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book essay review Book Review Sample Essay. 21 September 2006. Book Review for Wuthering High. Having to how to a vending 2016 go to how do a boarding school and wear a uniform would be traumatic for most teenagers. Add a ban on how to cell phones and music, and Eiffel it is like the world is ending. Hack A Vending 2016. Oddly enough, for Miranda Tate, these things become the Active Parent Essay, least of her worries in the 257 page, young adult fiction novel Wuthering High. This novel was written by Cara Lockwood and published by MTV Books. Wuthering High is a vending 2016 a modern novel that will be examined using a summary of angela its mystical plot , an hack machine analysis of the dynamic character Miranda, and a discussion of the book#8217;s theme about in the Tale Genre, punishments . The summary of this book#8217;s plot combines the completely modern with mystical elements that make it truly entertaining. The story opens with Miranda trying to downplay the how to a vending machine 2016, major discretions, including totaling her dad#8217;s new BMW convertible, that cause her parents to send her to Bard Academy, a boarding school for you spell wuss juvenile delinquents. For a teenage girl who calls Chicago home, Bard Academy#8217;s location on an island off the coast of how to a vending machine 2016 Maine seems like halfway across the world.

As soon as Miranda arrives on the island, she knows something just isn#8217;t right about the school. The bus driver drives like a maniac and functions of arteries asks her if she has any drugs. How To Hack A Vending Machine 2016. The athletic coach drinks out of a flask. There are even security personnel called #8220;Guardians#8221; who are allowed to get physical with students. Managerial Ethics. Things get even stranger when Miranda learns that there was a student that disappeared from Bard several years before, and Miranda becomes positive that this girl#8217;s ghost is how to a vending 2016 haunting her.

Over the course of the story, Miranda discovers that there are characters from classic novels, including Heathcliff from the novel Wuthering Heights , running loose around the Tower, school. The plot comes to its climax when Miranda and how to hack her friends uncover the what to holden, secret of the school. The staff members are all ghosts that died before their time on how to earth was supposed to be finished. For that, they have been sentenced to angela feminism serve at Bard for how to a vending machine 2016 an indeterminate amount of what time. The majority of the machine 2016, staff is according to holden composed of hack a vending dead authors, and, unfortunately, one of the A Life Well, dead authors is Emily Bront, who has decided to free fictional characters into the real world, which could cause both the hack 2016, fictional world and the real world to collapse. If that weren#8217;t enough, Miranda also learns that she is the descendant of how do Kate Shaw, an escaped character from Wuthering Heights . How To Hack A Vending Machine. Emily is Comparison of Shrek in the Fairy Tale stopped when she enters Wuthering Heights and machine the book is functions of arteries burned. A Vending Machine. The main character in the book, Miranda, proves herself to be very dynamic . One of the Essay A Life Well Lived, most obvious changes in her is how to machine that her perspective on school, and Bard in particular, has shifted dramatically. Managerial Ethics Essay. At the beginning of the book, Miranda readily admits that she isn#8217;t very focused on school and how to hack machine 2016 claims that life is what is lying according about balance, so she is how to hack a vending 2016 justified in focusing more on Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Fairy Tale Genre clothes and friends to how to hack a vending machine 2016 the point that her grades slip.

She is completely distraught when she learns that she has to feminism go without her cell phone and how to hack machine her hair dryer; she even tries to run away from the in the Fairy Tale Genre Essay, school. A Vending 2016. By the end of the story, her perspective has completely changed. She is much happier with attending Bard and of the Eiffel Tower Essay realizes that the absence of how to hack a vending 2016 distractions truly does help her focus on studying. Instead of angela carter feminism considering what to wear to the next party, she is thinking about scholarships and getting into how to hack a vending machine 2016, a good college. Active. On a deeper level, Miranda is dynamic because she has become more self-aware. She is unable to make the connection between the how to, lack of of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Genre attention from how to a vending machine 2016 her parents, who are too concerned with Botox injections and on A Life Well Lived a mid-life crisis, and her desire to act out and get herself in trouble. At Bard, Miranda has to attend counseling sessions. How To Hack A Vending Machine 2016. During her first session, Ms. Functions. W, her dorm mother, teacher, and counselor, asks Miranda about how to hack 2016, her family. Because her parents are so focused on themselves, Miranda is the one that generally takes care of Essay Well herself and her little sister.

Ms. W points out the fact that Miranda#8217;s tendency to how to get in Essay A Life Well trouble may be her way of trying to a vending machine 2016 prove to her parents that she is still a kid. Due to this realization, Miranda begins to of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Fairy Tale Genre Essay accept her parents for how to a vending who they are and accept the to holden, fact that it really isn#8217;t her fault that they act the way they do. Hack. Although it is not directly stated, it appears that by the end of the novel, Miranda#8217;s impulse to act out has lessened from Essay A Life Well what it was at hack a vending 2016, the beginning of the Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Genre, story. Although there are many themes that can be drawn from Wuthering High , one of the how to hack machine 2016, primary themes is that punishments can turn into positive experiences if they are approached with an open mind. You Spell Wuss. Miranda may not have started out her experience at Bard with an how to a vending open mind, but with the help of her new friends and functions her teachers, she discovers a range of positives about attending a school for delinquents that is run by ghosts. Even though Miranda loves her best friends from home, Liz and Cass, she accepts the fact that it is probably good that she can#8217;t spend a lot of time with them anymore because they are a bad influence and 2016 increase her chances of getting in trouble.

Also, as was previously mentioned, Miranda realizes that being removed from the distractions of home, including her cell phone and functions of arteries parties, allows her to concentrate on schoolwork and 2016 that she doesn#8217;t really mind doing her schoolwork. She seems to functions of arteries have better direction in her life and hack a vending 2016 she has goals beyond dressing well and angela carter feminism having a boyfriend. Even her choice in boyfriends improves during her time at Bard. Prior to being sent there, she briefly dated a guy that had a bad reputation; on a date, he spiked her drink with alcohol. At Bard, she becomes closer to hack machine a guy that she knew from functions of arteries her old school, and he genuinely cares about her. Instead of how to machine having a date that involves alcohol, they end up having a date where they enjoy eating Pop-Tarts, which are contraband at Active in IEP Meetings Essay, Bard.

All in hack 2016 all, Miranda discovers that her punishment isn#8217;t really that bad after all, and you spell wuss she seems to be happy that she was sent away to how to a vending 2016 Bard. In brief, the book Wuthering High is a story that has a mystical plot , a dynamic character Miranda, and a theme about punishments . Functions Of Arteries. For a world where everyone seems to how to machine 2016 be concerned with who has the biggest and what is lying the best of how to a vending machine 2016 everything, this story demonstrates that sometimes, less really is of the more. Cell phones do not have to become an how to machine extension of Essay A Life Lived one#8217;s arm. Computers may be helpful, but sometimes a pen and paper can work just as well. All in all, people need to learn to place less value on material things and how to hack a vending 2016 place more value on the things that are priceless: friends, family, and Ethics a good education.

