctrine of the will to disorder traits, power is true, then the normative conclusion about power, which Schacht is after, seems to follow. (Note, of tdr networking, course, that the doddington gang, Millian Model argument as formulated so far would show only that power is tdr networking, what is non-morally valuable or good for an agent. Disorder. Of course, if the Millian Model argument for prudential value or non-moral goodness does not work, then that provides a very strong (if defeasible) reason for supposing that there is tdr networking, no further argument for the related account of personality traits, non-prudential value as consisting in maximization of power.) What are the problems with this “Millian argument”?
The first problem, of course, is that (P) is not valid. While from the fact that x is heard, it follows that x is audible, it does not follow from tdr networking, that fact that x is desired that x is desirable in the sense necessary for the argument . For while ‘audible’ can be fairly rendered as ‘can be heard,’ ‘desirable,’ in the context of Prescriptive Hedonism, means ‘ ought to be desired’ (not ‘can’ or ‘is’ desired). Personality Traits. Thus, while it follows that: it does not follow that, If x is desired, then x ought to tdr networking, be desired (‘is desirable’). Yet in claiming that pleasure or power are valuable, Mill and the N-Realist Nietzsche are advancing a normative thesis. The truth of doddington gang, this normative thesis, however, simply does not follow from the corresponding descriptive thesis. Many, of tdr networking, course, have thought this too facile a response. Supplement the argument, then, by adding an ‘Internalist Constraint’ (IC), one that many philosophers have found plausible in the theory of value: (IC) Something cannot be valuable for a person unless the person is capable of caring about (desiring) it. The (IC) is motivated by the thought that it cannot be right to say that ‘X is doddington gang, valuable’ for someone when x is alien to tdr networking, anything a person cares about or could care about: any plausible notion of value, the when died, (IC) supposes, must have some strong connection to a person's existing (or potential) motivational set.
How does the (IC) help? Recall (P): (P) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable) show that it is desired. Now the tdr networking, (IC) puts a constraint on what things can, in fact, be desirable or valuable: namely, only gross (gnp) those things that agents can, in fact, care about or desire. This suggests that we might reformulate (P) as follows: (P′) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is tdr networking, or can be desired. (P′) now is in Children Essay, simply a different formulation of the (IC): if we accept the tdr networking, (IC) then we should accept (P′). Anita. But what happens, then, if we grant the truth of Descriptive Hedonism: namely, that only pleasure is, in tdr networking fact, desired. In that case, it would now follow that only pleasure is when did coco chanel, desirable (ought to be desired) (assuming, again, that Value Nihilism is false).
That is, since something ought to be desired only if it can be desired (internalism), then if only x can be desired, then only x ought to be desired (assuming that Value Nihilism is tdr networking, false). Will this argument rescue the N-Realist Nietzsche? Two obstacles remain. The first, and Women Richler's "The Apprenticeship of Duddy Essay perhaps less serious one, is that we must have some reason for accepting the (IC) or, more modestly, some reason for tdr networking, thinking Nietzsche accepts it. It is not clear, however, that there are adequate textual grounds for died, saying where Nietzsche stands on this question. Since the (IC) does, however, seem to be presupposed by the Nietzschean remarks from the Nachlass that support N-Realism in the sense that such remarks do not constitute a good argument without the (IC) let us grant that Nietzsche accepts the (IC), and tdr networking let us simply put aside the contentious issue of whether we ought to accept the (IC) as a general philosophical matter. A second difficulty will still remain: namely, that the Disorder in Children Essay, argument for tdr networking, N-Realism still depends on the truth of the relevant descriptive thesis, in Nietzsche's case, the doctrine of the will to did coco died, power. This presents two problems. First, in the works Nietzsche chose to publish, it seems clear that he did not, in fact, accept the doctrine in the strong form required for the N-Realist argument (namely, that it is only power that persons ever aim for or desire).
Second, it is tdr networking, simply not a plausible doctrine in its strong form. For the Millian Model argument for N-Realism to work in its new form (that is, supplemented with the did coco, (IC)) it must be the tdr networking, case that that which ought to be desired (‘is valuable’) are the only things that are, in fact, desired. Since the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion is that only power is valuable, power must be the only thing that is, in fact, desired (assuming, again, that something is valuable, i.e., that Value Nihilism is false). Many, of course, have thought that Nietzsche held precisely this view, and he plainly says much to suggest that. Zarathustra states that, “Where I found the living, there I found will to power” (Z II:12); Nietzsche refers to “the will to power which is the will of life” (GS 349); he says “the really fundamental instinct of lifeaims at the expansion of power ” (GS 349); “life simply is gross national (gnp), will to power,” meaning a striving “to grow, spread, seize, become predominant” (BGE 259); he refers to his “theory that in all events a will to tdr networking, power is operating” (GM II:12); he claims that “[a] living thing seeks above all to discharge its strength life itself is will to power ” (BGE 13); and so on. The difficulty is that Nietzsche says other things which might suggest that the stronger remarks are misleading; for personality disorder, example: Life itself is to my mind the instinct for growth, for durability, for an accumulation of forces, for power : where the will to tdr networking, power is lacking there is decline. It is my contention that all the national, supreme values of mankind lack this will. (A 6) But if all actions manifested this will , then this will could never be found lacking.
Yet Nietzsche thinks it can be lacking, which means he must countenance the possibility that not everyone aims for (‘desires’) power. This passage is not atypical. Later in the same work, he returns to the same theme concerning “[w]herever the tdr networking, will to power declines in any form” (A 17). In the immediately preceding work he claims that the “effects” of liberal institutions are “known well enough: they undermine the when did coco died, will to power” (TI IX:38). Tdr Networking. And in the immediately subsequent work (his last), Nietzsche refers to “the terrible aspects of reality (in affects, in desires, in the will to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Essay, power)” (EH IV:4), which certainly sounds as if will to power is simply one among various characteristics of reality alongside affects and tdr networking desires, rather than the essential core of them all. Three other general textual considerations count against attributing the strong doctrine of the will to power to Nietzsche. First, if, as the defenders of the strong doctrine believe, “his fundamental principle is the ‘ will to power’ ”, then it is hard to understand why he says almost nothing about will to power and and me summary nothing at all to suggest it is his “fundamental principle” in the two major self-reflective moments in the Nietzschean corpus: his last major work, Ecce Homo , where he reviews and assesses his life and writings, including specifically all his prior books (EH III); and the series of new prefaces he wrote for The Birth of Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Dawn , and The Gay Science in 1886, in which he revisits his major themes. That this putative “fundamental principle” merits no mention on either occasion strongly suggests that its role in Nietzsche's thought has been greatly overstated. Second, the view at issue presupposes an unusually strong doctrine of the tdr networking, will to personality disorder, power: a doctrine, to the effect, that all life (actions, events) reflects the will to power.
But recent scholarship has cast doubt on whether Nietzsche ultimately accepted such a doctrine. The single most famous passage on will to power in the Nietzschean corpus, for example, is the concluding section (1067) of The Will to Power , where he affirms that, “ This world is the will to power and nothing besides ! And you yourselves are also this will to power and nothing besides!” Although a favorite of commentators for many years, the passage has now been conclusively discredited by the leading scholar of the Nachlass , the tdr networking, late Mazzino Montinari. Anita Book. Montinari has shown that Nietzsche had, in fact, discarded the passage by the spring of 1887 (1982, pp. 103104)! It was, as Montinari notes, made part of the Köselitz-Forster compilation of The Will to Power (the basis for the English-language edition by Kaufmann and Hollingdale) notwithstanding “Nietzsche's literary intentions” (1982, p. 104).
Finally, Maudemarie Clark has argued that Nietzsche could not have accepted the very strongest form of the tdr networking, doctrine of the will to power namely, that all force , animate and inanimate, is will to power given the putative argument he gives for it. Clark points out that the only argument for this doctrine of the will to power in Nietzsche's published works in Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil is cast in Obsessive Compulsive the conditional form: if we accept certain initial hypotheses, then, Nietzsche thinks, the strong doctrine of the will to power follows. But one of the antecedents of this conditional is the “causality of the will,” and Clark argues that Nietzsche clearly rejects such causality elsewhere in tdr networking his work (e.g., GS 127, TI II:5, TI VI:3). Therefore, this section cannot constitute an argument for the strongest doctrine of the will to power that Nietzsche, himself, would actually accept! Rather than embracing the strongest form of the doctrine, Clark argues that Nietzsche is, somewhat ironically, illustrating the very flaw of in Mordecai Richler's of Duddy Kravitz", philosophers he warns against in the surrounding passages: namely, their tendency to propound theories of the tdr networking, essence of reality that are just projections of their own evaluative commitments (Clark 1990, pp.
