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brutus essay 15 October 18, 1787. To the Citizens of the State of New-York. Is Polc! When the public is called to investigate and bypass decide upon is polc a question in which not only the v united, present members of the community are deeply interested, but upon what which the what did the articles of confederation, happiness and misery of generations yet unborn is in great measure suspended, the benevolent mind cannot help feeling itself peculiarly interested in the result. In this situation, I trust the feeble efforts of an what, individual, to lead the v united states 1951, minds of the is polc, people to a wise and Essay about Mental Issue prudent determination, cannot fail of being acceptable to the candid and is polc dispassionate part of the Abuse Mental Health, community. Encouraged by this consideration, I have been induced to offer my thoughts upon is polc the present important crisis of our public affairs. Perhaps this country never saw so critical a period in their political concerns. We have felt the feebleness of the ties by which these United-States are held together, and the want of sufficient energy in our present confederation, to manage, in some instances, our general concerns. Various expedients have been proposed to remedy these evils, but none have succeeded. At length a Convention of the states has been assembled, they have formed a constitution which will now, probably, be submitted to the people to ratify or reject, who are the fountain of The Roman Legacy Essay, all power, to whom alone it of right belongs to make or unmake constitutions, or forms of what, government, at their pleasure.
The most important question that was ever proposed to Essay Timeframe your decision, or to the decision of is polc, any people under heaven, is Essay Grief, before you, and you are to what is polc decide upon it by men of v united, your own election, chosen specially for this purpose. What Is Polc! If the Essay Substance Is a Health, constitution, offered to [your acceptance], be a wise one, calculated to preserve the invaluable blessings of is polc, liberty, to secure the inestimable rights of mankind, and on The Adolescent promote human happiness, then, if you accept it, you will lay a lasting foundation of what is polc, happiness for millions yet unborn; generations to come will rise up and call you blessed. Cola Economics! You may rejoice in the prospects of this vast extended continent becoming filled with freemen, who will assert the dignity of what is polc, human nature. Cola Economics! You may solace yourselves with the idea, that society, in this favoured land, will fast advance to the highest point of perfection; the human mind will expand in what knowledge and virtue, and is the difference preservation and conservation the golden age be, in some measure, realised. But if, on the other hand, this form of government contains principles that will lead to the subversion of liberty — if it tends to establish a despotism, or, what is what, worse, a tyrannic aristocracy; then, if you adopt it, this only remaining assylum for Grief, liberty will be [shut] up, and is polc posterity will execrate your memory. Momentous then is the question you have to Adolescent Timeframe determine, and you are called upon by every motive which should influence a noble and virtuous mind, to examine it well, and to make up a wise judgment. It is insisted, indeed, that this constitution must be received, be it ever so imperfect. If it has its defects, it is said, they can be best amended when they are experienced. But remember, when the people once part with power, they can seldom or never resume it again but by is polc force. Many instances can be produced in what did the articles which the people have voluntarily increased the powers of their rulers; but few, if any, in which rulers have willingly abridged their authority.
This is what is polc, a sufficient reason to induce you to be careful, in The Roman Legacy the first instance, how you deposit the powers of what, government. With these few introductory remarks I shall proceed to Essay Substance Issue a consideration of is polc, this constitution: The first question that presents itself on the subject is, whether a confederated government be the best for the United States or not? Or in other words, whether the thirteen United States should be reduced to one great republic, governed by turnitin one legislature, and what is polc under the Substance Is a Health Issue, direction of what is polc, one executive and judicial; or whether they should continue thirteen confederated republics, under the direction and controul of a supreme federal head for what of government did the, certain defined national purposes only? This enquiry is important, because, although the what, government reported by the convention does not go to dennis v united states 1951 a perfect and entire consolidation, yet it approaches so near to it, that it must, if executed, certainly and infallibly terminate in what is polc it. This government is to Essay on Hamlet's Grief possess absolute and uncontroulable power, legislative, executive and judicial, with respect to every object to what which it extends, for by the last clause of section 8th, article Ist, it is declared “that the Congress shall have power to make all laws which shall be necessary and Essay about Substance Is a Health proper for carrying into what is polc execution the on Hamlet's Grief, foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution, in is polc the government of the cola economics, United States; or in what any department or office thereof.” And by the 6th article, it is declared “that this constitution, and the laws of the United States, which shall be made in is the and conservation pursuance thereof, and what the treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the how to, supreme law of the what is polc, land; and Essay on The Adolescent Timeframe the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution, or law of what, any state to how to bypass turnitin the contrary notwithstanding.” It appears from what is polc, these articles that there is Abuse Is a Mental Health Issue, no need of any intervention of the state governments, between the what, Congress and the people, to execute any one power vested in of government of confederation create? the general government, and that the constitution and laws of every state are nullified and declared void, so far as they are or shall be inconsistent with this constitution, or the laws made in pursuance of it, or with treaties made under the authority of the is polc, United States. Essay Mental Health! — The government then, so far as it extends, is a complete one, and not a confederation. What Is Polc! It is as much one complete government as that of New-York or Massachusetts, has as absolute and perfect powers to Legacy Essay make and execute all laws, to what appoint officers, institute courts, declare offences, and annex penalties, with respect to every object to which it extends, as any other in the world.
So far therefore as its powers reach, all ideas of did the of confederation, confederation are given up and lost. Is Polc! It is 1951, true this government is limited to certain objects, or to what speak more properly, some small degree of power is dennis v united 1951, still left to the states, but a little attention to the powers vested in the general government, will convince every candid man, that if it is what, capable of being executed, all that is reserved for the individual states must very soon be annihilated, except so far as they are barely necessary to Legacy Essay the organization of the general government. The powers of the general legislature extend to every case that is of the least importance — there is nothing valuable to human nature, nothing dear to freemen, but what is within its power. It has authority to make laws which will affect the lives, the what is polc, liberty, and property of every man in how to the United States; nor can the constitution or laws of any state, in any way prevent or impede the full and what is polc complete execution of dennis states, every power given. The legislative power is what, competent to lay taxes, duties, imposts, and did the articles create? excises; — there is no limitation to this power, unless it be said that the clause which directs the what, use to what difference and conservation which those taxes, and duties shall be applied, may be said to be a limitation; but this is no restriction of the power at all, for by this clause they are to be applied to pay the debts and what provide for the common defence and general welfare of the cola economics, United States; but the what is polc, legislature have authority to v united 1951 contract debts at their discretion; they are the sole judges of what is necessary to what provide for the common defence, and Essay on The Timeframe they only are to what is polc determine what is for the general welfare: this power therefore is Essay on The Adolescent Timeframe, neither more nor less, than a power to lay and collect taxes, imposts, and excises, at their pleasure; not only the is polc, power to what is the difference preservation and conservation lay taxes unlimited, as to the amount they may require, but it is what is polc, perfect and absolute to bypass raise them in any mode they please. Is Polc! No state legislature, or any power in turnitin the state governments, have any more to do in what carrying this into effect, than the authority of one state has to do with that of another. In the cola economics, business therefore of laying and what collecting taxes, the idea of Essay, confederation is totally lost, and that of one entire republic is what, embraced. It is bypass, proper here to remark, that the authority to lay and collect taxes is the most important of any power that can be granted; it connects with it almost all other powers, or at least will in what is polc process of time draw all other after it; it is the how to bypass, great mean of protection, security, and defence, in what is polc a good government, and how to bypass the great engine of what, oppression and difference preservation and conservation tyranny in a bad one. This cannot fail of what is polc, being the what articles of confederation create?, case, if we consider the contracted limits which are set by this constitution, to what is polc the late governments, on this article of raising money. No state can emit paper money — lay any duties, or imposts, on imports, or exports, but by Grief consent of the what is polc, Congress; and then the net produce shall be for the benefit of the United States.
The only mean therefore left, for any state to support its government and on Hamlet's discharge its debts, is by what is polc direct taxation; and on Hamlet's Grief the United States have also power to lay and what is polc collect taxes, in any way they please. About Substance Is A Issue! Every one who has thought on the subject, must be convinced that but small sums of money can be collected in any country, by direct taxe[s], when the foederal government begins to exercise the right of taxation in all its parts, the legislatures of the several states will find it impossible to what is polc raise monies to The Roman support their governments. Without money they cannot be supported, and they must dwindle away, and, as before observed, their powers absorbed in what that of the Essay about Substance Abuse Is a Mental Issue, general government. It might be here shewn, that the power in the federal legislative, to raise and support armies at pleasure, as well in peace as in war, and their controul over the militia, tend, not only to what is polc a consolidation of the dennis states, government, but the destruction of liberty. — I shall not, however, dwell upon is polc these, as a few observations upon on The the judicial power of what, this government, in addition to the preceding, will fully evince the truth of the between preservation, position. What Is Polc! The judicial power of the Essay about Substance Abuse Is a Issue, United States is to be vested in a supreme court, and in is polc such inferior courts as Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The powers of these courts are very extensive; their jurisdiction comprehends all civil causes, except such as arise between citizens of the same state; and Health Issue it extends to what is polc all cases in Essay Adolescent Timeframe law and equity arising under the is polc, constitution.
One inferior court must be established, I presume, in each state at least, with the necessary executive officers appendant thereto. It is easy to Essay on The Adolescent see, that in the common course of what is polc, things, these courts will eclipse the dignity, and take away from the respectability, of the state courts. On The Adolescent Timeframe! These courts will be, in themselves, totally independent of the states, deriving their authority from the United States, and receiving from what, them fixed salaries; and in the course of human events it is to be expected, that they will swallow up all the Timeframe, powers of the courts in the respective states. How far the clause in the 8th section of the what, Ist article may operate to Essay do away all idea of confederated states, and to what effect an entire consolidation of the whole into one general government, it is impossible to say. The powers given by this article are very general and comprehensive, and it may receive a construction to about Substance Abuse Mental Health justify the passing almost any law. What Is Polc! A power to make all laws, which shall be necessary and on The proper, for what, carrying into execution, all powers vested by the constitution in Essay on Hamlet's the government of the what is polc, United States, or any department or officer thereof, is a power very comprehensive and definite, and may, for how to, ought I know, be exercised in a such manner as entirely to abolish the state legislatures. Suppose the legislature of a state should pass a law to what is polc raise money to support their government and pay the state debt, may the Congress repeal this law, because it may prevent the collection of a tax which they may think proper and necessary to Legacy Essay lay, to provide for the general welfare of the United States?
For all laws made, in pursuance of this constitution, are the supreme lay of the land, and is polc the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of the different states to the contrary notwithstanding. Bypass! — By such a law, the government of a particular state might be overturned at one stroke, and thereby be deprived of every means of its support. It is not meant, by stating this case, to what insinuate that the what type of government, constitution would warrant a law of is polc, this kind; or unnecessarily to alarm the fears of the Substance Health Issue, people, by suggesting, that the federal legislature would be more likely to pass the what is polc, limits assigned them by dennis v united 1951 the constitution, than that of an individual state, further than they are less responsible to what the people. But what is of government, meant is, that the legislature of the United States are vested with the what is polc, great and uncontroulable powers, of laying and collecting taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; of articles of confederation, regulating trade, raising and supporting armies, organizing, arming, and disciplining the what, militia, instituting courts, and what is the difference between preservation and conservation other general powers. What Is Polc! And are by how to this clause invested with the what is polc, power of making all laws, proper and Essay on The Adolescent Timeframe necessary, for what is polc, carrying all these into execution; and they may so exercise this power as entirely to annihilate all the state governments, and reduce this country to one single government. And if they may do it, it is turnitin, pretty certain they will; for what is polc, it will be found that the power retained by Essay on The Timeframe individual states, small as it is, will be a clog upon the wheels of the government of the United States; the latter therefore will be naturally inclined to what is polc remove it out did the of confederation create? of the way. Besides, it is what, a truth confirmed by the unerring experience of ages, that every man, and Essay every body of men, invested with power, are ever disposed to is polc increase it, and to acquire a superiority over every thing that stands in how to their way. This disposition, which is implanted in human nature, will operate in the federal legislature to lessen and ultimately to subvert the what, state authority, and having such advantages, will most certainly succeed, if the federal government succeeds at all. It must be very evident then, that what this constitution wants of being a complete consolidation of the several parts of the union into one complete government, possessed of perfect legislative, judicial, and executive powers, to all intents and purposes, it will necessarily acquire in its exercise and operation.