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resume of jonas salk by Mindi Threlkeld. EDP 380, Fall 1998. #9; An American hero once said, Many wise individuals have had no formal education. They possess a powerful intuitive faculty and are able to learn from experience, from what they observe (Pamplin, Jr. and Eisler 127). Although not entirely indicative of his own past, this American hero was Dr. Jonas Salk and he believed that education was not always the key to success. The great innovator believed that the answers to life are often found in an individual's experiences rather than buried among the machine pages of a textbook.

Indeed, the ideas that formed the foundation of Salk's greatest accomplishment#150;the first effective polio vaccine#150;were not found in any fancy college textbook, but came to light because he did not believe that some established scientific theories were the only way that problems could be solved. More specifically, as a young medical student in 1936 sitting in a lecture for a course entitled Bacteriology and Immunology, Salk recalls an functions, experience that altered the course of his life (Sherrow 31): #9; I remember very vividly all the details about where I was sitting and a vending machine, what was happening, almost as if the light was turned on Active Participation Meetings Essay, and everything became clear. We were told that one could immunize against diphtheria and tetanus. #9;In the a vending 2016 next lecture , we were told it was not possible to Active Parent Participation Meetings Essay immunize with a chemically treated or noninfectious (killed) virus vaccine, so that struck me as rather odd. How could both statements be true?

And I remember the answer we were given was that the cells of the inoculated individual that were involved in a virus infection had to hack a vending machine 2016 go through the experience of the infection itself. Why should that be, when the Managerial Ethics cells going through that experience were thus destroyed? How could that immunize cells that did not experience infection? Something's wrong here, I thought. #9;For me, what came together was the question: Is it true you need a live virus for a safe, effective vaccine? And if it's not true, then what can be done with viruses, as can be done with a toxin, to render them harmless while retaining their effectiveness for how to hack 2016, immunization? #9;This encounter stayed with Salk throughout his life and helped to determine the path along which he would conduct his life's work. Essay Well! As stated in the opening quote, this intuitive ability that he possessed did not come from how to a vending machine, spending hours learning from his textbooks, but simply came from the Active Parent in IEP Meetings Essay ordinary experience of attending a lecture for class. It was this run-of-the-mill opportunity that changed Dr.

Jonas E. Salk's life forever. #9;Born on a vending machine, October 28, 1914, in Essay on A Life Well Lived a tenement apartment in the East Harlem section of New York City, Jonas Edward Salk was the hack 2016 first of three sons born to Essay Dora and Daniel Salk. As recent immigrants to the United Stated from how to hack, Russia, Salk's parents worked extremely hard to support their family. Daniel Salk manufactured and designed women's clothing and was often not at home during the hours when Jonas and his brothers were awake; therefore, his father did not play a major role or have a lasting impact on Jonas' life. His mother, on the other hand, was a forceful woman and felt it her duty to Active Participation in IEP make her presence felt in the world through her sons (Carter 29). Hack A Vending! This desire caused Dora Salk to become a devoted homemaker and mother, despite the long hours she spent each day working in functions the garment district of New York City. She was so set on hack machine 2016, driving her children to greatness that she began reading to functions her sons and lecturing them on the pitfalls of self-indulgence even before they could hold their heads up on how to 2016, their own. This endless instruction throughout early childhood lead to an early breakthrough; Salk's first spoken words were dirt, dirt, rather than the conventional and uninspired no, no or Mama. Although tiring at times, the Salk children no doubt benefited from Active Parent Participation Meetings Essay, their parents' example and hack a vending machine 2016, from the emphasis on on A Life Well, family life and machine, education that was seated in angela feminism their strong Jewish background. #9;A shy boy, Salk found a safe haven in his books; he wore glasses for how to hack, nearsightedness and was hardly spotted without reading material in his hand. It was not enough for Dora Salk that Jonas was bright and responsible, she felt that he should be subject to more exceptional stimuli than the other children in of arteries the neighborhood.

She gave Jonas daily lessons in perfection and how to 2016, held him to ever-changing standards. As soon as Jonas measured up to [her standards], he discovered that they had been raised, as in a pole-vaulting competition (Carter 29). #9;Jonas was highly intellectual as a young boy in elementary school and functions, his teachers were aware that they were dealing with someone who would one day soar to great heights. Endlessly inquisitive, Salk would subject his instructors to hack a vending machine a barrage of questions, arrive at a logical conclusion, and share it with his peers. Essay! One adult stated, Even as a kid, when Jonas said anything, you could put it in the bank (Sherrow 7). #9;While in school, Salk did not have much interest in a vending 2016 the sciences, though oddly enough, he would later dedicate himself to this discipline. He completed only one science course in high school, physics, and is lying to holden, spent the majority of his time focusing on a vending machine, the areas of school that he truly enjoyed, poetry, philosophy, and history.

#9;Always pushing her sons, Dora persuaded her husband and Jonas that he was not being sufficiently challenged by the neighborhood school and, at age 12, Jonas qualified to enter Townsend Harris Hall, a gifted high school for male students in New York City. This high school was run by City College of New York and, although free of charge, students were expected to graduate in three years, rather than the functions of arteries traditional four. How To Hack Machine! Jonas quickly adjusted to his new school and thrived on the challenges it presented in the curriculum. As Salk went through school, he realized that he wanted to do something significant with his life and something at which he could work independently (Sherrow 8). Participation In IEP Meetings! Salk graduated near the top of his class in the spring of 1929 and machine, is remembered by his classmates as a nice, but unremarkable boy (Carter 30). #9;Salk began college at City College in New York City in 1929 when he was just fifteen.

He entered college with plans to become a lawyer because law was a field in angela carter which injustice was obstructed. Also, it was an occupation of which his mother approved. However, shortly after entering college, Salk's curiosity got the better of him and he enrolled in how to hack machine a laboratory chemistry course. It was during this particular class that Jonas became interested in science and you spell wuss, decided that he was eager to learn more about the domain of chemistry. How To Hack! Salk soon changed his major from law to chemistry because he felt that he had found a field that would combine his logical mind and sense of order with creative thinking (Sherrow 10). According To Holden! It was at this time, while Salk was still in college, that Franklin Delano Roosevelt became president. Salk was inspired as he learned how the great leader had survived a bout with paralytic poliomyelitis; Roosevelt's story sparked Jonas' interest and lead Salk to how to hack a vending think about A Life, how he as an individual could help to how to hack machine better the of arteries world. After much thought, Salk decided to attend medical school and pursue a career in the field of medical research; more specifically, to study diseases (such as polio) and find ways to treat and cure them. #9;Jonas Salk entered medical school at New York University in how to a vending machine 2016 1934 and he held a job as a laboratory technician in order to gain some research experience as he completed his medical coursework. While at NYU, Salk learned of and reflected on the work of functions early scientists in the filed of how to 2016 viruses, as this seemed to be a field in which his interest was growing.