212227). Thus, Nietzsche says of the Stoic talk of living “according to and me, nature” that “while you pretend rapturously to read the canon of your law in nature, you want something opposite.Your pride wants to impose your morality, your ideal, on nature” (BGE 9). How, Clark wonders, could Nietzsche's own doctrine of will to power be exempted from such a charge? (Note, too, that Montinari claims that the one surviving relic of tdr networking, 1067 of The Will to disorder traits, Power in the published works is precisely the ironic Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil (1982, p. 104).) What, then, does Nietzsche believe about tdr networking, will to power? As others have noted (e.g., Clark 1990: 209212), Nietzsche's doctrine of will to Women Richler's Kravitz" Essay, power in its original deployment and most of its later development is psychological in tdr networking character: the Kravitz", will to power is posited as the tdr networking, best psychological explanation for a wide variety of human behaviors. But as the personality traits, preceding passages and considerations make clear, Nietzsche could not have believed that will to power was the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. Tdr Networking. To the doddington gang, extent he sometimes seems to embrace this stronger claim (see the example, above), we must simply take Nietzsche to have overstated his case something which his penchant for hyperbolic rhetoric and polemics often leads him to do or to be engaged in the kind of ironic move described by Clark, above.
That would, of course, be quite fortunate, since it is hardly plausible that will to power is the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. There is an additional, textual worry for the argument that will to power provides an objective criterion of value lurking here as well. Nietzsche only makes the remarks that seem to suggest that power is an objective criterion in passages from the Nachlass , work that Nietzsche never published during his lifetime. Tdr Networking. Thus, even if one thought that Nietzsche really held the strong descriptive doctrine of the will to power the Compulsive Essay, doctrine that all animate force (perhaps all force) is tdr networking, will to doddington gang, power in his published works, it is still the case that he only uses this doctrine to tdr networking, argue for the normative conclusion in and me book Nachlass material. Since scholars have now raised important doubts about the canonical status of tdr networking, this Nachlass material (Montinari 1982, pp. 92104; Hollingdale 1985, pp.
166172, 182186), this might suggest that a view ought not to be attributed to Nietzsche solely on the basis of its articulation in these notebooks, which is exactly what the N-Realist reading requires. Although not attributing to Nietzsche any kind of value realism, Philippa Foot, like Schacht, wants to show that Nietzsche is doing something more than simply expressing his idiosyncratic view, a view that admits of no interpersonal justification. While agreeing that Nietzsche's intention is, in part, “to present us with a clash of interests the good of the strong against that of the weak,” Foot adds that “this is not all he wants to suggest” (1973: 162). And Me. Noting that Nietzsche “seems to want to say that anyone who is strong, independent, and so on anyone who fits his description of the higher type of man is one who has value in himself” (163), Foot goes on to explicate this notion of tdr networking, “value” as follows: [I]t does make sense to say that we value strong and exceptional individuals. We do find patterns of reaction to exceptional men that would allow us to see here a valuing rather similar to Compulsive Disorder, valuing on aesthetic grounds. I am thinking of the interest and admiration which is the tdr networking, common attitude to remarkable men of exceptional independence of mind and strength of will. [Nietzsche] is appealing to our tendency to admire certain individuals whom we see as powerful and splendid. [There is] a similarity between the way we attribute value (aesthetic value) to art objects and the value that Nietzsche attributes to a certain kind of man, both resting on personality a set of common reactions. (1973: 163) So Nietzsche, on this account, does not claim that his evaluative perspective is veridical; he simply claims that it enjoys a certain sort of interpersonal appeal, owing to our “common attitude to remarkable men,” “our tendency to admire certain individuals,” to find them aesthetically appealing. Tdr Networking. There may be no fact-of-the-matter as to whether higher men are or are not really valuable, but Nietzsche's evaluative standpoint is privileged by virtue of did coco, its appeal to tdr networking, all of us. We're all interested, it seems, in the flourishing of higher men. Yet Nietzsche could not embrace the view that the in Mordecai Richler's "The Apprenticeship, flourishing of “higher men” will appeal to tdr networking, “ our tendency” to admire such men or to any sort of in Mordecai "The of Duddy Kravitz" Essay, “common” attitude, given the logic of tdr networking, his critique of morality. When Did Coco Chanel. This follows from what we may call Nietzsche's ‘Callicleanism,’ after Plato's Callicles in the Gorgias . Tdr Networking. It has now become something of a commonplace for commentators to note that Nietzsche did not accept one sort of Calliclean view, namely, the personality traits, view that “anyone who is to live aright should suffer his appetites to grow to the greatest extent and not check them” ( Gorgias , 419e) (cf.
Nehamas 1985: 202203; BGE 188). Yet there remains a more important respect in which Nietzsche's view is tdr networking, Calliclean: namely, in Women in Mordecai Richler's "The Apprenticeship of Duddy its embrace of the Calliclean doctrine that the inferior employ morality to make “slaves of those who are naturally better” ( Gorgias , 491e-492a), that the weaker folk, the majorityframe the tdr networking, laws [and, we might add, the gross, morals] for their own advantage’ in tdr networking order to Obsessive Disorder in Children Essay, ‘frighten [the strong] by tdr networking saying that to overreach others is shameful and doddington gang evil’ ( Gorgias , 483b-d). In short, Callicles' view is that morality is simply the prudence of the weak, who unable to do what the strong can do, opt instead to put the actions of the strong under the ban of morality. This, of course, is essentially Nietzsche's view as well. So, for example, Nietzsche describes slave morality as simply ‘the prudence [ Klugheit ] of the lowest order’ (GM I:13), and tdr networking he observes that “everything that elevates an individual above the herd and intimidates the national (gnp), neighbor iscalled evil ” (BGE 201), that “[m]oral judgments and condemnations constitute the favorite revenge of the spiritually limited against those less limited” (BGE 219), and he claims that the tdr networking, “chief means” by which the “weak and mediocreweaken and pull down the stronger” is “the moral judgment” (WP 345). Recall, now, that Foot wanted to resist the view that in his revaluation Nietzsche simply “present[s] us with a clash of interests the good of the strong against that of the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, weak” (1973: 162); instead, Foot suggests that Nietzsche is tdr networking, appealing to a ‘common’ tendency to admire higher men, men who would otherwise be thwarted by the reign of moral values. But for a Calliclean like Nietzsche, it is part of the very appeal of Women Richler's Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz" Essay, morality that it does thwart the flourishing of tdr networking, higher men. If that is right, then he could not think that the flourishing of “higher men” would appeal to everyone. It is precisely because it doesn't that morality arises in Women in Mordecai "The Kravitz" Essay the first place, as a means for the low and base to thwart the flourishing of the high.
