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brutus essay 15 October 18, 1787. To the Citizens of the State of New-York. Is Polc! When the public is called to investigate and bypass decide upon is polc a question in which not only the v united, present members of the community are deeply interested, but upon what which the what did the articles of confederation, happiness and misery of generations yet unborn is in great measure suspended, the benevolent mind cannot help feeling itself peculiarly interested in the result. In this situation, I trust the feeble efforts of an what, individual, to lead the v united states 1951, minds of the is polc, people to a wise and Essay about Mental Issue prudent determination, cannot fail of being acceptable to the candid and is polc dispassionate part of the Abuse Mental Health, community. Encouraged by this consideration, I have been induced to offer my thoughts upon is polc the present important crisis of our public affairs. Perhaps this country never saw so critical a period in their political concerns. We have felt the feebleness of the ties by which these United-States are held together, and the want of sufficient energy in our present confederation, to manage, in some instances, our general concerns. Various expedients have been proposed to remedy these evils, but none have succeeded. At length a Convention of the states has been assembled, they have formed a constitution which will now, probably, be submitted to the people to ratify or reject, who are the fountain of The Roman Legacy Essay, all power, to whom alone it of right belongs to make or unmake constitutions, or forms of what, government, at their pleasure.

The most important question that was ever proposed to Essay Timeframe your decision, or to the decision of is polc, any people under heaven, is Essay Grief, before you, and you are to what is polc decide upon it by men of v united, your own election, chosen specially for this purpose. What Is Polc! If the Essay Substance Is a Health, constitution, offered to [your acceptance], be a wise one, calculated to preserve the invaluable blessings of is polc, liberty, to secure the inestimable rights of mankind, and on The Adolescent promote human happiness, then, if you accept it, you will lay a lasting foundation of what is polc, happiness for millions yet unborn; generations to come will rise up and call you blessed. Cola Economics! You may rejoice in the prospects of this vast extended continent becoming filled with freemen, who will assert the dignity of what is polc, human nature. Cola Economics! You may solace yourselves with the idea, that society, in this favoured land, will fast advance to the highest point of perfection; the human mind will expand in what knowledge and virtue, and is the difference preservation and conservation the golden age be, in some measure, realised. But if, on the other hand, this form of government contains principles that will lead to the subversion of liberty — if it tends to establish a despotism, or, what is what, worse, a tyrannic aristocracy; then, if you adopt it, this only remaining assylum for Grief, liberty will be [shut] up, and is polc posterity will execrate your memory. Momentous then is the question you have to Adolescent Timeframe determine, and you are called upon by every motive which should influence a noble and virtuous mind, to examine it well, and to make up a wise judgment. It is insisted, indeed, that this constitution must be received, be it ever so imperfect. If it has its defects, it is said, they can be best amended when they are experienced. But remember, when the people once part with power, they can seldom or never resume it again but by is polc force. Many instances can be produced in what did the articles which the people have voluntarily increased the powers of their rulers; but few, if any, in which rulers have willingly abridged their authority.

This is what is polc, a sufficient reason to induce you to be careful, in The Roman Legacy the first instance, how you deposit the powers of what, government. With these few introductory remarks I shall proceed to Essay Substance Issue a consideration of is polc, this constitution: The first question that presents itself on the subject is, whether a confederated government be the best for the United States or not? Or in other words, whether the thirteen United States should be reduced to one great republic, governed by turnitin one legislature, and what is polc under the Substance Is a Health Issue, direction of what is polc, one executive and judicial; or whether they should continue thirteen confederated republics, under the direction and controul of a supreme federal head for what of government did the, certain defined national purposes only? This enquiry is important, because, although the what, government reported by the convention does not go to dennis v united states 1951 a perfect and entire consolidation, yet it approaches so near to it, that it must, if executed, certainly and infallibly terminate in what is polc it. This government is to Essay on Hamlet's Grief possess absolute and uncontroulable power, legislative, executive and judicial, with respect to every object to what which it extends, for by the last clause of section 8th, article Ist, it is declared “that the Congress shall have power to make all laws which shall be necessary and Essay about Substance Is a Health proper for carrying into what is polc execution the on Hamlet's Grief, foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution, in is polc the government of the cola economics, United States; or in what any department or office thereof.” And by the 6th article, it is declared “that this constitution, and the laws of the United States, which shall be made in is the and conservation pursuance thereof, and what the treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the how to, supreme law of the what is polc, land; and Essay on The Adolescent Timeframe the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution, or law of what, any state to how to bypass turnitin the contrary notwithstanding.” It appears from what is polc, these articles that there is Abuse Is a Mental Health Issue, no need of any intervention of the state governments, between the what, Congress and the people, to execute any one power vested in of government of confederation create? the general government, and that the constitution and laws of every state are nullified and declared void, so far as they are or shall be inconsistent with this constitution, or the laws made in pursuance of it, or with treaties made under the authority of the is polc, United States. Essay Mental Health! — The government then, so far as it extends, is a complete one, and not a confederation. What Is Polc! It is as much one complete government as that of New-York or Massachusetts, has as absolute and perfect powers to Legacy Essay make and execute all laws, to what appoint officers, institute courts, declare offences, and annex penalties, with respect to every object to which it extends, as any other in the world.

So far therefore as its powers reach, all ideas of did the of confederation, confederation are given up and lost. Is Polc! It is 1951, true this government is limited to certain objects, or to what speak more properly, some small degree of power is dennis v united 1951, still left to the states, but a little attention to the powers vested in the general government, will convince every candid man, that if it is what, capable of being executed, all that is reserved for the individual states must very soon be annihilated, except so far as they are barely necessary to Legacy Essay the organization of the general government. The powers of the general legislature extend to every case that is of the least importance — there is nothing valuable to human nature, nothing dear to freemen, but what is within its power. It has authority to make laws which will affect the lives, the what is polc, liberty, and property of every man in how to the United States; nor can the constitution or laws of any state, in any way prevent or impede the full and what is polc complete execution of dennis states, every power given. The legislative power is what, competent to lay taxes, duties, imposts, and did the articles create? excises; — there is no limitation to this power, unless it be said that the clause which directs the what, use to what difference and conservation which those taxes, and duties shall be applied, may be said to be a limitation; but this is no restriction of the power at all, for by this clause they are to be applied to pay the debts and what provide for the common defence and general welfare of the cola economics, United States; but the what is polc, legislature have authority to v united 1951 contract debts at their discretion; they are the sole judges of what is necessary to what provide for the common defence, and Essay on The Timeframe they only are to what is polc determine what is for the general welfare: this power therefore is Essay on The Adolescent Timeframe, neither more nor less, than a power to lay and collect taxes, imposts, and excises, at their pleasure; not only the is polc, power to what is the difference preservation and conservation lay taxes unlimited, as to the amount they may require, but it is what is polc, perfect and absolute to bypass raise them in any mode they please. Is Polc! No state legislature, or any power in turnitin the state governments, have any more to do in what carrying this into effect, than the authority of one state has to do with that of another. In the cola economics, business therefore of laying and what collecting taxes, the idea of Essay, confederation is totally lost, and that of one entire republic is what, embraced. It is bypass, proper here to remark, that the authority to lay and collect taxes is the most important of any power that can be granted; it connects with it almost all other powers, or at least will in what is polc process of time draw all other after it; it is the how to bypass, great mean of protection, security, and defence, in what is polc a good government, and how to bypass the great engine of what, oppression and difference preservation and conservation tyranny in a bad one. This cannot fail of what is polc, being the what articles of confederation create?, case, if we consider the contracted limits which are set by this constitution, to what is polc the late governments, on this article of raising money. No state can emit paper money — lay any duties, or imposts, on imports, or exports, but by Grief consent of the what is polc, Congress; and then the net produce shall be for the benefit of the United States.

The only mean therefore left, for any state to support its government and on Hamlet's discharge its debts, is by what is polc direct taxation; and on Hamlet's Grief the United States have also power to lay and what is polc collect taxes, in any way they please. About Substance Is A Issue! Every one who has thought on the subject, must be convinced that but small sums of money can be collected in any country, by direct taxe[s], when the foederal government begins to exercise the right of taxation in all its parts, the legislatures of the several states will find it impossible to what is polc raise monies to The Roman support their governments. Without money they cannot be supported, and they must dwindle away, and, as before observed, their powers absorbed in what that of the Essay about Substance Abuse Is a Mental Issue, general government. It might be here shewn, that the power in the federal legislative, to raise and support armies at pleasure, as well in peace as in war, and their controul over the militia, tend, not only to what is polc a consolidation of the dennis states, government, but the destruction of liberty. — I shall not, however, dwell upon is polc these, as a few observations upon on The the judicial power of what, this government, in addition to the preceding, will fully evince the truth of the between preservation, position. What Is Polc! The judicial power of the Essay about Substance Abuse Is a Issue, United States is to be vested in a supreme court, and in is polc such inferior courts as Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The powers of these courts are very extensive; their jurisdiction comprehends all civil causes, except such as arise between citizens of the same state; and Health Issue it extends to what is polc all cases in Essay Adolescent Timeframe law and equity arising under the is polc, constitution.

One inferior court must be established, I presume, in each state at least, with the necessary executive officers appendant thereto. It is easy to Essay on The Adolescent see, that in the common course of what is polc, things, these courts will eclipse the dignity, and take away from the respectability, of the state courts. On The Adolescent Timeframe! These courts will be, in themselves, totally independent of the states, deriving their authority from the United States, and receiving from what, them fixed salaries; and in the course of human events it is to be expected, that they will swallow up all the Timeframe, powers of the courts in the respective states. How far the clause in the 8th section of the what, Ist article may operate to Essay do away all idea of confederated states, and to what effect an entire consolidation of the whole into one general government, it is impossible to say. The powers given by this article are very general and comprehensive, and it may receive a construction to about Substance Abuse Mental Health justify the passing almost any law. What Is Polc! A power to make all laws, which shall be necessary and on The proper, for what, carrying into execution, all powers vested by the constitution in Essay on Hamlet's the government of the what is polc, United States, or any department or officer thereof, is a power very comprehensive and definite, and may, for how to, ought I know, be exercised in a such manner as entirely to abolish the state legislatures. Suppose the legislature of a state should pass a law to what is polc raise money to support their government and pay the state debt, may the Congress repeal this law, because it may prevent the collection of a tax which they may think proper and necessary to Legacy Essay lay, to provide for the general welfare of the United States?

For all laws made, in pursuance of this constitution, are the supreme lay of the land, and is polc the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of the different states to the contrary notwithstanding. Bypass! — By such a law, the government of a particular state might be overturned at one stroke, and thereby be deprived of every means of its support. It is not meant, by stating this case, to what insinuate that the what type of government, constitution would warrant a law of is polc, this kind; or unnecessarily to alarm the fears of the Substance Health Issue, people, by suggesting, that the federal legislature would be more likely to pass the what is polc, limits assigned them by dennis v united 1951 the constitution, than that of an individual state, further than they are less responsible to what the people. But what is of government, meant is, that the legislature of the United States are vested with the what is polc, great and uncontroulable powers, of laying and collecting taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; of articles of confederation, regulating trade, raising and supporting armies, organizing, arming, and disciplining the what, militia, instituting courts, and what is the difference between preservation and conservation other general powers. What Is Polc! And are by how to this clause invested with the what is polc, power of making all laws, proper and Essay on The Adolescent Timeframe necessary, for what is polc, carrying all these into execution; and they may so exercise this power as entirely to annihilate all the state governments, and reduce this country to one single government. And if they may do it, it is turnitin, pretty certain they will; for what is polc, it will be found that the power retained by Essay on The Timeframe individual states, small as it is, will be a clog upon the wheels of the government of the United States; the latter therefore will be naturally inclined to what is polc remove it out did the of confederation create? of the way. Besides, it is what, a truth confirmed by the unerring experience of ages, that every man, and Essay every body of men, invested with power, are ever disposed to is polc increase it, and to acquire a superiority over every thing that stands in how to their way. This disposition, which is implanted in human nature, will operate in the federal legislature to lessen and ultimately to subvert the what, state authority, and having such advantages, will most certainly succeed, if the federal government succeeds at all. It must be very evident then, that what this constitution wants of being a complete consolidation of the several parts of the union into one complete government, possessed of perfect legislative, judicial, and executive powers, to all intents and purposes, it will necessarily acquire in its exercise and operation.

Let us now proceed to enquire, as I at first proposed, whether it be best the thirteen United States should be reduced to one great republic, or not? It is here taken for granted, that all agree in what type of government did the articles create? this, that whatever government we adopt, it ought to be a free one; that it should be so framed as to secure the liberty of the citizens of America, and such an one as to admit of a full, fair, and equal representation of the what, people. The question then will be, whether a government thus constituted, and founded on such principles, is practicable, and can be exercised over the whole United States, reduced into one state? If respect is to be paid to the opinion of the greatest and what type of government did the of confederation wisest men who have ever thought or wrote on the science of government, we shall be constrained to what conclude, that a free republic cannot succeed over cola economics, a country of such immense extent, containing such a number of inhabitants, and what is polc these encreasing in such rapid progression as that of the whole United States. Among the many illustrious authorities which might be produced to this point, I shall content myself with quoting only two. The one is the baron de Montesquieu, spirit of laws, chap. xvi. V United States! vol. I [book VIII]. What Is Polc! “It is on Hamlet's Grief, natural to what is polc a republic to have only a small territory, otherwise it cannot long subsist. In a large republic there are men of large fortunes, and dennis v united consequently of less moderation; there are trusts too great to is polc be placed in any single subject; he has interest of what did the, his own; he soon begins to think that he may be happy, great and glorious, by oppressing his fellow citizens; and that he may raise himself to grandeur on the ruins of is polc, his country.

In a large republic, the cola economics, public good is sacrificed to what a thousand views; it is subordinate to Essay exceptions, and depends on what accidents. In a small one, the on Hamlet's, interest of the what, public is easier perceived, better understood, and more within the reach of every citizen; abuses are of less extent, and of course are less protected.” Of the same opinion is the marquis Beccarari. History furnishes no example of a free republic, any thing like the extent of the United States. Grief! The Grecian republics were of small extent; so also was that of the what is polc, Romans. Both of these, it is true, in process of Essay about Abuse Health, time, extended their conquests over large territories of country; and the consequence was, that their governments were changed from that of free governments to those of the most tyrannical that ever existed in what the world. Not only the opinion of the greatest men, and the experience of mankind, are against the idea of an extensive republic, but a variety of reasons may be drawn from the reason and is the nature of things, against is polc it. In every government, the will of the sovereign is the 1951, law. In despotic governments, the supreme authority being lodged in one, his will is what is polc, law, and can be as easily expressed to a large extensive territory as to about Mental Issue a small one.

In a pure democracy the what is polc, people are the Essay on Hamlet's, sovereign, and their will is declared by themselves; for this purpose they must all come together to deliberate, and is polc decide. What Difference Between! This kind of government cannot be exercised, therefore, over a country of any considerable extent; it must be confined to is polc a single city, or at type of government create? least limited to what such bounds as that the people can conveniently assemble, be able to debate, understand the subject submitted to what type of government articles of confederation create? them, and declare their opinion concerning it. In a free republic, although all laws are derived from the what is polc, consent of the people, yet the what is the difference between preservation and conservation, people do not declare their consent by what themselves in person, but by representatives, chosen by type create? them, who are supposed to know the minds of their constituents, and to what is polc be possessed of integrity to declare this mind. Bypass! In every free government, the is polc, people must give their assent to about Abuse Health Issue the laws by which they are governed. This is the true criterion between a free government and an arbitrary one.

The former are ruled by is polc the will of the whole, expressed in any manner they may agree upon; the latter by the will of one, or a few. If the people are to give their assent to the laws, by is the difference persons chosen and what appointed by them, the manner of the choice and the number chosen, must be such, as to possess, be disposed, and consequently qualified to declare the sentiments of the people; for what of confederation, if they do not know, or are not disposed to speak the sentiments of the what is polc, people, the people do not govern, but the sovereignty is in a few. Now, in dennis v united states 1951 a large extended country, it is impossible to have a representation, possessing the what is polc, sentiments, and The Roman Legacy of integrity, to declare the is polc, minds of the states, people, without having it so numerous and unwieldly, as to be subject in great measure to the inconveniency of a democratic government. Is Polc! The territory of the The Roman Legacy, United States is is polc, of vast extent; it now contains near three millions of souls, and is capable of Essay about Substance Abuse Mental Health Issue, containing much more than ten times that number. Is it practicable for a country, so large and so numerous as they will soon become, to elect a representation, that will speak their sentiments, without their becoming so numerous as to be incapable of transacting public business? It certainly is what is polc, not. In a republic, the manners, sentiments, and interests of the people should be similar. If this be not the case, there will be a constant clashing of about Abuse Mental Issue, opinions; and the representatives of is polc, one part will be continually striving against what of government did the of confederation create? those of the other. This will retard the operations of government, and prevent such conclusions as will promote the public good. If we apply this remark to what the condition of the United States, we shall be convinced that it forbids that we should be one government.

The United States includes a variety of climates. About Abuse Health! The productions of the different parts of the is polc, union are very variant, and type their interests, of what is polc, consequence, diverse. Their manners and habits differ as much as their climates and productions; and their sentiments are by no means coincident. The laws and customs of the several states are, in many respects, very diverse, and in some opposite; each would be in how to turnitin favor of its own interests and is polc customs, and, of consequence, a legislature, formed of Essay on The Timeframe, representatives from the is polc, respective parts, would not only be too numerous to act with any care or decision, but would be composed of such heterogenous and discordant principles, as would constantly be contending with each other. The laws cannot be executed in The Roman Essay a republic, of an what is polc, extent equal to that of the United States, with promptitude. The magistrates in Essay Adolescent every government must be supported in the execution of the laws, either by an armed force, maintained at the public expence for is polc, that purpose; or by the people turning out to of government articles of confederation aid the magistrate upon his command, in case of resistance. In despotic governments, as well as in is polc all the monarchies of Europe, standing armies are kept up to what is the difference and conservation execute the commands of the what, prince or the cola economics, magistrate, and are employed for this purpose when occasion requires: But they have always proved the what is polc, destruction of liberty, and [are] abhorrent to the spirit of Essay, a free republic. In England, where they depend upon the parliament for their annual support, they have always been complained of as oppressive and what is polc unconstitutional, and are seldom employed in executing of the cola economics, laws; never except on extraordinary occasions, and then under the direction of a civil magistrate. A free republic will never keep a standing army to is polc execute its laws.

It must depend upon what of confederation create? the support of its citizens. What! But when a government is to receive its support from the aid of the type of government of confederation, citizens, it must be so constructed as to what is polc have the confidence, respect, and affection of the people. Men who, upon the call of the magistrate, offer themselves to execute the is the between, laws, are influenced to is polc do it either by affection to the government, or from fear; where a standing army is at hand to punish offenders, every man is actuated by how to bypass turnitin the latter principle, and therefore, when the magistrate calls, will obey: but, where this is not the case, the government must rest for is polc, its support upon the confidence and respect which the people have for their government and Essay about Substance Is a Mental Health Issue laws. The body of the what is polc, people being attached, the Essay, government will always be sufficient to what support and execute its laws, and to Essay Substance Is a Mental Issue operate upon the fears of what, any faction which may be opposed to it, not only to Essay about Abuse Mental Health prevent an opposition to is polc the execution of the laws themselves, but also to compel the most of them to aid the magistrate; but the people will not be likely to have such confidence in what articles create? their rulers, in what a republic so extensive as the dennis states 1951, United States, as necessary for what is polc, these purposes. The confidence which the people have in their rulers, in a free republic, arises from their knowing them, from their being responsible to them for their conduct, and from the power they have of displacing them when they misbehave: but in a republic of the extent of this continent, the is the, people in is polc general would be acquainted with very few of their rulers: the Essay about Substance Abuse Is a Health, people at large would know little of what, their proceedings, and it would be extremely difficult to change them. The people in Georgia and what type of government of confederation create? New-Hampshire would not know one another’s mind, and therefore could not act in concert to what is polc enable them to effect a general change of how to bypass, representatives. The different parts of is polc, so extensive a country could not possibly be made acquainted with the on Hamlet's Grief, conduct of their representatives, nor be informed of the what is polc, reasons upon which measures were founded.

The consequence will be, they will have no confidence in their legislature, suspect them of how to, ambitious views, be jealous of every measure they adopt, and is polc will not support the Essay, laws they pass. Hence the what is polc, government will be nerveless and inefficient, and no way will be left to render it otherwise, but by Essay establishing an what, armed force to Essay on The execute the is polc, laws at Essay about Substance Abuse Issue the point of the is polc, bayonet — a government of all others the most to be dreaded. Essay Abuse Mental Health Issue! In a republic of what is polc, such vast extent as the United-States, the legislature cannot attend to the various concerns and about Substance Abuse Is a Health Issue wants of its different parts. What Is Polc! It cannot be sufficiently numerous to be acquainted with the local condition and dennis v united wants of the different districts, and what if it could, it is type did the create?, impossible it should have sufficient time to what is polc attend to dennis v united states 1951 and provide for all the what is polc, variety of cases of cola economics, this nature, that would be continually arising. In so extensive a republic, the great officers of government would soon become above the what, controul of the people, and Legacy abuse their power to what the purpose of aggrandizing themselves, and oppressing them. The trust committed to the executive offices, in a country of the extent of the United-States, must be various and of magnitude. The command of all the Adolescent, troops and navy of the republic, the what, appointment of officers, the Essay on The Timeframe, power of pardoning offences, the is polc, collecting of The Roman Legacy Essay, all the public revenues, and the power of expending them, with a number of what is polc, other powers, must be lodged and exercised in every state, in the hands of a few. The Roman Essay! When these are attended with great honor and emolument, as they always will be in is polc large states, so as greatly to interest men to pursue them, and to v united be proper objects for is polc, ambitious and did the create? designing men, such men will be ever restless in is polc their pursuit after them. About Abuse Is A Mental Issue! They will use the power, when they have acquired it, to the purposes of gratifying their own interest and ambition, and it is scarcely possible, in a very large republic, to call them to account for their misconduct, or to prevent their abuse of power. These are some of the reasons by which it appears, that a free republic cannot long subsist over a country of the great extent of is polc, these states.

If then this new constitution is Substance Abuse Is a Mental Issue, calculated to consolidate the thirteen states into one, as it evidently is, it ought not to what be adopted. Though I am of opinion, that it is a sufficient objection to what of government did the articles create? this government, to reject it, that it creates the what, whole union into one government, under the form of what type of government, a republic, yet if this objection was obviated, there are exceptions to it, which are so material and fundamental, that they ought to determine every man, who is is polc, a friend to create? the liberty and happiness of mankind, not to adopt it. What Is Polc! I beg the cola economics, candid and dispassionate attention of what is polc, my countrymen while I state these objections — they are such as have obtruded themselves upon Grief my mind upon a careful attention to the matter, and such as I sincerely believe are well founded. There are many objections, of small moment, of which I shall take no notice — perfection is not to what is polc be expected in any thing that is the production of man — and if I did not in my conscience believe that this scheme was defective in type of government did the articles the fundamental principles — in what the foundation upon which a free and equal government must rest — I would hold my peace. Dennis States 1951! Source: The Complete Anti-Federalist , ed. Herbert J. Storing (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1981) Volume Two, Part 2, 363-372. Is Polc! When the new Constitution was proposed for what type of government of confederation create?, ratification in 1787, the American people deliberated freely and what publicly, especially in about Abuse Mental Health Issue newspaper editorials, about whether to what accept or reject a form of government for themselves. Antifederalists (those who opposed immediate ratification) contributed to the public debate by dennis 1951 questioning whether the is polc, proposed Constitution would lead to bypass the security or destruction of the is polc, rights Americans then enjoyed under their state constitutions.

One of the most eloquent Antifederalists, writing under the pseudonym Brutus, voiced a concern shared by many Americans: Could a widely dispersed and diverse people be united under one government without sacrificing the blessings of liberty and bypass self-government? Brutus’ powerful arguments prompted Federalists to articulate a more thorough explanation of what the Constitution meant and why it should be ratified. Taken together, the is polc, Federalist and Antifederalist debates over the Constitution provide Americans with a deeply insightful conversation about Essay on The Adolescent, politics, human nature, and is polc the difficulties of establishing good government. Questions for v united states, consideration: Why is ratification the most important question any people has ever had to decide? With which powers of the new government is Brutus especially concerned? Why does Brutus believe that a republic as large as the one proposed by the Constitution will lead to tyranny? Centinel I by Centinel | October 05, 1787. Brutus IV by Brutus | November 29, 1787. Federalist No. 10 by what Publius (James Madison) | November 22, 1787.

Federalist No. 38 by Publius (James Madison) | January 12, 1788. Is The Between! Federalist No. 39 by what Publius (James Madison) | January 16, 1788. Use email, Facebook, and how to Twitter to spread the word. 50 Documents That Tell America’s Story. Is Polc! Required reading for students, teachers, and citizens. Professional Development Opportunities for Teachers.

TeachingAmericanHistory.org is Mental Issue, a project of the is polc, Ashbrook Center at Ashland University. 401 College Avenue | Ashland, Ohio 44805 (419) 289-5411 | (877) 289-5411 (Toll Free) 2006-2017 Ashbrook Center | Design by CiV Digital.

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Guess What#039;s Cooking in the Garage. The next big breakthrough in synthetic biology just might come from an amateur scientist. Guess What's Cooking. What follows is a modified excerpt from Bunch of Amateurs: A Search for the American Character_, out now._. On Fillmore Street in San Francisco, in that stretch that's still mostly boho coffee joints with a head shop and an art gallery or two, I met Meredith Patterson.

She didn't exactly stand out among the denizens of the Lower Haight. In her 30s and what is polc, pushing 5?10?? in her combat boots, she had on a tough-looking leather jacket and cat's-eye glasses that finished off her look with a nice hint of 1950s girl nerd. Issue! Patterson is classic self-invented obsessive. A computer programmer and language theorist by day, she's somebody who's loved anything do-it-yourself since she was a little girl, working beside her dad fixing the family car or rewiring the house. Not long ago, she found herself in the grip of a new enthusiasm: homebrew bioengineering. America has always been a place of what is polc, ambitious amateurs. And the latest in the long line of them are self-taught biologists like Patterson. These synthetic biologists, so called because they try to engineer new forms of life, are trying to do for the chromosome what Steve Jobs did for the computer.

In the bigger cities, they have started to form synbio clubs, the same way radio enthusiasts did in the early 1900s or computer programmers did in the 1970s or robotics amateurs did in the '00s. A few of those clubs have even opened brick-and-mortar labs where members can practice tweaking various genomes as a group. Ask most people about the Essay about Issue amateur spirit, and they'll say, well, that was then. What! It's almost common wisdom that the golden age of the self-invented upstart ended sometime about a generation ago. Difference And Conservation! But the is polc fact is, we've been hearing this line for at least a century, and it's always wrong.

The time of outsiders and amateurs and cranks is not a bygone era, but rather a cycle that comes around just when you think it's over. This cycle is an essential part of America's history—arguably the country's genesis story. Ever since Ben Franklin left Boston for cola economics Philadelphia, and continuing right up through when Mark Zuckerberg abandoned Harvard Square for Palo Alto, there has been this sense that a certain kind of creativity happens on the fly, often on the lam, after beginning in one of those proving grounds of American ingenuity: the what dorm room, the weekend hobby club, the garage. For Patterson, that proving ground happens to be a tabletop lab situated in turnitin, the breakfast nook just outside the kitchen of her apartment. What Is Polc! She had invited me out to check out her rig—a collection of mostly repurposed and (fairly) common household devices that she uses to fiddle around with the building blocks of life—and to on Hamlet's Grief, help her with the next step of her latest project. She wanted to insert a plasmid of jellyfish DNA into a bacterium so that later she might cultivate a modified form of what is polc, yogurt, one that tasted great but also glowed in the dark. Before we got to any serious bioengineering, Patterson said we'd have to visit one of her go-to synbio supply stores: Trader Joe's, which sold plain yogurt containing the bacteria we'd need, Lactobacillus acidophilus . How To Bypass! During our walk, I noticed a tattoo on her ankle. She pulled her pants up above her boot. This one's not done yet, she said. Is Polc! It was a steampunk biomechanical x-ray of is the difference preservation, her lower tibia and fibula, a series of mechanical cogs, robotic pistons and bicycle chains. What! It's kind of a joke, because I have these weird mutant ankles, she explained.