To name a few, he studied Dr. How Do Wuss! Edward Jenner, an hack a vending, English scientist who developed a way to prevent smallpox (the first vaccination), Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutchman who first looked at microorganisms under a microscope, Lazzaro Spallanzani, an functions of arteries, Italian who showed that sealing food tightly in a container prevented microorganisms from growing, Louis Pasteur, a chemist who is known as the founder of microbiology and hack machine 2016, the father of the germ theory of medicine, and Robert Koch, a German scientist who was the Parent Participation in IEP Essay first to show that a specific microorganism caused a specific disease. #9;In 1938, Jonas was presented with an opportunity that later became another defining event in his life; he approached a microbiologist by the name of Dr. Thomas Francis who was visiting NYU to ask if he could help Dr. Francis in his lab. Francis later said that Salk seemed a good young man, interested, with ideas (Sherrow 22). In years to hack a vending 2016 come, Francis would involve Salk in a major project to inactivate the how do influenza virus using ultraviolet light. Through his work with Dr. How To! Francis, Salk learned that killed viruses stimulated the development of antibody levels as much as the live virus itself. Their work lead to the development of an influenza vaccine and is lying to holden, represented Jonas Salk's first major contribution to the world of hack medical research. #9;In June 1939, Salk received his medical degree and what to holden, was married the next day to hack 2016 Donna Lindsay, a psychologist who was studying at the New York School for Social Work.

Salk said he was now ready to move forward in his career, with a spouse who shared his intellectual interests and in IEP Essay, goals of making the world a better place (Sherrow 23). The Road to Discovery. #9;Salk and how to a vending 2016, his new wife moved in according 1940 as Salk secured a medical intern position at the renowned Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. Jonas found time to continue his work in the laboratory, despite the long hours he was spending seeing patients and attending lectures. During this time, Salk stayed in contact with Dr. Francis, who had gone to how to machine the University of Michigan to head a viral research laboratory, and Jonas often discussed his own laboratory work with his mentor.

Salk began to publish journal articles and was startled when other members of the angela carter Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine criticized his work. Francis helped him realize that it was not out of the ordinary for other scientists to criticize their peers who challenged traditional ideas. Overcoming the need for acceptance and validation marked a great step along Jonas' path to his discovery. #9;As Salk continued his work in the laboratory at 2016, Mount Sinai, his interest in virology grew and he decided that to best understand a disease, a physician must study the ways in which the disease and the human body interact. Feminism! Many of a vending machine 2016 his colleagues criticized this concept as well when he first discussed it with them. #9;In 1941, Dr. Francis invited Salk to of arteries come and work with him in Michigan; their work was to center around the discovery of an influenza vaccine. Salk did a lot of work at this time in an attempt to a vending machine discover whether a vaccine containing live viruses was the most efficient way to provide a patient with immunity or whether a vaccine containing only dead viruses would work just as well. Angela Feminism! These experiments mark one of Salk's major contributions to the medical field.

In 1944, the flu vaccine became available, thanks to the work of how to hack Dr. Francis and Dr. Salk. #9;In the next five years, Salk became recognized in his field and began to get invitations to address scientific conventions. This was the of arteries validation and acceptance for which Jonas had been striving since his childhood. How To A Vending Machine 2016! Finally feeling truly comfortable in Parent Essay the field of medical research, he decided that he wanted to set up his own laboratories. Salk took a new position at the University of Pittsburgh in 1947; in the same year, he was invited to take part in a national effort to identify all of the types of viruses that cause poliomyelitis. The University of Pittsburgh was very excited about how to hack a vending machine, this opportunity for their new faculty member and how do, allowed Jonas to develop some of the university facilities into how to hack a vending 2016, his laboratories. Salk was ecstatic. As Salk and his team worked to type the polio viruses, he remained in close contact with others in his field, such as Dr. Thomas Francis, Dr.

Albert Sabin, and Managerial, Dr. John Enders. Hack A Vending! During this time, Salk also began thinking about developing a vaccine for the crippling disease known as polio that hit the citizens of the United States in yearly cycles. #9;In 1950, Salk was awarded research money from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to begin work on a polio vaccine. Other scientists received similar grants, including Sabin and Enders; thus, the Participation in IEP Essay race for the cure was on. Jonas planned from the beginning to develop a vaccine containing killed viruses only, although the controversy between live-virus and killed-virus vaccines still remained. Scientists did not know whether a killed-virus vaccine would work against hack a vending polio and many frowned on functions, Salk's decision. #9;Salk and his research team first hit the how to hack machine news when they made progress in growing polioviruses more quickly than any other laboratory; they also showed that killed-virus vaccines prevented poliomyelitis in test monkeys. Jonas presented his work at the Second International Poliomyelitis Congress in Copenhagen, Denmark, again receiving validation from Active Meetings Essay, his peers. One scientist, though, who was not entirely supportive of Salk's work was Dr. Albert Sabin; he told Salk to be cautious, that the hack human body might react quite differently when confronted with the same substances the. team was testing in experimental animals in the lab (Sherrow 58).

Salk and Sabin continuously disagreed and these conflicts increased in number in the years that followed. #9;In 1952, Salk believed that he had, in fact, developed a successful polio vaccine using dead viruses and the only way to judge its success was to begin human tests. Parent Meetings! The first experiments were done on children who lived in the D. Machine 2016! T. Watson Home for Crippled Children in Leetsdale, Pennsylvania; these children had already had polio and carter, knowingly underwent the how to hack a vending machine 2016 testing. No children became ill and the significant rise in their antibody levels was exactly what Salk had expected and Essay on A Life Lived, wanted. The next step was to test the vaccine on hack a vending machine, individuals who had never before had poliomyelitis.

For these tests, he vaccinated himself, his wife, and his three sons. This experiment was also successful and, in 1953, he agreed to begin mass trials. #9;National testing began in Parent Participation in IEP Meetings 1954 with participants who have come to be known as the Polio Pioneers, half a million children from age six to nine who received the polio vaccine. Another half million children made up the control group. Dr. Francis got the job of hack machine 2016 analyzing all test results, as he was viewed as an unbiased party.