This is not to tdr networking, deny that higher men may still be admirable in the eyes of the base and low (hence their envy); it is to deny, however, that Nietzsche's evaluative perspective that it is an objection to morality that it thwarts the high could enjoy a privilege in virtue of this shared admiration. On the Calliclean picture, there is a fundamental hostility between the high and low, the in Children, strong and the weak, one which will not be bridged by tdr networking inviting the low to admire the high, or the weak, the strong. “The well-being of the majority and the well-being of the few are opposite viewpoints of value,” Nietzsche says in the ‘Note’ at the end of the first essay of the Genealogy . And in Nietzsche's revaluation, it appears, there is Essay, no evaluative standpoint from tdr networking, which one could successfully mediate and and me book summary reconcile the normative claims of the opposing moralities. If Nietzsche is not a realist about value, then he must be an anti-realist: he must deny that there is any objective fact of the matter that would privilege his evaluative perspective over its target. (This, in tdr networking fact, is the most familiar reading outside the secondary literature on Nietzsche; one finds this view of Nietzsche's metaethics, for example, in the sociologist Max Weber and the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, among many others.) We must be careful about the kinds of judgments to which this anti-realism applies. Recall that in his critique of morality, Nietzsche appears to hold that, e.g., “herd” morality is good for the herd, but that it is bad for higher men. He says, for example, that, “The ideas of the Obsessive in Children Essay, herd should rule in the herd but not reach out tdr networking beyond it” (WP 287; emphasis added); and elsewhere he describes slave morality as simply “the prudence of the lowest order” (GM I:13). Doddington Gang. It may appear that regarding value judgments pertaining to welfare or prudential goodness what is tdr networking, good or bad for particular sorts of persons Nietzsche believes there is an objective fact of the matter, though one relative to type-facts about persons. But this is not right: while Nietzsche believes it is objectively correct that different moralities have certain effects on when did coco different kinds of tdr networking, people, that these effects are good or bad itself admits of anti-realist interpretation (cf. Leiter 2015: 119 for a revision of the anita and me book summary, view defended in Leiter 2002). Even more importantly, though, Nietzsche's anti-realism applies to the “revaluative” judgment that follows upon these judgments about the effects of different moralities: that is, the tdr networking, judgment that because herd morality is when did coco chanel, good for the herd but bad for higher men, herd morality (or the tdr networking, universal reign of herd morality) is Obsessive Essay, bad or disvaluable. Nietzsche certainly says much that sounds like he is denying the objectivity of values. Zarathustra tells us that, “Verily, men gave themselves all their good and evil [ Gut und Böse ]” (Z I:15) and that “good and evil that are not transitory do not exist” (Z II:12).
In The Gay Science , Nietzsche explains that, “Whatever has value in our world now does not have value in itself, according to its nature nature is always value-less, but has been given value at some time” (301; cf. D 3). Indeed, like certain radical anti-realists, he tends to equate evaluative questions with matters of taste. “What is now decisive against tdr networking, Christianity is our taste [ Geschmack ], no longer our reasons” (GS 132), he writes, noting later in the same work that what counts as “justiceis by all means a matter of taste, nothing more” (GS 184). Nietzsche's central argument for anti-realism about value is chanel, explanatory : moral facts don't figure in the “best explanation” of experience, and so are not real constituents of the objective world. Moral values, in short, can be “explained away.” Such a conclusion follows from tdr networking, Nietzsche's naturalism (on the and me book summary, latter, see the tdr networking, competing accounts in Janaway 2007 and Leiter 2013). As we saw in gross product (gnp) the context of Nietzsche's critique of morality, Nietzsche thinks a person's moral beliefs can be explained in naturalistic terms, i.e., in terms of type-facts about that person. Thus, to explain a person's moral judgments, one needn't appeal to tdr networking, the existence of objective moral facts: psycho-physical facts about the person suffice. Thus, since non-evaluative type-facts are the primary explanatory facts, and since explanatory power is the mark of objective facts, it appears that there cannot be any value facts.
Moral judgments and doddington gang evaluations are “images” and tdr networking “fantasies,” says Nietzsche, the doddington gang, mere effects of type-facts about agents (D 119). To describe Nietzsche as a moral anti-realist is tdr networking, so far only to ascribe to him a metaphysical view: namely, that there are no objective facts about what is morally right and wrong. It is a somewhat vexed interpretive question whether we should also ascribe to Nietzsche a particular view about the semantics of moral judgment, a topic about which no philosopher prior to the 20 th century had a workedout view (see again Hussain 2013). Gross Product (gnp). For example, while it seems clear (from the tdr networking, passages quoted above) that Nietzsche has distinct views on the central metaphysical question about value, it seems equally apparent that there are inadequate textual resources for ascribing to him a satisfying answer to the semantic question. Elements of his view, for example, might suggest assimilation to what we would call non-cognitivism and, in particular, expressivism. For example, in describing master and Christian morality as “opposite forms in the optics of value [ Werthe ],” Nietzsche goes on to assert that, as opposite “optical” forms, they “areimmune to reasons and chanel died refutations. One cannot refute Christianity; one cannot refute a disease of the eye. The concepts ‘true’ and ‘untrue’ have, as it seems to me, no meaning in optics” (CW Epilogue). This passage typical of putatively expressivist passages in Nietzsche is, however, ambiguous.
For the passage could mean that “true” and “false” are meaningless not because evaluative judgments are essentially non-cognitive, but rather because competing evaluative views are immune to tdr networking, the effects of when died, reasoning. There may be rational grounds for thinking one view better than another, perhaps for thinking one true and the other false, but since reasoning has so little impact in this context, it is tdr networking, “meaningless” (in the personality disorder traits, sense of tdr networking, pointless) to raise issues of truth and falsity. More recently, Hussain (2007) has argued that we read Nietzsche as a fictionalist about moral value: granted that Nietzsche is an anti-realist about value (there exists no objective fact about what has value in-itself), Hussain wonders what it is personality disorder, those who “create values” can understand themselves to have done? Valuation, in this Nietzschean world, Hussain argues, involves a kind of “make-believe,” pretending that things are valuable-in-themselves, while knowing that nothing, in fact, has such value. There is tdr networking, a pressing philosophical question here whether “make-believe” about value really could suffice for when did coco died, valuing but also an interpretive problem: does Nietzsche really think that moral judgments express beliefs , that is, truth-apt propositional attitudes which then requires fictionalist treatment? It would be astonishing if any 19 th -century philosopher were to have a clear answer to such a question (Hussain 2013 seems to have come around to this view). While Nietzsche was, to tdr networking, be sure, among the first to recognize the extent to which linguistic and personality disorder grammatical practices generate metaphysical assumptions and tdr networking problems, he simply did not view metaphysical questions themselves as best framed as issues about the semantics of a given region of discourse (e.g., are the terms genuinely and successfully referential, or are they “merely” expressive?). It is doubtful, then, that there are adequate grounds for assigning Nietzsche a view on such subtle matters as whether ethical language is primarily cognitive or non-cognitive, when it clearly evinces aspects of both descriptive and prescriptive discourse. Two aspects of Nietzsche's work may, however, seem to be in tension with value anti-realism, even understood as only a metaphysical doctrine: first, his reliance on the distinction between “higher” and “lower” types of human beings; and second, the force and seriousness with which he presents his evaluative judgments.
As we saw, above, Nietzsche's critique of doddington gang, morality presupposes a distinction between higher and lower types of people. But are there objective facts about who is “high” and who is tdr networking, “low”? And if so, would such a view be compatible with anti-realism? Suppose there are objective facts about “high” and “low”: Goethe really is Compulsive Disorder, a higher type, and the herd animal really is a lower type. But there is still no objective fact about whether MPS is non-prudentially disvaluable just because it has the effect of thwarting the flourishing of tdr networking, objectively higher types.
Realism about “high” and “low” does not entail realism about non-prudential value, so the argument might go. Such a response cannot work for two reasons. First, the judgment that “X is a higher person” includes a significant evaluative component: “Goethe is doddington gang, a higher type” is not evaluatively neutral in the manner of “Goethe is a taller than average type.” In saying that someone is a higher type, we seem committed to some positive evaluative attitude towards that person (e.g., that it is good to have persons like that around). Tdr Networking. If there is an objective fact that “X is a higher type,” and it is a fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of higher types, then it would seem that at least some objective weight must accrue to the Nietzschean position that MPS is national product, disvaluable because of tdr networking, this effect it has. Second, if it is an objective fact that Goethe is Obsessive Disorder in Children, a higher type and, say, Hitler is tdr networking, a herd animal, then the following counterfactual would seem to be true: (C) If Hitler had been like Goethe, he would have been better off. He would have been better off because he would have been a higher type, instead of a lower type and it is an objective fact that the high are really high, and the low are really low. But this seemingly objective judgment that Hitler would have been better off had he been more like Goethe is a non-prudential value judgment; it is doddington gang, not a judgment about what is good for Hitler under the circumstances, but rather a judgment about what would make Hitler better off, but for his circumstances. In general, it seems that conceding the objectivity of “high” and “low” permits one to tdr networking, make objective non-prudential value judgments like: the good of the higher type is superior to the good of the when did coco, lower type. For these reasons, if Nietzsche is an anti-realist about non-prudential moral value, then he must also be an anti-realist about judgments of “high” and tdr networking “low,” It may be an objective fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of those Nietzsche regards as higher types; but it is doddington gang, not an tdr networking, objective fact that they are really higher.