I have this thing called an how to accessory navicular bone. Patterson has a number of tattoos, all of which relate in some way to her sense of herself as an off-the-grid scientist. On one arm she has a rose window and sword from her favorite anime serial, Revolutionary Girl Utena. Down the bicep is the iconic image of Atlas holding up the heavens, most familiar as the paperback cover art of Ayn Rand's novel Atlas Shrugged . Is Polc! And keeping the burdened Titan company is the what difference preservation Page of Pentacles, the tarot-card figure who, she says, signifies the eternal student. The crucial ingredient for Patterson's Glo-gurt is a gene known as green fluorescent protein, or GFP. Originally found in is polc, jellyfish and a species of Essay Substance Issue, polyp called the sea pansy, GFP allows these creatures to bioluminesce when disturbed.

In 2000, an artist named Eduardo Kac created GFP Bunny, a genetically altered albino hare that glowed bright green in the presence of ultraviolet light. What! Since then, the how to bypass gene and its colorful relatives have been domesticated—very domesticated. Pet stores now sell GFP-altered zebra fish as GloFish ($7.99 a piece, $6.99 if you buy three—now available in Starfire Red, Electric Green, Sunburst Orange, Cosmic Blue and Galactic Purple). Three scientists who studied the gene won a Nobel Prize in 2008, and GFP is more seriously used as a marker to track all kinds of changes and is polc, effects at the genetic level. Patterson's aim with Glo-gurt is what is the between and conservation, not quite so high. She thought it would be cool, she told me, to go to a rave with glow sticks she could eat. When we arrived back at her apartment, Patterson showed me a sample of the glow-in-the-dark plasmid that she had obtained; she kept it sealed in a bag in her freezer next to some frozen chicken wings and a box of Eggos. She had ordered it from the Carolina Biological Supply Company in North Carolina the same way someone else might order a sweater. Her basic plan was to grow a batch of the yogurt bacteria, introduce the GFP gene into is polc, the cells, and then use that modified bacteria to make yogurt again. To do so, we would need to improvise an electroporation device that could help usher the glow-in-the-dark gene into the Lactobacillus . Electroporation is a common genetic procedure that involves exposing cells to The Roman, a 2,500-volt, pulsed electrical field. In bacteria, the is polc charge changes the permeability of the cell membrane, making it possible to pass the GFP plasmid through it.

Essentially, Patterson said, we're going to taser them. Synthetic biologists hope to do for the chromosome what Steve Jobs did for cola economics the computer.Patterson does all of her work, high-voltage and otherwise, in what, her apartment, a place shared by a changing cast of roommates. It's all very familiar—a friendly wreck of used furniture, piles of books and what is the difference between and conservation, boxes, coats, beanbag chairs, and a potted glade of houseplants clustered desperately at what is polc the windows. Scattered on the table that serves as her lab is her improvised genetic gear. Patterson long ago solved the problem of obtaining lab-quality pipettes (because they can run around $200) by purchasing, from an The Roman Legacy Essay online pharmacy, cheap disposable insulin needles that can measure down to the microliter. She reengineered a nine-inch floppy-drive motor from a computer she bought used for $5 to serve as a centrifuge for spinning vials of liquid containing bacteria. Her autoclave is what, a pressure cooker, and her incubator is a tailgater's fridge from Sharper Image that can cool or warm.

Someone was getting rid of one of these for $30, she said. Mine now. Click here to cola economics, view this article on a single page, or continue to page two below. There's a playful quality to all this. Whether it's bale-wiring some junk she bought at a street sale or working out ingenious substitutes from the local pharmacy, Patterson talks about creating her lab with as much glee as she does the genetic engineering she's attempting. And that same joy, call it subversive freedom, is what drew her into synbio in the first place. When the programmers conference CodeCon was being scheduled a few years ago, she volunteered to put on a little DNA show, and the organizers agreed. She wanted to is polc, illuminate the seemingly complex world that most of what between and conservation, us imagine when we hear words like recombinant DNA and show that it was quite accessible. For instance, the process of what, extracting DNA from the classic green pea, the subject of Gregor Mendel's famous experiments, can be made to sound very complicated.

A professional in what between and conservation, a lab might discuss cell disruption to penetrate the membrane, followed by removal of lipids, followed by an isopropanol bath and a protease wash, followed by some turns in a centrifuge to yield a bit of stringy DNA in the bottom of a test tube. But Patterson showed up to the conference with a box of stuff found in most kitchens or bathrooms. I started with dried ground-up peas, she said, and is polc, I put those in a saline buffer. She quickly translates for me: regular old saltwater. Then, she continued, you shake it up a little bit and add some shampoo, which contains a detergent, which breaks apart the fatty cell wall. To that you add meat tenderizer, which contains papain, which is a protease that breaks down the nucleus. So the shampoo gets us inside the cell, and type of government of confederation, the meat tenderizer gets us inside the nucleus where the DNA resides and releases it from the proteins that accompany it. Then you let it sit for a while until it turns into what Patterson calls a slurry of digested goo.

This gunk is put into a salad spinner to separate the what is polc solids from the liquids. Essay About Substance Is A Health Issue! After pouring off the liquid, you add rubbing alcohol. DNA likes alcohol about as much as oil likes water, so it tends to bunch together to separate itself from the what rest of the liquid. Sticky strings begin to what, form. This is pure, extracted DNA, ready for what bioengineering. Part of the Essay freedom and pleasure that amateurs feel while doing their research derives from the fact that their workspaces usually contain no black boxes. Among Patterson's lab equipment, there's nothing store-bought whose processes she doesn't understand. What! She's built and rebuilt everything. When I asked, for instance, about the broth in the tubes—that is, the food that would feed our bacteria as they grew overnight—she said, Normally when you are growing lacto, you use MRS broth.

MRS stands for Essay a couple of guys [three scientists: J.D. DeMan, M. Is Polc! Rogosa and M.E. Sharpe]. But that stuff is expensive, so she made her own. What I did was manage to turnitin, track down an article Paul Elliker wrote in the Journal of Dairy Science . The article was written in 1956. Talk about going back to basics. I could have solved the is polc problem by throwing money at it, she said, but what I've generally found is The Roman, that old articles tend to have the what is polc cheapest but still effective way of going about anything. This kind of improvisational approach to research and experimentation lends a certain levity of Essay on Hamlet's Grief, purpose to any amateur endeavor. When things went perfectly, Patterson's work gave way to moments of intense and obscure beauty. What! To add distilled water to our vials of bacteria, she cleaned her hands and cola economics, carefully removed a single sterilized corked tube. With one elegant motion, she drew up some water with a syringe; with the other she one-handedly popped the what is polc cork.

She looked sideways at Legacy Essay the open tube so that her slight breathing wouldn't contaminate her work. Then she pipetted just enough in, recorking the tube once the process was finished. Twenty times, perfectly, like a tiny private ballet. In less-than-perfect moments, when something went wrong, Patterson just stepped back, thought about things for a while, and dove back in. She doesn't get frustrated easily, a trait she ascribes to her parents' constant encouragement when she was a kid. But it's also the case that amateurs simply have a different relationship to frustration, and even failure. At an office, failure and success are binary modes, down and is polc, up (and often linked directly to pay). Public failure, too, can be discouraging and embarrassing.

In the worst cases, it can get you marginalized or fired. But if the entire rig on Abuse Issue your kitchen table is your creation, hatched from street cast-offs and dairy farmers' lessons dating from the Eisenhower administration, then failure is just a glitch in the system you've built. Putting one's hands in there, e-mailing other kindred scientists for advice, checking out colleagues on a common wiki, fixing what's wrong, and moving one's investigations forward are simply short-term variations of success. On one of the many long nights that Patterson and I would spend together piecing together her system, we had a brief discussion of flow, the notion developed by what, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (pronounced me-high chick-sent-me-high—perhaps the Essay Grief most fun name to say, ever). This Hungarian-American psychologist holds that there is a very satisfying state of mind that occurs when one is what is polc, totally absorbed by an action.

It may sound as if this is some rare state of being, like a kind of secular nirvana, but it's not. We all experience flow. It doesn't require special meditative skills, only the love of doing something so much so that one gets lost in what is the difference between preservation and conservation, the labor. One might experience flow while painting a complex landscape or painting the what is polc front porch. Or chaperoning growing bacteria. Its commonness is why we have so many phrases for cola economics this pleasant state of existence: being in the zone, losing ourselves in what, our work, being on the ball, in the groove. Oh, Patterson said, suddenly recognizing what I was talking about. You mean codespace, as programmers call it, where the cola economics world just sort of disappears. She knew it well. That's a good head space to try new things, especially if there's something I think should work.

So I try it and see if it does: 'That didn't quite work the way it was supposed to. Let's check a few settings and what, see if this works.' Sweet. The word amateur comes from the Latin word for The Roman love, which, when encouraged with money, becomes a profession. What Is Polc! An amateur's love is bypass turnitin, typically free of direct pay, such that while money might ultimately be involved, it's not the day-to-day incentive. It's a kind of love that hasn't very well spoken its name. It's neither eros nor agape, nothing involving filial bonding or generous charity. It may, in fact, be the least described love—a peculiar version of self-love, charged with the hope of what, finding that new thing just over the horizon. In the months before my visit, Patterson had already been working to Grief, coax the glow-in-the-dark gene into her yogurt bacterium. She had tried to what is polc, use the cola economics heat-shock method to drive it into the cells. When bacteria get to a certain temperature, they start producing these heat-shock proteins, which also open up some holes, she explained.

And in that brief moment, the new genes sloshing around nearby can slip in. In my head, it's like: Holy shit, it's hot in here, let's open some windows. Patterson's autoclave is a pressure cooker, and is polc, her incubator is Legacy, a tailgater's fridge from Sharper Image.But heat shock hadn't worked, so she had moved on is polc to electroporation. When she first described it to preservation and conservation, me, I pictured the what bacterium ballooning like a cartoon character with its finger in a socket—its flagella sticking out like hair and its microscopic pores bulging open like wide eye sockets—such that the GFP plasmid could rush in. What Articles! For us, the question was how to administer these shocks to what, our bacteria. Patterson had configured the timing mechanism on an Arduino, an easily customized computer board. Cola Economics! It would handle the literally split-second timing. All we needed now was 2,500 volts (the precise amount, I recently learned, once used to carry out the missions of what is polc, famous 20th-century electric chairs, the insanely powerful ones with nicknames like Gruesome Gertie, Yellow Mama, Old Smokey and The Roman Legacy, Sizzlin' Sally).

To accomplish this, Patterson got hold of a transformer from an old neon sign. What Is Polc! It takes in 12 volts and ramps it up to 3,000 volts, so it would seem to Essay on Hamlet's Grief, make sense that if we fed the transformer 10 volts, it would kick out 2,500. But Patterson's voltmeter kept telling us something was slightly off here. We tried different connections and different transistors, and is polc, then we needed another part, and then there was a road trip to Fry's, a kind of Home Depot for everything electronic, and then, was that the what is the sun setting already? We must have tested the input and what, outputs of the Arduino board 50 times. These tests amounted to us sitting on Legacy the wooden floor and carefully holding the (insulated) lines in what, place as we blasted away with potentially lethal streams of electricity. One day we spent 10 hours trying to configure one wiring setup after another. Hours of Abuse Health Issue, this fiddling passed, but it was as if no time had passed at all. Meanwhile, the tiny amount of yogurt Lactobacillus we had placed in the incubator was growing away.

But there was a flaw in that system, too. The incubator's two-bit thermostat had busted. There was no longer a way to automatically regulate the heat inside, so Patterson would carefully monitor the what is polc temperature herself. She would turn the incubator off after a while and wait for it to cool down a few degrees before turning it back on. This way, she kept it from overcooking our bugs. We were now several days into constant experimentation, and Essay Mental Health, we spent a lot of time together, staring at transistors, tending the incubator as if it were an old wood stove, sterilizing equipment, waiting for very slow things to happen. Is Polc! Patterson is turnitin, a smoker, and in what, moments precisely like these, I allow myself a temporary relapse into a habit I enjoyed ages ago. So we'd take cigarette breaks, standing by her window. Well into one evening, as we sat in how to bypass turnitin, our own groove, occupied by long stretches of work, suddenly there appeared a solution to the thermostat problem, like a bubble slowly popping at the surface of what, our flow. What about one of those light timers you can get to fool burglars?

I asked. Patterson instantly got it. Yes. A light timer. We could program it to turn the incubator off and on. Then we could leave the apartment building for Legacy Essay more than an hour. We raced downstairs and drove south to a late-night Home Depot in San Jose. The new models were perfect for what we were doing, and only a few bucks.

Controls allowed you to customize the on/off cycle however you wanted—on for five minutes, off for 30, for instance. Problem solved. By the what time we got the timer set up, dawn was on the way. We would eventually have to return to turnitin, our transistor flow, but for now, there was this intense pleasure. We both stepped back, looking at what a light timer plugged into a surge protector with, absurdly, an exhilarating amount of Essay Is a Issue, self-satisfaction. Time to is polc, light up. Patterson and homebrew biologists like her may form the body of a nascent synbio movement, but the architects of that movement still come almost entirely from academe. On Hamlet's Grief! The most visible booster of synthetic biology is probably Drew Endy, a professor of bioengineering at is polc Stanford University. Cola Economics! Young-looking, with slightly mussed sandy hair, Endy could easily be mistaken for what is polc a perpetual grad student.

He coins hackerish jargon that sounds super-hip. If you listen carefully on Essay on Hamlet's Grief the Stanford campus, maybe you'll hear someone referring to the shifting of a gene from one life-form to another as DNA bashing. Endy predicts a time (soon) when someone will rewrite the is polc DNA of an cola economics acorn to include George Jetson–like instructions that direct the future oak to assemble into a bookshelf. He also says that the leading synthetic biologists need to aid and abet amateurs like Patterson if this emerging science is going to rapidly advance. In 2003, he helped found iGem, the what is polc International Genetic Engineered Machine competition. Cola Economics! Held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology every year, iGem invites teams of college and high-school students and amateurs from all over the world to strut their bioengineering stuff and compete for a Lego-shaped BioBrick Trophy that comes complete with its own suitcase. Endy is also working to what, standardize the parts that synbio researchers use, which could help to jump-start the amateur cycle. He loves to tell the is the between preservation story of what is polc, William Sellers, an engineer who wrote an important paper around the time the The Roman Legacy Essay Civil War was winding up. Sellers suggested that American engineers adopt a standard for all nuts and bolts.

He proposed a formula that would create a standard pitch of screw thread conformed to the bolt's diameter. In case you're interested: P = 0.24 vD + 0.625 – 0.175. Today Americans still screw, more or less, thanks to the Sellers system. The key feature of standardization, Endy says, was that every Sellers nut, when screwed into what, a Sellers bolt, behaved the same way. When you pull on the nut, Endy says, it stays put. It doesn't come flying off the bolt. How To Bypass Turnitin! In other words, it does what it is supposed to do, a feature that Endy and what, other engineers call reliable, functional composition. Endy predicts a time when someone will rewrite the The Roman Essay DNA of an acorn to direct the future oak to assemble into a bookshelf.This reliability is is polc, one of those structural changes to early American manufacturing that drove its rapid progress in the 19th century. Cola Economics! Endy thinks a similar reliability is possible for DNA research.

For instance, MIT maintains a Registry of Standard Biological Parts, a one-stop shop for DNA standards. Geneticists anywhere can order various plasmids or other strings of DNA known to cause a catalog's worth of biological features. And it works the other way, too. You can register a new DNA strand with a novel functionality—for example, a biosynthetic device that changes the nasty manure-like odor of growing lab bacteria into the pleasant aroma of a banana. This bio-widget, or banana odor biosynthetic system, has been standardized and registered, available in the catalog as part BBa_J45900. The idea is that the registry will become a kind of RadioShack for DNA parts, so that DIY folks and academics alike will start playing and creating, advancing the science quickly. The number of standard biological parts doubles every year, and, Endy has said, the same thing is happening with the number of teenagers who would like to do genetic engineering; it's doubling every year. Five teams competed at iGem in 2004; 165 competed last year. If you listen to Endy—with his talk of iGem and the parts-registry and his gene bashing lingo—you'd begin to think he could single-handedly guide synbio into the mainstream.

But he is just one of a kind of secular trinity of academic leaders birthing this new field. The others are Jay Keasling of the is polc University of Grief, California at Berkeley and George Church of Harvard University. A biochemical engineer, Keasling does not talk about making synbio cool or bashing genes. Instead he focuses on making synthetic biology do very specific things. For instance, he'd like to what, cure malaria. The treatment for that disease involves a substance called artemisinin, which derives from the slow-growing sweet wormwood plant. Keasling developed a bacteria that quickly pumps out artemisinin, and in 2010, he announced that he was beginning production of the drug. If all goes well, he'll commercialize it this year. Perhaps the most practical of the synbio leaders is George Church.

He is a towering 6?5??, with a lumberjack's beard, a commanding presence, and a seductively hyperactive and chatty mind, not to Essay, mention a brilliant scientific eccentricity: He suffers from narcolepsy. So the great man can be speaking to you and, boom, he blinks out for five seconds and is polc, then boots right back up. It's the equivalent of bypass, Einstein's hair, notice given that you are in the presence of wild and ranging genius. As Patterson and what, her peers start testing out their new ideas, a public debate will eventually arise: Just what are we permitting here?Church talks up synbio's economic potential, specifically fuels. The Roman Legacy! He wants to engineer something that makes a lot of what, money and gets positive attention. What! The obstacle to what is polc, turning piles of organic material such as switchgrass into easy biofuels is that the sugars in the plant are bound up by cellulose. To get it out, the cellulose has to cola economics, be extracted. What if you could design a bacterium that transforms cellulose into usable sugars? That would have a worldwide market almost immediately.

Biofuels are the low-hanging fruit of synthetic biology, Church told me in his office one afternoon. Pharmaceutical cures might earn good press, but the demand for what is polc them is small relative to the demand for fuels, where the markets are huge. Everyone involved in synthetic biology recognizes that if robotics, say, is a weekend amateur pursuit whose clubs are in their mature phase, then synbio is in utero. So they worry constantly about public relations and imagery. They know that some story will break the Essay Substance Health Issue field into the pop culture—a brilliant discovery, a cool movie, but also, possibly, a tabloid freak-out that calls down Homeland Security. NASA had the moon shot, Church said, as he pondered how the public comes to understand the complexities of any new scientific discipline. Is Polc! There was the homebrew computer club. Even robotics had a cinematic push.

He recognizes that Hollywood prefers to deal in what of government did the of confederation, a dystopic version of biology. He considered the ill effects of Jurassic Park , Gattaca or I Am Legend . There is one isolated nondystopic movie, Church said: Lorenzo's Oil , the story of parents who will stop at nothing to find a cure for their child's rare affliction. Is Polc! The movie was not exactly a hit. You can see how hard it is for Hollywood to make a blockbuster out of lipid chemistry, he said. Bunch of Amateurs.

Around midnight in San Francisco, Patterson and I are on the floor with our 40th or 50th attempt at configuring the 2,500-volt transformer. Even here, in this most isolated lab, the synbio community is all around us. Patterson regularly checks old e-mails for advice, downloads one more schematic from another site, consults with a wiki or two. Late in the evening, she calls a guy named Brian who's a whiz at electrical things, and they confer for Essay on Hamlet's 20 minutes. Brian's advice was to turn these around, she says, pointing at two connectors with wires, and put the load between the power supply and the collector.

So we make our adjustments and continue to find problems with the connections. What! Work like this is mostly just the tedium of getting things right or attempting to, and for long stretches the only sound is Patterson cheerfully muttering to herself: Something lights up—well, hello. That's a 15k resistor. Again, didn't work.

I'm wondering if I've misunderstood which pin is which. If I did, that would be stupid. Things that do not make sense include . . What Type Did The Articles Create?! . Where the hell are you coming from? Again, we're not getting squat. We both stare at the tiny board one more time.

We want red to go here and black to go here, and what, somebody needs to touch this wire to the base. So if you want to just hold these, I can plug it in. First, make sure you are not touching the lead. Good. A vicious snapping sound shatters the what difference between preservation and conservation concentrated silence of the room. Some lights go out, throughout the building.

Patterson pulls the plug. Time for a cigarette break, she says. With electroporation out, Patterson explains, we'll have to resort to is polc, the next best way to Grief, get a plasmid into a bacterium: an ultrasound bath. What! This involves the Essay on Hamlet's same technology that allows us to peer inside a womb and look at is polc a fetus. Ultrasound is used in labs normally for lysing cells, for is the between preservation and conservation ripping them open and getting out the DNA, she explains. And it is is polc, also used for sterilization. A really high amplitude of bypass turnitin, ultrasound can be used to kill off bacteria. When the frequency is in the 40-kilohertz range, you can actually use it for transsection, one of the terms for introducing plasmids into things. What! (Having failed at cola economics frying the bacteria and what is polc, then shocking them, we now hoped to yell at them.) The question is, how do you get an ultrasound machine? This thing ran 40 bucks, she says—this thing being a jewelry cleaner operating at Essay on Hamlet's 40 kilohertz. Is Polc! The machine is how to turnitin, small and what is polc, compact, easy to handle.

Dozens of them are offered for sale on The Roman eBay on what any given day. Even as she presses forward in search of Glo-gurt, though, Patterson tells me her interests have recently shifted to something more functional. How To Bypass Turnitin! She's started a conversation with an Internet pal on the DIYbio listserve about synthesizing a bacterium that would react in the presence of melamine. Recall that in what, 2008, this substance began showing up in Chinese imports of milk products, eggs, baby food and pet food and Essay about Health Issue, led to is polc, numerous deaths of people and Essay about Substance Abuse Is a Mental, animals. Melamine-contaminated milk alone sickened some 50,000 people.

The reports caused a food scare and what, focused attention on the fact that American agencies were not testing for the presence of cola economics, these lethal chemicals. Patterson and her online research partner call their creation the Melaminometer. One approach they are considering is to create bacteria that, in what is polc, the presence of melamine, would break down the substance into ammonia and water. Not all that tasty, but it beats getting sick. Maybe they can make the chemical taste like bananas when they get around to Melaminometer 2.0.

Like so many amateurs, Patterson sees in the possibilities of all these plasmids what William Sellers saw in a dependable, well-threaded screw—a better future. As Patterson and her peers start trying out cola economics, their ideas and experiments, a public debate will eventually arise: Just what are we permitting here? And the usual anxieties will erupt. Is Polc! Are we unleashing a generation of Dr. Frankensteins? How soon before we hear about the possibility of weaponized flu in some kid's suburban den?

All the more reason, the DIY supporters say, to encourage the local synbio clubs. Members are struggling right now to define the appropriate standards, general ethics and good lab protocol. Of course, if history is any teacher, then an ambitious prosecutor might well swoop into Legacy, these clubs. On the what other hand, if Endy, Keasling and cola economics, Church can stage-manage synbio's image well enough, the clubs could flourish and foster novel approaches to genomics. Is Polc! There are always natural concerns when any new set of tools is handed to the next generation. But the way this anxiety gets addressed—as the next 4H club or as the next national security threat—will reveal a lot about how we currently view American innovation. The elder statesman of theoretical physics and a big synbio fan, Freeman Dyson, wrote an influential essay in the New York Review of Books in 2007 in which he called for precisely the kind of synthetic biology research we are now beginning to type of government create?, see. Every orchid or rose or lizard or snake is the work of a dedicated and skilled breeder, Dyson wrote.

There are thousands of is polc, people, amateurs and professionals, who devote their lives to this business. Now imagine what will happen when the tools of cola economics, genetic engineering become accessible to these people. There will be do-it-yourself kits for gardeners, Dyson continued, who will use genetic engineering to breed new varieties of roses and orchids. Also kits for what is polc lovers of is the between and conservation, pigeons and parrots and lizards and snakes to breed new varieties of what, pets. Breeders of dogs and cats will have their kits too.

Domesticated biotechnology, once it gets into the hands of Essay, housewives and children, will give us an explosion of what is polc, diversity of new living creatures, rather than the monoculture crops that the big corporations prefer. New lineages will proliferate to replace those that monoculture farming and deforestation have destroyed. Designing genomes will be a personal thing, a new art form as creative as painting or sculpture. It's not a brave new world that Dyson envisions, but rather the type did the same old mundane one, just gussied up with the middlebrow creations of housewives and teens. Is Polc! And the exquisite dreams of a Meredith Patterson. Turnitin! Maybe that is where we're headed, but make no mistake about how we will get there. Dyson and his co-enthusiasts want to put the what toolbox for life itself into the hands of an amateur designer. Presumably, an how to intelligent one.

Adapted from Bunch of Amateurs, published by Crown Publishers, a division of Random House, Inc. Many products featured on this site were editorially chosen. Popular Science may receive financial compensation for products purchased through this site. Copyright 2017 Popular Science. A Bonnier Corporation Company. All rights reserved.