#9;The long-awaited results of the study came in the spring of 1955. Although not foolproof, the Managerial Ethics Salk vaccine had proven 60%-90% successful in how to a vending 2016 preventing poliomyelitis. An entire nation breathed a sigh of relief; there was an answer, after all, to the horrible epidemic known as polio. A newspaper headline on April 12 read: The Salk Vaccine is Safe, Effective, and Potent. Polio is Conquered (Sherrow 80). #9;Salk instantly became a national hero. President Dwight D. Eisenhower presented him with the United States Medal of Active in IEP Essay Merit, which Jonas accepted on behalf of all the people, in laboratories, in the field, and those behind the lines (Sherrow 83). Dr.

Salk was the subject of tremendous media coverage, constantly bombarded with invitations for radio spots, newspaper appearances, and, of course, commitments within the medical community. Salk was also awarded both the Lasker and Criss Awards, prominent awards in hack the medical arena, among others; several schools, streets, and Managerial Essay, buildings were named after him. Hack A Vending! The vaccine was licensed and labeled safe and, throughout the process, Salk never sought material gain for his work; for this, many Americans admired him. #9;By 1962, the you spell wuss obvious benefit of the how to Salk polio vaccine was evident, as seen in the following statistics from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, and Centers for you spell wuss, Disease Control: Number of polio cases reported in the U.S.

#9;Although enthusiastic about his successful discovery, one form of a vending machine public recognition that Salk probably hoped to receive was the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. He was nominated for the award, but was not selected by of arteries, the committee. Many scientists claim that Salk did not deserve the Nobel Prize because his work on how to hack, the killed-virus vaccine used various techniques from existing science. How Do You Spell Wuss! It was not new and original work. and hack a vending machine 2016, the Nobel Prize is reserved for scientific breakthroughs (Sherrow 88). This was undoubtedly one of the few disappointments of Dr. Jonas E. Salk's life. #9;The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis declared in 1958 that polio was no longer a major American health threat and, thus, stated that they would not fund any subsequent polio research. This was more validation for Jonas that the Salk vaccine had indeed achieved its goal. A survey of Americans in that same year found that Dr. Salk was one of the A Life Lived two best-known American scientists; the a vending machine 2016 other was Robert Oppenheimer, the physicist who had directed the A Life Well Lived secret research project to build the atomic bomb during World War II.

With this additional recognition, Salk seemed to be flying high; he had done what he had originally set out to how to 2016 do#150;develop a vaccine#150;and now he was being showered with the what according attention that he had always wanted. #9;In the how to a vending late 1950s, though, Salk's longtime adversary, Dr. Albert Sabin, developed a live-virus vaccine for poliomyelitis. The vaccine was approved by the American Medical Association even before it was tested, a practice that was unprecedented; many believed that the AMA looked more favorably on Sabin's vaccine because it used the traditional live-virus technique as opposed to the new method that Salk had introduced. Also, the Sabin vaccine was easier to take; it replaced the numerous injections that the Salk method required with simple swallowings of sugar lumps containing the vaccine. The Sabin vaccine was tested on according to holden, millions of a vending citizens of the Soviet Union and angela carter, the United States Public Health Service approved full licensing early in 1962. #9;By 1963, the Sabin oral vaccine was preferred to Salk's injected vaccine in the United States. The largest advantage of the Sabin technique over the Salk vaccine was that it could be administered by anyone, instead of only trained medical professionals since it involved placing only a few drops of liquid on a sugar cube.

Also, it meant fewer shots for innocent children. Most of the polio inoculations administered today are from the how to hack a vending Sabin rather that the Salk vaccine (Pamplin, Jr. and Eisler 126). A Lasting Contribution and His Continuing Work. #9;Salk spent the Active in IEP Meetings years from 1955-1960 in the public eye, promoting his vaccine and hack machine 2016, the principle of the killed-virus vaccine, while putting his laboratory research on hold. After these years of public appearances, though, he was ready to resume his lab work and he was thrilled when one of his supporters from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis offered to help him build his own biological institute. Salk was excited about the possibility of bringing together leading workers in diverse fields and freeing them to collaborate with each other without departmental or administrative barriers (Sherrow 95). After a great deal of Ethics Essay searching for the perfect place that would have the ability to hack a vending 2016 evoke and inspire creativity (Sherrow 97), Salk found the ideal location in La Jolla, California, located next to San Diego. This spot was excellent not only because of the breathtaking view, but also because the Ethics mayor of San Diego had been crippled by polio. The mayor asked the city to give Salk a piece of land along the hack coast and, despite some initial misgivings among the city's population, the plan for the Salk Institute was approved.

#9;Dr. Salk selected a world-famous American architect, Louis I. Kahn, to design the institute and worked closely with him to make the buildings function well for scientific research. Then, he carefully selected the functions first group of scientists that he would invite to work for him; his selections included: mathematician-philosopher Jacob Bronowski, physicist Francis H. C. Crick, physician Renato Dulbecco, theoretical physicist Edwin Lennox, and biologist Leo Szilard. The Salk Institute was officially founded in 1964, exactly ten years after national testing of the Salk vaccine had begun with the Polio Pioneers. #9;In addition to how to hack machine 2016 his continued administrative duties at the Salk Institute, Jonas spent his time teaching and feminism, writing. Always anxious to return to his primary love of medical research, though, Dr. Jonas E. Salk announced at age 75 that he had been concentrating on AIDS research. He had started work on a killed-virus vaccine for AIDS in early 1986, again battling against those in the medical field who continued to hack machine doubt the effectiveness of a technique employing dead viruses. Although his work has not yet lead to an AIDS vaccine, Salk's research has produced an immunogen that can be administered to those that are HIV-positive in feminism order to slow or prevent the onset of disease.

This quasi-vaccine was the first AIDS-inhibiting product to be subjected to how to hack 2016 mass testing in the United States#150;another Salk breakthrough. Salk in Relation to Gardner's Model. #9;Dr. Jonas Salk fits into Howard Gardner#146;s model of creativity if the guidelines of the mold are loosely applied. In other words, there are numerous instances in how do wuss which Salk perfectly fits into Gardner#146;s parameters, while there are many other situations in which Salk defies the Gardnerian model and stands in a category all his own. #9;To begin with the similarities to the model, Salk was the oldest child in his family, a trend that can be traced through subjects that Gardner has studied in the past, such as Sigmund Freud. Jonas#146; place in his family#146;s birth order helps to explain the how to hack later drive and determination that he demonstrated in his chosen domain. Another early factor in Salk#146;s life was the family environment, a determinant Gardner often cites as aiding in what according to holden the future career choices of gifted creators.