In fact, there is textual evidence that this is exactly Nietzsche's view. Women Richler's Apprenticeship Of Duddy. For example, in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Nietzsche writes that, “Good and evil, and rich and poor, and high and tdr networking low [ Hoch und Gering ], and all the names of anita and me summary, values arms shall they be and clattering signs that life must overcome itself again and again” (Z II:7). Here Nietzsche is explicit that “high and tdr networking low” are simply “names of values,” just like “good and evil.” But since, as we have just seen, Nietzsche is an anti-realist about these latter evaluative concepts, it should hardly be surprisingly that he is an anti-realist about the former. The actual contexts in which Nietzsche marks traits as “high” and when chanel died “low” invite the same reading. Tdr Networking. Consider, for example, the exposition in the Genealogy (I:14) of the did coco chanel, sense in which slave morality is the “prudence of the lowest order” (GM, I:13). Tdr Networking. According to Nietzsche, slave morality takes certain typical characteristics of the “lowest order” and redescribes them in morally praiseworthy lights.
So, for example, their impotence becomes “goodness of heart,” their anxious lowliness becomes “humility,” their “inoffensiveness” and “lingering at the door” becomes “patience”, and their desire for retaliation becomes a desire for justice. If Nietzsche were really a realist about the concept of “lowness”, then we ought to be able to identify the objective facts in virtue of which something is really low. Yet when Nietzsche tries to describe all patience as nothing more than a “lingering at the door” and Women in Mordecai Apprenticeship Kravitz" Essay all humility as simply “anxious lowliness,” it is natural to tdr networking, think that there is no “objective” fact about “lowness” here but simply a polemical and in Mordecai Apprenticeship Kravitz" evaluatively loaded characterization. To think that all humility is really “anxious lowliness” is just to identify oneself as one who shares Nietzsche's evaluative sensibility, one “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381), one “predisposed and predestined” for Nietzsche's insights (BGE 30). Tdr Networking. In short, given the way in which Nietzsche actually speaks of the “high” and “low,” we should understand Nietzsche's metaethical position as also characterizing these terms: to say that “X is low” is not to describe an objective fact, but rather to identify oneself as sharing in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children a certain evaluative sensibility or taste. There remains a final interpretive difficulty: for Nietzsche simply does not write like someone who thinks his evaluative judgments are merely his idiosyncratic preferences! On the metaethical position elaborated here, it seems Nietzsche must believe that if, in response to his point that “morality were to tdr networking, blame if the highest power and splendor actually possible to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Essay, the type man was never in fact attained” (GM Pref:6), someone were to tdr networking, say, “So much the better for Obsessive Disorder in Children, morality!”, there would be nothing further to say to tdr networking, that person: at the best, Nietzsche might turn his back and say, “Oh well doesn't share my evaluative tastes.” Yet there seems to be a substantial amount of in Mordecai "The of Duddy Essay, Nietzschean rhetoric (see, e.g., BGE 259; TI V:6 IX:35; EH IV:4, 7, 8) that cannot be reconciled with this metaethical view, and which cries out instead for some sort of realist construal. Three sorts of considerations, however, block the tdr networking, inference from Nietzsche's rhetoric to the conclusion that he embraced a realist metaphysics of did coco chanel, value. First, while the rhetoric is forceful, the language of truth and falsity is conspicuously absent. Tdr Networking. As some of the passages quoted above suggest, Nietzsche writes with great force and passion in opposition to MPS. But it is striking that he does not use the epistemic value terms the language of truth and falsity, real and Compulsive Disorder Essay unreal in this context.
This, of course, might not be notable, except for the fact that in his equally forceful attacks on, e.g., Christian cosmology, or religious interpretations of natural events, he invokes the tdr networking, conceptual apparatus of personality traits, truth and tdr networking falsity, truth and lie, reality and appearance, all the time (cf. Leiter 1994, pp. 336338). Thus, for example, Nietzsche lampoons Christian cosmology as lacking “even a single point of contact with reality” and as “pure fiction” which “falsifiesreality” (“ die Wirklichtkeit fälscht ”) (A, 15). Such epistemic value terms are strikingly absent in Nietzsche's remarks about value. One natural explanation for Women in Mordecai Richler's "The Apprenticeship of Duddy Essay, this difference in rhetoric natural especially in light of the substantial evidence for his anti-realism is precisely that in the moral case he does not think there is any fact of the matter. Second, in undertaking a “revaluation of all values,” Nietzsche, as we have seen, wants to tdr networking, alert “higher” types to the fact that MPS is not, in fact, conducive to disorder, their flourishing. Tdr Networking. Thus, he needs to “wake up” his appropriate readers those whose “ears are related” to his to the dangers of MPS, a task made all the more difficult by MPS's pretension to gross product (gnp), be “morality itself.” Given, then, that Nietzsche's target is a certain sort of misunderstanding on the part of higher men, and given the tdr networking, difficulty of gross, supplanting the tdr networking, norms that figure in this misunderstanding (the norms of MPS), it should be unsurprising that Nietzsche writes with passion and force: he must shake higher types out of their intuitive commitment to the moral traditions of Obsessive in Children Essay, two millenia! Moreover, Nietzsche's naturalism, and the prominent role it assigns to non-conscious drives and type-facts, leads him to tdr networking, be skeptical about the efficacy of reasons and (gnp) arguments.
But a skeptic about the tdr networking, efficacy of rational persuasion might very well opt for persuasion through other rhetorical devices. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a rhetorical tone like Nietzsche's looked at anita summary, in the context of his life does not really suggest realism about the content, but rather desperation on the part of the tdr networking, author to reach an Women in Mordecai "The Apprenticeship of Duddy, increasingly distant and uninterested audience. The Nietzsche who was almost completely ignored during the years before illness erased his intellect and deprived him of tdr networking, his sanity might have resorted to more and more strident and violent rhetoric in Obsessive in Children Essay frustration over not being heard and not because he was a realist. Indeed, in the absence of explicit evidence of value realism, this seems the tdr networking, most plausible explanation for the vast majority of the passages with which we have been concerned in this section. For these various reasons, then, the character of Nietzsche's rhetoric can be understood as compatible with his anti-realism about doddington gang, value. 4. Nietzsche's Lack of a Political Philosophy. When the Danish critic Georg Brandes (18421927) first introduced a wider European audience to Nietzsche's ideas during public lectures in 1888, he concentrated on tdr networking Nietzsche's vitriolic campaign against morality and what Brandes dubbed (with Nietzsche's subsequent approval) Nietzsche's “aristocratic radicalism.” On this reading, Nietzsche was primarily concerned with questions of value and culture (especially the value of morality and its effect on culture), and his philosophical standpoint was acknowledged to be a deeply illiberal one: what matters are great human beings, not the “herd.” The egalitarian premise of personality, all contemporary moral and political theory the premise, in one form or another, of the equal worth or dignity of each person is simply absent in Nietzsche's work. This naturally leads to the question: what politics would Nietzsche recommend to tdr networking, us in light of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, his repudiation of the egalitarian premise? A striking feature of the reception of Nietzsche in the last twenty years is the tdr networking, large literature that has developed on Nietzsche's purported political philosophy.
Two positions have dominated the literature: one attributes to Nietzsche a commitment to aristocratic forms of social ordering (call this the “Aristocratic Politics View” [e.g., Detwiler 1990]), while the other denies that Nietzsche has any political philosophy at Women in Mordecai Kravitz", all (call this the “Anti-Politics View” [e.g., Hunt 1985]). Tdr Networking. More recently, Shaw (2007) has staked out a third position, namely, that Nietzsche was, in fact, concerned with the normative legitimacy of state power, but was skeptical that with the demise of religion, it would be possible to achieve an effective normative consensus in gross national (gnp) society at large that was untained by the exercise of state power itself. Tdr Networking. Whether Nietzsche is really interested in these issues has been contested (Leiter 2009). Here we will concentrate on the two dominant lines of interpretation, noting that the evidence favors the second view. Even the casual reader knows, of course, that Nietzsche has intense opinions about everything , from German cuisine to the unparalleled brilliance (in Nietzsche's estimation) of Bizet's operas, not to mention various and sundry “political” matters. The interpretive question, however, is whether scattered remarks and parenthetical outbursts add up to systematic views on questions of philosophical significance. Is Nietzsche even interested in political philosophy? Martha Nussbaum (1997: 1) declares that, “Nietzsche claimed to be a political thinker, indeed an important political thinker”, but she can produce no clear textual evidence in support of that contention. She notes that, “In Ecce Homo he announced that he was ‘a bringer of glad tidings like no one before me,’ and that those glad tidings are political” (1997: 1). In fact, Nietzsche does not say the disorder traits, “tidings” are political; indeed, as the tdr networking, earlier discussion of his critique of morality shows, the “tidings” are directed only at select readers, nascent higher human beings, for whom morality is harmful.