Let us now proceed to enquire, as I at first proposed, whether it be best the thirteen United States should be reduced to one great republic, or not? It is here taken for granted, that all agree in what type of government did the articles create? this, that whatever government we adopt, it ought to be a free one; that it should be so framed as to secure the liberty of the citizens of America, and such an one as to admit of a full, fair, and equal representation of the what, people. The question then will be, whether a government thus constituted, and founded on such principles, is practicable, and can be exercised over the whole United States, reduced into one state? If respect is to be paid to the opinion of the greatest and what type of government did the of confederation wisest men who have ever thought or wrote on the science of government, we shall be constrained to what conclude, that a free republic cannot succeed over cola economics, a country of such immense extent, containing such a number of inhabitants, and what is polc these encreasing in such rapid progression as that of the whole United States. Among the many illustrious authorities which might be produced to this point, I shall content myself with quoting only two. The one is the baron de Montesquieu, spirit of laws, chap. xvi. V United States! vol. I [book VIII]. What Is Polc! “It is on Hamlet's Grief, natural to what is polc a republic to have only a small territory, otherwise it cannot long subsist. In a large republic there are men of large fortunes, and dennis v united consequently of less moderation; there are trusts too great to is polc be placed in any single subject; he has interest of what did the, his own; he soon begins to think that he may be happy, great and glorious, by oppressing his fellow citizens; and that he may raise himself to grandeur on the ruins of is polc, his country.
In a large republic, the cola economics, public good is sacrificed to what a thousand views; it is subordinate to Essay exceptions, and depends on what accidents. In a small one, the on Hamlet's, interest of the what, public is easier perceived, better understood, and more within the reach of every citizen; abuses are of less extent, and of course are less protected.” Of the same opinion is the marquis Beccarari. History furnishes no example of a free republic, any thing like the extent of the United States. Grief! The Grecian republics were of small extent; so also was that of the what is polc, Romans. Both of these, it is true, in process of Essay about Abuse Health, time, extended their conquests over large territories of country; and the consequence was, that their governments were changed from that of free governments to those of the most tyrannical that ever existed in what the world. Not only the opinion of the greatest men, and the experience of mankind, are against the idea of an extensive republic, but a variety of reasons may be drawn from the reason and is the nature of things, against is polc it. In every government, the will of the sovereign is the 1951, law. In despotic governments, the supreme authority being lodged in one, his will is what is polc, law, and can be as easily expressed to a large extensive territory as to about Mental Issue a small one.
In a pure democracy the what is polc, people are the Essay on Hamlet's, sovereign, and their will is declared by themselves; for this purpose they must all come together to deliberate, and is polc decide. What Difference Between! This kind of government cannot be exercised, therefore, over a country of any considerable extent; it must be confined to is polc a single city, or at type of government create? least limited to what such bounds as that the people can conveniently assemble, be able to debate, understand the subject submitted to what type of government articles of confederation create? them, and declare their opinion concerning it. In a free republic, although all laws are derived from the what is polc, consent of the people, yet the what is the difference between preservation and conservation, people do not declare their consent by what themselves in person, but by representatives, chosen by type create? them, who are supposed to know the minds of their constituents, and to what is polc be possessed of integrity to declare this mind. Bypass! In every free government, the is polc, people must give their assent to about Abuse Health Issue the laws by which they are governed. This is the true criterion between a free government and an arbitrary one.
The former are ruled by is polc the will of the whole, expressed in any manner they may agree upon; the latter by the will of one, or a few. If the people are to give their assent to the laws, by is the difference persons chosen and what appointed by them, the manner of the choice and the number chosen, must be such, as to possess, be disposed, and consequently qualified to declare the sentiments of the people; for what of confederation, if they do not know, or are not disposed to speak the sentiments of the what is polc, people, the people do not govern, but the sovereignty is in a few. Now, in dennis v united states 1951 a large extended country, it is impossible to have a representation, possessing the what is polc, sentiments, and The Roman Legacy of integrity, to declare the is polc, minds of the states, people, without having it so numerous and unwieldly, as to be subject in great measure to the inconveniency of a democratic government. Is Polc! The territory of the The Roman Legacy, United States is is polc, of vast extent; it now contains near three millions of souls, and is capable of Essay about Substance Abuse Mental Health Issue, containing much more than ten times that number. Is it practicable for a country, so large and so numerous as they will soon become, to elect a representation, that will speak their sentiments, without their becoming so numerous as to be incapable of transacting public business? It certainly is what is polc, not. In a republic, the manners, sentiments, and interests of the people should be similar. If this be not the case, there will be a constant clashing of about Abuse Mental Issue, opinions; and the representatives of is polc, one part will be continually striving against what of government did the of confederation create? those of the other. This will retard the operations of government, and prevent such conclusions as will promote the public good. If we apply this remark to what the condition of the United States, we shall be convinced that it forbids that we should be one government.
The United States includes a variety of climates. About Abuse Health! The productions of the different parts of the is polc, union are very variant, and type their interests, of what is polc, consequence, diverse. Their manners and habits differ as much as their climates and productions; and their sentiments are by no means coincident. The laws and customs of the several states are, in many respects, very diverse, and in some opposite; each would be in how to turnitin favor of its own interests and is polc customs, and, of consequence, a legislature, formed of Essay on The Timeframe, representatives from the is polc, respective parts, would not only be too numerous to act with any care or decision, but would be composed of such heterogenous and discordant principles, as would constantly be contending with each other. The laws cannot be executed in The Roman Essay a republic, of an what is polc, extent equal to that of the United States, with promptitude. The magistrates in Essay Adolescent every government must be supported in the execution of the laws, either by an armed force, maintained at the public expence for is polc, that purpose; or by the people turning out to of government articles of confederation aid the magistrate upon his command, in case of resistance. In despotic governments, as well as in is polc all the monarchies of Europe, standing armies are kept up to what is the difference and conservation execute the commands of the what, prince or the cola economics, magistrate, and are employed for this purpose when occasion requires: But they have always proved the what is polc, destruction of liberty, and [are] abhorrent to the spirit of Essay, a free republic. In England, where they depend upon the parliament for their annual support, they have always been complained of as oppressive and what is polc unconstitutional, and are seldom employed in executing of the cola economics, laws; never except on extraordinary occasions, and then under the direction of a civil magistrate. A free republic will never keep a standing army to is polc execute its laws.
It must depend upon what of confederation create? the support of its citizens. What! But when a government is to receive its support from the aid of the type of government of confederation, citizens, it must be so constructed as to what is polc have the confidence, respect, and affection of the people. Men who, upon the call of the magistrate, offer themselves to execute the is the between, laws, are influenced to is polc do it either by affection to the government, or from fear; where a standing army is at hand to punish offenders, every man is actuated by how to bypass turnitin the latter principle, and therefore, when the magistrate calls, will obey: but, where this is not the case, the government must rest for is polc, its support upon the confidence and respect which the people have for their government and Essay about Substance Is a Mental Health Issue laws. The body of the what is polc, people being attached, the Essay, government will always be sufficient to what support and execute its laws, and to Essay Substance Is a Mental Issue operate upon the fears of what, any faction which may be opposed to it, not only to Essay about Abuse Mental Health prevent an opposition to is polc the execution of the laws themselves, but also to compel the most of them to aid the magistrate; but the people will not be likely to have such confidence in what articles create? their rulers, in what a republic so extensive as the dennis states 1951, United States, as necessary for what is polc, these purposes. The confidence which the people have in their rulers, in a free republic, arises from their knowing them, from their being responsible to them for their conduct, and from the power they have of displacing them when they misbehave: but in a republic of the extent of this continent, the is the, people in is polc general would be acquainted with very few of their rulers: the Essay about Substance Abuse Is a Health, people at large would know little of what, their proceedings, and it would be extremely difficult to change them. The people in Georgia and what type of government of confederation create? New-Hampshire would not know one another’s mind, and therefore could not act in concert to what is polc enable them to effect a general change of how to bypass, representatives. The different parts of is polc, so extensive a country could not possibly be made acquainted with the on Hamlet's Grief, conduct of their representatives, nor be informed of the what is polc, reasons upon which measures were founded.
The consequence will be, they will have no confidence in their legislature, suspect them of how to, ambitious views, be jealous of every measure they adopt, and is polc will not support the Essay, laws they pass. Hence the what is polc, government will be nerveless and inefficient, and no way will be left to render it otherwise, but by Essay establishing an what, armed force to Essay on The execute the is polc, laws at Essay about Substance Abuse Issue the point of the is polc, bayonet — a government of all others the most to be dreaded. Essay Abuse Mental Health Issue! In a republic of what is polc, such vast extent as the United-States, the legislature cannot attend to the various concerns and about Substance Abuse Is a Health Issue wants of its different parts. What Is Polc! It cannot be sufficiently numerous to be acquainted with the local condition and dennis v united wants of the different districts, and what if it could, it is type did the create?, impossible it should have sufficient time to what is polc attend to dennis v united states 1951 and provide for all the what is polc, variety of cases of cola economics, this nature, that would be continually arising. In so extensive a republic, the great officers of government would soon become above the what, controul of the people, and Legacy abuse their power to what the purpose of aggrandizing themselves, and oppressing them. The trust committed to the executive offices, in a country of the extent of the United-States, must be various and of magnitude. The command of all the Adolescent, troops and navy of the republic, the what, appointment of officers, the Essay on The Timeframe, power of pardoning offences, the is polc, collecting of The Roman Legacy Essay, all the public revenues, and the power of expending them, with a number of what is polc, other powers, must be lodged and exercised in every state, in the hands of a few. The Roman Essay! When these are attended with great honor and emolument, as they always will be in is polc large states, so as greatly to interest men to pursue them, and to v united be proper objects for is polc, ambitious and did the create? designing men, such men will be ever restless in is polc their pursuit after them. About Abuse Is A Mental Issue! They will use the power, when they have acquired it, to the purposes of gratifying their own interest and ambition, and it is scarcely possible, in a very large republic, to call them to account for their misconduct, or to prevent their abuse of power. These are some of the reasons by which it appears, that a free republic cannot long subsist over a country of the great extent of is polc, these states.
If then this new constitution is Substance Abuse Is a Mental Issue, calculated to consolidate the thirteen states into one, as it evidently is, it ought not to what be adopted. Though I am of opinion, that it is a sufficient objection to what of government did the articles create? this government, to reject it, that it creates the what, whole union into one government, under the form of what type of government, a republic, yet if this objection was obviated, there are exceptions to it, which are so material and fundamental, that they ought to determine every man, who is is polc, a friend to create? the liberty and happiness of mankind, not to adopt it. What Is Polc! I beg the cola economics, candid and dispassionate attention of what is polc, my countrymen while I state these objections — they are such as have obtruded themselves upon Grief my mind upon a careful attention to the matter, and such as I sincerely believe are well founded. There are many objections, of small moment, of which I shall take no notice — perfection is not to what is polc be expected in any thing that is the production of man — and if I did not in my conscience believe that this scheme was defective in type of government did the articles the fundamental principles — in what the foundation upon which a free and equal government must rest — I would hold my peace. Dennis States 1951! Source: The Complete Anti-Federalist , ed. Herbert J. Storing (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1981) Volume Two, Part 2, 363-372. Is Polc! When the new Constitution was proposed for what type of government of confederation create?, ratification in 1787, the American people deliberated freely and what publicly, especially in about Abuse Mental Health Issue newspaper editorials, about whether to what accept or reject a form of government for themselves. Antifederalists (those who opposed immediate ratification) contributed to the public debate by dennis 1951 questioning whether the is polc, proposed Constitution would lead to bypass the security or destruction of the is polc, rights Americans then enjoyed under their state constitutions.
One of the most eloquent Antifederalists, writing under the pseudonym Brutus, voiced a concern shared by many Americans: Could a widely dispersed and diverse people be united under one government without sacrificing the blessings of liberty and bypass self-government? Brutus’ powerful arguments prompted Federalists to articulate a more thorough explanation of what the Constitution meant and why it should be ratified. Taken together, the is polc, Federalist and Antifederalist debates over the Constitution provide Americans with a deeply insightful conversation about Essay on The Adolescent, politics, human nature, and is polc the difficulties of establishing good government. Questions for v united states, consideration: Why is ratification the most important question any people has ever had to decide? With which powers of the new government is Brutus especially concerned? Why does Brutus believe that a republic as large as the one proposed by the Constitution will lead to tyranny? Centinel I by Centinel | October 05, 1787. Brutus IV by Brutus | November 29, 1787. Federalist No. 10 by what Publius (James Madison) | November 22, 1787.
Federalist No. 38 by Publius (James Madison) | January 12, 1788. Is The Between! Federalist No. 39 by what Publius (James Madison) | January 16, 1788. Use email, Facebook, and how to Twitter to spread the word. 50 Documents That Tell America’s Story. Is Polc! Required reading for students, teachers, and citizens. Professional Development Opportunities for Teachers.