As with the hack a vending machine 2016 other innovators in Creating Minds , the household in which Jonas grew up was comfortable and never failed to provide him with everything he needed to Managerial succeed. Gardner also alludes to the fact that many great creators have parents who are not highly educated but, nonetheless, value education and machine, wish for their children the opportunity for learning that they did not have. This was indeed the case in Managerial Essay the Salk household; his parents, both garment workers with only eighth-grade educations, pushed Jonas to strive for excellence and helped him to succeed at a gifted high school. #9;As Jonas matured, he discovered his area of interest at the age of fifteen; he was just a youngster as many of Gardner#146;s other subjects, like Albert Einstein. Hack A Vending Machine! Salk began to Active Parent in IEP Meetings Essay concentrate on his medical studies and worked closely with a mentor, Dr.

Thomas Francis, again following Gardnerian guidelines; this relationship bore likeness to the alliance between Igor Stravinsky and Serge Diaghilev. Jonas maintained this relationship with Francis for many years, while also keeping in hack machine 2016 close contact with others in his domain, namely Dr. Albert Sabin and functions, Dr. John Enders. Hack Machine! Salk had enormous support at home from his wife while he performed the research that lead to his greatest medical contribution#150;the polio vaccine#150;and this support at the time of a breakthrough was also predicted by Howard Gardner#146;s model. Further, Gardner believes that for an individual to truly be creative, the domain in which one concentrates must recognize the work. Salk received such validation after his great discovery by being awarded several honors, namely the Lasker Award and the Criss Award. #9;Howard Gardner laid out more general guidelines upon which to wuss measure creativity and Jonas Salk follows these as well. First, he made a Faustian bargain.

Although he cared deeply about his wife and sons, Jonas knew that he could not spend large amounts of time with them while also researching a cure for polio. Therefore, he made a sacrifice and decided that he would spend quality time with them, but that he would make an even bigger committment to his chosen work. The concept of a Faustian bargain is a common characteristic that is seen time and again in Creating Minds ; this idea is most evident in the case of Pablo Picasso who completely devoted himself to painting when one of his sisters died of a critical illness. Also, Gardner often speaks of hack machine a 10-year cycle surrounding a creator#146;s breakthroughs. Active In IEP Meetings Essay! This cycle can easily be seen in the work of T. S. Eliot, Martha Graham, as well as Jonas Salk. Jonas worked for Dr.

Francis#146; research team and, in 1944, because of their work, the influenza vaccine became nationally available. Just a decade later, of how to hack machine 2016 course, Salk made his greatest contribution to medicine when, in 1954, national testing of the what according to holden poliomyelitis vaccine began with the Polio Pioneers. Finally, ten years later, in 1964, Salk made another breakthrough; the hack a vending 2016 Salk Institute was officially founded. Despite all of the similarities, Jonas Salk does not fit flawlessly into Howard Gardner#146;s model of creativity. First, unlike many in Gardner#146;s book, Creating Minds , Jonas was not a child prodigy. A Life! He was strong in academics, namely in his logical-mathematical skills, but Jonas worked diligently in school and was not that extraordinary a student. Also, as Salk grew up and hack a vending, began his family, he did not alienate them as some subjects like Einstein did; rather, he spent limited amounts of quality time with them.

Though he dedicated many of his hours to research, his loved ones always knew that he cared for of arteries, them tremendously. Hack Machine 2016! Next, Gardner states that many innovators develop a new code for their domain, such as Martha Graham did in the modern dance arena. Salk, in fact, did develop a unique medical technique, that of the killed-virus vaccine, but he did not codify a new language persay. Active Parent In IEP Meetings! This was the how to a vending argument that other scientists used when they did not select Salk to be the recipient of the Nobel Prize. Lastly, unlike most of Gardner#146;s subjects, Jonas Salk was not conducting his work in a major city. Although Pittsburgh did have a large population base, it was not seen as a center of research in the 1940s and 50s.

If Salk had lived in angela carter New York City at the time of his discovery, place would have made a more significant contribution to how to machine 2016 his work. Managerial Ethics Essay! Salk was content, though, to keep in contact with his collegues by mail and how to hack 2016, telephone and this prevented him from having to move his family#150;something that was extremely important to what according to holden him. #9;On June 23, 1995, one of the greatest scientific minds of the modern era died of congestive heart failure at home in La Jolla, California. At the age of 80, the death of. Dr.

Jonas Salk, a pioneering researcher, shook the medical community. How To Hack A Vending! His colleagues say that his death represents a great loss to the medical field; Donald Francis, a clinical scientist and long-time admirer of Salk stated, Jonas was#150;in his own words#150;a change ahead of his time. It#146;s a shame that all the what is lying to holden controversy buried the a vending 2016 real accomplishments. The sad thing is that he never got the Nobel Prize for his work#150;he developed a technology rather than making a fundamental discovery (Sankaran 19). Although the vaccine was never patented and Salk personally gained no monetary benefits from his discovery, this was never his intent.

Jonas simply had a special vision of doing research and understanding humans as a whole. Named as one of the 12 heroes of Ethics our time (Sherrow 110), this is hack machine 2016, exactly how many Americans viewed him. Salk had a part in three medical breakthroughs#150;participating in research that lead to Managerial Essay vaccines for influenza, poliomyelitis, and AIDS. He is how to a vending machine, a researcher in a class occupied by few others and his legacy will live on for years to come. Jonas [was] in touch with the world. He [was] aware of the world and concerned about it. He [saw] beyond the microscope at angela carter, the larger world and how to hack 2016, found ways to make it better. Managerial Ethics! He has inspired other to do the same (Sherrow 108).

Carter, Richard. Breakthrough: The Saga of Jonas Salk . New York: Trident Press, 1965. Gardner, Howard. Creating Minds . New York: Basic Books, 1993. Pamplin, Jr., Dr. Hack A Vending! Robert B. and Eisler, Gary K. American Heroes: Their Lives, Their Values, Their Beliefs . New York: Mastermedia Limited, 1995. Rowland, John. How Do You Spell Wuss! The Polio Man . 2016! New York: Roy Publishers, 1960.#9; Sankaran, Neeraja.

The Scientist . Vol. 9(15), pg. 19, July 24, 1995. Sherrow, Victoria. Makers of Modern Science: Jonas Salk . New York: Facts on File, 1993. The Importance of Dr. Salk's work -- www.azstarnet.com/

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An Ideal Husband Summary and Analysis of Act I. Hack Machine. The play opens at a party at Sir Robert Chiltern#39;s house in Grosvenor Square, London. The party exemplifies much of the Lived play#39;s tendency towards quick and witty conversation. The Chiltern home is regal and their guests are impeccably dressed. Much of the action takes place in the Chiltern home#39;s Octagonal room. Lady Chiltern stands at the top of her regal staircase greeting arriving friends. Behind her, on the back wall, hangs Boucher#39;s Triumph of Love. The tapestry plays a prominent role in the play, and highlights the theme of love conquering all. This first scene consists of many conversations between various guests.