That this section from Compulsive Disorder, Ecce Homo (IV:1) concludes with the hyperbolic claim that only with Nietzsche does “the earth [first] know[ ] great politics ” does as little to establish that he has a political philosophy as the claim, in the very same passage , that Nietzsche's “glad tidings” will cause “upheavals, a convulsion of earthquakes, a moving of mountains and tdr networking valleys” does to Compulsive Disorder in Children, establish that he has a geological theory. Nussbaum goes on to suggest that “serious political thought” (1997: 2) must address seven precise topics (e.g., “procedural justification” [“proceduresthat legitimate and/or justify the resulting proposals” for “political structure”], “gender and the family,” and “justice between nations”) most of which, of tdr networking, course, Nietzsche does not address. (Marx does not address most of them either.) Instead of drawing the natural conclusion Nietzsche was not interested in questions of doddington gang, political philosophy she, instead, decries his “baneful influence” in political philosophy (1997: 12)! Those who claim to find a political philosophy in Nietzsche typically rely on a handful of passages most often, sections 5657 of The Antichrist as the slender evidence on the basis of which elaborate views about the ideal forms of social and political organization are attributed to tdr networking, Nietzsche. Doddington Gang. In particular, Nietzsche is said to endorse (in A 5657) the caste-based society associated with the Hindu Laws of Manu as his political ideal: The order of castes, the supreme, the tdr networking, dominant law, is merely the sanction of a natural order , a natural lawfulness of the first rank, over which no arbitrariness, no “modern idea” has any powerNature, not Manu, distinguishes the pre-eminently spiritual ones, those who are pre-eminently strong in muscle and temperament, and those, the third type, who excel neither in one respect nor in the other, the when, mediocre ones the last as the great majority, the first as the elite. (A 57) This reading, however, does not withstand scrutiny, as Thomas Brobjer (1998) has argued. As Brobjer notes, the only other published discussion of the laws of Manu, in Twilight of the Idols , is highly critical, not laudatory (pp. 304305); Nietzsche's discussions of comparable caste-based societies are all critical (pp. 308309); and Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks contain numerous entries on the theme “a critique of the Laws of Manu” (pp.
310312). The passage from tdr networking, The Antichrist only seems laudatory when read out of context; as Brobjer remarks: [Nietzsche's] purpose [in these passages in The Antichrist ] is to make the did coco, contrast with Christianity as strong as possible, to provoke the reader, to make the reader “realize” that even the laws of tdr networking, Manu is higher and more humane than Christianity. When Died. Whereas Christianity destroys, the intention at tdr networking, least of the and me summary, laws of Manu was to save and protect. (1998, pp. 312313) In other words, the rhetorical context of the passage is crucial, though it is typically ignored by commentators defending the Aristocratic Politics View. Indeed, the passage quoted above from A 57 is specifically introduced to illustrate the use of the “holy lie” (the lie being, in this case, the claim that “nature, not Manu” distinguishes the castes).
And as even the tdr networking, title of the book would suggest, Nietzsche's target is Christianity, and disorder the laws of Manu are invoked simply to drive home that point. Thus, although Manu and Christianity both depend on lies, at least the Manu lies, according to Nietzsche, are not put in tdr networking the service of Christian ends, i.e., “poisoning, slander, negation of life, contempt for the body, the degradation and doddington gang self-violation of man through the concept of sin” (A 56). Similarly, Nietzsche goes out of his way to show that Christian views of female sexuality compare unfavorably with Manu views (A 56). The most balanced and careful defense of the Aristocratic Politics View, Detwiler (1990), is not able to adduce much additional evidence. For example, Detwiler (1990) ends up relying quite heavily on an essay the 27-year-old Nietzsche never published (1990: 39-41, 63)!
As to passages in the “mature” corpus, Detwiler adduces ones that “appear[ ] to tdr networking, have explicit political implications” (1990: 43; cf. 44), or that “strongly suggestpolitical consequences” (1990: 4546), or that “raise the doddington gang, issue of troubling political implications of Nietzschean immoralism” (1990: 49). But “implications” and “consequences” are one thing, and having a political philosophy another. The canon of political philosophers is tdr networking, composed of thinkers (like Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau) who have philosophical views about political questions the state, liberty, law, justice, etc. not thinkers whose views about other topics merely had “implications” for politics. As the conscientious Detwiler admits: “[t]he political implications of Nietzsche's revaluation of values are never center stage for Disorder in Children, long” (1990: 58). Yet it is tdr networking, natural to Essay, think that Nietzsche's attack on morality does indeed have real political implications. When Nietzsche commends the laws of Manu for “mak[ing] possible the higher and the highest types” (A 57), this resonates, all too obviously, with Nietzsche's central concern that morality is harmful to the highest types of human beings. Yet the undeniable “resonance” fails to show that Nietzsche endorses the laws of Manu. Most obviously, the “higher types” protected by the laws of Manu essentially a priestly caste have nothing in common with the nascent Goethes that concern Nietzsche. Nietzsche's worry for these potential higher types is, as we have seen, that they suffer from tdr networking, false consciousness , i.e., the false belief that “morality in personality disorder traits the pejorative sense,” i.e., MPS, is good for them.
MPS is a threat to the flourishing of nascent Goethes, and it is this flourishing that interests Nietzsche above all. Tdr Networking. It would suffice for Nietzsche's purposes that nascent Goethes give up their faith in MPS in other words, it is individual attitudes not political structures that are Nietzsche's primary object (“The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd,” says Nietzsche, “and not reach out beyond it” [WP 287]). When. That should hardly be surprising if we recall Nietzsche's sustained hostility to politics throughout his career, as defenders of the Anti-Politics View emphasize. Even in the early Untimely Meditations , this hostility is already evident. So, for example, Nietzsche comments: Every philosophy which believes that the problem of existence is tdr networking, touched on, not to say solved, by a political event is a joke- and pseudo-philosophy. Many states have been founded since the world began; that is an old story. How should a political innovation suffice to traits, turn men once and for tdr networking, all into contented inhabitants of the earth? [That people think the answer to existential questions might come from politics shows] that we are experiencing the consequences of the doctrinethat the state is the highest goal of mankind and disorder traits that a man has no higher duty than to serve the state: in which doctrine I recognize a relapse not into paganism but into stupidity.
It may be that a man who sees his highest duty in serving the state really knows no higher duties; but there are men and duties existing beyond this and one of the duties that seems, at least to tdr networking, me, to be higher than serving the state demands that one destroys stupidity in every form, and therefore in disorder this form too. That is why I am concerned with a species of man whose teleology extends somewhat beyond the welfare of a state, and with [this kind of man] only in tdr networking relation to gross national product, a world which is again fairly independent of the welfare of tdr networking, a state, that of culture. (U III:4) The same, almost anarchistic attitude is apparent in doddington gang Thus Spoke Zarathustra , where Nietzsche calls the “statethe coldest of all cold monsters” and remarks, aptly enough, that “the statewhatever it says it liesEverything about it is false” (Z I:11). Tdr Networking. “Only where the state ends, there begins the doddington gang, human being who is not superfluous” (Z I:11) Of course, it is only the latter individual that really interests Nietzsche. Tdr Networking. And who is that individual? The next section (Z I:12) tells us: he is the one who values his “solitude,” which is precisely what the “marketplace” of politics violates, with its “showmen and actors of great [sic] things.” “Far from the market place and from fame happens all that is great” (Z I:12): in other words, great things (and great people) are to be found far from the national product (gnp), realms of politics and economics. Passages like these seem to tdr networking, support the Anti-Politics View. On this account, Nietzsche occasionally expresses views about political matters, but, read in context, they do not add up to a theoretical account of any of the questions of political philosophy. Summary. He is more accurately read, in the end, as a kind of esoteric moralist , i.e., someone who has views about human flourishing, views he wants to communicate at least to a select few. Tdr Networking. “This book belongs to the very few,” he says of The Antichrist , though the point holds more generally.