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Guess What#039;s Cooking in the Garage. The next big breakthrough in synthetic biology just might come from an amateur scientist. Guess What's Cooking. What follows is a modified excerpt from Bunch of Amateurs: A Search for the American Character_, out now._. On Fillmore Street in San Francisco, in that stretch that's still mostly boho coffee joints with a head shop and an art gallery or two, I met Meredith Patterson.
She didn't exactly stand out among the denizens of the Lower Haight. In her 30s and what is polc, pushing 5?10?? in her combat boots, she had on a tough-looking leather jacket and cat's-eye glasses that finished off her look with a nice hint of 1950s girl nerd. Issue! Patterson is classic self-invented obsessive. A computer programmer and language theorist by day, she's somebody who's loved anything do-it-yourself since she was a little girl, working beside her dad fixing the family car or rewiring the house. Not long ago, she found herself in the grip of a new enthusiasm: homebrew bioengineering. America has always been a place of what is polc, ambitious amateurs. And the latest in the long line of them are self-taught biologists like Patterson. These synthetic biologists, so called because they try to engineer new forms of life, are trying to do for the chromosome what Steve Jobs did for the computer.
In the bigger cities, they have started to form synbio clubs, the same way radio enthusiasts did in the early 1900s or computer programmers did in the 1970s or robotics amateurs did in the '00s. A few of those clubs have even opened brick-and-mortar labs where members can practice tweaking various genomes as a group. Ask most people about the Essay about Issue amateur spirit, and they'll say, well, that was then. What! It's almost common wisdom that the golden age of the self-invented upstart ended sometime about a generation ago. Difference And Conservation! But the is polc fact is, we've been hearing this line for at least a century, and it's always wrong.
The time of outsiders and amateurs and cranks is not a bygone era, but rather a cycle that comes around just when you think it's over. This cycle is an essential part of America's history—arguably the country's genesis story. Ever since Ben Franklin left Boston for cola economics Philadelphia, and continuing right up through when Mark Zuckerberg abandoned Harvard Square for Palo Alto, there has been this sense that a certain kind of creativity happens on the fly, often on the lam, after beginning in one of those proving grounds of American ingenuity: the what dorm room, the weekend hobby club, the garage. For Patterson, that proving ground happens to be a tabletop lab situated in turnitin, the breakfast nook just outside the kitchen of her apartment. What Is Polc! She had invited me out to check out her rig—a collection of mostly repurposed and (fairly) common household devices that she uses to fiddle around with the building blocks of life—and to on Hamlet's Grief, help her with the next step of her latest project. She wanted to insert a plasmid of jellyfish DNA into a bacterium so that later she might cultivate a modified form of what is polc, yogurt, one that tasted great but also glowed in the dark. Before we got to any serious bioengineering, Patterson said we'd have to visit one of her go-to synbio supply stores: Trader Joe's, which sold plain yogurt containing the bacteria we'd need, Lactobacillus acidophilus . How To Bypass! During our walk, I noticed a tattoo on her ankle. She pulled her pants up above her boot. This one's not done yet, she said. Is Polc! It was a steampunk biomechanical x-ray of is the difference preservation, her lower tibia and fibula, a series of mechanical cogs, robotic pistons and bicycle chains. What! It's kind of a joke, because I have these weird mutant ankles, she explained.
I have this thing called an how to accessory navicular bone. Patterson has a number of tattoos, all of which relate in some way to her sense of herself as an off-the-grid scientist. On one arm she has a rose window and sword from her favorite anime serial, Revolutionary Girl Utena. Down the bicep is the iconic image of Atlas holding up the heavens, most familiar as the paperback cover art of Ayn Rand's novel Atlas Shrugged . Is Polc! And keeping the burdened Titan company is the what difference preservation Page of Pentacles, the tarot-card figure who, she says, signifies the eternal student. The crucial ingredient for Patterson's Glo-gurt is a gene known as green fluorescent protein, or GFP. Originally found in is polc, jellyfish and a species of Essay Substance Issue, polyp called the sea pansy, GFP allows these creatures to bioluminesce when disturbed.
In 2000, an artist named Eduardo Kac created GFP Bunny, a genetically altered albino hare that glowed bright green in the presence of ultraviolet light. What! Since then, the how to bypass gene and its colorful relatives have been domesticated—very domesticated. Pet stores now sell GFP-altered zebra fish as GloFish ($7.99 a piece, $6.99 if you buy three—now available in Starfire Red, Electric Green, Sunburst Orange, Cosmic Blue and Galactic Purple). Three scientists who studied the gene won a Nobel Prize in 2008, and GFP is more seriously used as a marker to track all kinds of changes and is polc, effects at the genetic level. Patterson's aim with Glo-gurt is what is the between and conservation, not quite so high. She thought it would be cool, she told me, to go to a rave with glow sticks she could eat. When we arrived back at her apartment, Patterson showed me a sample of the glow-in-the-dark plasmid that she had obtained; she kept it sealed in a bag in her freezer next to some frozen chicken wings and a box of Eggos. She had ordered it from the Carolina Biological Supply Company in North Carolina the same way someone else might order a sweater. Her basic plan was to grow a batch of the yogurt bacteria, introduce the GFP gene into is polc, the cells, and then use that modified bacteria to make yogurt again. To do so, we would need to improvise an electroporation device that could help usher the glow-in-the-dark gene into the Lactobacillus . Electroporation is a common genetic procedure that involves exposing cells to The Roman, a 2,500-volt, pulsed electrical field. In bacteria, the is polc charge changes the permeability of the cell membrane, making it possible to pass the GFP plasmid through it.
Essentially, Patterson said, we're going to taser them. Synthetic biologists hope to do for the chromosome what Steve Jobs did for cola economics the computer.Patterson does all of her work, high-voltage and otherwise, in what, her apartment, a place shared by a changing cast of roommates. It's all very familiar—a friendly wreck of used furniture, piles of books and what is the difference between and conservation, boxes, coats, beanbag chairs, and a potted glade of houseplants clustered desperately at what is polc the windows. Scattered on the table that serves as her lab is her improvised genetic gear. Patterson long ago solved the problem of obtaining lab-quality pipettes (because they can run around $200) by purchasing, from an The Roman Legacy Essay online pharmacy, cheap disposable insulin needles that can measure down to the microliter. She reengineered a nine-inch floppy-drive motor from a computer she bought used for $5 to serve as a centrifuge for spinning vials of liquid containing bacteria. Her autoclave is what, a pressure cooker, and her incubator is a tailgater's fridge from Sharper Image that can cool or warm.
Someone was getting rid of one of these for $30, she said. Mine now. Click here to cola economics, view this article on a single page, or continue to page two below. There's a playful quality to all this. Whether it's bale-wiring some junk she bought at a street sale or working out ingenious substitutes from the local pharmacy, Patterson talks about creating her lab with as much glee as she does the genetic engineering she's attempting. And that same joy, call it subversive freedom, is what drew her into synbio in the first place. When the programmers conference CodeCon was being scheduled a few years ago, she volunteered to put on a little DNA show, and the organizers agreed. She wanted to is polc, illuminate the seemingly complex world that most of what between and conservation, us imagine when we hear words like recombinant DNA and show that it was quite accessible. For instance, the process of what, extracting DNA from the classic green pea, the subject of Gregor Mendel's famous experiments, can be made to sound very complicated.
A professional in what between and conservation, a lab might discuss cell disruption to penetrate the membrane, followed by removal of lipids, followed by an isopropanol bath and a protease wash, followed by some turns in a centrifuge to yield a bit of stringy DNA in the bottom of a test tube. But Patterson showed up to the conference with a box of stuff found in most kitchens or bathrooms. I started with dried ground-up peas, she said, and is polc, I put those in a saline buffer. She quickly translates for me: regular old saltwater. Then, she continued, you shake it up a little bit and add some shampoo, which contains a detergent, which breaks apart the fatty cell wall. To that you add meat tenderizer, which contains papain, which is a protease that breaks down the nucleus. So the shampoo gets us inside the cell, and type of government of confederation, the meat tenderizer gets us inside the nucleus where the DNA resides and releases it from the proteins that accompany it. Then you let it sit for a while until it turns into what Patterson calls a slurry of digested goo.
This gunk is put into a salad spinner to separate the what is polc solids from the liquids. Essay About Substance Is A Health Issue! After pouring off the liquid, you add rubbing alcohol. DNA likes alcohol about as much as oil likes water, so it tends to bunch together to separate itself from the what rest of the liquid. Sticky strings begin to what, form. This is pure, extracted DNA, ready for what bioengineering. Part of the Essay freedom and pleasure that amateurs feel while doing their research derives from the fact that their workspaces usually contain no black boxes. Among Patterson's lab equipment, there's nothing store-bought whose processes she doesn't understand. What! She's built and rebuilt everything. When I asked, for instance, about the broth in the tubes—that is, the food that would feed our bacteria as they grew overnight—she said, Normally when you are growing lacto, you use MRS broth.
MRS stands for Essay a couple of guys [three scientists: J.D. DeMan, M. Is Polc! Rogosa and M.E. Sharpe]. But that stuff is expensive, so she made her own. What I did was manage to turnitin, track down an article Paul Elliker wrote in the Journal of Dairy Science . The article was written in 1956. Talk about going back to basics. I could have solved the is polc problem by throwing money at it, she said, but what I've generally found is The Roman, that old articles tend to have the what is polc cheapest but still effective way of going about anything. This kind of improvisational approach to research and experimentation lends a certain levity of Essay on Hamlet's Grief, purpose to any amateur endeavor. When things went perfectly, Patterson's work gave way to moments of intense and obscure beauty. What! To add distilled water to our vials of bacteria, she cleaned her hands and cola economics, carefully removed a single sterilized corked tube. With one elegant motion, she drew up some water with a syringe; with the other she one-handedly popped the what is polc cork.
She looked sideways at Legacy Essay the open tube so that her slight breathing wouldn't contaminate her work. Then she pipetted just enough in, recorking the tube once the process was finished. Twenty times, perfectly, like a tiny private ballet. In less-than-perfect moments, when something went wrong, Patterson just stepped back, thought about things for a while, and dove back in. She doesn't get frustrated easily, a trait she ascribes to her parents' constant encouragement when she was a kid. But it's also the case that amateurs simply have a different relationship to frustration, and even failure. At an office, failure and success are binary modes, down and is polc, up (and often linked directly to pay). Public failure, too, can be discouraging and embarrassing.
In the worst cases, it can get you marginalized or fired. But if the entire rig on Abuse Issue your kitchen table is your creation, hatched from street cast-offs and dairy farmers' lessons dating from the Eisenhower administration, then failure is just a glitch in the system you've built. Putting one's hands in there, e-mailing other kindred scientists for advice, checking out colleagues on a common wiki, fixing what's wrong, and moving one's investigations forward are simply short-term variations of success. On one of the many long nights that Patterson and I would spend together piecing together her system, we had a brief discussion of flow, the notion developed by what, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (pronounced me-high chick-sent-me-high—perhaps the Essay Grief most fun name to say, ever). This Hungarian-American psychologist holds that there is a very satisfying state of mind that occurs when one is what is polc, totally absorbed by an action.
It may sound as if this is some rare state of being, like a kind of secular nirvana, but it's not. We all experience flow. It doesn't require special meditative skills, only the love of doing something so much so that one gets lost in what is the difference between preservation and conservation, the labor. One might experience flow while painting a complex landscape or painting the what is polc front porch. Or chaperoning growing bacteria. Its commonness is why we have so many phrases for cola economics this pleasant state of existence: being in the zone, losing ourselves in what, our work, being on the ball, in the groove. Oh, Patterson said, suddenly recognizing what I was talking about. You mean codespace, as programmers call it, where the cola economics world just sort of disappears. She knew it well. That's a good head space to try new things, especially if there's something I think should work.
So I try it and see if it does: 'That didn't quite work the way it was supposed to. Let's check a few settings and what, see if this works.' Sweet. The word amateur comes from the Latin word for The Roman love, which, when encouraged with money, becomes a profession. What Is Polc! An amateur's love is bypass turnitin, typically free of direct pay, such that while money might ultimately be involved, it's not the day-to-day incentive. It's a kind of love that hasn't very well spoken its name. It's neither eros nor agape, nothing involving filial bonding or generous charity. It may, in fact, be the least described love—a peculiar version of self-love, charged with the hope of what, finding that new thing just over the horizon. In the months before my visit, Patterson had already been working to Grief, coax the glow-in-the-dark gene into her yogurt bacterium. She had tried to what is polc, use the cola economics heat-shock method to drive it into the cells. When bacteria get to a certain temperature, they start producing these heat-shock proteins, which also open up some holes, she explained.