Mrs. Marchmont and a vending, Lady Basildon discuss the tedious, boring and uninteresting Hartlock parties, and the triviality of men. Mrs. Marchmont mentions that she has come to the party to be educated, while Lady Basildon admits she despises education. Mrs. Ethics Essay. Marchmont notes that Lady Chiltern is often encouraging her and others to expand their educations and find purpose in life, which seems to be a futile pursuit as few in London society take their lives or careers very seriously. As the hack a vending machine act continues, additional characters enter and converse, all announced by angela carter the butler who stands at the door. Lord Caversham enters and asks for his #39;good-for-nothing#39; son.

Mabel Chiltern asks him why he speaks so ill of Lord Goring, and how to hack machine 2016, Lord Caversham explains that his son leads an idle life. Mabel Chiltern disagrees, and feminism, Lord Caversham calls her charming. Caversham also admits being sick of London Society while Mabel thinks it is hack a vending machine, lovely and composed of beautiful idiots and brilliants lunatics, Lord Goring included. Lady Markby and Mrs. Cheveley enter next. Managerial Ethics Essay. Mrs. Cheveley is how to machine, a striking woman who demands attention.

She wears a purple (heliotrope) gown, bright red lipstick, and Essay A Life Well Lived, has red hair. A Vending 2016. Lady Markby greets Lady Chiltern warmly, but Lady Chiltern suddenly recognizes Mrs. Cheveley and greets her with a distant bow. She explains that they knew each other in their school days. Mrs. Cheveley, who has been in Vienna for many years, is obviously overly sweet to her cold acquaintance, and describes her eagerness to Essay Well meet Sir Robert Chiltern, as he is well known in Vienna. Lady Chiltern is taken aback by hack machine 2016 this comment and what according to holden, before quickly moving away, assures Mrs. Cheveley that she and her husband have very little in common.

The Vicomte de Nanjac, a young anglophile who spices up the how to hack a vending machine play with comical malapropisms, approaches as Lady Chiltern moves off, and how do, flirts with Mrs. Cheveley. Sir Robert Chiltern enters, greets Lady Markby, and how to a vending machine, meets and compliments Mrs. Essay Well Lived. Cheveley. She responds by saying that any acquaintance that begins with a compliment is sure to develop into hack a vending machine 2016, a true friendship.

She tells Sir Robert that she knew his wife at school, but unlike Lady Chiltern she never received any good conduct prizes. Sir Robert inquires as to Participation whether she is a pessimist or an optimist and she claims she is neither. A Vending Machine 2016. Mrs. Cheveley notes that her only functions of arteries pleasure is politics. Next, she asks for a tour of his house, and casually references Baron Arnheim, whom she claims to how to hack machine 2016 have known intimately and is a previous acquaintance of Chiltern. Carter. Sir Robert starts at 2016 the name and appears distraught. Lord Goring arrives. He is a British dandy, one who plays with life, dresses well, socializes extensively and likes to be misunderstood. Is Lying To Holden. Sir Robert introduces him to how to machine Mrs.

Cheveley, and it appears they have met before. Angela. Lording Goring then turns to Mabel Chiltern and the two easily fall into a flirtatious banter. Vicomte de Nanjac interrupts and asks Mabel if he may escort her to the music room. She is clearly disappointed and machine 2016, tries to on A Life Well Lived get Lord Goring to follow them, but he remains in the Octagon room. Lord Caversham approaches his son and demands to know what he is doing at the party. He accuses him of a wasted life, and claims London society has gone to hack a vending machine 2016 the dogs. Angela. Lady Basildon and how to machine, Mrs. Marchmont approach Lord Goring and begin complaining about their annoyingly perfect husbands. Lord Goring sympathizes with them, and they soon start gossiping about Mrs.

Cheveley. As the guests all go to dinner, the action returns to Sir Robert and Mrs. Cheveley, who remain in the Octagon room. Mrs. Cheveley explains her stay in England depends upon him and tells him about the Argentine Canal Company, which she calls a great political and financial scheme. Essay. Sir Robert was involved in hack a vending machine, the Suez Canal endeavor as Lord Radley#39;s secretary, but he does not think highly of this new venture.

While Mrs. Cheveley believes it a daring speculation, he calls it a swindle. She admits to investing heavily in it based on the advice of Ethics Essay, Baron Arnheim. How To Hack A Vending 2016. Sir Robert admits that the following night he will give a report to the House suggesting the scheme will not succeed. Mrs. Cheveley urges him not to make the report in both her interest and in his own, which offends Sir Robert. Finally, Mrs.

Cheveley reveals that she possesses a letter Sir Robert wrote to Baron Arnheim when he was Lord Radley#39;s secretary. In the letter, Sir Robert sold a Cabinet secret, telling the Baron to buy Suez Canal shares three days before the government announced the purchase of it. Through this unscrupulous act Sir Robert made his current fortune, and of arteries, Mrs. Cheveley threatens to hand the letter over to the newspapers if he does not publicly support her scheme. Sir Robert#39;s public image and career would be ruined. Mrs. Cheveley refuses any money in exchange for the letter and leaves no negotiating room.

Finally, Sir Robert gives in and tells her he will withdraw the report. He leaves the room. Hack A Vending 2016. The guests return from the dining room and Mrs. Cheveley speaks with Lady Chiltern and reveals she has gained Sir Robert#39;s support in the canal scheme. Lady Chiltern does not believe this news and Managerial Essay, claims her husband#39;s principles are stronger than that. She is machine, quite troubled. Sir Robert returns to escort Mrs. Cheveley to her carriage. Lord Goring and Mabel converse and Mabel finds a brooch half-hidden in a sofa.

Lord Goring immediately recognizes it and explains that he gave it someone as a gift years ago. He asks her to notify him first if anyone asks about it. Mabel agrees and bids him goodnight. When everyone has left, Lady Chiltern confronts Sir Robert about Mrs. Feminism. Cheveley#39;s canal scheme claim. How To Machine. She explains that in their schooldays Mrs.

Cheveley was dishonest and evil. Sir Robert argues that she should not be judged by is lying according to holden her past, but Lady Chiltern claims that the past defines one#39;s character. Sir Robert admits he has agreed to support the scheme, but his wife knows something is amiss. She suspects he has altered his principles, and asks why is suddenly behaving in such a different manner. He explains that circumstances dictate his choice, but she claims circumstances should never change principles. In a passion, Lady Chiltern tells her husband it is never necessary to do the dishonorable deed, and that power and money are nothing in themselves. She claims she loves him because he has always been ideal and honest. She begs him to continue being the honorable man she knows and loves and to not kill her love for him. Sir Robert denies that he has any secrets and Lady Chiltern urges him to immediately write Mrs.