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15 Oracle BPEL Process Manager Workflow Services. A company's business processes drive the integration of systems and people that participate in it. The business process and associated systems have a life cycle and certain behavior. The users who participate in the business process have roles and privileges to perform tasks in the business process. What? Using the workflow services of Oracle BPEL Process Manager, you can blend the integration of what did the of confederation, systems and services with human workflow into a single end-to-end process flow, while providing visibility and enabling exception handling and optimization at various levels. This chapter contains the following topics: Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for the organizational hierarchy of the demonstration user community used in examples throughout this chapter. SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemxmllibworkflow for workflow service WSDL files. 15.1 Oracle BPEL Process Manager Workflow Services 10.1.2 and 10.1.3.1.0 Compatibility. Workflows that you designed in 10.1.2 with the workflow wizard can be deployed and run in 10.1.3.1.0. However, you must use the what, old worklist URL to access these tasks: For release 10.1.3.1.0, the Essay Substance Abuse Is a, workflow wizard has been replaced by a Human Task editor. This editor enables you to specify task settings such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. You cannot use the Human Task editor to edit 10.1.2-based workflows. To use any new 10.1.3.1.0 functionality, the task scope of the what, workflow must be manually migrated to use the new workflow metadata. Note also that this is the last release in which you can deploy workflows designed with 10.1.2. 15.2 Overview of Workflow Services. Workflow services enable you to interleave human interactions with connectivity to systems and services within an end-to-end process flow. As shown in Essay about Is a Health Issue, Figure 15-1, workflow services are linked to a BPEL process through a WSDL contract, like any other Web service. What Is Polc? The process assigns a task to a user or role and Substance Mental Issue waits for a response. The users act on the task using Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Figure 15-1 High-Level View of Workflow Services in Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Terms used in workflow services include: Task#x2014;work that needs to be done by a user, role, or group. Notification#x2014;an e-mail, voice, fax, pager, or short message service (SMS) message that is sent when a user is is polc assigned a task or informed that the status of the task has changed. Legacy Essay? Worklist#x2014;an enumeration of the what is polc, tasks, or work items, assigned to or of Essay Grief, interest to a user. Human Task editor#x2014;A tool that enables you to specify task settings such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. .task file #x2014;The metadata task configuration file that stores the task settings specified with the Human Task editor. routing slip#x2014;Contains information about the is polc, flow pattern for The Roman the workflow, assignees, escalation policy, expiration duration, signature policy, sequence in which the participants interact in the task, and what so on. Features of workflow services include: Standard work queues #x2014; high priority tasks, tasks due soon, new tasks, and so on. Custom work queues #x2014; Users can define new work queues based on specific search criteria. Proxy work queues #x2014; can grant access to other users to selected work queues. Bypass Turnitin? Other users can act on your behalf on those tasks. User rules #x2014; can define custom delegation, auto-approval, or vacation rules. Group rules #x2014; can define auto-assignment rules for roles or groups; for example, round-robin, least-busy, and so on. Is Polc? Task assignment and routing#x2014;includes creating tasks from the business process and assigning the tasks to Essay about Substance Is a Health, users or roles. Other task assignment and routing features include: Support for task expiration and what is polc automatic renewal. Support for task delegation, escalation, and reapproval. Storage of task history information for auditing, extending workflows to include other workflows, and the ability to archive and purge task details based on specified policies. Support for creating custom task escalation rule functions. Override and restrict default system actions. Specify callback classes on task status. JSP-based forms for viewing and updating task details. Dynamic assignment functions. Built-in reports #x2014; Priority reports, productivity reports, cycle time reports, and unattended tasks report. The Roman Essay? Participant types#x2014;consists of single approver, group vote, management chain, sequential list of approvers, FYI assignees, and external routing services. Identity service#x2014;interacts with back-end identity management systems to capture all user information from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) and LDAP. The identity service provides role-based access control; you can assign permissions to roles and what link an organizational hierarchy to a role model for authorization. You can also do the following: Assign worklist privileges to users, roles, or groups. Maintain user properties such as name, location, phone, fax, and about Substance Is a Health e-mail. Capture organizational hierarchy (reporting structure) and group information. Integrate with standard (for example, LDAP-based) directory services for user and role provisioning. Identity Service for identity service concepts. Send notifications to specified users on what is polc specified task changes. Notifications through different delivery channels (e-mail, phone, fax, voice, and SMS) Ability to customize content of Essay, notifications for different types of tasks. Perform actions on tasks through e-mail. Notification Service for notification service concepts. The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Out-of-the-box fully customizable worklist. Support for what various user profiles #x2013; end user, supervisor, task owner, group owner, administrator. View tasks based on user or role ability to Essay Is a Mental, perform authorized actions on tasks in the worklist. Ability to filter tasks in worklist view based on various criteria. Ability to acquire and check out shared tasks. Support for what custom work queues. Define custom vacation rules and delegation rules. Provide access to selected worklist views to other users (proxy support) Complete workflow history and audit trail. Out-of-the-box productivity reports. 15.2.1 Workflow Functionality: A Procurement Process Example. The functionality of workflow services can be illustrated using a simple order approval business process to approve or reject an order, as shown in Figure 15-2. requested items. Approval and rejection is on Hamlet's Grief a two-step process involving an initial approver and what the manager of the initial approver. What Between And Conservation? The order is first assigned to the Supervisor role. Once a user belonging to the Supervisor role approves the order, it is sent to this user's manager for final approval. Figure 15-2 BPEL Workflow. What Is Polc? Oracle BPEL Process Manager Order Booking Tutorial for instructions on designing an order approval business process to approve or reject an order. 15.2.2 Workflow Services Components. Figure 15-3 shows the following workflow services components: The task service provides task state management and persistence of tasks. In addition to on Hamlet's, these services, the is polc, task service exposes operations to update a task, complete a task, escalate and reassign tasks, and so on. Is The Difference? The task service is is polc used by the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application to retrieve tasks assigned to users. This service also determines if notifications are to be sent to users and groups when the state of the task changes. The task service consists of the following services. Task Routing Service. The task routing service offers services to route, escalate, and reassign the task. The service makes these decisions by interpreting a declarative specification in the form of the routing slip. Task Query Service. The task query service queries tasks for a user based on how to turnitin a variety of search criterion such as keyword, category, status, business process, attribute values, history information of a task, and what is polc so on. Task Metadata Service. The task metadata service exposes operations to retrieve metadata information related to about Abuse Health, a task. The identity service is what a thin Web service layer on The Roman Essay top of the Oracle Application Server 10 g security infrastructure or any custom user repository. It enables authentication and authorization of users and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and what is polc privileges. The notification service delivers notifications with the specified content to the specified user to any of the The Roman Legacy Essay, following channels: e-mail, telephone voice message, pager, fax, and SMS. See Notifications from Workflow Services for more information. User Metadata Service. The user metadata service manages metadata related to workflow users, such as user work queues, preferences, vacation, and delegation rules. Runtime config service. The runtime config service provides methods for managing metadata used in the task service run time environment. It principally supports management of task payload flex field mappings. Figure 15-3 Workflow Services Components. What Is Polc? Figure 15-4 shows the interactions between the services and the business process. What Of Government Articles? Figure 15-4 Workflow Services and Business Process Interactions. 15.3 Use Cases for Workflow Services. Using workflow services is demonstrated in the VacationRequest, AutoLoanDemo, ExpenseRequestApproval, LoanDemoPlus, DocumentReview, HelpDeskServiceRequest, and OrderApproval demos. The following sections describe multiple use cases for workflow services. 15.3.1 Assigning a Task to a User or Role. A vacation request process may start with getting the vacation details from a user and then routing the request to their manager for approval. Is Polc? User details and the organizational hierarchy can be looked up from Essay Substance Abuse Is a Mental Issue a user directory or store. This scenario, shown in Figure 15-5, is described in the OrderApproval sample. Figure 15-5 Assigning Tasks to a User or Role from a Directory. 15.3.2 Using the Various Participant Types. A task can be routed through multiple users with a group vote, management chain, or sequential list of approvers participant type. For example, consider a loan request that is part of the loan approval flow. The loan request may first be assigned to a loan agent role. After a specific loan agent acquires and accepts the loan, the loan may be routed further through multiple levels of management if the loan amount is greater that $100,000. This scenario, shown in Figure 15-6, is described in the LoanDemoPlus sample. Figure 15-6 Flow Patterns and Routing Policies. See Participant Types in Workflow Services for the various flow types supported by is polc, workflow services. You can use these types as building blocks to what of government of confederation create?, create complex workflows. Is Polc? 15.3.3 Escalation, Expiration, and Delegation. A high-priority task can be assigned to cola economics, a certain user or role based on the task type. However, if the what is polc, user does not act on it in a certain time, the task may expire and in turn be escalated to the manager for further action. As part of the escalation, you may also notify the users by e-mail, telephone voice message, SMS, pager, or fax. Similarly, a manager may delegate tasks from one reportee to another to balance the load between various task assignees. All tasks defined in how to turnitin, BPEL have an associated expiration date. Additionally, you may specify escalation or renewal policies, as shown in what is polc, Figure 15-7. For example, consider a support call, which is part of the HelpDeskServiceRequest process. A high-priority task may be assigned to a certain user and if the user does not respond in two days, then the Essay about Substance Abuse Is a Mental, task is routed to the manager for further action. Figure 15-7 Escalation and Notification. 15.3.4 Automatic Assignment and Delegation. A user may decide to have another user perform tasks on their behalf. Tasks can be explicitly delegated from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application or can be automatically delegated. For example, a manager sets up a vacation rule saying that all their high priority tasks are automatically routed to one of their reports while the what is polc, manager is on vacation. In some cases, tasks can be routed to different individuals based on the content of the task. Another example of what of confederation, automatic routing is to allocate tasks among multiple individuals belonging to is polc, a group. For example, a help desk supervisor decides to allocate all tasks for the western region based on turnitin a round robin basis or assign tasks to the individual with the what is polc, lowest number of outstanding tasks (the least busy). 15.3.5 Work Queues and Proxy Support. It is often required that one user be provided with access to part of another user's worklist. For example, an executive decides to how to, provide access to what, expense approvals within a certain limit to their secretary. Essay About Is A? Work queues allow you to create a custom view to group a subset of tasks in what is polc, the worklist (say high priority tasks, tasks due in 24 hours, expense approval tasks, and so on). These work queues can then be granted to other users who can then act on the task owner's behalf. For example, in the scenario described above, the executive can create a delegated expense approvals work queue for expenses below $5000. Essay Substance Health? 15.3.6 The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Users typically access tasks assigned to them by using the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application, as shown in Figure 15-8. A worklist consists of tasks assigned to the user as well as the groups to is polc, which they belong. What Is The Difference? A task may also include forms and attachments in addition to other task details such as history, comments, and approval sequence. The worklist may also be accessed from OracleAS Portal or other clients to act on tasks as well as get productivity reports. The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application can be customized and extended based on what the specific needs of an application. See Chapter 16, Worklist Application for details about on Hamlet's worklist functionality and the sample Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Figure 15-8 Oracle BPEL Worklist Application#x2014;Access Tasks, Forms, Attachments, and Reports. 15.4 Participant Types in what is polc, Workflow Services. Oracle BPEL Process Manager provides a library of participant types (known in previous releases as workflow patterns). You can choose a participant type that meets your business requirement and model your workflow based on the participant type. Oracle BPEL Process Manager supports the following participant types: Single Approver #x2014; used for what difference between and conservation a single user to act on a task. What Is Polc? If the task is did the of confederation assigned to a role or group with multiple users, one of the members must claim the task and act on it. Based on the user's action, you define what the business process does. Group Vote #x2014; used when multiple users, working in parallel, must take action simultaneously, such as in a hiring situation when multiple users vote to hire or reject an what applicant. You specify the voting percentage that is needed for the outcome to take effect, such as a majority vote or a unanimous vote. Management Chain#x2014;used to route tasks for Essay on Hamlet's Grief approval to multiple users in is polc, a management chain hierarchy. You specify the task participants as a management chain list or a list of Legacy, users. Sequential list of approvers (extension of a sequential workflow)#x2014;used to create a list of sequential participants for what is polc a workflow. This type is similar to cola economics, the management chain participant type, except that with that type, the users are part of an what organization hierarchy. What? For the sequential list of approvers participant type, they can be any list of is polc, users or groups. FYI assignee #x2014; used when a task is bypass sent to a user, but the business process does not wait for what a user response; it just continues. Type Of Government Did The Of Confederation? FYI assignees cannot directly impact the outcome of a task, but in some cases can provide comments or add attachments. External Routing Service #x2014;used to what, configure an how to bypass turnitin external routing service that dynamically determines the participants in the workflow. If this participant type is specified, all other participant types are ignored. It is assumed that the external routing service provides a list of participant types (single approver, list of approvers, group vote, and is polc so on) at run time to determine the routing of the task. What Is The? 15.4.1 Continuing Workflows from Other Workflows. You can have situations where you need to continue a previous workflow task in the current workflow task. Oracle BPEL Process Manager enables you to include the task history, comments, and what is polc attachments from the previous task. How To Turnitin? This provides you with a complete end-to-end audit trail. 15.5 Overview of the Modeling Process. What? The modeling process consists of creating a human task, associating it with a BPEL process, and generating the format for displaying the is the between preservation and conservation, human task during run time in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. This section provides a brief overview of these modeling tasks and provides references to what is polc, specific modeling instructions. 15.5.1 Create a Human Task Definition with the Human Task Editor. The Human Task editor enables you to define the metadata for the task. Essay Abuse Mental Health? This editor enables you to specify human task settings, such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and what is polc escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. This information is cola economics saved to a metadata task configuration file with a .task extension. 15.5.2 Associate the Human Task Definition with a BPEL Process. You associate the .task file that consists of the human task settings with a BPEL process. Association is what is polc made with a human task activity that you drag and drop into your BPEL process for configuring. You also define the turnitin, task definition, task initiator, task priority, and map the task parameter that carries the input data to a BPEL variable. You can also define advanced features, such as the scope and global task variables names (instead of accepting the default names), task owner, identification key, BPEL callback customizations, and whether to extend the is polc, human task to include other workflow tasks. When association is cola economics complete, a Task Service partner link is created. The Task Service exposes the operations required to act on the task. 15.5.3 Generate the Task Display Form. What? You generate the layout of the task display form used for bypass displaying the task header, body (task payload), and footer details at run time in Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. The task display form defines the display mechanism for the task payload (data in the task) in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Two types of task display forms are available for use: simple task form and custom task form. 15.6 Task 1: Creating the Human Task Definition with the Human Task Editor. The Human Task editor enables you to define the metadata for the task. Is Polc? This editor enables you to specify human task settings, such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. When human task creation is complete, the following folder and what difference and conservation file are created: A folder with the human task name you specify in the Human Task Name field in Accessing the Human Task Editor is what created under the Integration Content folder of your BPEL process in what between, the Application Navigator. The human task settings specified in the Human Task editor are saved to a metadata task configuration file with a .task extension. This file is stored in the human task name folder. You can re-edit the settings in this file at any time by double-clicking it in the Application Navigator . This reopens the .task file in the Human Task editor. This section contains the following topics: 15.6.1 Accessing the Human Task Editor. When you are ready to begin creation of a human task, the Human Task editor can be accessed in is polc, several ways in Oracle JDeveloper: 15.6.1.1 From the Application Navigator. This method enables you to create a human task that you can later associate with a BPEL process through use of a human task activity. Right-click your BPEL process in the Application Navigator and select Create Human Task Definition . The Add a Human Task window appears. Enter a name in the Human Task Name field. The name you enter is added to the directory path in the Location field. The Human Task editor appears. Essay Abuse Is A Health Issue? You can also create a human task that you later associate with a BPEL process by selecting New from the File main menu, then selecting Integration Tier Human Tasks Human Task Definition . This method enables you to create a human task activity with which you immediately associate a BPEL process through use of a human task activity. What? Select Process Activities from the Component Palette . Drag and drop a Human Task activity into what of government did the articles of confederation create?, your BPEL process. The Add a Human Task window appears. Click the second icon to the right of the is polc, Task Definition field. Enter a name in cola economics, the Human Task Name field. The name you enter is what is polc added to the directory path in the Location field. The Human Task editor appears. 15.6.2 Reviewing the Sections of the Human Task Editor. The Human Task editor consists of the following main sections shown in Figure 15-9. These sections enable you to create a human task. Figure 15-9 Human Task Editor. Instructions for using these main sections of the Human Task editor to create a workflow task are listed in Table 15-1. Table 15-1 Human Task Editor. Is The Between Preservation? (title, outcomes, priority, and owner) (for specifying custom escalation rules, custom style sheets for attachments, multilingual settings, custom task actions, error messages, and callback classes) 15.6.3 Specifying the Task Title, Priority, Outcome, and is polc Owner. Figure 15-10 shows the Task Configuration section of the Human Task editor. Cola Economics? This section enables you to specify details such as the task title, task priority, task outcomes, and task owner. Figure 15-10 Human Task Editor #x2014; Task Configuration Section. Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Task Configuration section are listed in Table 15-2: Table 15-2 Human Task Editor #x2014; Task Configuration Section. 15.6.3.1 Specifying a Task Title and what is polc Priority. Enter the following details. See Also: Specifying the Task Initiator and Substance Abuse Mental Health Task Priority for instructions on specifying a priority value in the Add a Human Task window. Task outcomes capture the what is polc, possible outcomes of a task. The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application displays the Abuse Mental Health, outcomes you specify here as the what, possible actions to perform during run time. You can specify the following types of task outcomes: Select a seeded outcome. Enter a custom outcome. The task outcomes can also have run time display values that are different from the actual outcome value specified here. Is A Mental? This permits outcomes to be displayed in a different language in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. See Specifying Multilingual Settings for more information about internationalization. Click the what is polc, flashlight icon to the right of the Outcomes field. The Outcomes window displays the possible outcomes for tasks. APPROVE and cola economics REJECT are selected by default. Select additional task outcomes or deselect the default outcomes. Enter any custom outcomes separated by commas in the Custom Outcomes field. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. Your selections display in the Outcomes field. The seeded and custom outcomes selected here display for selection in the Majority Voted Outcome section of the what, group vote participant type. 15.6.3.2.1 Displaying Custom Outcomes in cola economics, a Human Task Activity. The method by which you create a human task definition determines whether custom outcomes initially display in a switch activity. If you perform the following tasks: Drag and is polc drop a human task activity into the design window. Click the Create Task Definition icon (second icon) to the right of the Task Definition field. Create a human task definition with custom outcomes. What Type? Expand the human task activity. Note that the custom outcomes do not initially display in what is polc, the switch activity. As a workaround, perform the following steps: Click the human task activity to display the Human Task window. Click Yes when prompted to update your human task definition to account for the custom outcomes. Open the switch activity of the cola economics, human task activity and note that the custom outcomes now appear. Or, always create human task definition files as follows: Right-click the BPEL process in the A pplication Navigator . Select Create Human Task Definition . Design a human task definition. Drag a new human task activity into the design window and associate it with this human task definition file. Open the switch activity of the human task activity and note that the custom outcomes appear. The task owner can view the tasks belonging to business processes they own and perform operations on behalf of any of the assigned task participant types. Additionally, the owner can also reassign, withdraw, or escalate tasks. This optional field defaults to the system user bpeladmin if not specified. The task owner can also be specified in what is polc, the Advanced tab of the Human Task window described in Specifying a Task Owner. The task owner specified in the Advanced tab overrides any task owner you enter here. Select a method for specifying the task owner: 15.6.3.3.1 Specifying a Task Owner By Browsing the User Directory. Task owners can be selected by browsing the user directory (Oracle Internet Directory (OID), JAZN/XML, LDAP, and so on) that is is the difference configured for use with Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Click the first icon to the right of the Owner field to display the Identity lookup dialog. Search for the owner by entering a search string such as jcooper, j*, *, and so on. Clicking Lookup fetches all the users that match the search criteria. One or more users or groups can be highlighted and selected by clicking Select . View the hierarchy of a user by what is polc, highlighting the user and clicking Hierarchy . Similarly, clicking Reportees displays the reportees of a selected user or group. View the details of a user or group by highlighting the user or group and clicking Detail . Click OK to return to Substance Abuse Mental Issue, the Identity lookup dialog. Click Select to add the user to the Selected user section. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. What? Your selection displays in the Owner field. Is A Health? 15.6.3.3.2 Specifying a Task Owner Dynamically. Task owners can be selected dynamically in the Expression Builder window. Click the second icon to the right of the Owner field to what is polc, display the Expression Builder window: Browse the available variable schemas and functions to create a task owner. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. Cola Economics? You selection displays in the Owner field. Click Help for instructions on using the Expression Builder window and XPath Building Assistant. 15.6.4 Specifying the Task Payload Data Structure. Figure 15-11 shows the Parameters section of the Human Task editor. This section enables you to define the structure (message attributes) of the task payload (the data in the task). Task payload data consists of one or more elements or types. Based on your selections, an XML schema definition is created for the task payload. Figure 15-11 Human Task Editor #x2014; Parameters Section. Click the + sign to display the what is polc, Add Task Parameter window. Enter the following details: You can only define payload flex field mappings in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application for payload parameters that are simple XML types. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. Your selection displays in the Parameters section. If you want to edit your selection, highlight it and click the bypass, first icon in the upper right part of the Parameters section. Figure 15-12 shows the Assignment and Routing Policy section of the Human Task editor. This section enables you to select a participant type that meets your business requirement. In previous Oracle BPEL Process Manager releases, participant types were known as workflow patterns. You can mix and match multiple participant types to model the human task. This enables you to extend the functionality of what, a previously configured human task to model more complex workflows. Each of the participant types has an associated editor that you use for configuration tasks. The sequence in which the assignees are added indicates the execution sequence. Figure 15-12 Human Task Editor #x2014; Assignment and how to Routing Policy Section. Click the + sign to display the Add Participant Type window. This enables you to select a specific participant type. What? Select a participant type from the Type list. The configuration tasks for each participant type are described in subsequent sections. See the following section based on your selection: Sequential list of approvers. External routing service. Is The Preservation And Conservation? See the following task assignment and routing policy sections shown in Figure 15-12 after you have configured a participant type. These sections are only available for selection after a participant type has been created. Users and groups for each of the participant types can be specified either statically or dynamically.When the what is polc, users and groups are specified statically (or by browsing the identity service), the Essay, values can be either of the following: A single user or group (for example, jstein ), which in the case of a single approver, is captured as follows: A delimited string of what is polc, users or groups (for example, jstein , wfaulk , cdickens ), which in the case of a single approver, is captured as follows: You may have a business requirement to create a dynamic list of turnitin, task approvers specified in a payload variable. This XPath expression can resolve to zero or more XML nodes. Each node value can be either of the following: A single user or group. A delimited string of users or groups. For example, the following task shows that the payload message attribute is of type xsd:String and its value is a comma-delimited string of approvers. This node can be used to specify the is polc, participants. What Type Of Government Did The? The default delimiter for the assignee delimited string is a comma ( , ). This delimiter can be changed using the assigneeDelimiter XML element in what, the wf-config.xml file. This delimiter applies to all workflows in the system. Specifying participants in this manner is is the difference preservation applicable to all participant types, although they are interpreted differently for each type. For example: In a single user participant type, the task is assigned to everyone evaluated. In a sequential list of approvers participant type, the task is sequentially assigned to users and groups evaluated in the list. In a group vote participant type, a task is created for each user and group evaluated in the list. This interpretation of resource XPath expressions provides orcl:create-nodeset-from-delimited-string -equivalent functionality to enable you to specify a dynamic list of one or more task approvers (resource element members) from the what is polc, payload variable. 15.6.5.2 Configuring the Single Approver Participant Type. Figure 15-13 displays the Single Approver window. This participant type requires a single user to act on a task. If the Essay, task is assigned to a role or group with multiple users, one of the members must claim the task and what act on it. Based on the user's action, you define what the business process does. For example, a vacation request is assigned to a manager. The manager must act on the request task three days before the vacation starts. If the how to bypass turnitin, manager formally approves or rejects the request, the employee is notified with the decision. If the manager does not act on the task, the request is treated as rejected. Notification actions similar to what, the formal rejection are taken. Figure 15-13 Add Participant Type #x2014; Single Approver. Enter a recognizable label for Legacy Essay this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Single Approver window are listed in Table 15-3: Table 15-3 Add Participant Type #x2014; Single Approver. 15.6.5.2.1 Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task. Is Polc? Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in performing actions on this task. Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the Essay Substance Abuse Is a Mental Health, identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. User information is what is polc obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the Essay Grief, icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. What? Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. For a user to act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. The XPath expressions for specifying assignees must follow these rules: They must be based off the task XSD. This includes the payload as defined in the payload section. For example, /task:task/task:payload/order:orderAssignee is an what preservation and conservation example of an XPath expression based of the task XSD. The XPath expressions cannot contain BPEL-specific XPath functions such as bpws:getVariableData() , and so on because these XPath expressions are not evaluated from the context of a BPEL instance. The XPath expressions can contain XPath functions that are BPEL-independent. This includes identity service XPath functions like ids:getManager() , and so on. Is Polc? 15.6.5.2.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Select the Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to be bypassed if a specific condition is satisfied. This action displays an icon for accessing the Expression Builder window for building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is cola economics below a specific amount, no approval is required by their manager. The expression to bypass a task participant must evaluate to a Boolean value. For example, /task:task/task:payload/order:orderAmount 1000 is a valid XPath expression for skipping a participant. 15.6.5.2.3 Specifying a Time Limit for what Acting on a Task. Click the how to turnitin, + sign to expand the Advanced section shown in Figure 15-13. Select Limit allocated duration to . Specify the amount of time a user or group receives to act on a task. If the user or group does not act in the time specified, the is polc, global escalation and renewal policies that you set in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the routing slip level) of the Human Task editor are applied. For example, if the global policy is set to escalate the on Hamlet's, task and this participant does not act in the duration provided, the task is escalated to is polc, the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task for is the difference preservation and conservation instructions on setting the is polc, global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. What Of Government Did The Articles Of Confederation Create?? 15.6.5.2.4 Inviting Additional Participants to a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section (if not already expanded). Select the Allow this participant to invite other participants check box if you want this task assignee to invite other participants into the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in this workflow. For example, assume the approval workflow goes from James Cooper to John Steinbeck. If this option is checked, James Cooper can decide to first route it to Irving Stone before it goes to John Steinbeck. 15.6.5.3 Configuring the Group Vote Participant Type. Figure 15-14 displays the Group Vote window. This participant type is used when multiple users, working in parallel, must take action simultaneously, such as in what, a hiring situation when multiple users vote to hire or reject an applicant. You specify the voting percentage that is needed for the outcome to take effect, such as a majority vote or a unanimous vote. About Substance Abuse Is A Mental Health Issue? For example, a business process collects the feedback from all interviewers in the hiring process, consolidates it, and assigns a hire or reject request to is polc, each of the interviewers. At the end, the candidate is hired if the The Roman Legacy Essay, majority of is polc, interviewers vote for hiring instead of rejecting. Figure 15-14 Add Participant Type #x2014; Group Vote. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the what between preservation, Add Participant Type - Group Vote window are listed in Table 15-4: Table 15-4 Add Participant Type #x2014; Group Vote Window. Immediately trigger voted outcome when minimum percentage is met. Is Polc? Wait until all votes are in before triggering outcome. 15.6.5.3.1 Assigning Participants to the Group Vote Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in this task. The assigned participants must establish a consensus on Essay when a task is considered complete. Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. User information is obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. What Is Polc? You can use wild cards (*) to search for IDs. Cola Economics? Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Users who are members of what is polc, a group are assigned this task. For a user to The Roman Legacy Essay, act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task for rules to follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. 15.6.5.3.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Select the is polc, Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to be bypassed if a specific condition is satisfied. This action displays an icon for how to bypass accessing the Expression Builder window for building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is required by what, their manager. The expression must evaluate to a Boolean value. About Substance Abuse Is A Mental Issue? Bypassing a Task Participant for is polc an example of Essay about Issue, a valid XPath expression for skipping a participant. 15.6.5.3.3 Sharing Attachments and Comments with Task Participants. Select the Share attachments and comments check box if you want all group voters or workflow participants to share comments and attachments for this task. This information typically displays in the footer region of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. What Is Polc? 15.6.5.3.4 Specifying Group Voting Details. Specify a method for selecting the outcome for Essay the final task. Is Polc? If you select By Expression from the lists below, you can dynamically specify the details by clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Select the default outcome for this task to take effect if the consensus percentage value is not satisfied. What Is The Between And Conservation? This happens if there is what is polc a tie or if all participants do not respond before the task expires. Cola Economics? Seeded and custom outcomes that you entered in the Outcomes window in Specifying a Task Outcome display in this list. Select a percentage value required for what is polc the outcome of this task to take effect; for example, a majority vote ( 51 ) or a unanimous vote ( 100 ). For example, assume there are two possible outcomes ( ACCEPT and REJECT ) and five subtasks. Cola Economics? If two subtasks are accepted and three are rejected, and the required acceptance percentage is 50%, the outcome of the task is rejected. Specify additional group voting details: Immediately trigger voted outcome when minimum percentage is met. If selected, the outcome of the task can be computed early with the outcomes of the completed subtasks, enabling the pending subtasks to be withdrawn. For example, assume four users are assigned to act on what is polc a task, the default outcome is APPROVE , and the consensus percentage is set at 50 . If the first two users approve the task, the third and fourth users do not need to act on the task, since the consensus percentage value has already been satisfied. Wait until all votes are in before triggering outcome. If selected, the workflow waits for all responses before an outcome is what type of government articles of confederation create? initiated. 15.6.5.3.5 Specifying a Time Limit for Acting on a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section shown in Figure 15-14. Select Limit allocated duration to . What? Specify the amount of time a user or group receives to cola economics, act on a task. If the user or group does not act in the time specified, the global escalation and renewal policies that you set in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the routing slip level) of the Human Task editor are applied. For example, if the global policy is set to escalate the task and this participant does not act in the duration provided, the task is escalated to what, the manager or another user, as appropriate. The Roman Legacy? Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task for what instructions on what type did the create? setting the what is polc, global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and on Hamlet's Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. 15.6.5.4 Configuring the Management Chain Participant Type. Figure 15-15 displays the Management Chain window. This participant type routes tasks for what is polc approval to multiple users in a management chain hierarchy. You specify the on Hamlet's, task participants as a management chain list or a list of users. Is Polc? For example, a purchase order is assigned to a manager. If the manager approves the turnitin, order, it is assigned to their manager. If that manager approves it, it is assigned to their manager, and so on until three managers approve the order. If any of the managers reject the request or the request expires, the order is rejected. Figure 15-15 Add Participant Type #x2014; Management Chain. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Instructions for is polc configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Management Chain window are listed in how to, Table 15-5: Table 15-5 Add Participant Type - Management Chain. Highest Title of Approver. 15.6.5.4.1 Assigning Participants to the Management Chain Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in this task. Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. What? The identity service enables user authorization and Legacy Essay the lookup of what, user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. User information is obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the icon to the right of the field to what of government articles of confederation create?, display the what is polc, Expression Builder window. Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. For a user to act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task for on Hamlet's Grief rules to follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. 15.6.5.4.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Select the Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to be bypassed if a specific condition is is polc satisfied. This action displays an icon for accessing the Expression Builder window for Essay building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is what is polc required by their manager. The expression must evaluate to a Boolean value. Bypassing a Task Participant for an example of a valid XPath expression for skipping a participant. 15.6.5.4.3 Specifying the Number of Approvers. Specify the following task routing parameters. When both parameters are specified, task routing is determined by how to, both parameters. The routing continues until one of these parameters is what is polc satisfied. If you select By Expression from the lists below, you can dynamically specify the details by clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Maximum Number of Chain Levels Up. Enter a value for the number of levels in the management chain to include in this task. On Hamlet's? For example, if set to 2 and the task is is polc initially assigned to user jcooper , both the user jstein (manager of what type of government did the, jcooper ) and what the user wfaulk (manager of jstein ) are included in the list (apart from jcooper , the initial assignee). This is a mandatory field. Highest Title of how to turnitin, Approver. Select the title of the last (highest) user in the management chain. The title is retrieved from the identity service. 15.6.5.4.4 Specifying a Time Limit for Acting on a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section shown in Figure 15-15. Select Limit allocated duration to . Specify the amount of time a user or group receives to act on a task. If the what is polc, user or group does not act in the time specified, the global escalation and renewal policies that you set in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the routing slip level) of the Legacy, Human Task editor are applied. For example, if the what, global policy is what type of government of confederation create? set to escalate the is polc, task and this participant does not act in the duration provided, the how to, task is escalated to the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task for instructions on setting the global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. 15.6.5.4.5 Inviting Additional Participants to a Task. Click the + sign to what, expand the Advanced section (if not already expanded). Select Allow this participant to invite other participants if you want this task assignee to invite other participants into the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in this workflow. Essay Is A Issue? For example, assume the approval workflow goes from James Cooper to John Steinbeck. If this option is checked, James Cooper can decide to first route it to Irving Stone before it goes to John Steinbeck. For the management chain participant type, the additional participants can be invited only by the last user in the management chain. 15.6.5.5 Configuring the Sequential List of what, Approvers Participant Type. Figure 15-16 displays the Sequential List of Approvers window. This enables you to create a list of sequential participants for a workflow. For example, if you want a document to be reviewed by John, Mary, and Scott in sequence, use this participant type. This is similar to the management chain participant type, except that with that type, the users are part of an organization hierarchy. For the sequential list of approvers participant type, they can be any list of users or groups. Figure 15-16 Add Participant Type #x2014; Sequential List of Approvers. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Essay Grief? Instructions for configuring the what is polc, following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Sequential List of Approvers window are listed in Table 15-6. Table 15-6 Add Participant Type #x2014; Sequential List of Approvers. 15.6.5.5.1 Assigning Participants to the Sequential List of Approvers Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in this task. Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the The Roman Essay, field to display a window for what is polc selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. Essay On Hamlet's Grief? The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. User information is obtained from what Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for IDs. Dynamically assign this task to cola economics, a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. For a user to act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task for rules to follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. 15.6.5.5.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Select the Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to be bypassed if a specific condition is satisfied. This action displays an icon for accessing the Expression Builder window for building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is required by what is polc, their manager. The expression must evaluate to a Boolean value. Essay Is A Mental Health? Bypassing a Task Participant for an example of a valid XPath expression for skipping a participant. 15.6.5.5.3 Specifying a Time Limit for Acting on is polc a Task. Click the bypass, + sign to expand the Advanced section shown in what, Figure 15-16. Click Limit allocated duration to . Specify the amount of time a user or group receives to Essay Substance Abuse Mental Issue, act on what a task. If the user or group does not act in about Substance Abuse Mental Health, the time specified, the global escalation and renewal policies that you set in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the what, routing slip level) of the Human Task editor are applied. For example, if the global policy is set to escalate the about Mental, task and this participant does not act in the duration provided, the task is escalated to the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the what, Task for instructions on setting the global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the what is the between preservation, Human Task editor. 15.6.5.5.4 Inviting Additional Participants to a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section (if not already expanded). Select Allow this participant to invite other participants if you want this task assignee to invite other participants into the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in is polc, this workflow. The Roman Legacy Essay? For example, assume the approval workflow goes from what is polc James Cooper to cola economics, John Steinbeck. If this option is checked, James Cooper can decide to first route it to Irving Stone before it goes to what is polc, John Steinbeck. For the sequential list of approvers participant type, the additional participants can be invited only by the last user in the management chain. 15.6.5.6 Configuring the FYI Assignee Participant Type. Figure 15-17 displays the FYI Assignee window. This participant type is used when a task is Essay about Abuse Mental Health Issue sent to a user, but the business process does not wait for a user response; it just continues. FYI assignees cannot directly impact the outcome of a task, but in some cases can provide comments or add attachments. For example, a magazine subscription is due for renewal. What Is Polc? If the cola economics, user does not cancel the current subscription before the expiration date, the subscription is renewed. This user is reminded weekly until the what, request expires or the user acts on it. Figure 15-17 Add Participant Type #x2014; FYI Assignee. Turnitin? Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - FYI Assignee window are listed in Table 15-7: Table 15-7 Add Participant Type - FYI Assignee. 15.6.5.6.1 Assigning Participants to the FYI Assignee Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in this task. Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and is polc privileges. User information is obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to Essay, search for IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the what, icon to the right of the Legacy Essay, field to display the what, Expression Builder window. Users who are members of bypass, a group are assigned this task. For a user to what is polc, act on a task assigned to difference between preservation, a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task for rules to is polc, follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. 15.6.5.6.2 Sharing Attachments and Comments with Task Participants. Select the Share attachments and comments check box if you want all group voters or workflow participants to share comments and attachments for this task. This information typically displays in the footer region of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. 15.6.5.7 Configuring the External Routing Service Participant Type. Figure 15-18 displays the External Routing Service window. This participant type enables you to configure an external routing service that dynamically determines the participants in Is a Mental, the workflow. If this participant type is what specified, all other participant types are ignored. It is assumed that the external routing service provides a list of participant types (single approver, list of approvers, group vote, and so on) at run time to Essay on Hamlet's, determine the routing of the task. Figure 15-18 Add Participant Type #x2014; External Routing Service. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Enter the fully qualified class file name or click the flashlight icon to select the name (for example, the org.mycompany.tasks.RoutingService class name). This class must implement the oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task.IAssignmentService interface. Click the + sign to add name and pair value parameters that can be passed to the external service. 15.6.5.8 Allowing All Participants to Invite Other Participants. After you configure a participant type and what is polc are returned to the Human Task editor, the Allow all participants to invite other participants check box is enabled, as shown in Figure 15-19. Figure 15-19 Human Task Editor #x2014; Assignment and Routing Policy Section. Difference And Conservation? This check box is the equivalent of the Adhoc workflow pattern of what is polc, previous BPEL releases. This applies when there is at least one participant. In this case, each user selects users or groups as the next assignee when approving the Essay about Is a Mental, task. If you want this task assignee to invite other participants into is polc, the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in about Health, this workflow, select the Allow all participants to invite other participants check box. 15.6.5.9 Abruptly Completing a Condition. After you configure a participant type and are returned to the Human Task editor, the Enable abrupt completion condition check box is enabled, as shown in Figure 15-19. If you want to specify conditions under which to complete the task early, regardless of the other participants in the workflow, select the Enable abrupt completion condition check box. The Abrupt Completion Details window appears. For example, assume an expense report goes to the manager, and then the director. If the what is polc, first participant (manager) rejects it, you can end the what type did the articles of confederation, workflow without sending it to the next participant (director). Is Polc? There are two methods for turnitin specifying the abrupt completion of a task: XPath expression routing condition. If outcomes are specified, any time the selected task outcome occurs, the is polc, task completes. If both outcome and routing condition are specified, the workflow service performs a logical OR on the two. Select appropriate outcomes and click the button. To select all, click the button. Click the icon to the right of the Routing Condition field to turnitin, display the Expression Builder window for what is polc dynamically creating a condition under which to complete this task early. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is is the between preservation and conservation required by their manager. Click OK to is polc, return to the Human Task editor. The check box is selected, indicating that you have defined information. You can click the icon to cola economics, the right of the Enable abrupt completion condition check box to edit this information. 15.6.6 Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task. Is Polc? Figure 15-20 shows the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. Cola Economics? You can specify expiration duration of a task in this global policy section (also known as the routing slip level). What? If expiration duration is specified at the routing slip level instead of at the participant type level, then this duration is the expiration duration of the task across all the participants. However, if you specify expiration duration at the participant type level (through the Limit allocated duration to field), then those settings take precedence over Essay Abuse Mental Issue settings specified in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (routing slip level). What Is Polc? Figure 15-20 Human Task Editor #x2014; Expiration and Escalation Policy Section. 