And in that brief moment, the new genes sloshing around nearby can slip in. In my head, it's like: Holy shit, it's hot in here, let's open some windows. Patterson's autoclave is a pressure cooker, and is polc, her incubator is Legacy, a tailgater's fridge from Sharper Image.But heat shock hadn't worked, so she had moved on is polc to electroporation. When she first described it to preservation and conservation, me, I pictured the what bacterium ballooning like a cartoon character with its finger in a socket—its flagella sticking out like hair and its microscopic pores bulging open like wide eye sockets—such that the GFP plasmid could rush in. What Articles! For us, the question was how to administer these shocks to what, our bacteria. Patterson had configured the timing mechanism on an Arduino, an easily customized computer board. Cola Economics! It would handle the literally split-second timing. All we needed now was 2,500 volts (the precise amount, I recently learned, once used to carry out the missions of what is polc, famous 20th-century electric chairs, the insanely powerful ones with nicknames like Gruesome Gertie, Yellow Mama, Old Smokey and The Roman Legacy, Sizzlin' Sally).
To accomplish this, Patterson got hold of a transformer from an old neon sign. What Is Polc! It takes in 12 volts and ramps it up to 3,000 volts, so it would seem to Essay on Hamlet's Grief, make sense that if we fed the transformer 10 volts, it would kick out 2,500. But Patterson's voltmeter kept telling us something was slightly off here. We tried different connections and different transistors, and is polc, then we needed another part, and then there was a road trip to Fry's, a kind of Home Depot for everything electronic, and then, was that the what is the sun setting already? We must have tested the input and what, outputs of the Arduino board 50 times. These tests amounted to us sitting on Legacy the wooden floor and carefully holding the (insulated) lines in what, place as we blasted away with potentially lethal streams of electricity. One day we spent 10 hours trying to configure one wiring setup after another. Hours of Abuse Health Issue, this fiddling passed, but it was as if no time had passed at all. Meanwhile, the tiny amount of yogurt Lactobacillus we had placed in the incubator was growing away.
But there was a flaw in that system, too. The incubator's two-bit thermostat had busted. There was no longer a way to automatically regulate the heat inside, so Patterson would carefully monitor the what is polc temperature herself. She would turn the incubator off after a while and wait for it to cool down a few degrees before turning it back on. This way, she kept it from overcooking our bugs. We were now several days into constant experimentation, and Essay Mental Health, we spent a lot of time together, staring at transistors, tending the incubator as if it were an old wood stove, sterilizing equipment, waiting for very slow things to happen. Is Polc! Patterson is turnitin, a smoker, and in what, moments precisely like these, I allow myself a temporary relapse into a habit I enjoyed ages ago. So we'd take cigarette breaks, standing by her window. Well into one evening, as we sat in how to bypass turnitin, our own groove, occupied by long stretches of work, suddenly there appeared a solution to the thermostat problem, like a bubble slowly popping at the surface of what, our flow. What about one of those light timers you can get to fool burglars?
I asked. Patterson instantly got it. Yes. A light timer. We could program it to turn the incubator off and on. Then we could leave the apartment building for Legacy Essay more than an hour. We raced downstairs and drove south to a late-night Home Depot in San Jose. The new models were perfect for what we were doing, and only a few bucks.
Controls allowed you to customize the on/off cycle however you wanted—on for five minutes, off for 30, for instance. Problem solved. By the what time we got the timer set up, dawn was on the way. We would eventually have to return to turnitin, our transistor flow, but for now, there was this intense pleasure. We both stepped back, looking at what a light timer plugged into a surge protector with, absurdly, an exhilarating amount of Essay Is a Issue, self-satisfaction. Time to is polc, light up. Patterson and homebrew biologists like her may form the body of a nascent synbio movement, but the architects of that movement still come almost entirely from academe. On Hamlet's Grief! The most visible booster of synthetic biology is probably Drew Endy, a professor of bioengineering at is polc Stanford University. Cola Economics! Young-looking, with slightly mussed sandy hair, Endy could easily be mistaken for what is polc a perpetual grad student.
He coins hackerish jargon that sounds super-hip. If you listen carefully on Essay on Hamlet's Grief the Stanford campus, maybe you'll hear someone referring to the shifting of a gene from one life-form to another as DNA bashing. Endy predicts a time (soon) when someone will rewrite the is polc DNA of an cola economics acorn to include George Jetson–like instructions that direct the future oak to assemble into a bookshelf. He also says that the leading synthetic biologists need to aid and abet amateurs like Patterson if this emerging science is going to rapidly advance. In 2003, he helped found iGem, the what is polc International Genetic Engineered Machine competition. Cola Economics! Held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology every year, iGem invites teams of college and high-school students and amateurs from all over the world to strut their bioengineering stuff and compete for a Lego-shaped BioBrick Trophy that comes complete with its own suitcase. Endy is also working to what, standardize the parts that synbio researchers use, which could help to jump-start the amateur cycle. He loves to tell the is the between preservation story of what is polc, William Sellers, an engineer who wrote an important paper around the time the The Roman Legacy Essay Civil War was winding up. Sellers suggested that American engineers adopt a standard for all nuts and bolts.
He proposed a formula that would create a standard pitch of screw thread conformed to the bolt's diameter. In case you're interested: P = 0.24 vD + 0.625 – 0.175. Today Americans still screw, more or less, thanks to the Sellers system. The key feature of standardization, Endy says, was that every Sellers nut, when screwed into what, a Sellers bolt, behaved the same way. When you pull on the nut, Endy says, it stays put. It doesn't come flying off the bolt. How To Bypass Turnitin! In other words, it does what it is supposed to do, a feature that Endy and what, other engineers call reliable, functional composition. Endy predicts a time when someone will rewrite the The Roman Essay DNA of an acorn to direct the future oak to assemble into a bookshelf.This reliability is is polc, one of those structural changes to early American manufacturing that drove its rapid progress in the 19th century. Cola Economics! Endy thinks a similar reliability is possible for DNA research.
For instance, MIT maintains a Registry of Standard Biological Parts, a one-stop shop for DNA standards. Geneticists anywhere can order various plasmids or other strings of DNA known to cause a catalog's worth of biological features. And it works the other way, too. You can register a new DNA strand with a novel functionality—for example, a biosynthetic device that changes the nasty manure-like odor of growing lab bacteria into the pleasant aroma of a banana. This bio-widget, or banana odor biosynthetic system, has been standardized and registered, available in the catalog as part BBa_J45900. The idea is that the registry will become a kind of RadioShack for DNA parts, so that DIY folks and academics alike will start playing and creating, advancing the science quickly. The number of standard biological parts doubles every year, and, Endy has said, the same thing is happening with the number of teenagers who would like to do genetic engineering; it's doubling every year. Five teams competed at iGem in 2004; 165 competed last year. If you listen to Endy—with his talk of iGem and the parts-registry and his gene bashing lingo—you'd begin to think he could single-handedly guide synbio into the mainstream.
But he is just one of a kind of secular trinity of academic leaders birthing this new field. The others are Jay Keasling of the is polc University of Grief, California at Berkeley and George Church of Harvard University. A biochemical engineer, Keasling does not talk about making synbio cool or bashing genes. Instead he focuses on making synthetic biology do very specific things. For instance, he'd like to what, cure malaria. The treatment for that disease involves a substance called artemisinin, which derives from the slow-growing sweet wormwood plant. Keasling developed a bacteria that quickly pumps out artemisinin, and in 2010, he announced that he was beginning production of the drug. If all goes well, he'll commercialize it this year. Perhaps the most practical of the synbio leaders is George Church.
He is a towering 6?5??, with a lumberjack's beard, a commanding presence, and a seductively hyperactive and chatty mind, not to Essay, mention a brilliant scientific eccentricity: He suffers from narcolepsy. So the great man can be speaking to you and, boom, he blinks out for five seconds and is polc, then boots right back up. It's the equivalent of bypass, Einstein's hair, notice given that you are in the presence of wild and ranging genius. As Patterson and what, her peers start testing out their new ideas, a public debate will eventually arise: Just what are we permitting here?Church talks up synbio's economic potential, specifically fuels. The Roman Legacy! He wants to engineer something that makes a lot of what, money and gets positive attention. What! The obstacle to what is polc, turning piles of organic material such as switchgrass into easy biofuels is that the sugars in the plant are bound up by cellulose. To get it out, the cellulose has to cola economics, be extracted. What if you could design a bacterium that transforms cellulose into usable sugars? That would have a worldwide market almost immediately.
Biofuels are the low-hanging fruit of synthetic biology, Church told me in his office one afternoon. Pharmaceutical cures might earn good press, but the demand for what is polc them is small relative to the demand for fuels, where the markets are huge. Everyone involved in synthetic biology recognizes that if robotics, say, is a weekend amateur pursuit whose clubs are in their mature phase, then synbio is in utero. So they worry constantly about public relations and imagery. They know that some story will break the Essay Substance Health Issue field into the pop culture—a brilliant discovery, a cool movie, but also, possibly, a tabloid freak-out that calls down Homeland Security. NASA had the moon shot, Church said, as he pondered how the public comes to understand the complexities of any new scientific discipline. Is Polc! There was the homebrew computer club. Even robotics had a cinematic push.
He recognizes that Hollywood prefers to deal in what of government did the of confederation, a dystopic version of biology. He considered the ill effects of Jurassic Park , Gattaca or I Am Legend . There is one isolated nondystopic movie, Church said: Lorenzo's Oil , the story of parents who will stop at nothing to find a cure for their child's rare affliction. Is Polc! The movie was not exactly a hit. You can see how hard it is for Hollywood to make a blockbuster out of lipid chemistry, he said. Bunch of Amateurs.
Around midnight in San Francisco, Patterson and I are on the floor with our 40th or 50th attempt at configuring the 2,500-volt transformer. Even here, in this most isolated lab, the synbio community is all around us. Patterson regularly checks old e-mails for advice, downloads one more schematic from another site, consults with a wiki or two. Late in the evening, she calls a guy named Brian who's a whiz at electrical things, and they confer for Essay on Hamlet's 20 minutes. Brian's advice was to turn these around, she says, pointing at two connectors with wires, and put the load between the power supply and the collector.
So we make our adjustments and continue to find problems with the connections. What! Work like this is mostly just the tedium of getting things right or attempting to, and for long stretches the only sound is Patterson cheerfully muttering to herself: Something lights up—well, hello. That's a 15k resistor. Again, didn't work.
I'm wondering if I've misunderstood which pin is which. If I did, that would be stupid. Things that do not make sense include . . What Type Did The Articles Create?! . Where the hell are you coming from? Again, we're not getting squat. We both stare at the tiny board one more time.
We want red to go here and black to go here, and what, somebody needs to touch this wire to the base. So if you want to just hold these, I can plug it in. First, make sure you are not touching the lead. Good. A vicious snapping sound shatters the what difference between preservation and conservation concentrated silence of the room. Some lights go out, throughout the building.
Patterson pulls the plug. Time for a cigarette break, she says. With electroporation out, Patterson explains, we'll have to resort to is polc, the next best way to Grief, get a plasmid into a bacterium: an ultrasound bath. What! This involves the Essay on Hamlet's same technology that allows us to peer inside a womb and look at is polc a fetus. Ultrasound is used in labs normally for lysing cells, for is the between preservation and conservation ripping them open and getting out the DNA, she explains. And it is is polc, also used for sterilization. A really high amplitude of bypass turnitin, ultrasound can be used to kill off bacteria. When the frequency is in the 40-kilohertz range, you can actually use it for transsection, one of the terms for introducing plasmids into things. What! (Having failed at cola economics frying the bacteria and what is polc, then shocking them, we now hoped to yell at them.) The question is, how do you get an ultrasound machine? This thing ran 40 bucks, she says—this thing being a jewelry cleaner operating at Essay on Hamlet's 40 kilohertz. Is Polc! The machine is how to turnitin, small and what is polc, compact, easy to handle.
Dozens of them are offered for sale on The Roman eBay on what any given day. Even as she presses forward in search of Glo-gurt, though, Patterson tells me her interests have recently shifted to something more functional. How To Bypass Turnitin! She's started a conversation with an Internet pal on the DIYbio listserve about synthesizing a bacterium that would react in the presence of melamine. Recall that in what, 2008, this substance began showing up in Chinese imports of milk products, eggs, baby food and pet food and Essay about Health Issue, led to is polc, numerous deaths of people and Essay about Substance Abuse Is a Mental, animals. Melamine-contaminated milk alone sickened some 50,000 people.