Cheveley to explain he will not support the scheme after all. She stands over him, praising him, as he writes the a vending letter. They declare their love for functions each other. Hack A Vending Machine. The scene closes with Sir Robert calling the butler to deliver the letter, and the chandelier lighting up the Triumph of Love tapestry. Wilde creates his characters as artistic objects within society, and through their conversations and seemingly carefree banter, explores the themes of love, loyalty and honor.

Wilde#39;s writing, which relies on these sorts of conversation, is often referred to Managerial as epigrammatic. An epigram is defined as a concise and witty statement that expresses insight and is often ironic in tone. The opening act contains many epigrammatic statements, including Mrs. How To A Vending 2016. Marchmont#39;s claim of Essay Well, abhorring education, and Lord Goring#39;s claim that the how to hack 2016 only thing he knows anything about is nothing. What. Clearly, neither truly believes these statements, but there is truth to them.

Wilde#39;s reliance on epigrammatic conversation forces the reader to determine when there is seriousness in such statements, and when they are simply witty and somewhat false tools used to extend somewhat meaningless conversation. As such, Wilde successfully weaves the most serious themes of the play in with the most frivolous of hack machine, its banter and conversation. Throughout the party that takes up the of arteries majority of the first act, the guests and hosts are highly concerned with their appearance and the nature of their social interactions. All the guests are members of London society and spend much of a vending 2016, their lives in carter feminism, similarly superficial scenarios. Thus, they are all present themselves very specifically, through well defined performances. The selves they present in these social interactions are specific to such events, and not necessarily true representations. The most notable character that presents a false veneer in this social event is Mrs. Cheveley. She sees this party as a chance to perform, and brings with her a powerfully false sense of saccharine kindness in her interactions with Lady Chiltern.

Even during her interactions with Sir Robert, she maintains a veneer of how to a vending, civility when threatening his very reputation. Wilde#39;s use of the party to introduce each character is fascinating, as the reader learns how the characters wish to be seen in such social gatherings rather than whom they truly are. Here, we begin to according to holden see the disconnect between the ideal and the real. Act I also deals extensively with the role of a vending machine, women in to holden, society, and the dialogue between Sir Robert and Mrs. Cheveley touches briefly on this topic. Sir Robert implies that the issue of the nature of women is a modern topic - he asks her if she thinks science can grapple with the problem of women. His question suggests that he sees women as very complex, but also acknowledges the increasing role women play within society, and the complex issues that arise from this.

Mrs. Cheveley#39;s words suggest a more traditional view of women; that women cannot be understood and should be viewed as aesthetic pieces of art. In fact, Wilde describes many of the female characters in this opening act as works of art, and even notes that Watteau would have loved to paint some of hack a vending machine 2016, them. The tapestry of the what according to holden Triumph of hack 2016, Love plays a prominent thematic role in this opening act and the remainder of the how do you spell play. Love and what defines it in its purest and strongest form is clearly of great importance to the main theme of the play, marriage. Lady Markby arrives at how to a vending 2016 the party and notes that people now marry as many times as possible because it is in fashion. When introducing Mrs. In IEP Essay. Cheveley to Sir Robert she comments that families are very mixed nowadays, and Lord Goring revels in how to a vending machine 2016, his status as a bachelor.

Lady Basildon and Mrs. Marchmont ironically sympathize with each other over their overly perfect husbands, which mocks the idea of a perfect marriage. Mrs. Cheveley states that in the London season, people are either hunting from husbands, or hiding from them. Much of this act discusses the functions confusion and conflict inherent in marriage, while Lady Chiltern and Sir Robert represent an ideal marriage.

The conversation between Lady Chiltern and her husband in the conclusion of the first act provides a strong contrast to how to machine 2016 the frivolous banter that dominated the angela party scene. They address each other with earnestness, intimacy, and powerful emotion. How To Machine 2016. Lady Chiltern states that her love for Sir Robert rests on his ideal morality, purity and honesty. When presented with his request for Ethics Essay a moral compromise, Lady Chiltern refuses. She can only love him in his ideal and pure state.

Later on, she will be confronted with her idealistic perspective, but in a vending, this act, it dominates and defines their marriage. What According To Holden. Interestingly, the theme of politics is powerfully interwoven with that of love and marriage. How To. In the feminism play, choices regarding ethical political behavior relate directly to the triumph or failure of love. Lady Chiltern clearly represents a strong adherence to the ideal, while Mrs. Cheveley represents the opposite.

These two forces of good and evil pull on machine, Sir Robert Chiltern, forcing him to Essay A Life Well define himself and his life as either an ideal or morally imperfect husband. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/an-ideal-husband/study-guide/summary-act-i in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About An Ideal Husband An Ideal Husband Summary Character List Glossary Themes Summary And Analysis Act I Act II Act III Act IV Social Corruption Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Oscar Wilde Biography. An Ideal Husband Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for An Ideal Husband is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the hack machine novel. The play opens at a party at Sir Robert Chiltern's house in Active Participation in IEP Meetings Essay, Grosvenor Square, London. The party exemplifies much of the play's tendency towards quick and witty conversation.

The Chiltern home is regal and their guests are impeccably dressed. Much. Politics meant personal gain to Mrs. Chevely. She was manipulative, dishonest, and interested in no one but herself. The significance of the title is that there are no ideal husbands. An ideal husband simply doesn't exist, and women always seem to idealize what their husbands are not. An Ideal Husband study guide contains a biography of Oscar Wilde, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. An Ideal Husband literature essays are academic essays for a vending 2016 citation.

These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of An Ideal Husband. An Ideal Husband E-Text contains the full text of An Ideal Husband.

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Leadership Styles And Productivity. There have been as many definitions of how to hack a vending machine 2016 Leadership as many have tried to feminism, define it. The sheer complexity of the concept can be understood by the magnitude of the number of research articles available on the internet today. Hack A Vending Machine! There has been none universally accepted definition however though there are a few definitions which are most sought after. According to Bass (1990), 'Leadership is an interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves as structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and expectations of the members. Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of the other in the group. Of Arteries! Any member of the group can exhibit some amount of leadership (pp. 19-20)'. Pfinffner and Preshtus define leadership as 'a kind of moral spirit and responsibility in the leader, which is led to unifying the efforts of the employees in hack a vending machine 2016 order to achieve goals which exceed personal interests' (Hamadat, 2006: 16).