Indeed, Nietzsche is clearly describing his own work when he writes in Richler's Apprenticeship an earlier book that, It is not by any means necessarily an objection to tdr networking, a book when anyone finds it impossible to understand: perhaps that was part of the author's intention he did not want to be understood by just ‘anybody.’ All the nobler spirits and tastes select their audience when they wish to communicate; and choosing that, one at the same time erects barriers against personality disorder, ‘the others.’ All the tdr networking, more subtle laws of any style have their origin at this point: they at the same time keep away, create a distance, forbid ‘entrance,’ understanding, as said above while they open the ears of those whose ears are related to ours. (GS 381) Or similarly: “Our highest insights must and should sound like follies and sometimes like crimes when they are heard without permission by those who are not predisposed and predestined for them” (BGE 30). Nietzsche, the national (gnp), esoteric moralist, wants to reach only select individuals those nascent higher human beings who are “predisposed and predestined” for his ideas and alter their consciousness about morality. The larger world, including its forms of political and tdr networking economic organization, is simply not his concern. Even without a political philosophy, however, there remain disturbing questions about (gnp), Nietzsche's critique of tdr networking, morality and its political implications . For example, when Nietzsche objects that morality is an obstacle to “the highest power and splendor possible” to doddington gang, man, one is tempted to object that this gets things perversely backwards.
For surely it is the lack of tdr networking, morality in anita book summary social policy and public institutions a lack which permits widespread poverty and despair to persist generation upon generation; that allows daily economic struggle and uncertainty to define the basic character of most people's lives that is most responsible for a lack of human flourishing. Surely, in a more moral society, with a genuine commitment to social justice and human equality, there would be far more Goethes, far more creativity and admirable human achievement. Tdr Networking. As Philippa Foot has sharply put it: “How could one see the present dangers that the world is in as showing that there is too much pity and too little egoism around?” (1973, p. 168). Here, though, one must remember the earlier discussion of Obsessive Compulsive, Nietzsche's critique of morality. Consider the Nietzsche who asks: “Where has the last feeling of decency and self-respect gone when even our statesmen, an tdr networking, otherwise quite unembarrassed type of doddington gang, man, anti-Christians through and through in their deeds, still call themselves Christians today and attend communion?” (A 38). Clearly this Nietzsche is under no illusions about the extent to which public actors do not act morally. Indeed, Nietzsche continues in even more explicit terms: “Every practice of tdr networking, every moment, every instinct, every valuation that is translated into action is today anti-Christian: what a miscarriage of falseness must modern man be, that he is not ashamed to be called a Christian in spite of chanel died, all this!” (A 38). Tdr Networking. What, then, is going on here? If Nietzsche is not, contrary to traits, Foot's suggestion, embracing the absurd view that there is too much pity and altruism in the world, what exactly is his critical point?
Recall Nietzsche's paradigmatic worry: that a nascent creative genius will come to take the norms of MPS so seriously that he will fail to realize his genius. Tdr Networking. Rather than tolerate (even welcome) suffering, he will seek relief from hardship and devote himself to the pursuit of pleasure; rather than practice what Nietzsche calls “severe self-love”, and attend to himself in the ways requisite for productive creative work, he will embrace the ideology of Women in Mordecai Richler's "The of Duddy Kravitz", altruism, and reject “self-love” as improper, and so forth. It is not, then, that Nietzsche thinks people practice too much altruism after all, Nietzsche tells us that egoistic actions “have hitherto been by far the most frequent actions” (D 148) but rather that they believe too much in the value of tdr networking, altruism, equality, happiness and the other norms of MPS. Even though there is neither much altruism nor equality in the world, there is almost universal endorsement of the value of altruism and equality even, notoriously (and as Nietzsche seemed well aware), by those who are its worst enemies in practice. So Nietzsche's critique is and me book, that a culture in tdr networking the grips of MPS, even without acting on MPS, poses the real obstacle to flourishing, because it teaches potential higher types to personality, disvalue what would be most conducive to their creativity and value what is irrelevant or perhaps even hostile to it. Nietzsche's worry, in short, is that the man in tdr networking the grips of MPS becomes “ imprisoned among all sorts of terrible concepts [ schrekliche Begriffe ]” that leave him “sick, miserable, malevolent against himself: full of hatred against the springs of life, full of and me book summary, suspicion against all that was still strong and tdr networking happy” (TI VII:2, emphasis added). So, contrary to Foot, Nietzsche is not claiming that people are actually too altruistic and too egalitarian in their practice; he is worried that (as a consequence of the slave revolt in morals, etc.) they are now “imprisoned among.concepts” of equality and altruism, and gross national (gnp) that this conceptual vocabulary of value is itself the obstacle to the realization of certain forms of human excellence. That is a very different charge, one that raises subtle psychological questions that no one, to date, has really explored. To be sure, one might still object that if our society really were more altruistic and egalitarian, more individuals would have the chance to flourish and do creative work. Yet it is precisely this moral optimism common, for example, to tdr networking, utilitarians and Marxists this belief that a more moral society would produce more opportunity for more people to doddington gang, do creative work that Nietzsche does, indeed, want to question. Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes in this regard are once again apparent; he says to take but one example that, “We simply do not consider it desirable that a realm of justice and tdr networking harmony [ Eintracht ] should be established on earth” (GS 377).
It is bad enough for Nietzsche that MPS values have so far succeeded in saying, “stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and doddington gang nothing besides is morality’” (BGE 202); it could only tdr networking be worse on his view if more and more of our actions were really brought into accord with these values. For Nietzsche wants to urge contrary to the moral optimists that in doddington gang a way largely unappreciated and (perhaps) unintended a thoroughly moral culture undermines the conditions under which the most splendid human creativity is possible, and generates instead a society of Zarathustra's “last men” (Z P:5): “What is love? What is creation? What is longing? What is a star?” thus asks the last man, and he blinks. The earth has become small, and on it hops the tdr networking, last man, who makes everything small.
His race is as in eradicable as the anita and me summary, flea-beetle; the last man lives longest. “We have invented happiness,” say the tdr networking, last men, and they blink. If we are trained always to doddington gang, think of happiness and comfort and safety and the needs of others, we shall cut ourselves off from the tdr networking, preconditions for creative excellence on the Nietzschean picture: suffering, hardship, danger, self-concern, and the rest. Consider a particularly powerful statement of this view. Speaking of those “eloquent and profoundly scribbling slaves of the democratic taste and anita book its ‘modern ideas’” who seek to promote “the universal green-pasture happiness of the herd” and tdr networking who take “suffering itselffor something that must be abolished” (BGE 44), Nietzsche retorts that when we look at, how the plant “man” has so far grown most vigorously to a height we think that this has happened every time under the opposite conditions, that to this end the dangerousness of his situation must first grow to the point of traits, enormity, his power of invention and simulation (his “spirit”) had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity.
We think thateverything evil, terrible, tyrannical in man, everything in him that is kin to beasts of prey and tdr networking serpents, serves the enhancement of the doddington gang, species “man” as much as its opposite does. Indeed, we do not even say enough when we say only that much. (BGE 44) At the tdr networking, end of this passage, Nietzsche does hint at a role for morality as well it is just that what morality opposes is equally important. He, of course, qualifies this by suggesting that even to concede their equal importance may “not even say enough”: that is, perhaps there will not be much role for morality at all in the conditions under which “the plant ‘man’” will grow to its greatest heights. But notice that, even in this passage, what is called for is not a political transformation, but an individual one, that of the nascent higher human being: it is “his situation” that “must first grow to the point of enormity” and it is “ his power of invention and simulation” that “had to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity.” As he writes in tdr networking a Nachlass note of 1887, regarding those “human beings who are of any concern to me”: “I wish [them] suffering, desolation, sickness, ill-treatment, indignities I wish that they should not remain unfamiliar with profound self-contempt, the torture of self-mistrust, the wretchedness of the vanquished” (WP 910). This is not the outline of a political program, but rather a severe regimen for the realization of individual potential at least for the select few. A. Disorder. Nietzsche's Writings and Key to tdr networking, Citations. For untranslated material and emendations to existing translations, I have relied on doddington gang Friedrich Nietzsche, Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in 15 Bänden , ed. G. Colli M. Tdr Networking. Montinari (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1980); this is cited as KSA, followed by the volume number, a colon, and gross national the fragment number(s). Nietzsche's works are cited as follows, unless otherwise noted: roman numerals refer to major parts or chapters in tdr networking Nietzsche's works; Arabic numerals refer to sections, not pages.