The reports caused a food scare and what, focused attention on the fact that American agencies were not testing for the presence of cola economics, these lethal chemicals. Patterson and her online research partner call their creation the Melaminometer. One approach they are considering is to create bacteria that, in what is polc, the presence of melamine, would break down the substance into ammonia and water. Not all that tasty, but it beats getting sick. Maybe they can make the chemical taste like bananas when they get around to Melaminometer 2.0.
Like so many amateurs, Patterson sees in the possibilities of all these plasmids what William Sellers saw in a dependable, well-threaded screw—a better future. As Patterson and her peers start trying out cola economics, their ideas and experiments, a public debate will eventually arise: Just what are we permitting here? And the usual anxieties will erupt. Is Polc! Are we unleashing a generation of Dr. Frankensteins? How soon before we hear about the possibility of weaponized flu in some kid's suburban den?
All the more reason, the DIY supporters say, to encourage the local synbio clubs. Members are struggling right now to define the appropriate standards, general ethics and good lab protocol. Of course, if history is any teacher, then an ambitious prosecutor might well swoop into Legacy, these clubs. On the what other hand, if Endy, Keasling and cola economics, Church can stage-manage synbio's image well enough, the clubs could flourish and foster novel approaches to genomics. Is Polc! There are always natural concerns when any new set of tools is handed to the next generation. But the way this anxiety gets addressed—as the next 4H club or as the next national security threat—will reveal a lot about how we currently view American innovation. The elder statesman of theoretical physics and a big synbio fan, Freeman Dyson, wrote an influential essay in the New York Review of Books in 2007 in which he called for precisely the kind of synthetic biology research we are now beginning to type of government create?, see. Every orchid or rose or lizard or snake is the work of a dedicated and skilled breeder, Dyson wrote.
There are thousands of is polc, people, amateurs and professionals, who devote their lives to this business. Now imagine what will happen when the tools of cola economics, genetic engineering become accessible to these people. There will be do-it-yourself kits for gardeners, Dyson continued, who will use genetic engineering to breed new varieties of roses and orchids. Also kits for what is polc lovers of is the between and conservation, pigeons and parrots and lizards and snakes to breed new varieties of what, pets. Breeders of dogs and cats will have their kits too.
Domesticated biotechnology, once it gets into the hands of Essay, housewives and children, will give us an explosion of what is polc, diversity of new living creatures, rather than the monoculture crops that the big corporations prefer. New lineages will proliferate to replace those that monoculture farming and deforestation have destroyed. Designing genomes will be a personal thing, a new art form as creative as painting or sculpture. It's not a brave new world that Dyson envisions, but rather the type did the same old mundane one, just gussied up with the middlebrow creations of housewives and teens. Is Polc! And the exquisite dreams of a Meredith Patterson. Turnitin! Maybe that is where we're headed, but make no mistake about how we will get there. Dyson and his co-enthusiasts want to put the what toolbox for life itself into the hands of an amateur designer. Presumably, an how to intelligent one.
Adapted from Bunch of Amateurs, published by Crown Publishers, a division of Random House, Inc. Many products featured on this site were editorially chosen. Popular Science may receive financial compensation for products purchased through this site. Copyright 2017 Popular Science. A Bonnier Corporation Company. All rights reserved.
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Augustine and St. Aquinas Saint Augustine and Saint Aquinas were both important figures of the church in medieval times. Both were very influential in the development of Christian philosophy, while both holding fundamentally different worldviews. St. What Did The! Augustine discards material possessions and what is polc, believes. Augustine of Hippo , Metaphysics , Original sin 956 Words | 5 Pages. ? St. Legacy Essay! Augustine of Hippo vs. St.
Thomas Aquinas - Contradicting Views Tamanpreet Kaur Gill Grand Canyon . Is Polc! University: PHI-305 12 October 2014 St. Augustine of Hippo vs. What Of Government Of Confederation! St. Thomas Aquinas - Contradicting Views Saint Augustine of Hippo, as he is most commonly referred, of the early fifth century and Saint Thomas Aquinas , of the thirteenth century, are considerably well-known for their philosophical and theological discoveries. Even though both are famous for venturing to integrate. Augustine of Hippo , God , Metaphysics 1199 Words | 6 Pages. Augustine Aquinas: the is polc, Root of Evil.
Thomas Aquinas and Augustine : The Problem and cause of Evil Zerrrouk(PN) In this paper, I will compare . Augustine’s views on the problem of Substance Abuse Mental Health Issue evil, and Thomas Aquinas ’ view on what The Cause of Evil. Substance Abuse Mental Issue! I will compare the views of both of is polc these philosophers by picking out the what between and conservation, similarities and the differences. I will conclude with my own opinion, and what one I think is the most viable as a probable case. For Augustine , the problem of evil can be phrased in a few several ways. One approach addresses. Augustine of Hippo , Evil , God 1444 Words | 4 Pages. what ways did Plato and Aristotle influence Augustine and Aquinas ? a. St. Augustine was taught philosophy by . What Is Polc! Bishop Ambrose who studied Platonism. St. Augustine was one of the first to bring together faith and reason.
He revolutionized Plato's two world view and divided line. Essay Substance Abuse Health! In the what, divided line he changed the good to god, said the forms are in gods mind, and that god is the only one who can make sensible objects possible. In the two world view St. About Substance Abuse Health! Augustine said that not all activity is physical, there. Aristotle , Causality , Existence 1220 Words | 3 Pages. A Comparison of Augustine and Aquinas Views. the Liberal Arts Kyle Smith – Instructor Augustine and Aquinas Views Compared In this essay, I will discuss the views of what . Aquinas and Augustine in regards to their views on human nature and Essay about Health Issue, “The Good”.
Both explored the essence of the soul and explored the knowledge of what it is to be good. They used reason and faith to be able to reconcile their beliefs back to God, but achieved this in different ways. In regards to faith and reason, Augustine believed that a person should use reason in order. Epistemology , Faith , God 894 Words | 4 Pages. The Governments and States of Locke, Aquinas, and St. Augustine.
the peoples consent with his essential raison d#900;etre being the preservation and what is polc, protection of personal property. This type of government is extremely . comparable with the type of government that St. Augustine describes in his work City of cola economics God, while at is polc the same time contrasts the views of Aquinas in the ways a state should operate. The Roman Legacy! The end goal of how each of these philosophers' states purposes presents the greatest split between each of their philosophies. To understand how each of these philosophers'.
Idea , John Locke , Political philosophy 1367 Words | 4 Pages. AUGUSTINE Augustine was born November 13, A.D. What Is Polc! 354, in Substance Abuse Is a Health Issue Tagaste (it is call today Souk Ahras, Algeria); and died seventy six . years later in Hippo Regius (pp.1) Augustine was raise up in a family with both parents his father (Patricius) who was a nonbeliever until later in life and Augustine mother (Monica) a child of God. What Is Polc! Augustine was taught at a young age about our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ by his mother; Augustine like any other young teenager did not like school but at the same time had. Augustine of Hippo , Christian terms , Christianity 1467 Words | 4 Pages. 23, 2014 Cornell Horn Augustine and Aquinas Born in 354 A.D., Augustine was the first great Christian philosopher. Essay! . Augustine claimed God is creator and what, He created the world out of love. He also believed that God created man in a mortal body and in an immortal soul as well as gave man free will.
Augustine also claimed evil did not come into this world because of God but because of mans free will. Evil comes when good is Legacy absent. Redemption is a must for Augustine . Is Polc! To Augustine , you cannot have salvation. Augustine of create? Hippo , God , Metaphysics 700 Words | 4 Pages. Aquinas vs. Augustine on Their Varying Views of is polc Women. Aquinas vs. Augustine on their varying views of women. St Thomas Aquinas and St Augustine of Hippo . are considered to be two of the greatest Christian theologians in the history of Christianity. Both of these men are apart of the same organization, the Church.
Just by this fact it would be easy to assume that they agree on all major issues of the day but this is not the case. They have completely differing views with respect to Legacy Essay women in secular and religious life corresponding with the is polc, idea of type articles of confederation create? original. Adam and Eve , Anselm of is polc Canterbury , Augustine of Hippo 1845 Words | 4 Pages. Comparison of Plato, Aquinas, Aristotle and Augustine. confirmation for Legacy, the Church. What! Attributing mercy, love, sympathy, and similar qualities to God, was leading a life of contemplation and supplied purely the . metaphysical need for explaining the how to turnitin, efficient cause and the goal for is polc, universal progress. St. Essay About Substance Abuse! AUgustine Truth/TReality When God speaks in the way we are talking of, He speaks by what, the direct impact of the truth, to anyone who is capable of hearing with the mind instead of with the ears of the Legacy, body. The mind or intellect which is open to is polc the. Cardinal virtues , Christian ethics , Plato 1473 Words | 5 Pages. Anselm and how to, Aquinas Can god exist in this world?
To both Anselm and Aquinas he did exist both had their own way of what is polc showing it . but both decided to write about it. Saint Anselm served the church as a prior, abbot, and Archbishop; he was from Aosta, Italy and was born around 1033. Thomas Aquinas a scholar priest was born in Roccasecca, Italy around 1224. These men lived 200 years apart but had the same feeling that God did exist. They believed so much in God that they both were men of the church. In. Augustine of Hippo , Cosmological argument , Existence 1560 Words | 4 Pages.
?THOMAS AQUINAS (C. 1225–1274) Part I, Question 2, Article 3 of Aquinas ' book Summa Theologica Article 3. Whether God exists? . Objection 1. It seems that God does not exist; because if one of is the difference between and conservation two contraries be infinite, the other would be altogether destroyed. But the word God means that He is infinite goodness. If, therefore, God existed, there would be no evil discoverable; but there is evil in the world. Therefore God does not exist. Objection 2. Further, it is superfluous to suppose that. Causality , Cosmological argument , Existence 1267 Words | 3 Pages. Our society considers the work of Thomas Aquinas as early philosophy. However, his arguments and themes in what one of his best known body of works, . Summa Theologiae, draw heavily from that of former philosophical giants—ones such as Aristotle or Augustine . On that note, one of Augustine major accomplishments included defining mind-body dualism and materialism—an important distinction in philosophy.
According to Essay Grief Augustine , Materialists believe that the mind exists as a part somewhere in the body; whereas. Dualism , Materialism , Metaphysics 1371 Words | 4 Pages. meanings and significance. For example the distroemera is a flower representing spring. The black eyed Susan represents innocence. The hibiscus represents . delicate beauty. What Is Polc! There are so much more flowers and The Roman Legacy Essay, meanings that we can also explore during Aquinas . It has been many years since flowers have been first known to us. Ever since then we know them for their fine fragrance and what, their beauty. Legacy Essay! There are more than 2,500,000 different flowers on this Earth.
The tallest flower is the drum. It is almost. Flower , Plant sexuality , Rose 1361 Words | 7 Pages. that posited the is polc, superiority of Substance Abuse Is a Health Issue human nature over the practice of owing our competence to our own powers, I believe that Augustine would . firmly disagree and claim that in order for humans to is polc truly come into communion with their creator, that they would need to bypass turnitin transcend their natural urges and inclinations by way of prayer, confession, and piety. What! In his Confessions, Augustine spoke of a drunkard who, through the procurement of a few begged coins, had seemingly obtained happiness (although, admittedly. Augustine of Hippo , God , Human nature 1372 Words | 4 Pages. Augustine Medical, Inc. : The Bair Hugger® Patient Warming System ?? ? 1987 ???, Augustine Medical,Inc ?????? Minnesota ??, . ??????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????,????????????? ????,?????????????????? ? 1988 ??? ???????????????????? Bair Hugger® , Patient Warming System ??????????????????????,? ????????????? The Bair Hugger® Patient Warming System Bair Hugger® Patient Warming System ???????????????? ??????(????????? 36 ???? 96 ?)??????????? ??????,? 60% Heat , Hospital , Infrared 934 Words | 5 Pages. UNIVERSITY FACULTY: BIBLE THEOLOGY COURSE CODE: CMN2113 COURSE ASSIGNIMENT: CHURCH HISTORY I- A STUDY ON THE LIFE AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF . Substance Abuse Is A Health! ST. AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO STUDENT NAME: REUBEN CHAKA, SUBMITTED TO: Dr. NGUCHIE GATHOGO DATE: 5th November, 2013 AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO- BISHOP AND THEOLOGIAN Saint Augustine (Aurelius Augustinus) was one of the what, greatest theologians of Western Christianity and The Roman Essay, indeed one of the greatest Church Fathers.
In his day the Mediterranean. Ambrose , Augustine of Hippo , Berber people 2741 Words | 7 Pages. ST THOMAS AQUINAS Aquinas writes that ?since the day of Aristotle, probably no one man has exercised such a powerful influence . on the thinking world as did St Thomas Aquinas . He was born in 1225 in is polc Italy of a noble family, thus separated by 900 years to how to turnitin Aristotle. He received his first education at the Abbey of what is polc Monte Cassino, going on from there to Essay on Hamlet's Grief the University of Naples. In 1243, he joined the Dominican monastic order at Cologin. His most influential teacher was another Dominican, Albertus.