15.6.6.1 Overview or Escalation and Is a Mental Health Expiration Policy. What Is Polc? This section provides an The Roman Legacy Essay overview of how specifying the expiration duration at this level makes this setting the expiration duration of the task across all the participants. For example, participant LoanAgentGroup and participant Supervisor have 3 days to act on the task between them, as shown in Figure 15-21: Figure 15-21 Expire After Policy. If there is no expiration specified at either the participant level or this routing slip level, then that task has no expiration duration. If expiration duration is specified at any of the participant's level, then for that participant the participant expiration duration is used. However, the what, global expiration duration is still used for the participants that do not have participant level expiration duration. The global expiration duration is always decremented by the time elapsed in the task. The policy to Essay about Substance Abuse Mental Health, interpret the participant level expiration for the participants is described below: Management Chain #x2014; Each participant in the management chain gets the same expiration duration. The duration is not for all the assignments resulting from this assignment. If the what, task expires at any of the assignments in the management chain, the task expires and the escalation and renewal policy is applied. Sequential list of approvers #x2014; Each assignment in the management chain gets the same expiration duration as the one specified in on Hamlet's, the sequential list of approvers. What Is Polc? Note that the how to bypass turnitin, duration is not for all the what is polc, assignments resulting from this assignment. If the task expires at is the difference between any of the what, assignments in the management chain, the task expires and Legacy Essay the escalation and renewal policy is what applied. In a group vote workflow, if the parallel participants are specified as a resource, a routing slip is created for each of the resources. The expiration duration of each created routing slip follows these rules: The expiration duration is the same as the expiration duration of the Essay Grief, parallel participant if it has an what expiration duration specified. The expiration duration that is left on the task if it was specified at the routing slip level. No expiration duration, otherwise. If parallel participants are specified as routing slips, then the expiration duration for the parallel participants are determined by the routing slip. When the parent task expires in a parallel task, the subtasks are withdrawn if those tasks have not expired or completed. In the following routing slip sample, participant Loan Agent Group has an expiration duration of 1 day and participant Loan Agent Supervisor does not have any expiration duration on the task, even though an expiration duration is specified at the routing slip level. In this example, the routing slip is treated just as if there were no expiration duration specified at the routing slip level. Table 15-8 demonstrates the expiration policy. Note that the management chain in the above example evaluates to two users #x2014; wfaulk and cdickens (manager of wfaulk ). Cola Economics? Table 15-8 Expiration Policy. Select an is polc escalation and expiration policy. Abuse Is A Health Issue? You can enter a fixed time or a dynamic time by clicking the what, icon to the right of the By Expression field to display the Expression Builder window. If you never want the cola economics, task to expire, select Never Expire from the list shown in Figure 15-20. If you want the task to is polc, expire, select Expire after from the list shown in Figure 15-20. Specify the maximum time period for Essay Grief the task to remain open. When the task expires, either the escalation policy or the renewal policy at what is polc the routing slip level is applied. If neither is specified, the task expires. The expiration policy at the routing slip level is common to all the participants. The expiration policy for parallel participants is interpreted as follows. If parallel participants are specified as resources in parallel elements, there is no expiration policy for each of those participants. If parallel participants are specified as routing slips, then the expiration policy for the routing slip applies to the parallel participants. Essay Grief? Figure 15-22 indicates that the is polc, task expires in on Hamlet's Grief, 3 days. Figure 15-22 Expire After Policy. If you want to extend the expiration period when the what is polc, user does not respond within the allotted time, select Renew after from the list shown in Figure 15-20. Specify the maximum number of bypass, times to is polc, continue renewing this task. The renewal policy specifies the number of times the task can be renewed on expiration and the renewal duration. How To? In Figure 15-23, when the task expires, it is renewed at most 3 times. It does not matter if the task expired at the LoanAgentGroup participant or the Supervisor participant. Figure 15-23 Renew After Policy. If you want to escalate the task (for example, to the user's manager) if the user does not respond within the allotted time, select Escalate after from the list shown in Figure 15-20. Specify the following additional values: Maximum Escalation Levels. Number of management levels to which to escalate the task. Highest Approver Title. The title of the highest approver (for example, self, manager, director, or CEO). The escalation policy specifies the number of times the task can be escalated on what expiration and the renewal duration. In Figure 15-24, when the cola economics, task expires, it is escalated at what most 3 times. It does not matter if the task expired at the LoanAgentGroup participant or the Supervisor participant. Figure 15-24 Escalate After Policy. 15.6.7 Specifying Participant Notification Preferences. Figure 15-25 shows the Notification Settings section of the Essay about Is a Health Issue, Human Task editor (when fully expanded). Notifications indicate when a user is assigned a task or informed that the status of the task has changed. Notifications can be sent through e-mail, voice message, fax, pager, or SMS. Notifications are sent to different types of participants for different actions. Notifications are configured by default with default messages. For example, a notification message is sent to indicate that a task has completed and closed. You can create your own or modify existing configurations. Figure 15-25 Human Task Editor #x2014; Notification Settings Section. What Is Polc? Click the + sign to expand the Notification Settings section (displays as shown in Figure 15-25). Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Essay on Hamlet's, Notification Setting s section are listed in Table 15-9. Table 15-9 Human Task Editor #x2014; Notification Settings Section. Make e-mail messages actionable. Send task attachments with email notifications. Is Polc? 15.6.7.1 Notifying Recipients of Changes to Task Status. Three default status types display in the Task Status column: Assign , Complete , and Error . You can select other status types for which to receive notification messages. Click a type in the Task Status column to between and conservation, display the complete list of task types: Assign #x2014;when the task is assigned to users or a group. This action captures the following actions: Task is is polc assigned to Essay, a user. Task is assigned to is polc, a new user in a sequential list of approvers workflow. Task is renewed. Task is delegated. Task is reassigned. Task is escalated. Information for a task is submitted. Select a task status type. What Type Of Confederation Create?? Notifications can be sent to users involved in the task in various capacities. Is Polc? This includes when the task is assigned to what did the articles create?, a group, each user in the group is what sent a notification if there is no notification endpoint available for what did the articles of confederation the group. Click an entry in the Recipient column to display a list of possible recipients for the notification message. Assignees #x2014;the users or groups to whom the task is currently assigned. Initiator #x2014;the user who created the task. Approvers #x2014;the users who have approved the task so far. This applies in is polc, a sequential list of approvers participant type where multiple users have approved the task and a notification must be sent to all of them. Owner #x2014;the task owner. Cola Economics? 15.6.7.2 Editing the what, Notification Message. What Of Government Did The Articles Of Confederation? A default notification message is available for delivery to the selected recipient. If you want, you can modify the default message text. Click the icon in the Notification Header column to modify the default notification message. The Edit Notification Message window appears. This message applies to all the supported notification channels: e-mail, voice, fax, pager, and SMS. E-mail and fax messages can also include the worklist task detail defined in is polc, this message. The channel by which the message is delivered is based upon Essay the notification preferences you specify. Modify the message wording as necessary. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. You can send task reminders, which can be based on the time the task was assigned to a user or the expiration time of a task. The number of reminders and the interval between the reminders can also be configured. Select the number of reminders to what is polc, send from the Remind list. If you selected to remind the assignee one, two, or three times, select the what, interval between reminders, and whether to send the reminder before or after the assignment. 15.6.7.4 Securing Notifications, Making Messages Actionable, and Sending Attachments. What Is Polc? You can perform additional notification tasks in this section. Select the corresponding check box for functionality you want to use. Of Government Did The Of Confederation Create?? See Also : Sending Actionable E-mails for additional configuration details. 15.6.8 Specifying Advanced Settings. This section enables you to specify advanced human task features, such as specifying custom escalation rules, custom style sheets for attachments, multilingual settings, custom task actions and error messages, and callback classes. Figure 15-26 shows the advanced settings section of the Human Task editor. Figure 15-26 Human Task Editor #x2014; Advanced Settings Section. Table 15-10 describes the sections available. Table 15-10 Advanced Settings Sections. 15.6.8.1 Specifying Escalation Rules. This option allows a custom escalation rule to what is polc, be plugged in for a particular workflow. For example, to assign the The Roman Essay, task to a current user's department manager on task expiration, you can write a custom task escalation function, register it with the workflow service, and use that function in task definitions. The default escalation rule is to assign a task to the manager of the current user. To add a new escalation rule, follow the steps below. Implement interface oracle.bpel.services.workflow.assignment.dynamic.IDynamicTaskEscalationFunction . What? This implementation has to be available in the classpath for the server. Change the on Hamlet's, file SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwf-dynamic-assign-cfg.xml to what is polc, add a new function: Enter the function name as defined in the wf-dynamic-assign-cfg.xml file for the escalation rule in The Roman, the Specify Escalation Rule field. 15.6.8.2 Specifying WordML Style Sheets for Attachments. Is Polc? This option allows dynamic creation of Microsoft Word documents for Essay on Hamlet's the purpose of sending them as e-mail attachments using a WordML XSLT stylesheet. The XSLT stylesheet is applied on the task document. Click the flashlight icon to is polc, select a WordML style sheet as an attachment. 15.6.8.3 Specifying Style Sheets for Attachments. This option allows creation of e-mail attachments using an XSLT stylesheet. Type Of Government Did The Articles? The XSLT stylesheet is applied on the task document. Click the flashlight icon to select a stylesheet as an attachment. 15.6.8.4 Specifying Multilingual Settings. You can specify resource bundles for displaying task details in different languages in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Resource bundles are supported for the following task details. Displaying the what is polc, value for Legacy Essay task outcomes in plain text or with the message(key) format. Displaying the XML element and attributes names in the payload display of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. The key name in the resource bundle must be the same as the name of the XML element and attributes for internationalization of XML element names in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. What? Making e-mail notification messages available in different languages. At run time, specify the XPath extension function hwf:getTaskResourceBundleString(taskId, key, locale?) to obtain the internationalized string from the specified resource bundle. The locale of the notification recipient can be retrieved with the function hwf:getNotificationProperty(propertyName) . Click Configure Resource . The Resource Details window appears. Enter the name of the resource used in the resource bundle. Click the flashlight icon to select the JAR or ZIP resource bundle file to use. The resource bundle can be part of your BPEL suitcase. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. 15.6.8.5 Overriding Default System Actions. The Roman? The actions performed from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application are common to all business processes. Is Polc? However, you can restrict some actions in a particular business process. For example, assume that in a loan approval process, the business requirement is to never suspend a loan application. To model this scenario at design time, you can select Suspend as a restricted action. When an action is selected as restricted, the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application does not display the action for this task. By default, these actions are available on all tasks based on Grief the user's privileges. The task owner or bpeladmin administrator can always perform any of these actions on processes they own. What? Click Configure Actions . Select the system actions allowed on a task. How To? By default, all are selected and available (unrestricted). The following system actions can be restricted by unselecting them: Suspend #x2014; Enables task owners (or users with the BPMWorkflowSuspend privilege) to put a workflow temporarily on what hold. Task expiration and escalation do not apply until the workflow is resumed. Grief? No actions are permitted on a suspended task (except resume and withdraw). Push back #x2014; Sends the task one level back in the workflow. For example, assume the task was routed to is polc, the LoanAgentGroup and then to how to, jstein . If jstein now pushes the task back, it goes back to what, the LoanAgentGroup. Cola Economics? Renew #x2014; If a task is what about to expire, a task assignee can renew the task and request more time to what is the difference preservation and conservation, perform the task. This operation is not allowed if the process designer has restricted task renewal on the workflow. Skip current assignment #x2014; Skips the current assignment and moves to what is polc, the next assignment or picks the outcome as set by the previous approver if there are no more assignees. Adhoc Route #x2014; Enables a user to enter an outcome and then route the task in Essay about Substance Health Issue, an adhoc fashion to the next user who must review the task. Is Polc? Request Information #x2014; Any workflow participant can request information from the task initiator or any of the how to bypass turnitin, prior approvers of the task. When the requested information is submitted, the task is assigned to the user who requested the information. Delegate #x2014; Any workflow participant can delegate the task to is polc, another user. What Is The Between And Conservation? In this case, the other user is acting on is polc behalf of the current assignee. Essay? When the task is delegated, it resides on both users' worklists until the original assignee or the delegated person acts on it. Reassign #x2014; Enables the current assignee of the is polc, task to transfer it to another user or group. In this case, the task is moved from the worklist of the current assignee to the new assignee. Escalate #x2014; Escalates a task to their manager for further action. Withdraw #x2014; Enables the task initiator to withdraw any pending task if they no longer want to send it through the workflow. A task owner can also withdraw a task on behalf of the initiator. When a task is withdrawn, the business process is called back with the state attribute of the task set to Withdrawn . On Hamlet's Grief? Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. 15.6.8.6 Overriding Default Exception Management. Tasks can error due to incorrect assignments. Incorrect assignments can occur for any of the following reasons: Invalid assignees #x2014; The task assignee user or group is not a valid user in the system. Invalid dynamic assignment #x2014; When assignees are specified to be dynamic, the dynamic XPath expression is what is polc not evaluated. In the above cases, the task is marked as errored. By default, the life cycle of the task is Essay about Abuse Mental Issue completed with that action.During modeling of is polc, workflow tasks, you can specify error assignees for the workflow. If error assignees are specified, they are evaluated and the task is Abuse Is a Mental Health assigned to them. What? The error assignee can perform one of the following actions: Adhoc route #x2014; route the task to the actual users assigned to The Roman Legacy Essay, the task. Adhoc route allows the task to be routed to users in sequence, parallel, and so on. Reassign #x2014; reassign the task to the actual users assigned to this task. Error task #x2014; indicate that this task cannot be rectified. If there are any errors in evaluating the error assignees, the task is marked as errored. This window enables you to specify the users or groups to whom the what, task is assigned if an error in assignment has occurred. Click Configure Assignment . Select the cola economics, error assignees. 15.6.8.7 Specifying Callback Classes on Task Status. You can register callbacks for the workflow service to call during the life cycle of a task. The callback class has to implement the interface oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task.IRoutingSlipCallback . Make the callback class available in the classpath of the server. Click Configure Callbacks . What? Click the + sign to add a callback to the table. Essay? A callback named OnAssigned is is polc automatically added to the Callback column. Click OnAssigned to display a list of additional callback values to select for this column. The following callbacks are available: onCompleted #x2014; This callback is invoked when the task is Legacy completed, expired, withdrawn, or errored. onAssigned #x2014; This callback is invoked when the task is assigned to is polc, a new set of assignees due to the following actions: skip current assignment. override routing slip. Essay? onUpdated #x2014; This callback is invoked for any other update to the task that does not fall in the onTaskComplete or onTaskAssigned callback. Is Polc? This includes updates on a task due to request for information, submit information, escalation, reassign, and so on. onSubtaskUpdated #x2014; This callback is invoked for any update to a subtask. Click Java in cola economics, the Type column to display a list of additional values for this column. Click the empty field in the Value column to enter a value. The value is the complete class name of the Java class that implements oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task.IRoutingSlipCallback . 15.6.8.8 Allowing Task and Routing Customization in BPEL Callbacks. The Allow task and routing customization in BPEL callbacks check box must be selected if you select the check box of the same name on the Human Task - Advanced tab shown in Figure 15-28. Selecting both check boxes updates the metadata for callbacks. 15.6.9 Exiting the what, Human Task Editor and Saving Your Changes. You can save your human task changes at any time. The task can be re-edited at a later time by clicking the metadata task configuration .task file in the Application Navigator . Select Save from the File main menu or click the X sign to close the .task metadata task configuration file. If you click the X sign, select Yes when prompted to save your changes. 15.7 Task 2: Associating the Human Task with a BPEL Process. You must associate the .task file that consists of the about Substance Abuse Mental Health, human task settings with a BPEL process. When association is complete, a Task Service partner link is created. The Task Service exposes the operations required to act on a task. The method by which you created the is polc, human task indicates if the task is already associated with a BPEL process. Cola Economics? Table 15-11 describes these methods and is polc references sections on cola economics how to proceed. Note that regardless of whether you have already associated the what is polc, human task with a BPEL process, you must still define key human task activity properties, including the task title, task initiator, task priority, and task parameter variables. These tasks are described in Defining the Human Task Activity Title, Initiator, Priority, and what of government did the of confederation Parameter Variables and Defining the Human Task Activity Advanced Features. Table 15-11 Human Task Association with the BPEL Process. Right-clicked the BPEL process in the Application Navigator . Selected Create Human Task Definition . What Is Polc? Dragged and dropped a human task activity into the BPEL process. Selected the second icon ( Create Task Definition ) to the right of the Task Definition field in the General tab of the cola economics, Human Task window. 15.7.1 Associating a Human Worklist Task with a BPEL Process. Select the BPEL process with which to associate the .task file of the human task in the Application Navigator . Select Process Activities from the what, Component Palette . Drag and drop a new Human Task activity into how to bypass turnitin, your BPEL process. The Add a Human Task window appears. When you first drag and drop this activity into Oracle JDeveloper, the window is named Add a Human Task . After you finish specifying details on this window and click OK , the name of this window changes to simply Human Task . What? Click the first icon to the right of the The Roman Legacy, Task Definition field. The Choose Task Definition File appears. Select the .task file and click Open . This file is what located in the bpel human_task_name directory of your BPEL process. The .task file is added to the Task Definition field. See the how to turnitin, following sections to configure the human task activity: 15.7.2 Opening a Human Task Activity Already Associated with a BPEL Process. Double-click the previously created Human Task activity in your BPEL process. The Human Task window appears. Click the third icon to the right of the Task Definition field to open the human worklist task you previously created. See the following sections to configure the what, human task activity: 15.7.3 Defining the how to bypass, Human Task Activity Title, Initiator, Priority, and Parameter Variables. Figure 15-27 shows the what, General tab. Figure 15-27 Human Task #x2014; General Tab. The General tab of the Human Task activity enables you to Legacy, perform the tasks shown in Table 15-12: Table 15-12 Human Task - General Tab. Enter the task title in the Task Title field through one of the following methods. This is a mandatory field. Your entry in this field overrides the what, task title you entered in the Title field of the Human Task editor described in Specifying a Task Title and Priority. The Roman Legacy Essay? The title displays the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Enter the title manually. Click the icon to what, the right of the field to what type did the create?, display the Expression Builder window to what, dynamically create the title. You can also mix static text and dynamic expressions in how to bypass, the same title. To include dynamic text, place your cursor at what is polc the appropriate point in the text and Essay click the icon on the right to invoke the Expression Builder window. 15.7.3.2 Specifying the Task Initiator and Task Priority. Enter the initiator (for example, jcooper ) or click the icon to what, the right of the Initiator field to display the Expression Builder window for dynamically specifying an cola economics initiator. This field is optional. The initiator is the user who initiates a task. The initiator can view their created tasks from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application and perform specific tasks defined in the System Action Details window, such as withdrawing or suspending a task. If not specified, the initiator defaults to the task owner specified on the Advanced tab of the Human Task window. The initiator defaults to bpeladmin if a task owner is also not specified. Select a priority value between 1 (the highest) and what 5 from the Priority list. This field is provided for user reference and does not make this task a higher priority during run time. The priority can be used to sort tasks in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. What Is The Difference Preservation And Conservation? This priority value overrides the priority value you select in the Priority list of the Human Task editor. Specifying a Task Title and Priority for instructions on specifying the priority in the Human Task editor. The task parameter table displays a list of task parameters after you complete the Task Title and what Initiator fields. Click the flashlight in the BPEL Variable column to map the task parameter to the BPEL variable. Essay? You must map only the task parameters that carry input data. For output data that is filled in from the worklist, you do not need to map the corresponding variables. The Task Parameters window appears. Expand the Variables navigation tree and select the appropriate task variable. The Human Task window appears as follows. If you want to define advanced features for the human task activity, click the Advanced tab and is polc go to section Defining the Human Task Activity Advanced Features. Otherwise, click OK to close the Human Task window. Essay? 15.7.4 Defining the Human Task Activity Advanced Features. Figure 15-28 shows the what is polc, Advanced tab. Figure 15-28 Human Task #x2014; Advanced Tab. The Advanced tab of the Human Task activity enables you to The Roman Legacy Essay, perform the tasks shown in what is polc, Table 15-13: Table 15-13 Human Task - Advanced Tab. Global Task Variable Name. 15.7.4.1 Specifying a Scope Name and a Global Task Variable Name. You are automatically provided with default scope and global task variable names during human task activity creation. However, you can specify custom names that are used to name the scope and global variable during human task activity creation. Enter the name for the BPEL scope to be generated in on Hamlet's, the Scope Name field. This BPEL scope encapsulates the entire interaction with the is polc, workflow service and BPEL variable manipulation. Enter the global task variable name in the Global Task Variable Name field. This is the type of government did the create?, name of the BPEL task variable used for the workflow interaction. Enter the task owner name in the Owner field or click the icon to the right to use the Expression Builder to what is polc, dynamically specify the cola economics, owner of this task. The task owner can view tasks belonging to business processes they own and perform operations on is polc behalf of any of the how to bypass, task assignees. Additionally, the owner can also reassign, withdraw, or escalate tasks. If you do not specify a task initiator on the General tab of the Human Task window, it defaults to the owner specified here. If an owner is not specified, it defaults to the bpeladmin administrator. 15.7.4.3 Specifying an Identification Key. Enter an optional identification key value in is polc, the Identification Key field. The identification key can be used as a user-defined ID for the task. For example, if the task is Legacy meant for approving a purchase order, the purchase order ID can be set as the identification key of the task. Tasks can be searched from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application using the identification key. This attribute has no default value. What Is Polc? 15.7.4.4 Including the Task History of did the articles of confederation, Other Human Tasks. This feature enables one workflow to is polc, be continued with another workflow. Select the Include task history from check box to extend a previous workflow task in the BPEL process. Selecting this check box includes the task history, comments, and attachments from the previous task. This provides you with a complete end-to-end audit trail. When a workflow task is continued with another workflow, the following information is carried over to the new workflow: Task payload and the changes made to the payload in the previous workflow. Comments added to the task in bypass, the previous workflow. Attachments added to the task in the previous workflow. In the Include task history from list, all existing workflows are listed. Selecting a particular workflow permits you to extend (continue) the what, selected workflow. For example, a hiring process is used to Grief, hire new employees. What Is Polc? Each interviewer votes to hire or not hire a candidate. If 75% of the Essay about Substance Mental Health, votes are to hire, then the candidate is hired; otherwise, the candidate is rejected. If the is polc, candidate is to be hired, an entry in the HR database is created and the human resources contact completes the hiring process. The HR contact also needs to see the interviewers and the comments they made about the candidate. This process can be modeled using a group vote for the hiring. If the candidate is how to bypass hired, a database adapter is used to create the is polc, entry in bypass, the HR database. After this, a simple workflow can include the task history from the group vote so that the hiring request, history, and interviewer comments are carried over. This simple workflow is assigned to the HR contact. 15.7.4.5 Allowing Task and Routing Customizations in what is polc, BPEL Callbacks. Cola Economics? Select the Allow task and routing customizations in BPEL callbacks check box to notify the BPEL process using OnMessage callbacks every time a task is routed to a different user or when the task status changes. You must also select the check box of the what, same name in the Advanced Settings section of the Human Task editor shown in Legacy, Figure 15-26 in order to update the what is polc, metadata for Legacy Essay callbacks. In these callbacks, you can call the Task Service to change the routing or update the current assignees. This option impacts the BPEL code generated to interact with the Task Service. If this option is not selected, the client process gets notified only when the task completes or when it expires or errors out. Click OK to close the Human Task window. Go to the Human Task editor for what is polc this human task (the .task file). Expand the Advanced Settings section at the bottom of the editor. Click Allow task and routing customization in BPEL callbacks . This check box must be selected to use callbacks. This enables you to update the metadata. 15.7.5 Viewing the Generated Human Task Activity. When you have completed modeling the human task activity, the human task is generated in the designer window. Figure 15-29 shows how a workflow interaction is modeled in Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Figure 15-29 also illustrates the interaction when no BPEL callbacks are modeled. Essay? In this case, once a task is complete, the what, BPEL process is called back with the completed task. No intermediary events are propagated to the BPEL process instance. It is Legacy Essay recommended that any user customizations be done in the first assign, AssignTaskAttributes, and that AssignSystemTaskAttributes not be changed. Figure 15-29 Workflow Interaction Modeling. Figure 15-30 shows a workflow interaction in Oracle JDeveloper. Figure 15-30 Workflow Interaction Modeling in what is polc, Oracle JDeveloper. If intermediary events need to be propagated to the BPEL process instance, select the Allow task and routing customization in what is the difference preservation, BPEL callbacks check box in both the Advanced tab of the Human Task window and the Advanced Settings section of the Human Task editor. What Is Polc? When these options are selected, the workflow service invokes callbacks in on Hamlet's Grief, the BPEL instance during each update of the task. The callbacks are listed in the TaskService.wsdl file and what described below: onTaskCompleted #x2014; This callback is invoked when the task is completed, expired, withdrawn, or errored. onTaskAssigned #x2014; This callback is invoked when the task is assigned to a new set of assignees due to the following actions: Skip current assignment. What Is The Between? Override routing slip. onTaskUpdated #x2014; This callback is invoked for any other update to the task that does not fall in the onTaskComplete or onTaskAssigned callback. This includes updates on what tasks due to request for information, submit information, escalation, reassign, and cola economics so on. onSubTaskUpdated #x2014; This callback is invoked for any update to a subtask. Figure 15-31 shows how a workflow interaction with callbacks is modeled in Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Once this task is what initiated, a while loop is used to receive messages until the task is complete. The while loop contains a pick with four onMessage branches #x2014; one for each of the above-mentioned callback operations. The workflow interaction works fine even if nothing is changed in cola economics, the onMessage branches, meaning that customizations in the onMessage branches are not required. In this scenario, a workflow context is captured in the BPEL instance. This context can be used for all interaction with the workflow services. For example, if you want to reassign a task if it is assigned to a group, then you need the what, workflow context for the reassignTask operation on the Task Service. It is recommended that any user customizations be done in the first assign, AssignTaskAttributes, and that AssignSystemTaskAttributes not be changed. What Of Government Did The Of Confederation? Figure 15-31 Workflow Interaction Modeling (with Callbacks) Figure 15-32 shows a workflow interaction in Oracle JDeveloper. Figure 15-32 Workflow Interaction Modeling (with Callbacks) in Oracle JDeveloper. 15.7.5.2 Including the Task History from what Other Workflows. Legacy Essay? When the task history is included in a workflow, the generated BPEL process described in the previous two sections is similar, with the following differences: The BPEL variable from the workflow whose task history is to be included is reused and no new BPEL variable is created. The first invoke activity invokes the reinitiate operation instead of the initiate operation. In many cases, the outcome of a task determines the flow of the is polc, business process. To facilitate modeling of the business logic, when a user task is cola economics generated, a BPEL switch activity is also generated with prebuilt BPEL case activities. By default, one case branch is created for is polc each outcome selected during creation of the task. An otherwise branch is also generated in the switch to represent cases when the task is withdrawn, expired, or errored. The task carries a payload in it. If the on Hamlet's, payload is set from a business process variable, then an what assign activity with the name copyPayloadFromTask is cola economics created in each of the case and otherwise branches to copy the payload from the task back to its source. If the payload is expressed as other XPath expressions (such as ora:getNodes(. ) ), then this assign is not created because of the lack of a process variable to copy the payload back. If the payload does not need to be modified, then this assign can be removed. 15.7.6.2 Case Statements for Other Task Conclusions. By default, the switch activity contains case statements for the outcomes only. The other task conclusions are captured in the otherwise branch. These conclusions are as follows: The task is withdrawn. The task is errored. The task is expired. If business logic must be added for each of what is polc, these other conclusions, then case statements can be added for each of the preceding conditions. The case statements can be created as shown in the following BPEL segment. The XPath conditions for the other conclusions in the case activities for each of the preceding cases are shown in The Roman Essay, bold. 15.8 Task 3: Generating the Task Display Form. The task display form defines the what is polc, display mechanism for the task payload in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. This section describes the what, different types of task display forms you can use. What Is Polc? This section contains the following topics: 15.8.1 Overview of Task Display Forms. The task display form for the human task can be automatically generated and Legacy Essay then customized or developed completely from the is polc, beginning using the workflow APIs. In the automatically generated case, a set of seeded templates and regions are used for the task forms. There are two methods for generating forms associated with the task definition: Automatically generate a simple task form #x2014; JSP-based forms that use the standard header, body, and footer template. Custom task form #x2014; enables you to select one of the existing templates and how to turnitin regions to create a task form. You can also specify which task parameters to display in the form. What? When task display forms are generated, a .tform file is created, which includes a template URI and region information. The .tform file is included in the process deployment archive and is deployed during process deployment. 15.8.2 Selecting a Task Display Form. Follow these instructions to generate a task display form for what is the between preservation and conservation the human task. Go to the Application Navigator in Oracle JDeveloper. Right-click the folder of the human task for which to create a task display form (for this example, ExpenseApproval of the ExpenseRequest BPEL process in selected). The following menu of selections appears. See the following sections for details about generating the different types of is polc, task forms: 15.8.2.1 Preview Release of Essay, Task Display Form Support for ADF Data Controls. A preview release of task display form support for application development framework (ADF) data controls is provided. Very minimal support is provided with this preview release. Note the following limitations: There is no support for complex XSDs with recursive elements. Task forms generated with ADF data controls cannot be edited. Follow these procedures to use this preview release: Open an operating system command prompt. Open Oracle JDeveloper in preview mode: Note that Auto Generate Task Form With ADF Datacontrols now appears as a menu option when you right-click the folder of the human task, as shown in Step 2 of Selecting a Task Display Form. Open the SOA_Oracle_Home j2ee OC4J_Home configserver.xml file. where OC4J_Home is the name of the OC4J container for your install type: home #x2014; for the Oracle Application Server SOA Basic install type. OC4J_SOA #x2014; if you accepted the default value for what the Oracle Application Server SOA Advanced install types. Add the following line under the how to turnitin, shared-library name=oracle.bpel.common version=10.1.3 section: Restart Oracle Application Server SOA Suite for the changes to take effect. 15.8.3 Automatically Generating a Simple Task Display Form. This option enables you to automatically generate a task form based on the default task parameters and three regions. Select Auto Generate Simple Task Form from the list shown in Step 2. The default layout is based on the following three region template: Header region #x2014; this region has standard task attributes such as title, priority, created date, assignee, and expiration date. This information is contained in the Header1.jsp file. Body region #x2014; this region is generated based on the task parameters. Depending on the XSD used in the task, it is either generated as a list of values or as a table (for repeating items). If you specified the parameter to be modifiable through the worklist on the Add Task Parameter window in Step 2, it displays as an editable field in the form. Otherwise, the field displays as read-only. The information for this region is contained in the payload-body.jsp file and the payload-body.xml mapping file. After generation, if you want to change any read-only parameters, you can modify the what is polc, payload-body.xml file. Footer region #x2014; this region has an area for comments, attachments, and a short history of the task routing. This information is contained in the Footer1.jsp file. How To? A .tform file is generated. The contents of this file are as follows: 15.8.3.1 Payload File for the Autogenerated JSP. What? Two files are automatically generated to display the payload for the autogenerated JSP: A default JSP file named payload-body.jsp . Substance Is A Issue? This file is added to is polc, the HTML root directory of your project, which is by default the about Substance Mental Health, public_html directory. A mapping XML file named payload-body.xml . This file is added to the same directory of your project as payload-body.jsp. Is Polc? If you select Custom Task Form in Step 2, you can specify a unique file name for the autogenerated JSP. The mapping XML file is Essay Is a created based on the JSP file name. What? You can also select the payload elements to include in the autogenerated JSP. For example, if the JSP file is named autogenerate-body.jsp , then the mapping XML file is named autogenerate-body.xml . The JSP run-time library and the BPMWorkflow library are automatically added to your BPEL project for compilation of the JSP file. The default JSP is designed with two goals in mind: To present you with a simple form; that is, an XSD tree with a depth of more than three must be shown in a more readable way in the JSP. How To Bypass Turnitin? The default JSP must require minimum modification. If modification is unavoidable, it can be easily performed with a user interface tool. To attain these goals, instead of presenting a tree structure that mimics the payload XSD structure, the default JSP groups the what is polc, entire payload structure in sections. How To Bypass Turnitin? It groups simple types that belong to the same parents and makes them sections. For example, assume you provide the following payload XSD: This XSD has the structure shown in what is polc, Figure 15-33. Figure 15-33 Structure of the what type did the articles of confederation create?, XSD for myCompanyType. In the default JSP, based on the structure of the leaf nodes, there are three sections: , , and . These three sections are named according to their parents' names; that is, the sections are named board , my Company , and department , respectively. In the board section, there are two fields, size and head . Each of these fields are in what, an editable HTML input type.The section department is different from Essay other sections and can have multiple occurrences ( maxOccurs 1 ). In this case, all the fields in this section (that is, size , head , and function ) are horizontally presented in a table, with each row representing one department . This is what is polc called a table section. There is a plus ( + ) button for adding a row (department) and a minus ( - ) button for subtracting a row (department) for the department table section.Unlike a regular section, it is what type of government of confederation create? not necessarily true that all the fields belong to is polc, the same XSD parent in a table section. For example, suppose the head element has two elements: employeeNumber and dateOfBirth . Since these two elements have maxOccurs set to less than or equal to how to turnitin, 1 , they are shown in the same department table section. This is a desired behavior, because adding a row in the department table not only what is polc, adds a size and a function field, but also adds the head information fields in the same department row. This makes it easy to move through complicated payload instances. Nested multiple ( maxOccurs 1 ) elements are supported. Assume the how to bypass, department element has a groupMember child element whose maxOccurs is unbounded. What? In that case, the parent element department is presented in a table section while the child groupMember elements are presented in about Abuse Health Issue, different child table sections. The parent department table section has a column called group member that contains an HTML href link pointing to what, its corresponding child group member section in each department row. Pressing the + button in the parent department section not only adds a row in the parent table, but also adds a child section for that corresponding new row. The default JSP in type did the, the current release has the following limitations: XSDs that contain recursive elements are not supported. The default JSP shows all the simple types defined in the payload XSD. If multiple simple types belong to the same XSD choice block, all these simple types are shown in the default JSP. Although simple types are preserved in the JSP, XSD restrictions are not relevant. Only payloads copied from variables that are not simple types are supported. For example, if the query is bpws:getVariableData(var) or bpws:getVariableData(var, part) and what the variable is a simple type, then JSP generation fails. Note that bpws:getVariableData(var, part, query) and bpws:getVariableData(var, query) work even if the queried data is a simple type. Type Of Government Create?? You only need to make sure the variable itself is not a simple type. XSI extensions are not supported. No special handling of XSD order indicators occurs (that is, choice , all , and sequence ). What Is Polc? For example, the default JSP does not check if you entered both firstname and lastname : 15.8.3.1.1 Customizing the Autogenerated JSP. The autogenerated default JSP is cola economics generic, and so may require changes to improve its look and feel. The JSP works in conjunction with the mapping file to what is polc, determine which elements in the payload are displayed in the form. 15.8.3.1.2 Customizing the what is the preservation, Mapping File. The mapping file gives you control of the presentation. The mapping file is an XML file that contains a list of viewable fields. What Is Polc? The root element in the mapping file contains its targetNameSpace , other namespaces, and xmlEditable as its attributes. Turnitin? All the elements that are simple types are listed as fields in the mapping file. Along with these elements, their immediate parents are listed as well for what is polc multilanguage support. Each field has three properties defined in the mapping file. They are xpath , editable , and resource_key . The xpath property defines the cola economics, XPath of this field. It is always prefixed by /ns0:task/ns0:payload . This is the XPath to the root of the payload object. When maxOccurs is greater than 1 , it is denoted by
  • . For example, /ns0:task/ns0:payload/company[*]/ceo shows that maxOccurs is greater than 1 for what is polc the company field. Do not modify this XPath field because it is also a unique key that determines the identity of the field. The editable property defines if this field is editable. It defaults to true . If the value of this field is changed to false , the default JSP shows a disabled text field that disallows value changes. On Hamlet's Grief? The resource_key property is for multilanguage support. Is Polc? To ensure that your autogenerated JSP shows a preferred language other than English, you must supply a resource bundle. Follow these steps to add a resource bundle: Create a bundle file (for example, MyBundle ). What Is The Between Preservation And Conservation? This file points to a properties file that resides at the root of the is polc, project.
  • The following code shows an example of MyBundle_en-US.properties : In this case, if a field is defined in your mapping file as follows. in the default JSP returns the is the difference and conservation, string i18n Task if your locale is set to en-US . Similarly, if your locale is set to what is polc, French, the proper properties file ( MyBundle_fr.properties ) is picked up. Specify the resource bundle name and location in the Resource Details window of the Human Task editor, as shown in what is the difference between preservation and conservation, Specifying Multilingual Settings. What? 15.8.3.1.3 Customizing the Default JSP. If the mapping file does not provide enough control, you can modify the default JSP file. On Hamlet's Grief? Only modify the section after the label: Most JSP modifications can be made in the JSP design view of Oracle JDeveloper. By default, all the fields are set to what, text field. Is The Difference Between Preservation And Conservation? If you want to change a text field to a text area, you can do the following. Select Text Area in the Component Palette , as shown in Figure 15-34. Figure 15-34 Oracle JDeveloper JSP Design View. Drop it into the position of the what is polc, text field you want to replace. Note that the name of the of government articles of confederation create?, text field is is polc set by calling the function oracle.bpel.services.workflow.worklist.payload.PayloadFormGenerator.constructName(String xpath) , and cola economics the value of the field is set by PayloadFormGenerator.selectNodeValue(Element payload, String xpath, Map namespace) . These functions must be used to construct form field names and to retrieve form field values. Is Polc? Set the bypass turnitin, text area's name and value to the same name and value as the text field. Delete the text field. In the place you want to insert text or other HTML elements that are not in a table, add text by typing it or add an HTML element by dragging and dropping the HTML component from the Component Pallet . If the place you want to insert HTML elements is in an HTML table, to insert text or a horizontal rule, first add a table row by what is polc, clicking a row, right-clicking, and selecting Insert Row . After a row is Essay about Substance Abuse inserted, you may need to merge all the cells in the row by selecting all the cells in the row and right-clicking to select Merge Cells . What? Then you can either type your text or drag and drop your HTML component. If you want to change the layout of the table or form, highlight the section you want to modify, right-click, and select table or form. If you want to format the cola economics, text, use the what, toolbar's color and Abuse Is a style buttons. It is recommended that you modify the default JSP's look and feel only. You should preserve the functions being used in what is polc, the JSP. You must not alter the hidden parameters being submitted in the HTML form, because the of government did the of confederation create?, Update button invokes form submission to the WFTaskUpdate that expects certain values. If your change is complicated and has programming logic in it, you must switch to the source view and modify the JSP code directly. Is Polc? By putting the statement %@ page pageEncoding=UTF-8 % in the default JSP, UTF-8 is set as the default encoding. The HelpDeskServiceRequest demo in SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsamplesdemos for an example of an autogenerated JSP and how to change the payload presentation. 15.8.3.1.4 Displaying a Check Box on cola economics the Worklist Payload JSP. Follow these instructions if you want to what is polc, customize the JSP page to display a selectable check box instead of The Roman Legacy Essay, a text box. Note that the input for the status is generated as follows. Substitute the entire code block shown in what is polc, Step 1 with the following code block: Add the following JavaScript . This is required because the value for the check box field in Legacy, JavaScript is always the value defined in the input element. 15.8.4 Generating a Custom Task Display Form. For this release, task display forms are generated by using templates consisting of what, different regions. Oracle JDeveloper automatically includes three templates and two default JSPs: The three templates are as follows: Three Region JSP #x2014; Consists of the header, body and footer regions. These regions can be displayed by using custom JSP, XSL, default JSP, or autogenerated JSP files. The automatically generated JSP displays the body region. Two Region JSP #x2014; Consists of the cola economics, header and footer regions. One Region JSP #x2014; Consists of the body region. The two default JSPs are as follows: The header JSP displays task attributes such as task number, priority, title, and what is polc so on. The footer JSP displays task attributes such as attachment, comments, and so on. The custom task display form enables you to select the template and rendering type for displaying task details. Select Custom Task Form from the list shown in Step 2. The Task Form Display window appears. Select a template from the Current Template list. About Abuse Is A Health Issue? Three are three seeded regions (three region JSP, two region JSP, and one region JSP). What Is Polc? After selecting a region, you can specify how to render it. See the following sections for Grief details about generating the different types of custom task display forms: This option enables you to automatically generate a form for the payload of the what, task. You can also optionally specify which particular task parameters you want to include in the displayed form. Select Auto JSP from the Body list in the Rendering section. How To? An icon displays to the right of Body.jsp in the Source section. The Payload Mapping window appears. This window enables you to select message attributes. Select message attributes to include in the autogenerated JSP. Click OK to return to the Task Form Display window. Is Polc? This option enables you to invoke an The Roman Essay external custom JSP to display the task details. You can also specify URL parameters to pass to what is polc, this JSP at run time. Three parameters are passed in by default #x2014; taskID , version , and workflowContext . Additional parameters must be explicitly specified. Select Custom JSP from the Header list in the Rendering section. A second icon displays to the right of the Source section for editing custom JSP parameters. Enter the custom JSP file name in how to bypass, the Source field or click the first icon to select the JSP file to what is polc, use. This JSP is used in the project and deployed with the other JSP files. Click the second icon to specify run time JSP parameters. The Payload Mapping window appears. This window enables you to add input JSP parameters. Add a parameter by clicking the + sign. Add a name in the Name column. Click the icon to the right of the what difference preservation, row to display the Expression Builder window to what is polc, dynamically enter a value for the XPath column. For this example, the custom JSP is using a parameter named PRIORITY to receive the task ID from the Essay on Hamlet's Grief, request. Therefore, PRIORITY is specified as the name and /tns:task/tns:systemAttributes/tns:PRIORITY is specified as the XPath expression. Is Polc? Creating Custom JSP Forms for details about explicitly passing parameters. This option provides the default Header1.jsp and Legacy Footer1.jsp files to display the header and is polc footer regions, respectively. This option enables you to specify an XSL to convert the task XML document into an HTML document for the form. Note that this is useful only to create read-only forms. Enter the how to bypass turnitin, HTTP location in the Source field or click the first icon to is polc, select the input XSL file to use. 15.8.5 Deploying Task Display Forms. Workflow task display forms are deployed by using the deployTaskForm ant target. This target is executed when you deploy the BPEL process from Oracle JDeveloper or from the Essay Grief, command prompt. This target generates an EAR file that includes all generated default or custom JSPs. This generated EAR file is deployed as a child of the Oracle BPEL Process Manager application. The following directory structure is generated. What? The following subdirectories and how to bypass turnitin files are created: A J2EE enterprise archive directory named ear is created. EAR deployment descriptors are generated and stored in the META-INF subdirectory. A Web archive (WAR) directory named war is created. What Is Polc? This directory contains the following files and subdirectories: Style sheets and Java server page files for the header ( Header1.jsp ), footer ( Footer1.jsp ), and body ( payload-body.jsp and payload-body.xml ) are generated and stored in the war directory. Web service deployment descriptors are generated in the subdirectory WEB-INF . Essay? You can delete all form-related files by right-clicking the human task folder in the Application Navigator and selecting Delete Task Form files . As described earlier, you can register a custom JSP for rendering the what, task details in how to bypass, the worklist. The BPEL worklist invokes any custom JSP that has been registered. Follow these instructions to create a custom JSP form. Get the task ID, version, and context ID from the request. Get the workflow context object based on the context ID. Get the task object based on the task ID and version. Use the task query service API getTaskDetailsById if the version is null or empty. Otherwise, use the getTaskVersionDetails API. Use the task object methods to get the values you want to display in the JSP. In the case of update support, generate the hidden HTML type for the following parameters, so that the update servlet can read these parameter values: You can get the values for these parameters in the custom JSP servlet request object. Run time invokes the custom JSP by passing these parameters. The following custom JSP code shows how to use these steps to what, write a custom JSP that uses the local query service and verification APIs. Did The Create?? For this reason, deploy this JSP as a child of the hw_services application. If you do not want to deploy to what, the same application server, replace local APIs with remote APIs. Difference? 15.8.6.1 Adding Update Support in the Custom JSP. To add update support in the custom JSP, you can write the servlet that uses the remote task service APIs to update the custom JSP task values: Get the task object by using the same steps as used in the custom JSP. Query the task object and set the values based on what the custom JSP form. For example, if the custom JSP form allows a user to update the priority attribute, then get the priority JSP form value and call task.setPriority( newvalue ); . What Type Of Government Did The Articles Of Confederation Create?? Use the is polc, remote task service API to update the Legacy, task. Get the value from servlet parameter WORKLIST_NEXT_PAGE_PARAMETER_NAME , which the custom JSP page includes as a hidden parameter. Redirect the page to what, the URL. Essay Substance Abuse? 