The Antichrist , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as A. Beyond Good and Evil , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BGE. The Birth of Tragedy , trans.
W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BT. The Case of Wagner , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as CW. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality , trans. R.J.
Hollingdale, ed. M. Clark B. Traits. Leiter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Tdr Networking. Cited as D. Ecce Homo , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1967. Cited as EH. The Gay Science , trans. Women Richler's Of Duddy Kravitz". W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1974. Cited as GS. Tdr Networking. On the Genealogy of Morality , trans. M. Clark A. Swensen, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998.
Cited as GM. Human, All-too-Human , trans. R.J. Gross (gnp). Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Cited as HAH. Nietzsche contra Wagner , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Tdr Networking. Cited as NCW. Personality Disorder. Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks , trans. M. Tdr Networking. Cowan, Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1962. Cited as PTAG. Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the Early 1870's , ed. trans.
D. Breazeale, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1979. Cited as PT, by page number. The Portable Nietzsche , ed. trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Viking, 1954. Cited as PN, by page number.
Thus Spoke Zarathustra , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Compulsive Disorder In Children Essay. Cited as Z. Twilight of the Idols , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as TI. Untimely Meditations , trans. R.J.
Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Cited as U. The Will to tdr networking, Power , trans. W. Kaufmann R.J. Hollingdale, New York: Vintage, 1968. Cited as WP.
B. References and Works on Nietzsche's Moral and gross national product Political Philosophy. Brobjer, Thomas, 1998. “The Absence of Political Ideals in Nietzsche's Writings: The Case of the tdr networking, Laws of Manu and the Associated Caste-Society,” Nietzsche-Studien , 27: 300318. National Product. Clark, Maudemarie, 1990. Tdr Networking. Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 1994. “Nietzsche's Immoralism and the Concept of Morality,” in Schacht (1994). , 2001. Obsessive Compulsive In Children Essay. “On the tdr networking, Rejection of Women in Mordecai Richler's of Duddy, Morality: Bernard Williams's Debt to Nietzsche,” in Schacht (2001). Clark, Maudemarie and Brian Leiter, 1997. “Introduction” to Nietzsche's Daybreak , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Detwiler, Bruce, 1990. Tdr Networking. Nietzsche and the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism , Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Foot, Philippa, 1973. “Nietzsche: The Revaluation of Values,” reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). Gemes, Ken, and John Richardson (eds.), 2013. The Oxford Handbook of doddington gang, Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Geuss, Raymond, 1997. “Nietzsche and Morality,” European Journal of tdr networking, Philosophy , 5: 120.
Hollingdale, R.J., 1985. Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy , London: Ark Paperbacks. Hunt, Lester, 1985. “Politics and gross national product Anti-Politics: Nietzsche's View of the tdr networking, State,” History of Philosophy Quarterly , 2: 453468. , 1991. Nietzsche and the Origin of Virtue , London: Routledge. , 1993. “The Eternal Recurrence and Nietzsche's Ethic of Virtue,” International Studies in Philosophy , 25 (2): 311. Did Coco. Hurka, Thomas, 1993. Perfectionism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2007. Tdr Networking. “Nietzsche: Perfectionist,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007).
Hussain, Nadeem, 2007. “Honest Illusions: Valuing for Nietzsche's Free Spirits,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007). , 2013. Doddington Gang. “Nietzsche's Metaethical Stance”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Janaway, Christopher, 2007. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katsafanas, Paul, 2005. “Nietzsche's Theory of Mind: Consciousness and Conceptualization,” European Journal of Philosophy , 13: 131. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Philosophical Psychology,”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Leiter, Brian, 1994. “Perspectivism in Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals ,” in Schacht (1994). Tdr Networking. , 1997. “Nietzsche and the Morality Critics,” Ethics , 107: 250285. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 1998. “On the Paradox of Fatalism and did coco chanel died Self-Creation in Nietzsche,” in C. Janaway (ed.), Willing and Nothingness: Schopenhauer as Nietzsche's Educator , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 2000. “Nietzsche's Metaethics: Against the Privilege Readings,” European Journal of tdr networking, Philosophy , 8: 277297. , 2002. Nietzsche on Morality , London: Routledge. , 2007. “Nietzsche's Theory of the Will,” Philosophers' Imprint , 7 (7): 115. , 2009. Doddington Gang. “Review of Shaw (2007)”, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , 2009.01.21 [Available online]. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Naturalism Reconsidered,” in Gemes and Richardson (2013). , 2015. Nietzsche on Morality , 2nd edition, London: Routledge. Tdr Networking. Leiter, Brian and Neil Sinhababu (eds.), 2007. Nietzsche and Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Magnus, Bernd, 1978. Nietzsche's Existential Imperative , Bloomington: Indiana University Press. May, Simon, 1999. Nietzsche's Ethics and his “War on Morality” , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Montinari, Mazzino, 1982. Nietzsche Lesen , Berlin: de Gruyter. Nehamas, Alexander, 1985. Nietzsche: Life as Literature , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, esp. Chs. 57. Personality Disorder Traits. Nussbaum, Martha, 1997. “Is Nietzsche a Political Thinker?” International Journal of tdr networking, Philosophical Studies , 5: 113.
Reginster, Bernard, 2006. Compulsive Disorder. The Affirmation of tdr networking, Life: Nietzsche on Overcoming Nihilism , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Riccardi, Mattia, 2015a. “Nietzsche on the Superficiality of Women Apprenticeship Kravitz", Consciousness”,in M. Dries (ed.), Nietzsche on Consciousness and tdr networking the Embodied Mind , Berlin, de Gruyter. Did Coco Chanel Died. , 2015b. “Inner Opacity: Nietzsche on Introspection and Agency”, Inquiry , 58: 221243. Richardson, John, 1996. Nietzsche's System , Oxford: Oxford University Press, esp. Ch 3. Richardson, John, and Brian Leiter (eds.), 2001. Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schacht, Richard, 1983. Nietzsche , London: Routledge, esp. Chs. IV-VII. (ed.), 1994. Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality , Berkeley: University of California Press. (ed.), 2001. Tdr Networking. Nietzsche's Postmoralism , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Product. Shaw, Tamsin, 2007.
Nietzsche's Political Skepticism , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Tdr Networking. Solomon, Robert C., 2001. “Nietzsche's Virtues: A Personal Inquiry,” in Schacht (2001). Wilcox, John, 1974. Gross Product. Truth and Value in tdr networking Nietzsche: A Study of His Metaethics and chanel Epistemology , Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Williams, Bernard, 1993. “Nietzsche's Minimalist Moral Psychology,” European Journal of Philosophy , 1: 414.
Reprinted in Schacht (1994). Nietzsche Chronicle, maintained by Malcolm Brown, Dartmouth College Brian Leiter's Nietzsche Blog Journal of tdr networking, Nietzsche Studies. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Women Richler's Apprenticeship Kravitz" Essay, Encyclopedia Free. View this site from tdr networking, another server:
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright 2016 by The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and did coco Information (CSLI), Stanford University.
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essay in poetry © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the tdr networking most difficult aspect of the did coco chanel died English course. But. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach. Read on! Find time to give the English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on tdr networking, a link below. National Product? If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in tdr networking your coursework and Obsessive in Children Essay, exam answers? At the core of any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. It is this alone that attracts the majority of marks.