Aristotle , Augustine of Hippo , Metaphysics 905 Words | 3 Pages. II, Thomas Aquinas breaks down the complex question of where or in what man’s happiness consists, mainly by emphasizing wealth and power. While . people dream of obtaining both wealth and power in their life, Aquinas emphasizes that both are neither good nor bad, and both make up a means to what is polc an end. Cola Economics! Aquinas argues that happiness does not consist in “wealth” or “power”, yet presents another argument where he states that happiness can, indeed, be associated with wealth and power. Aquinas begins his. Aristotle , Augustine of Hippo , Ethics 815 Words | 3 Pages. Compare How Hobbes and Augustine Think the Condition of War Arises and. Compare how Hobbes and Augustine Think The Condition of War Arises and Defend One Author's Account of `ordinary' Morality As An . Antedote For It Augustine believes that the condition of war arises when the perfectly ordered and harmonious enjoyment of God is disrupted (The City of what is polc God, 690) whereas Hobbes believes that the original state of nature is a condition of Essay constant war, which rational and what is polc, self-motivated people want to end.
Augustine argues that peace is more than the absence of hostilities. Human , Leviathan , Love 895 Words | 3 Pages. Thomas Aquinas : The Conflict, the Harmony and the Saint During the High Middle Ages, Western Europe underwent rigorous reform. Through the . On Hamlet's! rapidly increasing population and what, production of intellectual, artistic and spiritual works, thirteenth century philosophers, theologians and Christian thinkers were faced with a quandary. Cola Economics! The central question was directed at “the attitude being taken toward Aristotle…by theologians committed to a Christian view of the nature of what is polc God, man, and the universe” (“St. Aristotle , Augustine of Hippo , Averroes 2342 Words | 6 Pages. the most prominent figures of the early church, Saint Augustine is not only Legacy Essay, recognized for his leadership but also for his knowledge and . influence on the thinking and what, doctrine of the Christian Church. As a priest, he was an The Roman Legacy Essay important leader of the early African Church; as a philosopher, he brought a new approach to Church Doctrine through the ideas of what is polc pagan philosophy (TeSelle 892). These accomplishments put him among the ranks of how to bypass Thomas Aquinas and other great Church philosophers whose ideas revolutionized. Augustine of what is polc Hippo , Baptism , Bishop 805 Words | 3 Pages. Philosopher Report on St.
Thomas Aquinas. ?Thomas Aquinas was born in bypass 1224 and died in 1274. He wrote The Summa Theologica, in which he creates a huge system integrating Greek . philosophy with the is polc, Christian faith. It consists of three parts; God, “he gives five proofs for God's existence as well as an explication of His attributes”1, ethics, “connection between the what difference, virtuous man and God by explaining how the is polc, virtuous act is one towards the blessedness of the Substance Is a Health, Beatific Vision (beata visio)”2 and Christ, “Christ not only offers salvation, but. Aristotle , Augustine of Hippo , Beatific vision 1319 Words | 6 Pages.
Aquinas and Descartes View of Knowledge. Knowledge Aquinas and Descartes have different ideas on what is polc how humans gain knowledge in the world. Both philosophers need to define what the . human body is composed of in order to determine how we gain knowledge. For Aquinas intellect comes from the soul and the body working in unison. Essay Grief! The soul is the substantial form of what is polc a living material thing. It is the actuality of a living material substance. Even though the rational soul is how to bypass turnitin what differentiates humans from other living things, it does not.
Human body , Metaphysics , Mind 1418 Words | 4 Pages. Plato vs. Augustine on Memory Assignment: Plato and Augustine use memory in ways that are comparable and incomparable. What . is the role or function of memory in their respective psychological writings? What are their differences? If they disagree, indicate how they would criticize each other’s work. What! Augustine begins describing memory as that of a house. He describes it as being a place where images, ideas and memories are kept. They can be accesses and stored, re-used and what type of government articles create?, deposited as needed. Memory , Mind , Neoplatonism 1055 Words | 3 Pages.
during my high school years was a book by Thomas Aquinas . What! Thomas Aquinas believed in a unique combination of faith and reason in on Hamlet's Grief . his believes of is polc God, and had brought up five different arguments on his believes in political and ethical in the existence of God. 1st: The First Mover Aristotle got the idea that the whole universe is in motion from Heraclitus, and he wrote it in his Metaphysics. When Aquinas read this, he was amazed by this idea. Aquinas argued that everything must be moved by something. Aristotle , Causality , Cosmological argument 850 Words | 3 Pages. ? (Desiree) EAP Compare and contrast essay, Week 10 (28-31 July 2014) Compare learning English in Mexico to learning English . in Australia. How To Bypass! Paragraph 1: Introduction What do you think about learn English in your country compared to learn in Australia? Is a question that everyone ask when choosing where study English. The class structure, teachers and the environment outside class are 3 areas that relate to what studying at home or overseas. All has an what type did the important influence when studying English. Education , English Australian , Irish people 1081 Words | 5 Pages.
Relationship between St Augustine and Plato. ?Discuss the relationship between St. Augustine and Plato Great philosophers over time have shared ideas about their lifetime. There were . no more captivating philosophers than Plato and is polc, Augustine who fed off one another. Even though they were born at cola economics different times, their ideas impacted the life they lived in and future lives. St. Augustine was a student of the wise Plato, who fed off his ideas and created his own form of philosophy. What! Plato on the other hand orbited the idea of the type of government did the of confederation, theory of. Augustine of what is polc Hippo , Metaphysics , Neoplatonism 1783 Words | 5 Pages. Biography: Aurelius Augustinus (referred to as “St.
Augustine of Hippo) was born in Tagaste (now Souk- Ahras), North Africa on November 13, . 354. His family was not rich growing up but Augustine still received a Christian education. Wild as a child he had a long-term relationship with a freedwoman who bore him a son. Essay! When he was 19 he was introduced to philosophy at Carthage where he became a brilliant student who mastered Latin and knew Greek. He worked as a professor at is polc Carthage for a while but. Augustine of Hippo , Human rights , Justice 1392 Words | 4 Pages.
paper 2 | Aquinas | How does Aquinas think we acquire knowledge? | | Makenzie Thornock | 11/2/2012 | | 1.) . The Roman Legacy Essay! Thomas Aquinas believes that humans are born with a clean slate in a state of is polc potency and acquire knowledge through sense experiences by abstraction of the phantasms. His view on how man acquires knowledge rejects Plato’s theory that humans are born with innate species. Along with Plato’s theory of The Roman Legacy humans understanding corporeal things through innate species, Aquinas also rejects. Human , Knowledge , Mammal 919 Words | 3 Pages. Explain how Thomas Aquinas tries to prove Gods Existence (30) St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) was a Catholic Italian Monk who . What Is Polc! was regarded to be one of the most important philosophers of the Essay Grief, medieval period. Aquinas had adopted the works of what is polc Aristotle's analysis of physical objects, his view of place, time and motion, his proof of the prime mover and his cosmology. He tried to Essay connect the Christian faith together with the Philosophy of Aristotle’s work in what is polc his 'Summa Theologica'. Aquinas used 5 arguments. Aristotle , Causality , Cosmogony 1042 Words | 3 Pages. God's Existence and Aquinas Objection.
Anselm's argument of God's existence and Aquinas objection I was in the debate team in about Substance Abuse Health high school. And there were times that our team would . take the against side of the statement. In his famous work Prologion, written in 1077-1078, Anselm presents the idea the is polc, God exists because God is the bypass turnitin, greatest thing of all, that the idea of thinking of God exists prove its existence. What Is Polc! Hundred of years later, Thomas Aquinas brings up the account that addresses Anselm's idea in objection 2 of Question II, First. Existence , Existence of God , Metaphysics 1715 Words | 5 Pages. be-all of human living; but Augustine tells us with the Bible that this happiness can be found in GOD alone. The summumbonum which is Plato’s . and Aristotle’s concept of theabsolute and immutable and is now seen by Augustine with the aid of the type of government articles of confederation, light of is polc divine revelation as the living personal God, the creator of all things and thesupreme ruler of the universe.So, the idea of the Good of Plato is revealed, to Augustine as theliving reality, God. WHAT THEN IS GOD?
Augustine answers this question with. Ethics , God , Good and evil 1249 Words | 4 Pages. St. Augustine St. Augustine of Hippo is one of the most influential men when it comes to the Christian faith.
When walking the . Christianity section of a bookstore today, one can find mountains of books either by or about him. After seeing so much on the man it leads one to wonder who exactly was St. Augustine of Essay Grief Hippo and why exactly was he important to the church. St. Augustine is not just studied in religious aspects but in what philosophy as well.
Augustine was born in 354 in Roman Africa. His father. Algeria , Ambrose , Augustine of Hippo 1874 Words | 5 Pages. ?1 Compare , contrast and evaluate the on Hamlet's, contribution made by Solomon Asch and Muzafer Sherif to our understanding of conformity. Conformity is . one’s tendency to tweak his own perception, opinions or behaviour in ways that are consistent with group norms which are patterns of action which people feel compelled to what subscribe to because they appear to cola economics be appropriate, moral or ethical (Kassin et al, 2014). Muzafer Sherif and Solomon Asch conducted two classic studies that dramatically contributed to. Asch conformity experiments , Autokinetic effect , Conformity 1122 Words | 2 Pages. In Confessions, Augustine gives an account of his conversion to Christianity through the what is polc, telling of his life story. In this text . Augustine explains his relationship with God, both past and present, and in doing so confesses the doubts that he has had and the problems that he has encountered in attempting to follow a path that leads him towards God.
In the text Fear and Trembling, Johannes de Silentio writes on cola economics the topic of the knights of what infinite resignation and faith, both of which deal with the. Binding of Isaac , Christianity , Fear and Trembling 959 Words | 3 Pages. Virtue of Aquinas and Machiavelli. The Virtue of Thomas Aquinas and Machiavelli An investigation and what difference preservation, exposition The author's goal in this essay is to evaluate the definition . of what is polc virtue according to Aquinas and compare /contrast that with Machiavellian virtue. Following this evaluation the author will attempt to discredit Machiavellian virtue as being shallow and impossible. Relying on Essay on Hamlet's Grief question 55 from the Summa Theologiae and various chapters from The Prince, the author hopes to lay a solid and concrete argument against Machiavelli. Aristotle , Cardinal virtues , Political philosophy 2495 Words | 7 Pages.
Happiness as Defined by Boethius and Thomas Aquinas. a state of what is polc mind can be obtained. Two such works, Boethius' The Consolation of Philosophy and St. Thomas Aquinas ' Summa Theologica, although . written over seven hundred years apart, posit the Christian notion of God as an integral part of human happiness. Differences between the two philosophies come to light when one compares the Essay, Platonic ideals of Boethius to the Aristotelian basis of Aquinas ' thoughts. However, although both works are excellent examples of is polc theological and teleological thought. Aristotle , Augustine of Hippo , Existence 1288 Words | 4 Pages.
?St. Augustine Joshua Perez HRE 201 Word Count: 1043 Monday, October 27, 2014 St. Augustine , Bishop of Hippo, was born on . November 13, 354 in is the difference between preservation Tagaste, in Northern Africa. Is Polc! He was a theologian and philosopher, born from Saint Monica and did the articles create?, Patricius. What! St. Augustine , spent most of type of government his life in the Manichaeism belief, though at the age of 32, converted to Christianity.
He held an important role in the Christian faith and would carry the title ‘Church Father’. St. Augustine holds the status of ‘Church Father’. Augustine of Hippo , Christianity , God 1061 Words | 5 Pages. are many online stores and sites that can be used to look for products as well as buy them using your credit card. Is Polc! You do not need to leave your house and The Roman, . can do all your shopping from the what, convenience of your home. There are websites that users can compare prices from different website or retailers. Internet helps users make the Essay, right decision in the blink of an what eye. Despites the advantages, Internet also has it down side. The three main disadvantages of Internet are: identity theft, virus threat.
Identity theft , Internet , Internet Protocol 1134 Words | 3 Pages. Understanding the Self- a Comparison of Descartes and Augustine. Descartes and Augustine , in their respective examinations of the mind and God, come to the conclusion that the true understanding of all things . derives from the withdrawal of the self from foreign influence and the necessity to look inward. Although each thinker’s journey or course of understanding was different, and at times rather contrasting, their ultimate realizations about knowledge are very coherent. Doubt is one of the primary focuses and a central aspect in examining the self for both Descartes. Cognition , Metaphysics , Mind 1609 Words | 4 Pages. ?St.