15.9 How Changes to a Workflow Appear in Worklist Application. Changes made in Oracle BPEL Control to a BPEL process that includes a human task impact how tasks display in Oracle BPEL Worklist Application: If you abort an active BPEL process instance on is polc the Instances tab, associated tasks are marked as Stale in how to turnitin, the Status column of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application home page. If you delete a BPEL process instance on the Instances tab, all associated tasks are deleted. If you undeploy a BPEL process on the BPEL Process tab, associated tasks are marked as Stale in the Status column of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application home page. Is Polc? 15.10 Notifications from Workflow Services. Notifications are sent to alert users of changes to the state of a task. Notifications can be sent through any of the following channels: e-mail, telephone voice message, fax, pager, or SMS. The Roman Essay? This section contains the following topics: 15.10.1 Configuring the Notification Channel. After configuring the notification service for e-mail and other channels in Oracle JDeveloper, set the NotificationMode parameter for the notification service to either ALL or EMAIL in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigns_emails.xml file. By default, this value is set to NONE , meaning that no notifications are sent. The possible values for the NotificationMode attribute are: ALL #x2013; the what is polc, e-mail, SMS, voice, fax, and pager channels are configured and notification is what of government articles sent through any channel. EMAIL #x2013; Only the e-mail channel is configured for sending notification messages. NONE #x2013; No channel is configured for what sending notification messages. Mental? This is the default setting. The notifications for a task can be configured during the creation of a task in the Human Task editor. What? Notifications can be sent to different types of participants for on Hamlet's different actions. The actions for which a task notification can be sent are as follows: Assigned #x2014; when the what, task is assigned to how to, users or a group. This action captures the is polc, following task actions #x2014; acquire, adhoc route, delegate, escalate, information for a task is submitted, push back, reassign, release, and resume. Cola Economics? Task is completed. What Is Polc? Task is errored. Task is expired. Cola Economics? Information is requested for a task. What? Task outcome is updated. Task is suspended. What Is The Between And Conservation? Task is withdrawn. Notifications can be sent to users involved in the task in various capacities. This includes: Assignees #x2013; the users or groups to is polc, whom the how to turnitin, task is currently assigned. What? Initiator - the user who created the task. Between And Conservation? Creator #x2013; the what is polc, user who created the task. Approvers #x2013; the users who have approved the task so far. This applies to a sequential list of type articles of confederation create?, approvers participant type where multiple users have approved the task and a notification must be sent to all. Owner #x2013; the owner of the task. When the task is what assigned to a group, each user in turnitin, the group is sent a notification if no notification endpoint is what is polc available for the group. Service Configuration chapter of the Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for details about editing the ns_emails.xml file and (for the what type did the, JAZN XML provider) users-properties.xml file. Is Polc? Each e-mail notification can contain the following parts: The notification message. The HTML content from the Essay Grief, worklist application #x2014; This is a read-only view of the worklist application on the task. Task attachments #x2014; If the notification includes task attachments. Notifications through SMS, voice, fax, and what is polc pager contain only the notification message. The notification message is an XPath expression that can contain static text and dynamic values. In creating the messages, only the task BPEL variable is available for dynamic values. This restriction is because the messages are evaluated outside the context of the BPEL process. Essay On Hamlet's Grief? The payload in the task variable is also strongly typed to contain the type of the payload for XPath tree browsing. The XPath extension function hwf:getNotificationProperty(propertyName) is available to get properties for a particular notification. The function evaluates to corresponding values for each notification. The propertyName can one of the following values: recipient #x2014; The recipient of the notification. recipientDisplay #x2014; The display name of the is polc, recipient. taskAssignees #x2014; The task assignees. taskAssigneesDisplay #x2014; The display names of the task assignees. locale #x2014; The locale of the recipient. taskId #x2014; The ID of the Legacy, task for which the notification is meant. taskNumber #x2014; The number of the task for which the is polc, notification is meant. appLink #x2014; The HTML link to the worklist application task details page. The following example demonstrates the use of hwf:getNotificationProperty and how to bypass hwf:getTaskResourceBundle together: This results in is polc, a message similar to the following: 15.10.3 Configuring Messages in Different Languages. It is possible to get internationalized messages in the notification content using one of the following methods. If you want to use values from the resource bundle specified during the task definition, use the what, XPath extension function hwf:getTaskResourceBundleString(taskId, key, locale?) . This function returns the internationalized string from the resource bundle specified in is polc, the task definition. The locale of the cola economics, notification recipient can be retrieved with the function hwf:getNotificationProperty('locale') . The task ID corresponding to a notification can be retrieved with the function hwf:getNotificationProperty('taskId') . If a different resource bundle is used, the is polc, XPath extension function orcl:get-localized-string() can be used to The Roman, retrieve localized messages. Task actions can be performed through e-mail if the task is set up to enable actionable e-mail (the same actions can also be performed from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application). An actionable e-mail account is the account in which task action-related e-mails are received and processed. What Is Polc? This e-mail account name is identified by the element actionableEmailAccountName in the configuration file SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwf_config.xml . What Is The Difference? Ensure that you select Make e-mail messages actionable in the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor to make e-mail notifications actionable. (See Figure 15-25.) This enables you to what, perform task actions through e-mail. If a notification is actionable, the e-mail contains links for each of the custom outcomes. Clicking on the links invokes the compose window of the bypass turnitin, e-mail client. You do not have to what, change anything in the subject or the body in this e-mail. If you change the content with the NID substrings, the cola economics, e-mail is not processed. What? Figure 15-35 shows an actionable e-mail sample: Figure 15-35 Actionable E-mails. 15.10.5 Sending Inbound and Outbound Attachments. If the is the difference between preservation, include attachments flag is checked; only e-mail is sent. The e-mails include all the task attachments as e-mail attachments. What? Select Send task attachments with e-mail notifications in the Notification Settings section of the Essay, Human Task editor. (See Figure 15-25.) In the actionable e-mail reply, the user can add attachments in the e-mail and these attachments are added as task attachments. What? In the cola economics, actionable e-mail reply, the user can add comments in the e-mail between Comments[[' and what ']] and those contents are added as task comments. For example, Comments[[looks good]]. In previous releases, the workflow outbound notification was not reliable. This meant that notifications were sent by using threads and the list of notifications to send was stored in memory. Cola Economics? If Oracle BPEL Server went down, workflow lost any notification messages that had not yet been sent. With release 10.1.3, the workflow outbound notification service uses queues with the persistency service to send notifications to users. Whenever a workflow needs to send a notification to a user, it stores the what, task information such as notification ID, task ID, version, and so on in the dehydration store and enqueues the notification ID to the queue. A message-driven bean (MDB) listening on this queue dequeues the message and creates the notification message to send to the user. It then uses the notification service to send this message, which uses the queue with the dehydration store. 15.10.8 Sending Secure Notifications. If a notification is marked as secure in the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor, a default notification message is used. (See Figure 15-25.) The default notification message includes a link to the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. You must log in to see task details. 15.10.9 Channels Used for Notifications. What Type Of Government Did The? The channel through which a user is notified is determined by the notification preference attribute of the what is polc, user specified in difference, JAZN. Is Polc? The notification preference is identified by the attribute orclWorkflowNotificationPreference . In a JAZN file-based system, the what between preservation and conservation, value for this attribute can be changed in the users-properties.xml file located at SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfig . In an is polc Oracle Internet Directory-based system, the user properties can be changed using the Oracle Delegated Administration Service. If this attribute is not set, the e-mail channel is used as the Essay Substance Is a Mental Health Issue, default. Tasks can be configured to send reminders, which can be based on the time the task was assigned to a user or the expiration time of a task. The number of reminders and the interval between the reminders can also be configured. The message used for reminders is the message that is meant for ASSIGNEES when the task is marked as ASSIGNED . You set reminders in the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor. (See Figure 15-25.) Reminder configuration involves these parameters. Recurrence #x2014; The recurrence specifies the is polc, number of times reminders are sent. The possible values for recurrence are EVERY , NEVER , 0 , 1 , 2 #x2026;, 10 . RelativeDate #x2014; The relativeDate specifies if the reminder duration is computed relative to the assigned date or to the expiration date of the Essay on Hamlet's Grief, task. What? The possible values for the relativeDate are ASSIGNED and Legacy Essay EXPIRATION . Duration #x2014; The duration from the relativeDate and the first reminder and each reminder since then. The data type of is polc, duration is xsd:duration , whose format is Essay on Hamlet's Grief defined by ISO 8601 under the form PnYnMnDTnHnMnS . The capital letters are delimiters and can be omitted when the corresponding member is not used. Examples include PT1004199059S , PT130S , PT2M10S , P1DT2S , -P1Y, or P1Y2M3DT5H20M30.123S . The following examples illustrate when reminders are sent. The relativeDate is ASSIGNED , the recurrence is EVERY , and the reminder duration is PT1D . If the task is what assigned at 3/24/2005 10:00 AM , then reminders are sent at 3/25/2005 10:00 AM , 3/26/2005 10:00 AM , 3/27/2005 10:00 AM , and The Roman so on until the user acts on the task. If the relativeDate is is polc EXPIRATION , the recurrence is 2 , the reminder duration is PT1D, and the task expires at 3/26/2005 10:00 AM , then reminders are sent at 3/24/2005 10:00 AM and 3/25/2005 10:00 AM if the task was assigned before 3 /24/2005 10:00 AM . If the relativeDate is EXPIRATION , the recurrence is Legacy 2 , the what, reminder duration is PT1D , the task expires at Abuse 3/26/2005 10:00 AM , and the task was assigned at 3/24/2005 3:00 PM , then only one reminder is is polc sent at cola economics 3/25/2005 10:00 AM . Table 15-14 shows the end-to-end workflow examples included with Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Follow the documentation included in the same directories with these samples. In addition to is polc, the demonstration features listed in Table 15-14, all samples show the use of worklist applications and workflow notifications. The Roman Legacy Essay? Table 15-14 End-to-End Examples. Integration with a business rule engine. Adding attachments to tasks. Use of decision service to determine the levels of approvals required for a particular expense request. Microsoft Office integration. Is Polc? Custom worklist user interface. Promotion of task payload message attributes. Group assignment (in StarLoan process) Custom worklist user interface (in LoanFlowPlusUI and StarLoanUI) FYI tasks (in LoanFlowPlus process) This example describes how to create a vacation request business process. In this business process, the manager of a user requesting a vacation approves or rejects the request. The approval or rejection is a one-step process. This example highlights the use of the following: Modeling a single approval workflow using Oracle JDeveloper. Using the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application to view and respond to tasks. This example assumes the following: You are familiar with basic BPEL constructs, including BPEL activities and partner links, and basic XPath functions. Familiarity with Oracle JDeveloper#x2014;the environment for creating and deploying BPEL processes#x2014;is also assumed. You must configure the Essay on Hamlet's Grief, e-mail server settings for the account Default to enable e-mail notifications. The Default account is used to send e-mails. The e-mail server configuration is in. The following code example from the file shows the parameters that may require configuration in what is polc, bold. You must set the NotificationMode parameter to one of the following values in the ns_emails.xml file: ALL #x2013; If you have the e-mail, SMS, voice, fax, and pager channels set up. EMAIL #x2013; If you have only the e-mail channel set up. You must change the e-mail address for the user jstein to an accessible e-mail address. What Is The Preservation? If the what is polc, XML-based JAZN provider is used, these properties can be changed in: The following XML segment from the users-properties.xml file shows where the e-mail is configured: You must restart Oracle BPEL Process Manager after making any of the preceding changes. Health? 15.11.3 Modeling the what is polc, Vacation Request Process. In this phase of the tutorial, you create a new project, OrderApproval, and Essay define the human workflow process, a single approver workflow in which the is polc, order is approved or rejected. Cola Economics? The order is first assigned to the Supervisor role. Is Polc? After a user with the Supervisor role approves the order, it is sent to the user's manager for final approval. This section contains these tasks: 15.11.3.1 Creating the Vacation Request Process and Importing the Schema. Right-click your application in the Application Navigator and select New Project . Select BPEL Process Project . Create an bypass turnitin asynchronous BPEL process with the name VacationRequest . Click the flashlight next to Input Schema Element to browse for VacationRequest.xsd in. The Type Chooser window appears. Expand and what select Imported Schemas VacationRequest.xsd VacationRequestProcessRequest . Click the flashlight next to Output Schema Element . Expand and select Imported Schemas VacationRequest.xsd VacationRequestProcessResponse . The schemas are now imported into what articles of confederation, the project. VacationRequest.xsd appears under VacationRequest Integration Content Schemas in the Application Navigator , and under Schemas in the Structure section. The BPEL process#x2014;a Receive activity ( receiveInput ) and is polc an Invoke activity ( callbackClient )#x2014;is displayed. Select Save from the File main menu. 15.11.3.2 Adding a Human Task to the Order Approval Process. When you define the human task, the VacationApproval.task file#x2014;the task configuration metadata file#x2014;is created. Drag and drop a Human Task activity between receiveInput and callbackClient . Click the Create Task Definition icon (second icon). Enter VacationApproval for the human task name and click OK . (Accept the default location.) The VacationApproval.task file is created. The Human Task editor is displayed. For Title , enter Vacation Approval . What Articles? Accept the default values for Priority and is polc Outcomes . For Parameters , click the + icon on the right side of the window. The Add Task Parameter window is displayed. Click Element and then the flashlight icon. In the Type Chooser window, expand and Essay about Substance Abuse Is a Mental Health select Project Schema Files VacationRequest.xsd VacationRequestProcessRequest , and is polc click OK . In the Add Task Parameter window, click Modifiable via worklist and click OK . This ensures that you can modify task data using the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Cola Economics? In the Assignment and Routing Policy section, click the + icon on the right side of the window. The Add Participant Type window is displayed. For Type , select Single Approver . This participant type acts alone on the task. For Label , enter Vacation Approver . Click By expression . In this example, you assign the task to what, the manager of the vacation requester. Click the icon to the right of the Dynamic User Xpath field to display the is the difference between preservation, Expression Builder window. Select Identity Service Functions from the list in the Functions section. Go to the Schema section on the left side of the Expression Builder window. Expand task:task task:payload ns0:VacationRequestProcessRequest ns0:creator . Click Insert Into Expression . The Expression Builder window appears as follows: Click OK to return to the Add Participant Type window. Is Polc? Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. Click the how to, + sign to expand the Expiration and what Escalation Policy section. Select Expire after from the drop-down list. Type Of Government Articles Of Confederation Create?? Click Fixed Duration and select 1 from the Day list. Select Save from the File main menu. Click the X next to VacationApproval.task to close the Human Task editor. What Is Polc? 15.11.3.3 Assigning Input and Output Parameters for the Human Task. Map the fields to the variables in the BPEL process. Double-click the VacationApproval_1 human task service in the BPEL process. This displays the Human Task window. In the Task Title field, enter the word for after the cola economics, words Vacation Approval . What Is Polc? Click the icon at the right to display the Expression Builder window. In the BPEL Variables section, expand and Essay on Hamlet's select inputVariable payload client:VacationRequestProcessRequest client:creator . Click Insert Into Expression . The XPath expression appears in what, the Expression section. The XPath expression is appended to the task title. Click the icon to the right of the Initiator field to display the Expression Builder window. Repeat Steps 4 through 6 to insert the same XPath expression in cola economics, the Initiator field. Click the flashlight icon under the BPEL Variable column. The Task Parameters window appears. Is Polc? In the Task Parameters window, expand and select Variables inputVariable payload client:VacationRequestProcessRequest . In the Human Task window, click OK . Select Save from the File main menu. Essay About Mental Issue? 15.11.3.4 Creating a Task Form for the Worklist. What? An autogenerated task form, payload-body.jsp , is created. Cola Economics? In the Application Navigator , right-click the VacationApproval folder and select Auto Generate Simple Task Form . This automatically generates a task form file. Close payload-body.jsp by clicking the X sign at the top. What Is Polc? The Switch activity reflects the possible outcomes, or cases, specified previously, Approve and Reject. It also has an Otherwise case to represent other outcomes, such as errored, stale, or expired. Inside each of the cases, you can add activities to complete modeling of the business process. Bypass Turnitin? The copyPayloadFromTask Assign activities copy the payload back to its source. Is Polc? Expand the what difference between and conservation, taskSwitch Switch activity. Drag and drop an Assign activity to what, below the copyPayloadFromTask Assign activity in the case Task outcome is APPROVE section of the Switch activity. Double-click the Assign icon to display the Assign window. Click the General tab. Enter assignVacationApproval1 in the Name field. Mental Health? Click the Copy Operation tab. Click Create and select Copy Operation . Enter the following details: Note: The namespace number values (for example, client , ns1 ) can vary. Use the namespace values that automatically appear. Click OK to close the Create Copy Operation window and what the Assign window. Repeat Steps 3 through 11 to Essay Grief, create an Assign activity below the copyPayloadFromTask Assign activity in the case Task outcome is REJECT section. Enter the same details as described above, with the following exceptions: Name it assignVacationApproval2. Set the Expression field to string('Rejected') Repeat Steps 3 through 11 to create an Assign Activity below the copyPayloadFromTask Assign activity in the otherwise section. Enter the same details as described above, with the following exceptions: Name it assignVacationApproval3. Set the Expression field to what is polc, string('Rejected') The process looks as follows: Select Save from the File main menu. Click the - sign to close the taskSwitch Switch activity. 15.11.3.6 Validating, Compiling, and on Hamlet's Grief Deploying the Order Approval Process. Go to the Application Navigator section. Select Deploy my_integration_server_connection Deploy to what is polc, default domain . This compiles the BPEL process. Check for errors by clicking the buttons at the bottom of the window. If there are no errors, deployment was successful. 15.11.3.7 Running the Order Approval Process. Log into Oracle BPEL Control by selecting Start All Programs Oracle - Oracle_Home Oracle BPEL Process Manager BPEL Control . The Dashboard tab of Oracle BPEL Control appears. Enter the following details to log into Oracle BPEL Control and click Login : Click VacationApproval in the Deployed BPEL Processes list. Enter jcooper for the creator of the vacation. Cola Economics? Enter appropriate values for the remaining fields. Click Post XML Message . The BPEL Processes tab displays a message similar to the following: Click the Instances tab at is polc the top. Click the OrderApproval instance. What Did The Create?? A message appears indicating that the instance is active. Select Start All Programs Oracle - Oracle_Home Oracle BPEL Process Manager Sample Worklist Application to access the login window for Oracle BPEL Worklist Application: Log in as jstein / welcome1 . The user jstein is the manager of jcooper . This displays Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. A task waiting to be approved appears. Select Claim in the Actions list for what the task to approve. The task details and payload information appear. Review the information. For example, the following information appears if you copied and pasted in the contents of OrderBookingPO_1.xml . Select Approve from the Task Action list and click Go . Log out difference between preservation and conservation, as user jcooper . Log into Oracle BPEL Worklist Application as jstein / welcome1 . Is Polc? Select Approve from the what and conservation, Actions list and click Go . After processing, no tasks appear in what is polc, Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Return to Oracle BPEL Control. Click the Instances tab at the top. Click the VacationApproval instance. A message appears indicating that the instance has completed. Click the Audit and Flow links to Essay Substance Health, observe additional details about the completed OrderApproval process. Workflow services and functions are responsible for a variety of tasks. This section describes the responsibilities of the following workflow services: 15.12.1 EJB, SOAP, and Java Support for the Workflow Services. Table 15-15 lists the type of is polc, SOAP, EJB, and Java support provided for the task services. Legacy Essay? Table 15-15 EJB, SOAP, and Java Support. What? Table 15-16 lists the what is the between preservation and conservation, location for the SOAP WSDL file for what is polc each task service. Table 15-16 SOAP WSDL Location for the Task Services. 15.12.2 Security Model for Services. With the Essay about Is a Health, exception of the identity service, all services that use the above-mentioned APIs (SOAP, remote EJB, local EJB, and Java WSIF) require authentication to is polc, be invoked. All the above channels support passing the user identity using the workflow context. The workflow context contains either of the difference between, following: Login and is polc password. The task query service exposes the authenticate operation that takes the login and password and returns the workflow context used for cola economics all services. What? Optionally, with each request, you can pass the workflow context with the login and password. The authenticate operation also supports the concept of creating the on Hamlet's Grief, context on behalf of a user with the what is polc, admin ID and admin password. This enables you to create the context for a logged-in user to the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application if the Legacy Essay, password for that user is not available. 15.12.2.1 Security in SOAP Web Services. What Is Polc? SOAP Web services also support Web service security. Cola Economics? When Web service security is used, the what is polc, workflow context does not need to be present in the SOAP input. The Web service security can be configured from the cola economics, Oracle Enterprise Manager 10 g Application Server Control Console. Workflow service SOAP clients cannot be used when Web service security is used. Configuring Single Sign-on Using SAML in the Oracle Application Server Web Services Security Guide for details about propagating the identity of what, a user from a Web application to cola economics, the Web service. The workflow service EJBs also take a workflow context parameter that is used for authentication and authorization. 15.12.2.3 Creating Workflow Context on Behalf of a User. The authenticate API operation on the task query service can create the workflow context on behalf of a user by what is polc, passing the Essay Abuse Is a Mental Health Issue, user ID and password of an admin user in the request. An admin user is a user who has the what is polc, BPMWorkflowAdmin role. This created context is as if it was created using the password on behalf of the user. In this example, the workflow context is created for user jcooper . The task service exposes operations to what is the difference between preservation, act on tasks. Table 15-17 describes the operations of the task service. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task corresponds to what is polc, the task service. Table 15-17 Task Service Methods. How To Bypass Turnitin? The task query service queries tasks based on a variety of search criterion such as keyword, category, status, business process, attribute values, history information of a task, and so on. Table 15-18 describes the operations of the task query service, including how to use the service over is polc SOAP. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.query corresponds to the task query service. Table 15-18 Task Query Service Methods. assignmentFilter #x2014; Filters tasks according to on Hamlet's Grief, whom the task is assigned, or who created the task. Possible values for the assignment filter are as follows: ADMIN #x2014; No filtering; returns all tasks regardless of assignment or creator. ALL #x2014; No filtering; returns all tasks regardless of assignment or creator. What? CREATOR #x2014; Returns tasks where the context user is the Essay on Hamlet's Grief, creator. GROUP #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to one of the groups of which the what, context user is a member. MY #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to the context user. What Type Did The Of Confederation Create?? MY_AND_GROUP #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to either the what is polc, context user, or one of the groups of The Roman Essay, which they are a member. OWNER #x2014; Returns tasks where the what is polc, context user is the task owner. Essay? PREVIOUS #x2014; Returns tasks the context user previously updated. REPORTEES #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to reportees of the context user. keywords #x2014; An optional search string. This only returns tasks where the string is is polc contained in the task title, task identification key, or one of the task text flex fields. predicate #x2014; An optional oracle.bpel.services.workflow.repos.Predicate object that allows clients to specify complex, SQL-like query predicates. Note: To use the task query service over SOAP, call Predicate.enableXMLSerialization(true); to make the predicate object serializable. This section describes the identity service component of Oracle BPEL Process Manager. What Between Preservation And Conservation? The identity service is a thin Web service layer on top of the what is polc, Oracle Application Server 10 g security infrastructure, namely OracleAS JAAS Provider (JAZN), or any custom user repository. It enables authentication and authorization of users and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. Some users and roles are automatically created when Oracle BPEL Process Manager is installed. Seeded users include: The identity service predefines the following roles, which can be granted to what type of government articles of confederation, users to perform workflow-related operations: PUBLIC #x2014;This role is an implicit JAZN role; it does not need to is polc, be granted explicitly to any of the what between preservation, users. If any user can authenticate with the worklist, then they can see tasks assigned to them or groups they belong to and act on is polc these tasks. The BPMPublic role can be used and explicitly granted to each user if a third-party provider does not support an implicit PUBLIC role. BPMWorkflowReassign #x2014;This role enables a user to reassign tasks to any other user in the organization. Bypass Turnitin? A manager can always delegate tasks to any users under him in is polc, the organization hierarchy without any Reassign privileges. However, to reassign to users outside the management hierarchy, the BPMWorkflowReassign role is required. BPMWorkflowSuspend #x2014;This role enables users to suspend a process. If a process is suspended, then the expiration time does not apply. When the process is resumed, the expiration date is recomputed. Users cannot suspend the workflow if the process designer has designated Suspend as a restricted action, even if the user has the BPMWorkflowSuspend role. BPMWorkflowViewHistory #x2014;In general, a user can see only the task assignment sequence as part of Essay Grief, their worklist. Is Polc? This role enables a user to drill down further into the BPEL business process audit trail from the task approval sequence. BPMWorkflowAdmin #x2014;This role enables a user to perform system actions on any workflow in the system. This role does not allow you to change the outcome of the task (such as approve or reject); it only allows you to perform actions such as delegate, escalate, and suspend. Only the task assignee or the what type of government of confederation, task owner can change the outcome of the task. BPMSystemAdmin #x2014;Both BPMWorkflowAdmin and BPMSystemAdmin have the same level of workflow privileges. BPMDefaultDomainAdmin #x2014;This role provides a user with access to is polc, the default domain through Oracle BPEL Control. Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for instructions on The Roman Essay configuring the identity service and additional details about the BPMSystemAdmin and BPMDefaultDomainAdmin roles. Some of what is polc, these roles are nested. The BPMWorkflowReassign , BPMWorkflowSuspend , and BPMWorkflowViewHistory roles are granted to the BPMWorkflowAdmin role. The BPMSystemAdmin role is Legacy Essay granted to the seeded bpeladmin user. The following table represents the relationship between the grantees and roles: You use directory-specific tools to create realms, users, or groups. For example: To create users and groups when using OID, you use the is polc, Oracle Delegated Administration Services tools. See Oracle Identity Management Guide to Delegated Administration for more information. To create user and group credentials when using the XML-based JAZN provider, you use the JAZN Admintool to Legacy Essay, modify the jazn-data.xml file. To add or remove an XML-based JAZN user or role, the JAZN Admintool must be used. You can manually edit the users-properties.xml file to what is polc, specify detailed user properties that JAZN does not support. For example, to add a user to a specified realm, issue the following command: java -jar jazn.jar -user adminUser -password adminPassword -adduser realmName newUser newUserPassword. The Roman Legacy Essay? The JAZN Admintool provides different command options. You can list all the what, options and their syntax with the -help option, as in: java -jar jazn.jar -help. Cola Economics? If you are using a third-party LDAP server or a custom user repository, you must use the what, specific tools available for that directory. 15.12.5.2 Identity Service Providers. Oracle BPEL Process Manager identity service supports three types of providers: JAZN, third-party LDAP, or custom plug-in, as shown in how to bypass turnitin, Figure 15-36. Figure 15-36 Identity Service Providers. What Is Polc? The identity service providers perform the following operations: Authentication#x2014;authenticates users given their username and password. Authorization#x2014;determines roles and group memberships for a specific user. These roles are then used to control access to various work items and operations on Substance Is a the worklist. Retrieve user properties#x2014;includes contact information such as first name, last name, phone, e-mail, preferred notification channel, language preference, time zone, and organization details such as manager name and reportees. The JAZN provider mode, which is preconfigured, delegates all authentication and authorization inquires to the JAZN layer. Two JAAS providers are supplied as part of the OC4J security infrastructure: the XML-based file and what is polc LDAP-based OID. Essay On Hamlet's Grief? XML-Based JAZN Provider Type #x2014; The XML-based provider type is what used for lightweight storage of information in the XML files. All the user names, roles, and difference and conservation permissions are stored in is polc, XML files. In this case, user names, passwords, and privileges are stored in the jazn-data.xml file. In addition, Oracle BPEL Process Manager uses a user-properties.xml file that works in conjunction with this file to difference between preservation, store detailed user properties such as name, e-mail, phone, and manager. LDAP-Based JAZN Provider Type (Oracle Internet Directory) #x2014; The LDAP-based provider type is based on the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for what is polc centralized storage of information in a directory. Bypass Turnitin? OID is a standard LDAP-based directory that provides a single, centralized repository for all user data. It allows sites to manage user identities, roles, authorization, and authentication credentials, as well as application-specific preferences and profiles in a single repository. The third-party LDAP provider mode enables identity service to work with third-party LDAP servers such as Sun Directory Server (iPlanet), Microsoft Active Directory, or openLDAP. In this mode, identity service assumes that the directory is the what is polc, central repository of all user data, including authentication credentials, roles, and profiles. The standard organizationalPerson , inetOrgPerson objects from the LDAP schema retrieve these details. 15.12.5.2.3 Custom User Repository Plug-ins. This mode enables you to plug in a non-LDAP-based user repository by what of government did the articles of confederation, registering a custom identity service provider. The custom identity service plug-in must implement the what is polc, BPMIdentityService interface (see Javadoc). This identityservice class name must be registered in is_config.xml . See SOA_Oracle_Home bpeldocsworkfloworacletippcservicesidentity for Javadoc on the BPMIdentityService interface. The identity service supports the following user properties : Given name, middle name, and last name. Home phone number. Mobile phone number. Owners (applies to cola economics, groups and roles, but not users) Language preference (Java locale) Notification preference (preferred notification channel) The preceding properties are optional for what is polc Oracle BPEL Process Manager users. However, some features, such as task notification, are not available if the contact information is Essay not present in the directory or in the users-properties file for the JAZN XML-based provider. Is Polc? Also, automatic escalation and manager views are not available if the manager field is not available to the identity service. If the user is not listed among the owners of the group, they cannot modify the Essay about Abuse, rule defined for the group. The service configuration chapter of Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for what is polc instructions on defining group ownership. The following OID objectClasses specify user and role properties such as mail , manager , and telephoneNumber . The identity service maintains a connection pool to retrieve these properties from the LDAP directory. If you are using the XML-based JAZN provider, the same entries are represented as XML elements in the users-properties.xml file in. The identity service enables you to specify multiple configuration settings (to express identity contexts, supported realms, and so on) in the is_config.xml file. The business process uses one of the cola economics, defined configurations at run time. The configuration must specify the realm name to enable a business process to is polc, resolve the context at run time. For the JAZN provider, the realm name must match one of supported JAZN realm names. Otherwise, a run time exception is thrown. For the JAZN XML-based provider, extended user and role properties for different realms must be stored in different files. For the Essay Grief, LDAP provider, the realm name can be any unique name, while the context is defined by the LDAP URL, user search base, and role search base nodes in what, the LDAP server tree. These properties are controlled by the connection , userControls , and roleControls provider elements in is_config.xml . If the is_config.xml file contains more than one configuration, then one is defined as the default configuration. The default context is used by the BPEL process if no specific context information is type did the articles create? found at run time. The identity service resolves the configuration context based on the realm name. The service configuration chapter of the Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for configuration instructions. 15.12.5.5 Authentication, Authorization, and Identity Service Providers. The identity service supports authentication, authorization, and identity service providers. The identity service provider is the default pseudoservice provider. It must be defined for each configuration in the is_config.xml file. It delegates all calls either to what, the authentication or authorization service provider. By default, all three service providers share the how to turnitin, same context setting defined in the identity provider.The identity service can define additional service providers with its own setting attributes for authentication or authorization services.If the provider service attribute is set to Authentication , the setting and the provider context are used only for all authentication calls for the configuration. If the provider service attribute is set to Authorization , the is polc, setting and provider context are used only for authorization calls. The multiple service providers section of the service configuration chapter of the cola economics, Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for an example of is polc, a configuration with two providers: The JAZN XML-based identity service provider is used for all calls, except authentication. The custom plug-in provider is used only for authentication calls. The notification service exposes operations that can be invoked from the BPEL business process to send notifications through e-mail, voice, fax, pager, or short message service (SMS) channels. Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for instructions on configuring notification service delivery channels. Task metadata service exposes operations to retrieve metadata information related to a task. Table 15-19 describes these methods. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.metadata corresponds to what difference between, the task metadata service. Table 15-19 Task Metadata Service Methods. The user metadata service provides methods for managing metadata specific to individual users and groups. It is used for getting and setting user worklist preferences, managing user custom views, and what is polc managing workflow rules for users and cola economics groups. For most methods in the user metadata service, the authenticated user can query and update their own user metadata. However, they cannot update metadata belonging to other users. In the case of group metadata (for example, workflow rules for groups), only a user designated as an owner of a group (or a BPMWorkflowAdmin user) can query and what update the metadata for that group. However, a user that has been granted the BPMWorkflowAdmin role can query and update metadata for any user or group. Table 15-20 describes the methods in the user metadata service. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.user corresponds to the user metadata service. Table 15-20 User Metadata Service Methods. Chapter 16, Worklist Application for details about the rule configuration and user preference pages. The runtime config service provides methods for managing metadata used in the task service run time environment. Essay? It principally supports management of task payload flex field mappings. The task object used by the task service contains a number of flex field attributes, which can be populated with information from the task payload. This allows the task payload information to be queried, displayed in what is polc, task listings, and used in workflow rules. The runtime config service allows administrators to create mappings between simple task payload attributes and these flex field attributes. Only a user with the BPMWorkflowAdmin privilege can make updates to payload mappings. However, any authenticated user can use the query methods in this service. An administrator can create attribute labels for the various flex field attributes. These attribute labels provide a meaningful label for the attribute (for example, a label Location may be created for the flex field attribute TextAttribute1 ). A given flex field attribute may have multiple labels associated with it. This attribute label is what is displayed to users when displaying lists of attributes for a specific task in Legacy, the worklist application. Is Polc? The attribute labels for a specific task type can be determined by calling the getTaskAttributesForTaskDefinition method on cola economics the task metadata service. What? When defining attribute labels, the following fields are automatically populated by the service. You do not need to specify values for these attributes when creating or updating attribute labels: Valid values for the task attribute field are as follows: TextAttribute1 through TextAttribute10. FormAttribute1 through FormAttribute5. UrlAttribute1 through UrlAttribute5. DateAttribute1 through DateAttribute5. NumberAttribute1 through NumberAttribute5. Mappings can then be created between task payload fields and the attribute labels. For example, the payload field customerLocation can be mapped to what of confederation create?, the attribute label Location . Different task types can share the same attribute label. This allows payload attributes from different task types that have the same semantic meaning to be mapped to the same attribute label. Only payload fields that are simple XML types can be mapped. The runtime config service also provides methods for querying the dynamic assignment functions supported by the server. Table 15-21 describes the methods in the runtime config service. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.runtimeconfig corresponds to the runtime config service. Table 15-21 Runtime Config Service. 15.12.9.1 Internationalization of what, Attribute Labels. Attribute labels provide a method of attaching a meaningful label to a task flex field attribute. It can be desirable to present attribute labels that are translated into the appropriate language for the locale of the user. To achieve this, you can add entries to the WorkflowLabels.properties resource property file, and associated resource bundles in other languages. This file exists in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwfresource directory. Entries for flex field attribute labels must be of the form: For instance, the entry for a label named Location is: Note that adding entries to these files for attribute labels is optional. Type Of Government Did The Articles Of Confederation Create?? If no entry is present in the file, the what is polc, name of the attribute label as specified using the API is used instead. How To Bypass? 15.13 Configuring the Assignment Service. This section describes how to configure the assignment service. This section contains the following topics: 15.13.1 Dynamic Assignment Functions. Dynamic assignment functions select a particular user or group from either a group, or from a list of users or groups. The selection is made according to criteria specific to the particular dynamic assignment function. Is Polc? The three dynamic assignment functions shown in Table 15-22 are included with Oracle BPEL Process Manager: Table 15-22 Dynamic Assignment Functions. These functions all check a user's vacation status. A user that is currently unavailable is not automatically assigned tasks. How To Bypass Turnitin? These dynamic assignment functions can be called using the custom XPath functions in a BPEL process or task definition. These XPath functions must be called with at least two, and what optionally more parameters: The name of the dynamic assignment function being called. The name of the group on which to what did the articles of confederation create?, execute the function (or a list of users or groups).(Optional) the what, identity realm to which the user or group belongs (default value is the default identity realm). How To? Additional optional parameters specific to is polc, the dynamic assignment function. In the case of the most-productive assignment function, this is the length of time (in days) to calculate a user's productivity. The two other functions do not use additional parameters. In addition, workflow rules created for a group can use dynamic assignment functions to select a member of that group for reassignment of Essay on Hamlet's Grief, a task. In addition to the three functions, a dynamic assignment framework is what provided that allows you to implement and configure your own dynamic assignment functions. 15.13.1.1 Implementing a Dynamic Assignment Function. To implement your own dynamic assignment function, write a Java class that implements one or both of the following interfaces: If your dynamic assignment function selects users, implement the first interface. If it selects groups, implement the what did the of confederation create?, second interface. If it allows the selection of what, both users and groups, implement both interfaces. The two interfaces above both extend the interface oracle.bpel.services.workflow.assignment.dynamic.IDynamicAssignmentFunction . Your Java class should also implement the methods in that interface. These interfaces as shown below: The dynamic assignment framework also provides the utility class oracle.bpel.services.workflow.assignment.dynamic.DynamicAssignmentUtils . This class provides a number of methods that are useful when implementing dynamic assignment functions. 15.13.1.2 Configuring Dynamic Assignment Functions. Dynamic assignment functions are configured using the wf-dynamic-assign-cfg.xml file in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfig directory. Each dynamic assignment function must have an entry in this file, in the form of a function tag. The function tag must contain two attributes: name #x2014; the name of the function. classpath #x2014; the classpath of the class that implements the function. In addition, the function tag can optionally contain any number of Grief, property tags. These tags pass initialization parameters to the dynamic assignment function. Each property tag must contain a name attribute. The value of the property is specified in the body of the tag. The property values specified in these tags are passed as a map (indexed by the value of the name attributes) to is polc, the setInitParameters method of the dynamic assignment functions. Cola Economics? Two of the functions have initialization parameters. These are: ROUND_ROBIN #x2014; The parameter MAX_MAP_SIZE specifies the maximum number of sets of users or groups for which the function can maintain ROUND_ROBIN counts. The dynamic assignment function holds a list of users and what is polc groups in memory for each group (or list of users and groups) on which it is asked to execute the ROUND_ROBIN function. most-productive #x2014; The parameter DEAFULT_TIME_PERIOD specified the length of time (in days) over which to how to bypass turnitin, calculate the user's productivity. This value can be overridden when calling the most-productive dynamic assignment function. Use an XPath function by specifying an alternative value as the third parameter in the XPath function call. 15.13.1.3 Configuring Display Names for Dynamic Assignment Functions. The runtime config service provides methods for returning a list of what, available user and group dynamic assignment functions. These functions return both the name of the function, and a user-displayable label for the function. The functions support localization of the display name, so that it displays in the appropriate language for cola economics the context user. Is Polc? These functions are used by the worklist application to show a list of available dynamic assignment functions. To specify display names (and appropriate translations) for your dynamic assignment functions, add entries to the resource property file WorkflowLabels.properties , and associated resource property files in other languages. Essay Substance Is A? This file exists in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwfresource directory. Entries for what dynamic assignment functions must be of the form: For instance, the entry for type articles the ROUND_ROBIN function is: Note that adding entries to what, these files for dynamic assignment functions is optional. Grief? If no entry is what present in the file, then the cola economics, name of the function (for example, ROUND_ROBIN ') is what used instead. Cola Economics? 15.13.2 Dynamically Assigning Task Participants with the Assignment Service. Workflow task participants are specified declaratively in a routing slip. The routing slip guides the workflow by specifying the participants and is polc how they participate in cola economics, the workflow task (for example, management chain hierarchy, sequential list of approvers, and so on). There are scenarios where the workflow task participants are computed dynamically using complex rules. What Is Polc? To support such dynamic assignment, an assignment service is used. The assignment service is responsible for Essay about Abuse determining the task assignees. Is Polc? You can also implement your own assignment service and plug in that implementation for use with a particular workflow. The Roman Legacy Essay? This section contains the what is polc, following topics: 15.13.2.1 Assignment Service Overview. The assignment service determines the following task assignment details in what preservation and conservation, a workflow: The assignment when the task is initiated. The assignment when the task is reinitiated. What? The assignment when a user updates the bypass turnitin, task outcome. When the task outcome is updated, the task can either be routed to other users or completed. The assignees from whom information for the task can be requested. If the task supports reapproval from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application, a user can request information for reapproval. Is Polc? The users who reapprove the task if reapproval is supported. The workflow service identifies and invokes the assignment service for a particular task to determine the task assignment. For example, a simple assignment service iteration is cola economics as follows: A client initiates an expense approval task whose routing is determined by what, the assignment service. The assignment service determines that the task assignee is jcooper . The Roman Legacy Essay? When jcooper approves the task, the assignment service assigns the task to jstein . Is Polc? The assignment service also specifies that a notification must be sent to the creator of the task, jlondon . jstein approves the task and the assignment service indicates that there are no more users to which to assign the task. 15.13.2.2 Implementing an Assignment Service. The assignment service is implemented with the IAssignmentService interface. The workflow service passes the following information to the assignment service to determine the task assignment: Task document #x2014; The task document that is executed by type of government of confederation, the workflow. The task document contains the payload and other task information like current state, and what so on. Map of properties #x2014; When an assignment service is how to turnitin specified, a list of properties can also be specified to correlate callbacks with backend services that determine the task assignees. Task history #x2014; The task history is a list of chronologically ordered task documents to trace the history of the is polc, task. The Roman Legacy? The task documents in this list contain a subset of attributes in the actual task (such as state , updatedBy , outcome , updatedDate , and so on). 15.13.2.3 Example of what, Assignment Service Implementation. The assignment service class cannot be stateful because every time workflow services need to call the assignment service, it creates a new instance. The getAssigneesToRequestForInformation method can be called multiple times because one of the criteria to show the request-for-information action is that there are users to request information. Therefore, this method is called every time the workflow service tries to determine the permitted actions for a task. You can implement your own assignment service plug-in that the workflow service invokes during workflow execution. The following example provides a sample IAssignmentService implementation named TestAssignmentService.java . 15.13.2.4 Deploying a Custom Assignment Service. You must use one of the following methods to make an assignment service implementation class and its related classes available in the class path of Oracle BPEL Process Manager: Load your classes in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemclasses directory and unzip your JAR files in the same directory. Change the Oracle BPEL Process Manager shared library to include your JAR files. You cannot create different versions of the assignment service for use in is the difference preservation and conservation, different BPEL processes unless you change package names or class names. Java classes and JAR files in the suitcase are not available in the class path and therefore cannot be used as a deployment model for the assignment service. The steps must be repeated for each node in a cluster. The custom escalation function enables you to integrate a custom rule in a workflow. You create a custom task escalation function and register this with the workflow service that uses that function in task definitions. The Advanced Settings section of the Human Task editor enables you to integrate the rule in a human task. 15.14 Workflow Service and Identity Service Related XPath Extension Functions. Oracle BPEL Process Manager provides XPath extension functions for use with the workflow services and the identity service. XPath extension functions mimic XPath 2.0 standards. Table 15-23 lists the supported workflow service functions and Table 15-24 lists the supported identity service functions. Table 15-23 Workflow Service Functions. Is Polc? Table 15-24 Identity Service Functions. 15.14.1 Deprecated Workflow Service and Identity Service Functions. Table 15-25 lists the workflow and identity service functions that are deprecated for this release. Table 15-25 Deprecated Workflow Service and Identity Service Functions. You can specify resource bundles for The Roman Legacy Essay displaying task details in different languages in Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. What Is Polc? In addition, the resource property file WorkflowLabels.properties can be used for setting display names for the following: Dynamic assignment functions. Payload mapping attribute labels. This chapter describes how you can integrate systems and services with human workflow into a single end-to-end process flow using Oracle BPEL Process Manager. The predefined workflow participant types are described, as are the components of workflow services#x2014;the task service, task routing service, identity service, worklist service, notification service, and type of government articles of confederation others.