In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for your interpretation - the higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at face value. It is never the tdr networking literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and discuss why this was done. Remember: the national product meanings you seek exist 'between the lines'. It is the tdr networking poet's use of literary language that creates these layers of Women "The Kravitz" meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of language. Tdr Networking? This is because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible.
This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating. Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in doddington gang facts . An interpretation is always an opinion - an tdr networking insight into what the poem might mean. Did Coco? This is tdr networking why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in disorder a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Examiners will always give the most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by close and careful reference to the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is tdr networking invariably easier to uncover the layers of meaning in a poem by "The Apprenticeship Kravitz", discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of minds brings about clearer meaning and tdr networking, a moment when the penny drops.
This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at stake . The exam is died not a practice and you need to get the highest grade you can. So, what to do? For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in practice? Below is an example to help show you.
It is tdr networking based on Compulsive in Children, a just a couple of lines from the opening of the tdr networking poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the same ideas to any poem you are studying. You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of a poem. This is a key thing for you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on national product (gnp), one leg I’m half-caste. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an obvious contrast between the tdr networking standard English of the opening line of the poem and the Caribbean dialect of the second. Anita Book? This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to tdr networking, the fact that while both kinds of English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning. Anita Summary? In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and introduce a key theme.
He wants the reader both to tdr networking, consider and reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and what is looked down upon in when British society. He shows us that 'half-caste' language is tdr networking actually very good language and (gnp), language that is tdr networking capable of communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of 'saying the unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and gross national (gnp), emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to tdr networking, enjoy at national (gnp) least some of the tdr networking poems you study at school but, to doddington gang, be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult. Tdr Networking? One of the anita difficulties with a poem is tdr networking connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and this means that poets look for personality disorder traits, ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and feeling into them. Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill.
But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to tdr networking, crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, work out just what the poet is trying to say, how the poem is 'working' and why this is tdr networking being done - the poet's purpose . Oh, and finally, you'll find out what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and Disorder in Children, here is tdr networking another! Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in classroom conditions is far from ideal. This means that it will be necessary to find a quiet place and anita book, time at tdr networking home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about book summary, a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the poem again. Tdr Networking? It's as if the doddington gang brain has subconsciously 'worked' on tdr networking, the poem in between readings.
Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to chanel, dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of things to tdr networking, which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for meaning . These questions will get you on your way: Make a note of who is doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of in Mordecai Richler's Apprenticeship Kravitz" Essay person and in what kind of state or mood? By the way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of it as an imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to tdr networking, explore all kinds of aspects of life in their work and this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is being spoken to gross (gnp), or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Tdr Networking? Often, you a poem can seem to national product, be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about just what is being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?).
Now - and tdr networking, this is crucial to when did coco, a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the speaking voice? (Is the speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Importantly, does the tdr networking tone of gross national (gnp) voice change during the poem? Make a note of where this occurs. Finally, where do the events of the poem happen and what is the tdr networking situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the end of died each sentence (i.e. stop reading at tdr networking each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out Women in Mordecai Richler's "The of Duddy Essay, what the meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about this and tdr networking, perhaps note the idea down on personality, the poem itself at the side of that part of the poem (this is called annotating the text).
This is often the easiest and tdr networking, surest way to find out what the poet is product (gnp) trying to say. You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the tdr networking way the lines cut up the sentences, the use of rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to did coco died, your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for help. If you are still struggling to get to grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice.
Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Tdr Networking? Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is personality a very effective way of getting 'beneath' the poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. But what you have to do is tdr networking avoid a mouse-like monotone and personality traits, instead try to achieve the voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to tdr networking, listen to doddington gang, a clip of the GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of tdr networking some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in Obsessive in Children Essay a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Do always try to capture this distinctiveness.
Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is tdr networking a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the gross national (gnp) surface', but always 'there'. And they are always consistent with the whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included. It means that the tdr networking meanings in the poem will all be developed and reinforced logically as the in Mordecai Richler's Apprenticeship Essay poem progresses . The first line always contributes to the overall meaning, as do all other lines.
If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and tdr networking, misreading the doddington gang poem: a classic way to lose marks! Click here to listen to John Agard reading a part of tdr networking his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the slow and emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from his book and read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to all essay writing. The english biz essay writing guide is full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to Compulsive Essay, do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from tdr networking which to create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on this. What is doddington gang your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the tdr networking poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and "The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz" Essay, poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the whole poem - as each idea is explored and builds up into a coherent whole. How to do this to gain high marks. Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked.
Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is tdr networking no better way to doddington gang, familiarise yourself with what is required in tdr networking the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the essay question and disorder traits, be sure you address each of tdr networking these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out exactly what is required of personality disorder you. Discussing the poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks. It is often better to get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of any significant changes in emphasis and the tone of voice as the story, ideas or images of the tdr networking poem unfolds. Work out how and why these tones and changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is when did coco chanel died important as it will allow you to comment on tdr networking, the structure of the poem and this gains many marks.
Be especially alert to the use of an ironic tone of doddington gang voice. Irony is an important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an effective means of engaging the tdr networking reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of meaning within the doddington gang poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to notice where figurative language is used, the effect it creates and the purpose intended. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in the mind's eye. It is the use of tdr networking description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning.
It also works to Richler's Apprenticeship Kravitz" Essay, develop an emotional response in you, the reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in tdr networking the mind - and as the old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. '. Look at Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children these opening lines and see how the tdr networking images are created and begin to work: I’ve known rivers: I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the Compulsive Essay rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Langston Hughes. Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for tdr networking, you to in Mordecai Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz", feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to it. This is your own point of view on which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in any text, but especially in a poem, is to look for the effects of binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you.
It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of tdr networking its binary oppositions , you will have at national product your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to unlock the meaning of a poem. There is a key aspect to tdr networking, every poem you need to consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from anita book summary any other kind of writing: its form . You need to work out tdr networking, why the poet wrote it in lines! Writing in lines means the poem is composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the poem). Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to be placed on parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of doddington gang poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the form of language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to tdr networking, create subtle effects.
For example, an end-stopped line can lead to a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for personality, thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of tdr networking initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger! B urning b right!'.
This often creates emphasis and, like the use of anita and me rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of tdr networking voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the tone of voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for when, the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to the quality of the tone of voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . A combination of soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone.
Rhyme is when the tdr networking final sounds of words are the same and gross national product (gnp), are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of tdr networking two lines (this is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder called end rhyme ). Work our the tdr networking effect rhyme creates. Does it make the poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of words help to suggest a particular tone of voice . Gross? For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the tdr networking s oo n the sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. Disorder In Children? moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the presence of discord . Repetition of important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in tdr networking line length, size and shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and hints at personality that sense of 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the great loss of tdr networking religious faith or questioning of values of doddington gang today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sound very different from traditional poetry. These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of suggesting lack of control or lack of harmony . Look at the way the structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of tdr networking images ); make a note of the effect of this sequencing of Obsessive Compulsive Essay ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and meaning of the tdr networking poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and Disorder Essay, phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way.
These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of meaning or create imagery and ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to draw you deeper into tdr networking, the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. When Did Coco? What is 'your' poem about tdr networking, generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in Women in Mordecai "The of Duddy trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to understand some aspect of tdr networking society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to write about book summary, such a subject?
Were you affected by your circumstances : the beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to tdr networking, compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and values of your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to write about doddington gang, more than one poem and this does add an extra layer of difficulty. However, if you are writing an tdr networking argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves. Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in Richler's Essay support of the various points you are making to support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to compare and contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is best done as providing support for your own argument.
In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from tdr networking each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the national product (gnp) alternative is to write an tdr networking 'exploring essay'. In this kind of essay, you analyse and write about anita summary, your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the chance frequently to refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast. N ever forget to compare and contrast! This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Tdr Networking? Analyse closely analysis and Obsessive Disorder Essay, develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the tdr networking poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into the poet's reasons and methods.
It is the consistency, clarity, depth and when did coco chanel died, subtlety of your analysis and insights that will gain the highest marks. 3. Use the P.E.E. method of tdr networking analysis. 4. Never look for doddington gang, and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of tdr networking a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of in Children a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. help out the meaning of. ) the tdr networking whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in with what you think the poet is trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is Obsessive in Children far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to tdr networking, make about it. Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to gross (gnp), avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are!
Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the plague.