Augustine – Bishop of Hippo, Confessor, Doctor of Church, Doctor of Grace, Latin Father of the Church. Chronology of St. Augustine’s . life: 354, November 13 – the birth of what is the difference preservation St. Augustine in Tagaste, Numidia, Proconsularis, North Africa. Is Polc! 387, April 24/25 – his conversion and baptism by Essay about Substance Is a Issue, St. Ambrose, bishop of Milan; death of St. Monica. 388 – founded monastery in his hometown, Tagaste.
391 – He was ordained as a priest by Bishop Valerius; founded monastery in what Hippo. 395 – He was ordained. Algeria , Ambrose , Augustine of Hippo 835 Words | 3 Pages. Confessions Augustine’s Confessions is a diverse blend of Essay Grief autobiographical accounts as well as philosophical, theological and critical analysis of the . Christian Bible. Augustine treats his autobiography as an opportunity to recount his life and mentions how each event in his life has a religious and philosophical explanation. Augustine had many major events happen in his life but only 3 events would deem of what extreme importance to his journey to how to turnitin faith. Theses major events were Book II how he describes. Augustine of Hippo , Conceptions of God , God 769 Words | 3 Pages. St. Is Polc! Augustine A doctor and what of government did the articles of confederation, bishop to his church, St. What Is Polc! Augustine is best known for his autobiography Confessions.
The term . augustinianism evolved from his great influence during his day and ours. As a boy, Augustine had no idea where his rebellion would lead him. On the 13 November, 354 AD, in Tagaste (modern day Algeria), Augustine was born. Patricius, Augustine’s father, while holding a position as an official in the city, remained a pagan until converting on his deathbed. Augustine’s mother. Augustine of what did the articles create? Hippo , Christianity , God 879 Words | 3 Pages. to make such a perfect world. Lastly, there is the Cosmological argument, which Thomas Aquinas used to explain not only the existence of . mankind, but the existence of what is polc our creator.
Aquinas used five different Cosmological arguments or theories to justify his beliefs. His five arguments on the existence of God were proven by motion, Efficient Causation, Necessity, Gradation, and Governance. Although Aquinas had many arguments for why God exists, he also had many questions for people to ponder. Cola Economics! One. Arguments for the existence of God , Bible , Existence 1297 Words | 3 Pages. ? Augustine of Hippo . What! Augustine of Hippo Saint Augustine in His Study by Sandro Botticelli, 1480, Chiesa di . Ognissanti,Florence, Italy Born 13 November 354 Thagaste, Numidia (modern-day Souk Ahras, Algeria) Died 28 August 430 (aged 75) Hippo Regius, Numidia(modern-day Annaba, Algeria) Notable work(s) Confessions of St. Augustine City of God On Christian Doctrine Theological work Augustine of Hippo (/?????st?n/ or /?????st?n/; Latin: Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis; 13 November 354 –. Ambrose , Augustine of bypass Hippo , Church Fathers 7559 Words | 8 Pages.
Augustine Medical – case brief Background and Problem Definition: Augustine Medical, Inc develop and what, market products for . hospital operating rooms and The Roman Legacy Essay, postoperative recovery rooms. The first two products are patient warming system to treat post operative hypothermia patients and another one is tracheal intubation guide which can be used in operating room. Is Polc! Their main issue is to The Roman Legacy determine the price to hospitals for heater/blower units and he plastic blankets. Market and industry analysis: There. Cost , Costs , Economics of production 817 Words | 4 Pages. The Pelagian Heresy and the Refutation of St. Augustine. it was refuted by St.
Augustine . 2.0 PELAGIANISM Theologically, Pelagianism designates a heretical position with regard to is polc the problems of type of government . grace and freedom. It goes back to the British monk Pelagius (355-425), who first propagated his view in Rome in the time of Pope Anastasius (reigned 399-401). Pelagius preached in Rome a strictly biblical spirituality with strong emphasis on the human will. What! It was disseminated by his disciples Caelestius and Julian of Eclanum. Legacy Essay! Augustine played a decisive role.
Augustine of Hippo , God , Metaphysics 1045 Words | 3 Pages. St. Augustine vs. Machiavelli: a Comparison of the Good Society. Ben Parrish St. Augustine vs. Machiavelli: A comparison of the is polc, Good Society Final Project 09/01/13 Both St. Augustine and . Machiavelli believed that in order to understand the true nature of society you must see men for what they truly were. What Type Did The Articles Create?! Augustine and is polc, Machiavelli are similar in their pessimistic views toward human nature, looking at human self-love and self-interest and believed it to be full of evil, cruelty, betrayal, violence and tied that relationship into the creation of war. For both. Evil , God , Good and about Abuse, evil 2815 Words | 7 Pages.
Thomas Aquinas , was a Dominican monk, who generally one of the greatest Scholastic writers of all times. He used ancient philosophy to prove . religious propositions. One of the ancient philosophers that St. Is Polc! Thomas Aquinas used to Essay prove religious facts was Aristotle. One of the greatest works that Aristotle did was to prove that god really exists. St. Thomas Aquinas used the is polc, forms that Aristotle and Plato used to prove the same philosophical question, does god really exist?
St. Thomas Aquinas , first. Aristotle , Existence , Existence of God 808 Words | 3 Pages. ?Yebeman Asseged Core 140 Roots of World Views and Culture Professor Mark McCarthy November 8, 2012 Compare and Contrast Plato vs. St. What Is The Difference Between Preservation And Conservation! . Augustine of Hippo Our world has developed and flourished by the thoughts and what, contributions of many leaders. Among those leaders were Saint Augustine and Pluto. Grief! For many historians, Plato’s Allegory of the Cave and Augustine’s The City of God, are historical pieces that point out what had happened during ancient times. Is Polc! These pieces are significant because they. Augustine of Hippo , Catholic Church , Christianity 1932 Words | 7 Pages. Augustine and HIs Thoughts on God. ? Augustine and his Thoughts on God Saint Augustine of Hippo 2/23/2014 Gloria M. Daniel St Leo University . “And men go abroad to admire the Grief, heights of mountains, the mighty waves of the sea, the broad tides of rivers, the what is polc, compass of the ocean, and the circuits of the stars, yet pass over the mystery of themselves without a thought.” ? Augustine of Hippo, Confessions Augustine of Hippo and his thoughts on God Augustine was a very.
Augustine of Hippo , Christianity , God 2043 Words | 6 Pages. Philosophers Plato, Aristotle and Augustine are trying to convince and persuade individuals to look at how to turnitin the world in their way. What! Plato- knowledge . argues that the human soul is controlled by reason, spirit and appetite. Aristotle-logic. Augustine -forgiveness was the creator and founder of bypass Christianity, he believe that humans are naturally sinful .Hobbes-survival ?Philosophy 101 Spring 2014/Examination 2 Makeup Writing Assignments Philosophers Plato, Aristotle and Augustine are trying to convince and. Avicenna , Epistemology , God 478 Words | 3 Pages.
St. What! Augustine Political Philosophy. Saint Augustine was born is 354 in a North Africa province part of the Roman Empire. Growing up in the Roman Empire was a major influence on . Essay About Mental Issue! his work. He is what is polc well known for his theological teaching on Christianity and developed much of its doctrine. Augustine wrote on political philosophy as well and developed his own ideas on what the ideal state is. Augustine believes that government is an act of Essay Substance Abuse Is a Health Issue God and its function is to allow people to what live good lives. The state is a part of God's ultimate.
Ancient Rome , Augustine of cola economics Hippo , Autocracy 990 Words | 3 Pages. A common thread of faith and reason runs through the is polc, two different theological visions of St. Augustine in his Confessions. This can be seen by Essay, . comparing the ascent, the vision, the descent, and language in the two visions. Although other parts of the text will be referred to, the central part of these visions are as follows:brbriVision 1: . in an instant of awe, my mind attained to the sight of the what, God who IS. Then, at Essay on Hamlet's last, I caught sight of is polc your invisible nature, as it is known through. Augustine of Hippo , Epistemology , Faith 1100 Words | 3 Pages. ?Christian Wollenberg March 7, 2014 Mr.
Jo Christian Heritage Augustine and the Pear Tree “There was a pear tree near out vineyard, full of . fruit, but it was not tempting because of its taste or appearance. Many of us lewd young me went late one night (having prolonged our street sports as was our custom) to shake and rob that tree. How To Bypass Turnitin! We took huge loads, not so we could eat them, and after tasting the pears, we threw the, to the hogs. Is Polc! We did this because we wanted to and because it was prohibited. Adam and Eve , Augustine of bypass Hippo , Christian philosophy 905 Words | 3 Pages. Aquinas ’ and Dante’s Common Ideals While St. Thomas Aquinas established himself as the New Aristotle of the 13th century, . Dante Alighieri established himself the new Virgil. The two men made an immense impact in what their respective fields (poetry and philosophy). Yet surprisingly, the two share common ideals. Cola Economics! In each of their respective literary and philosophical views, they establish the what is polc, importance of the relationship between nature and grace.
In Dante’s Inferno the unique relationship of. Aristotle , Averroes , Cardinal virtues 1153 Words | 3 Pages. Aquinas’s Third Way 2. What Is The Difference Preservation! Pick one of Aquinas ’ Five Ways and analyze the argument. Give an account of whether, and how, the argument succeeds . or fails. What! You must give detailed reasons for any claims you make. Aquinas’s third way of existence is what type of government did the of confederation one that relies on what is polc reflection of necessity and difference between and conservation, possibility as an argument for God’s existence. Through this argument which regards contingent beings and their existence at a certain period of time, Aquinas develops the idea of some contingently existing. Existence , Logic , Metaphysics 1138 Words | 3 Pages. Saint Augustine of Hippo delved into a life of deep, philosophical thinking, challenging the very way of life to it’s minute existence. He . struggled with his inner being after leaving home to what is polc pursue intellectualism.
He broadened his views after converting from Christianity to Manichaeism, devoting his thought to Neoplatonism. He eventually returned to Catholicism in A.D. 387, when he began to re-establish his Christian doctrine. As the Western Roman Empire came to a decline, St. Augustine developed. Ambrose , Augustine of Hippo , Catholic Church 1820 Words | 6 Pages. philosophical era. One cannot understand scholars like Descartes or Locke without having some real knowledge of type of government did the articles create? medieval thinking.
Thus, in this essay, I . wish to show that Aquinas , a thinker of the what is polc, middle ages, thought on knowledge is of permanent value and that it deserves respect and due consideration for today’s discourse of philosophy. Aquinas Theory on Knowledge: His philosophy is based on the premise that knowledge and being are correlates. “In so far a thing is, it is knowable and in this resides its. Belief , Epistemology , Logic 1470 Words | 4 Pages.
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Essay, Research Paper: Homosexuality. The origins of human sexuality and homosexuality in particular have puzzled. philosophers, theologians and ordinary people for thousands of years. In scatter. cultures, homosexuals have been regarded as a normal part of life, however, same. sex attraction to most cultures have been treated as an is polc, unforgivable sin or a. terrible crime. Many psychologists and psychiatrist had attempted to “treat. and counsel” the homosexuals. In our social norm, male attracts to female and.
female attracts to male. To everyone this is a natural and biological urge. However, there is a significant minority who attracts to their own sex. It’s. about five percent of the population in the world. There are many opposing. viewpoints of whether it derives from variation in turnitin our genes or our physiology, from the intricacies of our personal history or from convergence of these? Is it.
for that matter a choice rather than a compulsion? Chances are no one factor or. study can alone explicate and clarify the human sexual orientation. However, there are evidences that prove being gay is what, not a choice. The nature of. homosexuality primarily comes from one’s biological sexual orientation and cola economics the. environment is is polc, just a source to what difference preservation and conservation, bring forth or repress the behavior Many. researchers and what scientists have long search for the distinguishable brain.
structures, the biochemistry in Essay on Hamlet's Grief the human brains to differentiate the. differences to classify between the two obvious sexes we now have in our. society, male and female. What? Such sex differentiation of the The Roman Essay, brain’s structure is. called sexual dimorphism. . (LeVay/ Hamer 22) The first significant observation. of sexual dimorphism performed in an animal laboratory. Roger A. Gorski, a. professor at University of California, Los Angeles, conducted an experiment on. rats. In 1978, Gorski examined the rat’s hypothalamus, a region at the base of.
its brain that is involved in instinctive behaviors and regulation of. metabolism. What Is Polc? He discovered there is a group on front of the type of government of confederation, hypothalamus is. several times larger in millimeter of the male rats compared to the female rats. The cell group is very small but it could be easily observed on a stained slice. when being viewed under a microscope. More interestingly, Gorski’s finding. applied to the sexual orientation between males and females.