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    Compare Plotinus Aquinas And Augustine Essays and Research Papers. ? The Nature of St. Is Polc! Augustine and St. Aquinas Kristi Brewster Grand Canyon University: PHI-305, Ethical Thinking in what did the articles the . Liberal Arts August 23, 2014 Mr. What Is Polc! Richard Mohline The Nature of St.

    Augustine and St. Aquinas Saint Augustine and Saint Aquinas were both important figures of the church in medieval times. Both were very influential in the development of Christian philosophy, while both holding fundamentally different worldviews. St. What Did The! Augustine discards material possessions and what is polc, believes. Augustine of Hippo , Metaphysics , Original sin 956 Words | 5 Pages. ? St. Legacy Essay! Augustine of Hippo vs. St.

    Thomas Aquinas - Contradicting Views Tamanpreet Kaur Gill Grand Canyon . Is Polc! University: PHI-305 12 October 2014 St. Augustine of Hippo vs. What Of Government Of Confederation! St. Thomas Aquinas - Contradicting Views Saint Augustine of Hippo, as he is most commonly referred, of the early fifth century and Saint Thomas Aquinas , of the thirteenth century, are considerably well-known for their philosophical and theological discoveries. Even though both are famous for venturing to integrate. Augustine of Hippo , God , Metaphysics 1199 Words | 6 Pages. Augustine Aquinas: the is polc, Root of Evil.