That particular. group of cell is known as the medial preoptic are has been involved in the. sexual behaviors typically displayed in males. For instance, if there is a male. rat has a injury medial preoptic area, he apparently couldn’t indifferent to. sex with another female. From the study of Gorski and his co-workers, we now. know the androgen is the typical male hormone and what the estrogen is the female. hormone played a major role in bring about dimorphism during the about Abuse Is a Health Issue, fetus. development. Is Polc? (LeVay/Hamer 23) Another finding also involved with Gorski and his.
colleagues at bypass U.C.L.A, especially with his student, Dr. Laura S. Allen. They. also found the dimorphic structure in the human brain. A cell group named INAH3, shorten for the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus, in the. medial preoptic region of the is polc, hypothalamus is about three times larger in what is the between and conservation men. that in women. (LeVay/Hamer 23) Animal studies make available a good deal of.
evidence for is polc biological basis of disease, but in this case, sexual orientation. Through a careful exploitation of hormone level on rats, Gorski as been able to. produce male rodents that demonstrate feminine behavior and The Roman Legacy injected into what is polc the. female fetus that develop with the male fetus and it appear to be masculine. because of the The Roman Legacy, male testosterone. What? They also look and act more like males. In. addition, they are less attractive to male mice (Gorman 60) Related to Gorski. and Allen’s study, Simon LeVay, a British biologist and what is the between neurologist at San. Diego Salk Institute, who is also gay, performed another study for Biological. Studies, in 1990.
LeVay decided to check whether INAH3 or some other cell group. in the what is polc, medial preoptic area varies in size with sexual orientation as well as. with sex. LeVay conducted an is the preservation, experiment on the hypothalamus in autopsy specimens. from nineteen homosexual men, all of whom died of AIDS and sixteen heterosexual. men, six of what is polc whom had also died of complication of AIDS. After encoding the. specimens to eliminate all the bias that could skew the outcome.
LeVay carefully. sliced the hypothalamus into serial slices. He measured their cross-sectional. areas and their thickness under a microscope. LeVay has concluded the sexually.
dimorphic nucleus INAH3 were significantly larger than of female and smaller in. male homosexuals than in straight men and how to turnitin similar in size to the nucleus of. female. In some gay men, this group altogether nonexistent; this is. statistically proven in 1 in 1000 gay men. LeVay hypothesized that this is a. biological factor and possibly genetically based has influenced in the brains of. homosexuals to what, become feminized. (LeVay/Hamer 25) William Byne, a psychiatrist. at Mount Sinai Medical Center decided to challenge and test LeVay’s finding.
Byne compared the Essay, brains of nineteen heterosexual men and seven women and found. the male nuclei were larger, as LeVay had initiated. Byne came up with several. arguments that other factors could also influenced the cause of homosexuality. but chosen not to publish his result until he can rule out all the possibilities. that could contradict his argument.
He is what, also collecting numerous human brains. for a comparison of gay and straight males. (Horgan 26) There are many. conservatives who disapprove of homosexuality and have the The Roman Essay, intense hostility. with the concept of “gay gene” and is polc have traditionally argued against it. But. this is because those conservatives do not understand the implications that lie. behind the gay gene.
Homosexuality is life left-handedness. It’s neither. chosen nor a psychological illness. Since the homosexuality exposed and what is the difference between preservation and conservation became a. controversial issue in what is polc United States in the last three decades, many. conservatives argue, “Homosexuality is a chose lifestyle, like vegetarian. It’s a disease like schizophrenia.” (Burr 22).
But since scientists had. proven those are not completely cases of homosexuality and it clearly a. biological development like and it does not correlate with any environment. factors. Scientists has classified homosexuality is a trait. For every trait. they studied, clinicians and biologists often assemble a trait profile of Essay on Hamlet's Grief the. sum total they have gathered in their studies. The trait usually shows up in the. population as two “orientation”.
Ninety-two percent of the population. usually has the majority orientation and about eight percent has the minority. orientation. Either the two traits are non-pathological and what is polc chosen. Cola Economics? The minority. orientation runs in the families has a name of is polc “maternal effect” given by. the geneticists which men always receive it from their mother. If it is. inheritable, as demonstrated by the fact those identical twins, whose are. naturally clones are far more likely to share the minority orientation than. siblings who are not twins.
For example, handedness, right- handed holds the. majority orientation in the populations that the what and conservation, left-handed holds the minority. orientation. This theory could apply to is polc, the homosexuals and heterosexuals. Heterosexuality accounts roughly ninety-five percent of the population while the. homosexuality is the minority orientation, which holds the what is the difference, other five- percent. of the what, population. Clearly family, social norms, friends, teacher or school. education can’t make you to become gay, which is a minority orientation. (Burr. 24) Dean H. Hamer of National Cancer Institute studied the DNA from forty pairs.
of homosexual brothers and Legacy found thirty-three of them share genetic markers on. the X-chromosome in a region know as Xq28. X chromosome is is polc, one of the two sex. determined chromosomes. It is always inherited from mothers. Genes are arranged. along 46 chromosomes and each chromosome contains tiny coils of DNA,
deoxyribonucleic acid, which carries the instruction to manufacture a particular. body substance. Essay Grief? There was no such similar sharing in the same region among. heterosexual men. Researchers have not yet compared the what is polc, homosexuals’ genetic. information to the other group. The finding does not explain all the. homosexuals; seven out of forty homosexual brothers did not have the common. genetic factor. The explanation for this is it might cause by other unknown. genetic influence. (LeVay/Hamer, 27-29).
Since the DNA strand is long enough to. contain hundreds of genes. Hamer’s team has not found the cola economics, gene that makes some. men gay but the Xq28 is one of the possibilities of the gay gene (Begley, Sharon, Hager, Mary) If homosexuality is inherited and the male homosexual gets. the gay gene from the X-chromosome of his mother, then aren’t that twin. brothers and other siblings of the family have a good chance of being. genetically influenced by that trait. Looking for linkage, Hamer has conducted a. random survey and a survey with families with gay brothers between the maternal.
and paternal relatives. The possibilities of maternal uncle and maternal cousin. through aunt have the highest percentage of being gay. It’s from 7.3 % to. 12.9% compared to the paternal uncle and cousin through aunt of 3.9% to 5.4%. Why are most gay men relatives are gay on their mother’s side of the family? The possibility is a man has two chromosomes, X and Y. The Y chromosome is the. sex chromosome and any traits that on the X chromosome pass to is polc, the child come. mostly from his mother.
Chances are she had inherited those traits from her side. of the what is the between preservation, family. Is Polc? (Hamer/Copeland 111) In 1985, Richard C. Pillard and James D. Weinrich conducted the first modern study on the pattern of The Roman Essay homosexuality runs. in families. “The random pooled data for men show that about 57% of identical. twins, 24% of fraternal twins and 13% of brothers of what gay men are also gay. Legacy Essay? For.
women, 50% of the identical twin, 13% of sisters of the lesbians are also. lesbians.”(LeVay/Hamer 26) Data of homosexuality combined and analyzed, it. showed a good possibility of family clustering of sexual orientation becomes. evident for both sexes. Is Polc? But others say this finding reveals another significant.
problem with a “born gay” conclusion. The argument against the data. indicating above is cola economics, if homosexuality is inherited then identical twin brothers. who share 100% of their genes should have 100% chance of being gay instead of. 57%? The respond to this argument is in a gene there are two alleles.
For. example of Huntington’s disease, it comes in two alleles. One is to suppress. the gene and the other activates the disease. Therefore, the baby has a 50% to. 50% change of his identical twin brother will get the same “gay” trait. Another example is Type 1 diabetes; this disease has only 30% active, so in. another word, you could only have 30% chance of this gene will become activate. Therefore two identical brothers could have share the what is polc, same gene for turnitin diabetes but.
one might develop it and one might not. The activeness of the gay gene is only. 50%, for that reason, some twins do not share the same sexual orientation unless. there is something that triggers those alleles to activate. There are traits. that emerge at the different time of life, some at what the beginning and others that. emerge later on in time. (Kangas 20) Another explanation is how to turnitin, after the fertilized. egg separated into two individuals. The DNA sequence might have a few changes.
and that could lead to the personality as well as the sexual orientation. differences. This has not been proven, but it could be one of the possibilities. of why identical twins do not have 100% chance of being gay. “ Bailey and. Pillard say their research indicates that male sexual orientation is. “substantially genetic”. Research on social factors has proven fruitless,
with no evidence that parental behavior or even parent’s homosexuality affects. the children’s sexual orientation. What Is Polc? (Pillard 32) Applying the homosexuality to. the gene concept, New York psychiatrist Kenneth Paul Rosenberg believes that we, as people, should be more open-minded to the study of homosexuality because it. could help to fight for type did the gay and lesbian rights in is polc this society. Hopefully it. also could decrease an type of government, escalating hate crime rate and the discrimination toward. homosexuals.(Horgan) Like any genetic research, finding the gene sequence is. time consuming and expensive. The finding of Huntington’s disease took about a. decade and cost millions of what is polc dollars.
What are the advantages of the study’s. outcomes and who will be effects by it? Human sexual orientation is The Roman, no ordinary. topic or study. It’s at the center of a fierce debate involving politics, the. law, religion, ethics and the origins and meaning of human behavior. Many legal. experts felt the evidence for a genetic link to what is polc, homosexuality would strengthens. the evidence for The Roman Legacy Essay immutability and therefore cause tighter scrutiny of laws that. permitted discrimination against gays and lesbians in housing, employment, or. participation in the political process.
Others, though, argued that immutability. was a red herring and that the real issue was equal protection, not biology. There were also ethical, medical and economic issues involved as well. Although. scientists did not provide any test for the still hypothetical gay gene but we. are heading in that direction. If such test were developed, might parents decide.
to screen the fetus for homosexuality, just as they do for is polc Down syndrome and. other genetic defects? Would some doctors regard homosexuality as a genetic. defect that should be cured and weeded out of the population? Would insurance. companies charge men with the gay gene more on coverage or refuse to what between preservation, serve them.
because they have a higher risk of AIDS faced by what gay men? These are questions. that worried many people. “In addition, homosexuals are frequently the what did the articles of confederation, targets. of discrimination and what violence. The treat of violence and discrimination is an. obstacle to lesbian and gay people’s development. In a 1989 national survey,
5% of the gay men and 10% of the lesbians reported physical abuse and/or. assault. 47% report some form of discrimination over their lifetime. Other. research has show similarly high rates of discrimination or violence toward. homosexuals” (Yahoo.com, APA QA) Personally I do hope the genetic surgery.
will reveal the true nature of Essay about Substance Is a Mental Health homosexual and find the what is polc, right loci of the gay. gene in the near future. Optimistically with finding of the biological. influences on the gay gene can help to eliminate the discrimination and the. escalating hate crimes rate toward the Essay Substance Abuse Is a Health, homosexuals.
Homosexuals are normal. people like the is polc, heterosexuals. They have feelings and their sexual orientation. of attracting the same sex is about Substance Abuse Is a Health, innate. What Is Polc? They have no control over this destiny. Counseling, therapy or the environment can’t change this so since we can’t. convert this then why don’t we accept this and cola economics give those homosexuals all the. respects and what rights that they deserve like any other heterosexuals.
BibliographyAPA Public Communication. Of Government Did The Articles Of Confederation Create?? *http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/orient.html. * · Begley S.; Hager M. (July 26, 1993) Newsweek. Vol. What Is Polc? 122 Issue 4 Does DNA Make. Some Men Gay? P59 2/3p, 1c · Burr C. (Dec 16, 1996) Weekly Standard. Suppose. There Is a Gay Gene. What Then?
P 22-26 · John, H. (Nov 95). Scientific. American, Vol. 273 Issue 5, Gay Genes, Revisited p26, 5/6p, 1c · Kangas S. (1999) Homosexuality Is Biologically Determined. Homosexuality: Opposing. Viewpoints. Mary E. Williams, Greenhaven Press.
17-21 · Gorman, C. (Sept 9, 1991) Time Magazine. Are Gay Men Born that Way? P 60-61 · Pillard R. Type Of Government? (1999) The. Causes of Homosexuality Are Probably Genetic. Homosexuality: Opposing. Viewpoints. Mary E. Williams, Greenhaven Press. 27-34. Help other users to find the good and what worthy free term papers and trash the The Roman Legacy Essay, bad ones.
Free papers will not meet the is polc, guidelines of your specific project. If you need a custom essay on Sexuality: , we can write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written papers will pass any plagiarism test, guaranteed. Our writing service will save you time and grade.