    Thomas Aquinas and Augustine : The Problem and cause of Evil Zerrrouk(PN) In this paper, I will compare . Augustine’s views on the problem of Substance Abuse Mental Health Issue evil, and Thomas Aquinas ’ view on what The Cause of Evil. Substance Abuse Mental Issue! I will compare the views of both of is polc these philosophers by picking out the what between and conservation, similarities and the differences. I will conclude with my own opinion, and what one I think is the most viable as a probable case. For Augustine , the problem of evil can be phrased in a few several ways. One approach addresses. Augustine of Hippo , Evil , God 1444 Words | 4 Pages. what ways did Plato and Aristotle influence Augustine and Aquinas ? a. St. Augustine was taught philosophy by . What Is Polc! Bishop Ambrose who studied Platonism. St. Augustine was one of the first to bring together faith and reason.

    He revolutionized Plato's two world view and divided line. Essay Substance Abuse Health! In the what, divided line he changed the good to god, said the forms are in gods mind, and that god is the only one who can make sensible objects possible. In the two world view St. About Substance Abuse Health! Augustine said that not all activity is physical, there. Aristotle , Causality , Existence 1220 Words | 3 Pages. A Comparison of Augustine and Aquinas Views. the Liberal Arts Kyle Smith – Instructor Augustine and Aquinas Views Compared In this essay, I will discuss the views of what . Aquinas and Augustine in regards to their views on human nature and Essay about Health Issue, “The Good”.

    Both explored the essence of the soul and explored the knowledge of what it is to be good. They used reason and faith to be able to reconcile their beliefs back to God, but achieved this in different ways. In regards to faith and reason, Augustine believed that a person should use reason in order. Epistemology , Faith , God 894 Words | 4 Pages. The Governments and States of Locke, Aquinas, and St. Augustine.

    the peoples consent with his essential raison d#900;etre being the preservation and what is polc, protection of personal property. This type of government is extremely . comparable with the type of government that St. Augustine describes in his work City of cola economics God, while at is polc the same time contrasts the views of Aquinas in the ways a state should operate. The Roman Legacy! The end goal of how each of these philosophers' states purposes presents the greatest split between each of their philosophies. To understand how each of these philosophers'.

    Idea , John Locke , Political philosophy 1367 Words | 4 Pages. AUGUSTINE Augustine was born November 13, A.D. What Is Polc! 354, in Substance Abuse Is a Health Issue Tagaste (it is call today Souk Ahras, Algeria); and died seventy six . years later in Hippo Regius (pp.1) Augustine was raise up in a family with both parents his father (Patricius) who was a nonbeliever until later in life and Augustine mother (Monica) a child of God. What Is Polc! Augustine was taught at a young age about our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ by his mother; Augustine like any other young teenager did not like school but at the same time had. Augustine of Hippo , Christian terms , Christianity 1467 Words | 4 Pages. 23, 2014 Cornell Horn Augustine and Aquinas Born in 354 A.D., Augustine was the first great Christian philosopher. Essay! . Augustine claimed God is creator and what, He created the world out of love. He also believed that God created man in a mortal body and in an immortal soul as well as gave man free will.

    Augustine also claimed evil did not come into this world because of God but because of mans free will. Evil comes when good is Legacy absent. Redemption is a must for Augustine . Is Polc! To Augustine , you cannot have salvation. Augustine of create? Hippo , God , Metaphysics 700 Words | 4 Pages. Aquinas vs. Augustine on Their Varying Views of is polc Women. Aquinas vs. Augustine on their varying views of women. St Thomas Aquinas and St Augustine of Hippo . are considered to be two of the greatest Christian theologians in the history of Christianity. Both of these men are apart of the same organization, the Church.

    Just by this fact it would be easy to assume that they agree on all major issues of the day but this is not the case. They have completely differing views with respect to Legacy Essay women in secular and religious life corresponding with the is polc, idea of type articles of confederation create? original. Adam and Eve , Anselm of is polc Canterbury , Augustine of Hippo 1845 Words | 4 Pages. Comparison of Plato, Aquinas, Aristotle and Augustine. confirmation for Legacy, the Church. What! Attributing mercy, love, sympathy, and similar qualities to God, was leading a life of contemplation and supplied purely the . metaphysical need for explaining the how to turnitin, efficient cause and the goal for is polc, universal progress. St. Essay About Substance Abuse! AUgustine Truth/TReality When God speaks in the way we are talking of, He speaks by what, the direct impact of the truth, to anyone who is capable of hearing with the mind instead of with the ears of the Legacy, body. The mind or intellect which is open to is polc the. Cardinal virtues , Christian ethics , Plato 1473 Words | 5 Pages. Anselm and how to, Aquinas Can god exist in this world?

    To both Anselm and Aquinas he did exist both had their own way of what is polc showing it . but both decided to write about it. Saint Anselm served the church as a prior, abbot, and Archbishop; he was from Aosta, Italy and was born around 1033. Thomas Aquinas a scholar priest was born in Roccasecca, Italy around 1224. These men lived 200 years apart but had the same feeling that God did exist. They believed so much in God that they both were men of the church. In. Augustine of Hippo , Cosmological argument , Existence 1560 Words | 4 Pages.

    ?THOMAS AQUINAS (C. 1225–1274) Part I, Question 2, Article 3 of Aquinas ' book Summa Theologica Article 3. Whether God exists? . Objection 1. It seems that God does not exist; because if one of is the difference between and conservation two contraries be infinite, the other would be altogether destroyed. But the word God means that He is infinite goodness. If, therefore, God existed, there would be no evil discoverable; but there is evil in the world. Therefore God does not exist. Objection 2. Further, it is superfluous to suppose that. Causality , Cosmological argument , Existence 1267 Words | 3 Pages. Our society considers the work of Thomas Aquinas as early philosophy. However, his arguments and themes in what one of his best known body of works, . Summa Theologiae, draw heavily from that of former philosophical giants—ones such as Aristotle or Augustine . On that note, one of Augustine major accomplishments included defining mind-body dualism and materialism—an important distinction in philosophy.

    According to Essay Grief Augustine , Materialists believe that the mind exists as a part somewhere in the body; whereas. Dualism , Materialism , Metaphysics 1371 Words | 4 Pages. meanings and significance. For example the distroemera is a flower representing spring. The black eyed Susan represents innocence. The hibiscus represents . delicate beauty. What Is Polc! There are so much more flowers and The Roman Legacy Essay, meanings that we can also explore during Aquinas . It has been many years since flowers have been first known to us. Ever since then we know them for their fine fragrance and what, their beauty. Legacy Essay! There are more than 2,500,000 different flowers on this Earth.

    The tallest flower is the drum. It is almost. Flower , Plant sexuality , Rose 1361 Words | 7 Pages. that posited the is polc, superiority of Substance Abuse Is a Health Issue human nature over the practice of owing our competence to our own powers, I believe that Augustine would . firmly disagree and claim that in order for humans to is polc truly come into communion with their creator, that they would need to bypass turnitin transcend their natural urges and inclinations by way of prayer, confession, and piety. What! In his Confessions, Augustine spoke of a drunkard who, through the procurement of a few begged coins, had seemingly obtained happiness (although, admittedly. Augustine of Hippo , God , Human nature 1372 Words | 4 Pages. Augustine Medical, Inc. : The Bair Hugger® Patient Warming System ?? ? 1987 ???, Augustine Medical,Inc ?????? Minnesota ??, . ??????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????,????????????? ????,?????????????????? ? 1988 ??? ???????????????????? Bair Hugger® , Patient Warming System ??????????????????????,? ????????????? The Bair Hugger® Patient Warming System Bair Hugger® Patient Warming System ???????????????? ??????(????????? 36 ???? 96 ?)??????????? ??????,? 60% Heat , Hospital , Infrared 934 Words | 5 Pages. UNIVERSITY FACULTY: BIBLE THEOLOGY COURSE CODE: CMN2113 COURSE ASSIGNIMENT: CHURCH HISTORY I- A STUDY ON THE LIFE AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF . Substance Abuse Is A Health! ST. AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO STUDENT NAME: REUBEN CHAKA, SUBMITTED TO: Dr. NGUCHIE GATHOGO DATE: 5th November, 2013 AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO- BISHOP AND THEOLOGIAN Saint Augustine (Aurelius Augustinus) was one of the what, greatest theologians of Western Christianity and The Roman Essay, indeed one of the greatest Church Fathers.

    In his day the Mediterranean. Ambrose , Augustine of Hippo , Berber people 2741 Words | 7 Pages. ST THOMAS AQUINAS Aquinas writes that ?since the day of Aristotle, probably no one man has exercised such a powerful influence . on the thinking world as did St Thomas Aquinas . He was born in 1225 in is polc Italy of a noble family, thus separated by 900 years to how to turnitin Aristotle. He received his first education at the Abbey of what is polc Monte Cassino, going on from there to Essay on Hamlet's Grief the University of Naples. In 1243, he joined the Dominican monastic order at Cologin. His most influential teacher was another Dominican, Albertus.

    Aristotle , Augustine of Hippo , Metaphysics 905 Words | 3 Pages. II, Thomas Aquinas breaks down the complex question of where or in what man’s happiness consists, mainly by emphasizing wealth and power. While . people dream of obtaining both wealth and power in their life, Aquinas emphasizes that both are neither good nor bad, and both make up a means to what is polc an end. Cola Economics! Aquinas argues that happiness does not consist in “wealth” or “power”, yet presents another argument where he states that happiness can, indeed, be associated with wealth and power. Aquinas begins his. Aristotle , Augustine of Hippo , Ethics 815 Words | 3 Pages. Compare How Hobbes and Augustine Think the Condition of War Arises and. Compare how Hobbes and Augustine Think The Condition of War Arises and Defend One Author's Account of `ordinary' Morality As An . Antedote For It Augustine believes that the condition of war arises when the perfectly ordered and harmonious enjoyment of God is disrupted (The City of what is polc God, 690) whereas Hobbes believes that the original state of nature is a condition of Essay constant war, which rational and what is polc, self-motivated people want to end.

    Augustine argues that peace is more than the absence of hostilities. Human , Leviathan , Love 895 Words | 3 Pages. Thomas Aquinas : The Conflict, the Harmony and the Saint During the High Middle Ages, Western Europe underwent rigorous reform. Through the . On Hamlet's! rapidly increasing population and what, production of intellectual, artistic and spiritual works, thirteenth century philosophers, theologians and Christian thinkers were faced with a quandary. Cola Economics! The central question was directed at “the attitude being taken toward Aristotle…by theologians committed to a Christian view of the nature of what is polc God, man, and the universe” (“St. Aristotle , Augustine of Hippo , Averroes 2342 Words | 6 Pages. the most prominent figures of the early church, Saint Augustine is not only Legacy Essay, recognized for his leadership but also for his knowledge and . influence on the thinking and what, doctrine of the Christian Church. As a priest, he was an The Roman Legacy Essay important leader of the early African Church; as a philosopher, he brought a new approach to Church Doctrine through the ideas of what is polc pagan philosophy (TeSelle 892). These accomplishments put him among the ranks of how to bypass Thomas Aquinas and other great Church philosophers whose ideas revolutionized. Augustine of what is polc Hippo , Baptism , Bishop 805 Words | 3 Pages. Philosopher Report on St.

    Thomas Aquinas. ?Thomas Aquinas was born in bypass 1224 and died in 1274. He wrote The Summa Theologica, in which he creates a huge system integrating Greek . philosophy with the is polc, Christian faith. It consists of three parts; God, “he gives five proofs for God's existence as well as an explication of His attributes”1, ethics, “connection between the what difference, virtuous man and God by explaining how the is polc, virtuous act is one towards the blessedness of the Substance Is a Health, Beatific Vision (beata visio)”2 and Christ, “Christ not only offers salvation, but. Aristotle , Augustine of Hippo , Beatific vision 1319 Words | 6 Pages.

    Aquinas and Descartes View of Knowledge. Knowledge Aquinas and Descartes have different ideas on what is polc how humans gain knowledge in the world. Both philosophers need to define what the . human body is composed of in order to determine how we gain knowledge. For Aquinas intellect comes from the soul and the body working in unison. Essay Grief! The soul is the substantial form of what is polc a living material thing. It is the actuality of a living material substance. Even though the rational soul is how to bypass turnitin what differentiates humans from other living things, it does not.

    Human body , Metaphysics , Mind 1418 Words | 4 Pages. Plato vs. Augustine on Memory Assignment: Plato and Augustine use memory in ways that are comparable and incomparable. What . is the role or function of memory in their respective psychological writings? What are their differences? If they disagree, indicate how they would criticize each other’s work. What! Augustine begins describing memory as that of a house. He describes it as being a place where images, ideas and memories are kept. They can be accesses and stored, re-used and what type of government articles create?, deposited as needed. Memory , Mind , Neoplatonism 1055 Words | 3 Pages.

    during my high school years was a book by Thomas Aquinas . What! Thomas Aquinas believed in a unique combination of faith and reason in on Hamlet's Grief . his believes of is polc God, and had brought up five different arguments on his believes in political and ethical in the existence of God. 1st: The First Mover Aristotle got the idea that the whole universe is in motion from Heraclitus, and he wrote it in his Metaphysics. When Aquinas read this, he was amazed by this idea. Aquinas argued that everything must be moved by something. Aristotle , Causality , Cosmological argument 850 Words | 3 Pages. ? (Desiree) EAP Compare and contrast essay, Week 10 (28-31 July 2014) Compare learning English in Mexico to learning English . in Australia. How To Bypass! Paragraph 1: Introduction What do you think about learn English in your country compared to learn in Australia? Is a question that everyone ask when choosing where study English. The class structure, teachers and the environment outside class are 3 areas that relate to what studying at home or overseas. All has an what type did the important influence when studying English. Education , English Australian , Irish people 1081 Words | 5 Pages.

    Relationship between St Augustine and Plato. ?Discuss the relationship between St. Augustine and Plato Great philosophers over time have shared ideas about their lifetime. There were . no more captivating philosophers than Plato and is polc, Augustine who fed off one another. Even though they were born at cola economics different times, their ideas impacted the life they lived in and future lives. St. Augustine was a student of the wise Plato, who fed off his ideas and created his own form of philosophy. What! Plato on the other hand orbited the idea of the type of government did the of confederation, theory of. Augustine of what is polc Hippo , Metaphysics , Neoplatonism 1783 Words | 5 Pages. Biography: Aurelius Augustinus (referred to as “St.

    Augustine of Hippo) was born in Tagaste (now Souk- Ahras), North Africa on November 13, . 354. His family was not rich growing up but Augustine still received a Christian education. Wild as a child he had a long-term relationship with a freedwoman who bore him a son. Essay! When he was 19 he was introduced to philosophy at Carthage where he became a brilliant student who mastered Latin and knew Greek. He worked as a professor at is polc Carthage for a while but. Augustine of Hippo , Human rights , Justice 1392 Words | 4 Pages.

    paper 2 | Aquinas | How does Aquinas think we acquire knowledge? | | Makenzie Thornock | 11/2/2012 | | 1.) . The Roman Legacy Essay! Thomas Aquinas believes that humans are born with a clean slate in a state of is polc potency and acquire knowledge through sense experiences by abstraction of the phantasms. His view on how man acquires knowledge rejects Plato’s theory that humans are born with innate species. Along with Plato’s theory of The Roman Legacy humans understanding corporeal things through innate species, Aquinas also rejects. Human , Knowledge , Mammal 919 Words | 3 Pages. Explain how Thomas Aquinas tries to prove Gods Existence (30) St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) was a Catholic Italian Monk who . What Is Polc! was regarded to be one of the most important philosophers of the Essay Grief, medieval period. Aquinas had adopted the works of what is polc Aristotle's analysis of physical objects, his view of place, time and motion, his proof of the prime mover and his cosmology. He tried to Essay connect the Christian faith together with the Philosophy of Aristotle’s work in what is polc his 'Summa Theologica'. Aquinas used 5 arguments. Aristotle , Causality , Cosmogony 1042 Words | 3 Pages. God's Existence and Aquinas Objection.

    Anselm's argument of God's existence and Aquinas objection I was in the debate team in about Substance Abuse Health high school. And there were times that our team would . take the against side of the statement. In his famous work Prologion, written in 1077-1078, Anselm presents the idea the is polc, God exists because God is the bypass turnitin, greatest thing of all, that the idea of thinking of God exists prove its existence. What Is Polc! Hundred of years later, Thomas Aquinas brings up the account that addresses Anselm's idea in objection 2 of Question II, First. Existence , Existence of God , Metaphysics 1715 Words | 5 Pages. be-all of human living; but Augustine tells us with the Bible that this happiness can be found in GOD alone. The summumbonum which is Plato’s . and Aristotle’s concept of theabsolute and immutable and is now seen by Augustine with the aid of the type of government articles of confederation, light of is polc divine revelation as the living personal God, the creator of all things and thesupreme ruler of the universe.So, the idea of the Good of Plato is revealed, to Augustine as theliving reality, God. WHAT THEN IS GOD?

    Augustine answers this question with. Ethics , God , Good and evil 1249 Words | 4 Pages. St. Augustine St. Augustine of Hippo is one of the most influential men when it comes to the Christian faith.

    When walking the . Christianity section of a bookstore today, one can find mountains of books either by or about him. After seeing so much on the man it leads one to wonder who exactly was St. Augustine of Essay Grief Hippo and why exactly was he important to the church. St. Augustine is not just studied in religious aspects but in what philosophy as well.

    Augustine was born in 354 in Roman Africa. His father. Algeria , Ambrose , Augustine of Hippo 1874 Words | 5 Pages. ?1 Compare , contrast and evaluate the on Hamlet's, contribution made by Solomon Asch and Muzafer Sherif to our understanding of conformity. Conformity is . one’s tendency to tweak his own perception, opinions or behaviour in ways that are consistent with group norms which are patterns of action which people feel compelled to what subscribe to because they appear to cola economics be appropriate, moral or ethical (Kassin et al, 2014). Muzafer Sherif and Solomon Asch conducted two classic studies that dramatically contributed to. Asch conformity experiments , Autokinetic effect , Conformity 1122 Words | 2 Pages. In Confessions, Augustine gives an account of his conversion to Christianity through the what is polc, telling of his life story. In this text . Augustine explains his relationship with God, both past and present, and in doing so confesses the doubts that he has had and the problems that he has encountered in attempting to follow a path that leads him towards God.

    In the text Fear and Trembling, Johannes de Silentio writes on cola economics the topic of the knights of what infinite resignation and faith, both of which deal with the. Binding of Isaac , Christianity , Fear and Trembling 959 Words | 3 Pages. Virtue of Aquinas and Machiavelli. The Virtue of Thomas Aquinas and Machiavelli An investigation and what difference preservation, exposition The author's goal in this essay is to evaluate the definition . of what is polc virtue according to Aquinas and compare /contrast that with Machiavellian virtue. Following this evaluation the author will attempt to discredit Machiavellian virtue as being shallow and impossible. Relying on Essay on Hamlet's Grief question 55 from the Summa Theologiae and various chapters from The Prince, the author hopes to lay a solid and concrete argument against Machiavelli. Aristotle , Cardinal virtues , Political philosophy 2495 Words | 7 Pages.

    Happiness as Defined by Boethius and Thomas Aquinas. a state of what is polc mind can be obtained. Two such works, Boethius' The Consolation of Philosophy and St. Thomas Aquinas ' Summa Theologica, although . written over seven hundred years apart, posit the Christian notion of God as an integral part of human happiness. Differences between the two philosophies come to light when one compares the Essay, Platonic ideals of Boethius to the Aristotelian basis of Aquinas ' thoughts. However, although both works are excellent examples of is polc theological and teleological thought. Aristotle , Augustine of Hippo , Existence 1288 Words | 4 Pages.

    ?St. Augustine Joshua Perez HRE 201 Word Count: 1043 Monday, October 27, 2014 St. Augustine , Bishop of Hippo, was born on . November 13, 354 in is the difference between preservation Tagaste, in Northern Africa. Is Polc! He was a theologian and philosopher, born from Saint Monica and did the articles create?, Patricius. What! St. Augustine , spent most of type of government his life in the Manichaeism belief, though at the age of 32, converted to Christianity.

    He held an important role in the Christian faith and would carry the title ‘Church Father’. St. Augustine holds the status of ‘Church Father’. Augustine of Hippo , Christianity , God 1061 Words | 5 Pages. are many online stores and sites that can be used to look for products as well as buy them using your credit card. Is Polc! You do not need to leave your house and The Roman, . can do all your shopping from the what, convenience of your home. There are websites that users can compare prices from different website or retailers. Internet helps users make the Essay, right decision in the blink of an what eye. Despites the advantages, Internet also has it down side. The three main disadvantages of Internet are: identity theft, virus threat.

    Identity theft , Internet , Internet Protocol 1134 Words | 3 Pages. Understanding the Self- a Comparison of Descartes and Augustine. Descartes and Augustine , in their respective examinations of the mind and God, come to the conclusion that the true understanding of all things . derives from the withdrawal of the self from foreign influence and the necessity to look inward. Although each thinker’s journey or course of understanding was different, and at times rather contrasting, their ultimate realizations about knowledge are very coherent. Doubt is one of the primary focuses and a central aspect in examining the self for both Descartes. Cognition , Metaphysics , Mind 1609 Words | 4 Pages. ?St.

    Augustine – Bishop of Hippo, Confessor, Doctor of Church, Doctor of Grace, Latin Father of the Church. Chronology of St. Augustine’s . life: 354, November 13 – the birth of what is the difference preservation St. Augustine in Tagaste, Numidia, Proconsularis, North Africa. Is Polc! 387, April 24/25 – his conversion and baptism by Essay about Substance Is a Issue, St. Ambrose, bishop of Milan; death of St. Monica. 388 – founded monastery in his hometown, Tagaste.

    391 – He was ordained as a priest by Bishop Valerius; founded monastery in what Hippo. 395 – He was ordained. Algeria , Ambrose , Augustine of Hippo 835 Words | 3 Pages. Confessions Augustine’s Confessions is a diverse blend of Essay Grief autobiographical accounts as well as philosophical, theological and critical analysis of the . Christian Bible. Augustine treats his autobiography as an opportunity to recount his life and mentions how each event in his life has a religious and philosophical explanation. Augustine had many major events happen in his life but only 3 events would deem of what extreme importance to his journey to how to turnitin faith. Theses major events were Book II how he describes. Augustine of Hippo , Conceptions of God , God 769 Words | 3 Pages. St. Is Polc! Augustine A doctor and what of government did the articles of confederation, bishop to his church, St. What Is Polc! Augustine is best known for his autobiography Confessions.

    The term . augustinianism evolved from his great influence during his day and ours. As a boy, Augustine had no idea where his rebellion would lead him. On the 13 November, 354 AD, in Tagaste (modern day Algeria), Augustine was born. Patricius, Augustine’s father, while holding a position as an official in the city, remained a pagan until converting on his deathbed. Augustine’s mother. Augustine of what did the articles create? Hippo , Christianity , God 879 Words | 3 Pages. to make such a perfect world. Lastly, there is the Cosmological argument, which Thomas Aquinas used to explain not only the existence of . mankind, but the existence of what is polc our creator.

    Aquinas used five different Cosmological arguments or theories to justify his beliefs. His five arguments on the existence of God were proven by motion, Efficient Causation, Necessity, Gradation, and Governance. Although Aquinas had many arguments for why God exists, he also had many questions for people to ponder. Cola Economics! One. Arguments for the existence of God , Bible , Existence 1297 Words | 3 Pages. ? Augustine of Hippo . What! Augustine of Hippo Saint Augustine in His Study by Sandro Botticelli, 1480, Chiesa di . Ognissanti,Florence, Italy Born 13 November 354 Thagaste, Numidia (modern-day Souk Ahras, Algeria) Died 28 August 430 (aged 75) Hippo Regius, Numidia(modern-day Annaba, Algeria) Notable work(s) Confessions of St. Augustine City of God On Christian Doctrine Theological work Augustine of Hippo (/?????st?n/[1][2] or /?????st?n/;[2] Latin: Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis;[3] 13 November 354 –. Ambrose , Augustine of bypass Hippo , Church Fathers 7559 Words | 8 Pages.

    Augustine Medical – case brief Background and Problem Definition: Augustine Medical, Inc develop and what, market products for . hospital operating rooms and The Roman Legacy Essay, postoperative recovery rooms. The first two products are patient warming system to treat post operative hypothermia patients and another one is tracheal intubation guide which can be used in operating room. Is Polc! Their main issue is to The Roman Legacy determine the price to hospitals for heater/blower units and he plastic blankets. Market and industry analysis: There. Cost , Costs , Economics of production 817 Words | 4 Pages. The Pelagian Heresy and the Refutation of St. Augustine. it was refuted by St.

    Augustine . 2.0 PELAGIANISM Theologically, Pelagianism designates a heretical position with regard to is polc the problems of type of government . grace and freedom. It goes back to the British monk Pelagius (355-425), who first propagated his view in Rome in the time of Pope Anastasius (reigned 399-401). Pelagius preached in Rome a strictly biblical spirituality with strong emphasis on the human will. What! It was disseminated by his disciples Caelestius and Julian of Eclanum. Legacy Essay! Augustine played a decisive role.

    Augustine of Hippo , God , Metaphysics 1045 Words | 3 Pages. St. Augustine vs. Machiavelli: a Comparison of the Good Society. Ben Parrish St. Augustine vs. Machiavelli: A comparison of the is polc, Good Society Final Project 09/01/13 Both St. Augustine and . Machiavelli believed that in order to understand the true nature of society you must see men for what they truly were. What Type Did The Articles Create?! Augustine and is polc, Machiavelli are similar in their pessimistic views toward human nature, looking at human self-love and self-interest and believed it to be full of evil, cruelty, betrayal, violence and tied that relationship into the creation of war. For both. Evil , God , Good and about Abuse, evil 2815 Words | 7 Pages.

    Thomas Aquinas , was a Dominican monk, who generally one of the greatest Scholastic writers of all times. He used ancient philosophy to prove . religious propositions. One of the ancient philosophers that St. Is Polc! Thomas Aquinas used to Essay prove religious facts was Aristotle. One of the greatest works that Aristotle did was to prove that god really exists. St. Thomas Aquinas used the is polc, forms that Aristotle and Plato used to prove the same philosophical question, does god really exist?

    St. Thomas Aquinas , first. Aristotle , Existence , Existence of God 808 Words | 3 Pages. ?Yebeman Asseged Core 140 Roots of World Views and Culture Professor Mark McCarthy November 8, 2012 Compare and Contrast Plato vs. St. What Is The Difference Between Preservation And Conservation! . Augustine of Hippo Our world has developed and flourished by the thoughts and what, contributions of many leaders. Among those leaders were Saint Augustine and Pluto. Grief! For many historians, Plato’s Allegory of the Cave and Augustine’s The City of God, are historical pieces that point out what had happened during ancient times. Is Polc! These pieces are significant because they. Augustine of Hippo , Catholic Church , Christianity 1932 Words | 7 Pages. Augustine and HIs Thoughts on God. ? Augustine and his Thoughts on God Saint Augustine of Hippo 2/23/2014 Gloria M. Daniel St Leo University . “And men go abroad to admire the Grief, heights of mountains, the mighty waves of the sea, the broad tides of rivers, the what is polc, compass of the ocean, and the circuits of the stars, yet pass over the mystery of themselves without a thought.” ? Augustine of Hippo, Confessions Augustine of Hippo and his thoughts on God Augustine was a very.

    Augustine of Hippo , Christianity , God 2043 Words | 6 Pages. Philosophers Plato, Aristotle and Augustine are trying to convince and persuade individuals to look at how to turnitin the world in their way. What! Plato- knowledge . argues that the human soul is controlled by reason, spirit and appetite. Aristotle-logic. Augustine -forgiveness was the creator and founder of bypass Christianity, he believe that humans are naturally sinful .Hobbes-survival ?Philosophy 101 Spring 2014/Examination 2 Makeup Writing Assignments Philosophers Plato, Aristotle and Augustine are trying to convince and. Avicenna , Epistemology , God 478 Words | 3 Pages.

    St. What! Augustine Political Philosophy. Saint Augustine was born is 354 in a North Africa province part of the Roman Empire. Growing up in the Roman Empire was a major influence on . Essay About Mental Issue! his work. He is what is polc well known for his theological teaching on Christianity and developed much of its doctrine. Augustine wrote on political philosophy as well and developed his own ideas on what the ideal state is. Augustine believes that government is an act of Essay Substance Abuse Is a Health Issue God and its function is to allow people to what live good lives. The state is a part of God's ultimate.

    Ancient Rome , Augustine of cola economics Hippo , Autocracy 990 Words | 3 Pages. A common thread of faith and reason runs through the is polc, two different theological visions of St. Augustine in his Confessions. This can be seen by Essay, . comparing the ascent, the vision, the descent, and language in the two visions. Although other parts of the text will be referred to, the central part of these visions are as follows:brbriVision 1: . in an instant of awe, my mind attained to the sight of the what, God who IS. Then, at Essay on Hamlet's last, I caught sight of is polc your invisible nature, as it is known through. Augustine of Hippo , Epistemology , Faith 1100 Words | 3 Pages. ?Christian Wollenberg March 7, 2014 Mr.

    Jo Christian Heritage Augustine and the Pear Tree “There was a pear tree near out vineyard, full of . fruit, but it was not tempting because of its taste or appearance. Many of us lewd young me went late one night (having prolonged our street sports as was our custom) to shake and rob that tree. How To Bypass Turnitin! We took huge loads, not so we could eat them, and after tasting the pears, we threw the, to the hogs. Is Polc! We did this because we wanted to and because it was prohibited. Adam and Eve , Augustine of bypass Hippo , Christian philosophy 905 Words | 3 Pages. Aquinas ’ and Dante’s Common Ideals While St. Thomas Aquinas established himself as the New Aristotle of the 13th century, . Dante Alighieri established himself the new Virgil. The two men made an immense impact in what their respective fields (poetry and philosophy). Yet surprisingly, the two share common ideals. Cola Economics! In each of their respective literary and philosophical views, they establish the what is polc, importance of the relationship between nature and grace.

    In Dante’s Inferno the unique relationship of. Aristotle , Averroes , Cardinal virtues 1153 Words | 3 Pages. Aquinas’s Third Way 2. What Is The Difference Preservation! Pick one of Aquinas ’ Five Ways and analyze the argument. Give an account of whether, and how, the argument succeeds . or fails. What! You must give detailed reasons for any claims you make. Aquinas’s third way of existence is what type of government did the of confederation one that relies on what is polc reflection of necessity and difference between and conservation, possibility as an argument for God’s existence. Through this argument which regards contingent beings and their existence at a certain period of time, Aquinas develops the idea of some contingently existing. Existence , Logic , Metaphysics 1138 Words | 3 Pages. Saint Augustine of Hippo delved into a life of deep, philosophical thinking, challenging the very way of life to it’s minute existence. He . struggled with his inner being after leaving home to what is polc pursue intellectualism.

    He broadened his views after converting from Christianity to Manichaeism, devoting his thought to Neoplatonism. He eventually returned to Catholicism in A.D. 387, when he began to re-establish his Christian doctrine. As the Western Roman Empire came to a decline, St. Augustine developed. Ambrose , Augustine of Hippo , Catholic Church 1820 Words | 6 Pages. philosophical era. One cannot understand scholars like Descartes or Locke without having some real knowledge of type of government did the articles create? medieval thinking.

    Thus, in this essay, I . wish to show that Aquinas , a thinker of the what is polc, middle ages, thought on knowledge is of permanent value and that it deserves respect and due consideration for today’s discourse of philosophy. Aquinas Theory on Knowledge: His philosophy is based on the premise that knowledge and being are correlates. “In so far a thing is, it is knowable and in this resides its. Belief , Epistemology , Logic 1470 Words | 4 Pages.

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    Essay, Research Paper: Homosexuality. The origins of human sexuality and homosexuality in particular have puzzled. philosophers, theologians and ordinary people for thousands of years. In scatter. cultures, homosexuals have been regarded as a normal part of life, however, same. sex attraction to most cultures have been treated as an is polc, unforgivable sin or a. terrible crime. Many psychologists and psychiatrist had attempted to “treat. and counsel” the homosexuals. In our social norm, male attracts to female and.

    female attracts to male. To everyone this is a natural and biological urge. However, there is a significant minority who attracts to their own sex. It’s. about five percent of the population in the world. There are many opposing. viewpoints of whether it derives from variation in turnitin our genes or our physiology, from the intricacies of our personal history or from convergence of these? Is it.

    for that matter a choice rather than a compulsion? Chances are no one factor or. study can alone explicate and clarify the human sexual orientation. However, there are evidences that prove being gay is what, not a choice. The nature of. homosexuality primarily comes from one’s biological sexual orientation and cola economics the. environment is is polc, just a source to what difference preservation and conservation, bring forth or repress the behavior Many. researchers and what scientists have long search for the distinguishable brain.

    structures, the biochemistry in Essay on Hamlet's Grief the human brains to differentiate the. differences to classify between the two obvious sexes we now have in our. society, male and female. What? Such sex differentiation of the The Roman Essay, brain’s structure is. called sexual dimorphism. . (LeVay/ Hamer 22) The first significant observation. of sexual dimorphism performed in an animal laboratory. Roger A. Gorski, a. professor at University of California, Los Angeles, conducted an experiment on. rats. In 1978, Gorski examined the rat’s hypothalamus, a region at the base of.

    its brain that is involved in instinctive behaviors and regulation of. metabolism. What Is Polc? He discovered there is a group on front of the type of government of confederation, hypothalamus is. several times larger in millimeter of the male rats compared to the female rats. The cell group is very small but it could be easily observed on a stained slice. when being viewed under a microscope. More interestingly, Gorski’s finding. applied to the sexual orientation between males and females.

    That particular. group of cell is known as the medial preoptic are has been involved in the. sexual behaviors typically displayed in males. For instance, if there is a male. rat has a injury medial preoptic area, he apparently couldn’t indifferent to. sex with another female. From the study of Gorski and his co-workers, we now. know the androgen is the typical male hormone and what the estrogen is the female. hormone played a major role in bring about dimorphism during the about Abuse Is a Health Issue, fetus. development. Is Polc? (LeVay/Hamer 23) Another finding also involved with Gorski and his.

    colleagues at bypass U.C.L.A, especially with his student, Dr. Laura S. Allen. They. also found the dimorphic structure in the human brain. A cell group named INAH3, shorten for the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus, in the. medial preoptic region of the is polc, hypothalamus is about three times larger in what is the between and conservation men. that in women. (LeVay/Hamer 23) Animal studies make available a good deal of.

    evidence for is polc biological basis of disease, but in this case, sexual orientation. Through a careful exploitation of hormone level on rats, Gorski as been able to. produce male rodents that demonstrate feminine behavior and The Roman Legacy injected into what is polc the. female fetus that develop with the male fetus and it appear to be masculine. because of the The Roman Legacy, male testosterone. What? They also look and act more like males. In. addition, they are less attractive to male mice (Gorman 60) Related to Gorski. and Allen’s study, Simon LeVay, a British biologist and what is the between neurologist at San. Diego Salk Institute, who is also gay, performed another study for Biological. Studies, in 1990.

    LeVay decided to check whether INAH3 or some other cell group. in the what is polc, medial preoptic area varies in size with sexual orientation as well as. with sex. LeVay conducted an is the preservation, experiment on the hypothalamus in autopsy specimens. from nineteen homosexual men, all of whom died of AIDS and sixteen heterosexual. men, six of what is polc whom had also died of complication of AIDS. After encoding the. specimens to eliminate all the bias that could skew the outcome.

    LeVay carefully. sliced the hypothalamus into serial slices. He measured their cross-sectional. areas and their thickness under a microscope. LeVay has concluded the sexually.

    dimorphic nucleus INAH3 were significantly larger than of female and smaller in. male homosexuals than in straight men and how to turnitin similar in size to the nucleus of. female. In some gay men, this group altogether nonexistent; this is. statistically proven in 1 in 1000 gay men. LeVay hypothesized that this is a. biological factor and possibly genetically based has influenced in the brains of. homosexuals to what, become feminized. (LeVay/Hamer 25) William Byne, a psychiatrist. at Mount Sinai Medical Center decided to challenge and test LeVay’s finding.

    Byne compared the Essay, brains of nineteen heterosexual men and seven women and found. the male nuclei were larger, as LeVay had initiated. Byne came up with several. arguments that other factors could also influenced the cause of homosexuality. but chosen not to publish his result until he can rule out all the possibilities. that could contradict his argument.

    He is what, also collecting numerous human brains. for a comparison of gay and straight males. (Horgan 26) There are many. conservatives who disapprove of homosexuality and have the The Roman Essay, intense hostility. with the concept of “gay gene” and is polc have traditionally argued against it. But. this is because those conservatives do not understand the implications that lie. behind the gay gene.

    Homosexuality is life left-handedness. It’s neither. chosen nor a psychological illness. Since the homosexuality exposed and what is the difference between preservation and conservation became a. controversial issue in what is polc United States in the last three decades, many. conservatives argue, “Homosexuality is a chose lifestyle, like vegetarian. It’s a disease like schizophrenia.” (Burr 22).

    But since scientists had. proven those are not completely cases of homosexuality and it clearly a. biological development like and it does not correlate with any environment. factors. Scientists has classified homosexuality is a trait. For every trait. they studied, clinicians and biologists often assemble a trait profile of Essay on Hamlet's Grief the. sum total they have gathered in their studies. The trait usually shows up in the. population as two “orientation”.

    Ninety-two percent of the population. usually has the majority orientation and about eight percent has the minority. orientation. Either the two traits are non-pathological and what is polc chosen. Cola Economics? The minority. orientation runs in the families has a name of is polc “maternal effect” given by. the geneticists which men always receive it from their mother. If it is. inheritable, as demonstrated by the fact those identical twins, whose are. naturally clones are far more likely to share the minority orientation than. siblings who are not twins.

    For example, handedness, right- handed holds the. majority orientation in the populations that the what and conservation, left-handed holds the minority. orientation. This theory could apply to is polc, the homosexuals and heterosexuals. Heterosexuality accounts roughly ninety-five percent of the population while the. homosexuality is the minority orientation, which holds the what is the difference, other five- percent. of the what, population. Clearly family, social norms, friends, teacher or school. education can’t make you to become gay, which is a minority orientation. (Burr. 24) Dean H. Hamer of National Cancer Institute studied the DNA from forty pairs.

    of homosexual brothers and Legacy found thirty-three of them share genetic markers on. the X-chromosome in a region know as Xq28. X chromosome is is polc, one of the two sex. determined chromosomes. It is always inherited from mothers. Genes are arranged. along 46 chromosomes and each chromosome contains tiny coils of DNA,

    deoxyribonucleic acid, which carries the instruction to manufacture a particular. body substance. Essay Grief? There was no such similar sharing in the same region among. heterosexual men. Researchers have not yet compared the what is polc, homosexuals’ genetic. information to the other group. The finding does not explain all the. homosexuals; seven out of forty homosexual brothers did not have the common. genetic factor. The explanation for this is it might cause by other unknown. genetic influence. (LeVay/Hamer, 27-29).

    Since the DNA strand is long enough to. contain hundreds of genes. Hamer’s team has not found the cola economics, gene that makes some. men gay but the Xq28 is one of the possibilities of the gay gene (Begley, Sharon, Hager, Mary) If homosexuality is inherited and the male homosexual gets. the gay gene from the X-chromosome of his mother, then aren’t that twin. brothers and other siblings of the family have a good chance of being. genetically influenced by that trait. Looking for linkage, Hamer has conducted a. random survey and a survey with families with gay brothers between the maternal.

    and paternal relatives. The possibilities of maternal uncle and maternal cousin. through aunt have the highest percentage of being gay. It’s from 7.3 % to. 12.9% compared to the paternal uncle and cousin through aunt of 3.9% to 5.4%. Why are most gay men relatives are gay on their mother’s side of the family? The possibility is a man has two chromosomes, X and Y. The Y chromosome is the. sex chromosome and any traits that on the X chromosome pass to is polc, the child come. mostly from his mother.

    Chances are she had inherited those traits from her side. of the what is the between preservation, family. Is Polc? (Hamer/Copeland 111) In 1985, Richard C. Pillard and James D. Weinrich conducted the first modern study on the pattern of The Roman Essay homosexuality runs. in families. “The random pooled data for men show that about 57% of identical. twins, 24% of fraternal twins and 13% of brothers of what gay men are also gay. Legacy Essay? For.

    women, 50% of the identical twin, 13% of sisters of the lesbians are also. lesbians.”(LeVay/Hamer 26) Data of homosexuality combined and analyzed, it. showed a good possibility of family clustering of sexual orientation becomes. evident for both sexes. Is Polc? But others say this finding reveals another significant.

    problem with a “born gay” conclusion. The argument against the data. indicating above is cola economics, if homosexuality is inherited then identical twin brothers. who share 100% of their genes should have 100% chance of being gay instead of. 57%? The respond to this argument is in a gene there are two alleles.

    For. example of Huntington’s disease, it comes in two alleles. One is to suppress. the gene and the other activates the disease. Therefore, the baby has a 50% to. 50% change of his identical twin brother will get the same “gay” trait. Another example is Type 1 diabetes; this disease has only 30% active, so in. another word, you could only have 30% chance of this gene will become activate. Therefore two identical brothers could have share the what is polc, same gene for turnitin diabetes but.

    one might develop it and one might not. The activeness of the gay gene is only. 50%, for that reason, some twins do not share the same sexual orientation unless. there is something that triggers those alleles to activate. There are traits. that emerge at the different time of life, some at what the beginning and others that. emerge later on in time. (Kangas 20) Another explanation is how to turnitin, after the fertilized. egg separated into two individuals. The DNA sequence might have a few changes.

    and that could lead to the personality as well as the sexual orientation. differences. This has not been proven, but it could be one of the possibilities. of why identical twins do not have 100% chance of being gay. “ Bailey and. Pillard say their research indicates that male sexual orientation is. “substantially genetic”. Research on social factors has proven fruitless,

    with no evidence that parental behavior or even parent’s homosexuality affects. the children’s sexual orientation. What Is Polc? (Pillard 32) Applying the homosexuality to. the gene concept, New York psychiatrist Kenneth Paul Rosenberg believes that we, as people, should be more open-minded to the study of homosexuality because it. could help to fight for type did the gay and lesbian rights in is polc this society. Hopefully it. also could decrease an type of government, escalating hate crime rate and the discrimination toward. homosexuals.(Horgan) Like any genetic research, finding the gene sequence is. time consuming and expensive. The finding of Huntington’s disease took about a. decade and cost millions of what is polc dollars.

    What are the advantages of the study’s. outcomes and who will be effects by it? Human sexual orientation is The Roman, no ordinary. topic or study. It’s at the center of a fierce debate involving politics, the. law, religion, ethics and the origins and meaning of human behavior. Many legal. experts felt the evidence for a genetic link to what is polc, homosexuality would strengthens. the evidence for The Roman Legacy Essay immutability and therefore cause tighter scrutiny of laws that. permitted discrimination against gays and lesbians in housing, employment, or. participation in the political process.

    Others, though, argued that immutability. was a red herring and that the real issue was equal protection, not biology. There were also ethical, medical and economic issues involved as well. Although. scientists did not provide any test for the still hypothetical gay gene but we. are heading in that direction. If such test were developed, might parents decide.

    to screen the fetus for homosexuality, just as they do for is polc Down syndrome and. other genetic defects? Would some doctors regard homosexuality as a genetic. defect that should be cured and weeded out of the population? Would insurance. companies charge men with the gay gene more on coverage or refuse to what between preservation, serve them.

    because they have a higher risk of AIDS faced by what gay men? These are questions. that worried many people. “In addition, homosexuals are frequently the what did the articles of confederation, targets. of discrimination and what violence. The treat of violence and discrimination is an. obstacle to lesbian and gay people’s development. In a 1989 national survey,

    5% of the gay men and 10% of the lesbians reported physical abuse and/or. assault. 47% report some form of discrimination over their lifetime. Other. research has show similarly high rates of discrimination or violence toward. homosexuals” (Yahoo.com, APA QA) Personally I do hope the genetic surgery.

    will reveal the true nature of Essay about Substance Is a Mental Health homosexual and find the what is polc, right loci of the gay. gene in the near future. Optimistically with finding of the biological. influences on the gay gene can help to eliminate the discrimination and the. escalating hate crimes rate toward the Essay Substance Abuse Is a Health, homosexuals.

    Homosexuals are normal. people like the is polc, heterosexuals. They have feelings and their sexual orientation. of attracting the same sex is about Substance Abuse Is a Health, innate. What Is Polc? They have no control over this destiny. Counseling, therapy or the environment can’t change this so since we can’t. convert this then why don’t we accept this and cola economics give those homosexuals all the. respects and what rights that they deserve like any other heterosexuals.

    BibliographyAPA Public Communication. Of Government Did The Articles Of Confederation Create?? *http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/orient.html. * · Begley S.; Hager M. (July 26, 1993) Newsweek. Vol. What Is Polc? 122 Issue 4 Does DNA Make. Some Men Gay? P59 2/3p, 1c · Burr C. (Dec 16, 1996) Weekly Standard. Suppose. There Is a Gay Gene. What Then?

    P 22-26 · John, H. (Nov 95). Scientific. American, Vol. 273 Issue 5, Gay Genes, Revisited p26, 5/6p, 1c · Kangas S. (1999) Homosexuality Is Biologically Determined. Homosexuality: Opposing. Viewpoints. Mary E. Williams, Greenhaven Press.

    17-21 · Gorman, C. (Sept 9, 1991) Time Magazine. Are Gay Men Born that Way? P 60-61 · Pillard R. Type Of Government? (1999) The. Causes of Homosexuality Are Probably Genetic. Homosexuality: Opposing. Viewpoints. Mary E. Williams, Greenhaven Press. 27-34. Help other users to find the good and what worthy free term papers and trash the The Roman Legacy Essay, bad ones.

    Free papers will not meet the is polc, guidelines of your specific project. If you need a custom essay on Sexuality: , we can write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written papers will pass any plagiarism test, guaranteed. Our writing service will save you time and grade.