Leadership can be explained as the ability of an Ethics Essay individual to have power that focuses on hack 2016, how to how do, establish directions by adapting forces (Go et al., 1996). From an organisational perspective, Schermerhorn (1999) believed that leading is a process used to how to hack a vending machine, motivate and to influence others to work hard in order to realize and support organisational goals, while Hersey et al. (2001) believed that leadership influences individuals' behaviour based on both individuals' and organisational goals. Robbins (2001) defined leadership as the ability of an individual to influence the behaviour of a group to achieve organisational goals. Most, if not all definitions are circumferenced around two aspects of functions of arteries Leadership, one being the traits that the leaders elicit and other happens to be the organisational or group goals as the situation may be which clearly exemplifies the fact that leadership has a significant influence on the results achieved by the group or the organisation. Hack A Vending 2016! However, it is important to understand that situations and on contexts vary in how to hack a vending machine varied organisations and one kind of leadership may not work effectively in all the situations. Hence, it is important for how do you spell wuss, organisations and the Leaders themselves to understand the expectations of the subordinates and then try to 2016, accommodate the same in their style of Leadership.

Before we delve deeper into the relationship of Subordinate Performance and Leadership Styles, it is important to understand the carter feminism different kinds of Leadership styles. One of the early work done by Kurt Lewin in 1939 along with a group of researchers identified three types of Leadership Styles ' Authoritarian, Democratic and Laissez 'fair. Most of the researches have been focussed of the how to first two styles since the third style is considered as lack of any specific leadership style which plays a dominant part only is lying according to holden, when the subordinates are motivated and knowledgeable at the given tasks. With the context in place of an Indian manufacturing company where the workmen are more or less at the mercy of their supervisors in decision making the study takes only the former styles of leadership to assess the relationship of productivity and leadership style. 2.1.1 Authoritarian or Autocratic Leadership. There has been lot of discussion about Hitler regarding their leading style which necessarily involved a lot of close supervision, maintaining legitimate power (Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy). Hitler projected a personalized charismatic leadership, a style that is how to a vending 2016 'exploitative, non-egalitarian, and self-aggrandizing' (Choi). He was extremely focused on his personal control, insisting that the 'ultimate authority rested with him and extended downward' (BBC). Hitler was known for heavily critiquing those who reported to him and became angry and frustrated with mistakes.

He did not trust others, particularly the generals who reported to him during the functions Second World War. A Vending Machine! Without establishing a two-way relationship, Hitler could not, and would not, rely on the opinions of others, resorting to his instincts and opinions (Geoffrey). This kind of leadership falls well within the boundaries of Authoritarian Leadership. Autocratic leadership has four major characteristics: ' The leader makes all important decisions. ' The leader is primarily concerned with task accomplishment and not the subordinates satisfaction or well being.

' The leader maintains a considerable social distance from the wuss subordinates. ' The leader employs punishment as a means of motivation rather than rewards. Looking at the psychological perspectives of the hack a vending machine above mentioned style of leadership tests reveal that Autocratic Leaders score high on Abasement, Aggression and Achievement. However they score low on Intraception, Nurturance and Social Values. With respect to what is lying to holden, the organisational perspective, it is imperative to understand that there is machine no certain answer to Ethics, which leadership style will produce the best results in an organisation. It largely depends on the organisational culture and the kind of task at hand for the leader.

For example, in a war, the leaders are required to make quick decisions and don't have all the time for a democratic process, which puts forward the argument that has been made above. Autocratic leadership can bring about exceptional results by hack a vending, more accurate decision making when the leader has good subject expertise and Active Participation in IEP Essay can improve the productivity, however only when the leader is around. It is also suitable in situations where the how to a vending 2016 workforce is new and untrained or where economies of scale is Parent in IEP Meetings Essay being tried to be achieved which leaves little time for a democratic process to be followed in decision making. This style of how to hack machine leadership though most common has started to lose its shine in the present context over Participation the democratic form of leadership. However, many still have bat in favour of this kind of leadership citing that it is the context which determines which kind of how to a vending leadership will be effective and not the absolute style per se.

2.1.2 Democratic Leadership. Kurt Lewin and how do you spell his colleagues presented what has become the classic formulation of democratic leadership (Lewin Lippitt, 1938; Lewin, Lippitt, White, 1939; White Lippitt, 1960). How To Hack 2016! They distinguished democratic leadership from autocratic and laissez-faire styles, arguing that democratic leaders relied upon group decision making, active member involvement, honest praise and of arteries criticism, and a degree of comradeship. By contrast, leaders using the hack 2016 other styles were either domineering or uninvolved. Unfortunately. Lewin and his colleagues never developed the definition beyond this rough sketch, leading some critics to find undemocratic implications in their ostensibly democratic model of leadership. Despite this lack of conceptual precision, Lewin and others have identified the central element of the term: democratic leadership is behaviour that influences people in a manner consistent with and/or conducive to basic democratic principles and processes, such as self-determination, inclusiveness, equal participation, and deliberation (Dahl, 1989; Fishkin, 1991). Democratic leadership has three major characteristics: ' Distributing responsibility within the subordinates ' According to Krech et al. (1962) 'The democratic leader seeks to evoke maximum involvement and the participation of wuss every member in the group activities and in the determination of objectives. In organisational settings it is hack machine 2016 imperative for leaders to delegate tasks and decision making within their subordinates since it helps in building a pool of future leaders for the organisation. Nagel (1987), argues that to Essay on A Life Lived, avoid the free riding issues, democratic leader should not only ask subordinates to take on responsibility, rather be demanding in reminding them of their collective responsibilities. ' Empowering the members ' Democratic leadership can augment members' skills by setting high but reasonable standards and asking members to challenge themselves (Tead, 1935).

Members' abilities may develop through taking on new responsibilities, but leaders can also play a direct role by offering instruction or suggestions, particularly when asked to hack a vending machine 2016, do so (Busch, 1934; Lewin et al., 1939). Good leaders can expand their ranks by becoming 'role models' to change novices from 'followers' to leaders (Baker, 1982, p. 325). This has particularly significant implication since shortage of talent pool is an important concern for organisations in Active Parent in IEP the today's era. How To Machine 2016! The organisations are looking at drawing leaders from the available talent pool from within the organisation first and then resorting to lateral hire. The organisation which has leaders who in turn can create leaders are thriving in the cut throat competition and narrowed margins. ' Aiding the subordinates in how do you spell their deliberations ' Its' not enough for a leader to only delegate and empower subordinates but has to take the relationship to the next level through appropriate deliberation methodology. Democratic leaders must distribute responsibility appropriately and empower other group members, but they must devote the hack a vending machine bulk of their time and energy to wuss, ensuring productive and democratic decision making. How To A Vending Machine 2016! Democratic leadership aids the deliberative process through constructive participation, facilitation, and the maintenance of healthy relationships and a positive emotional setting. Having talked about the facets of democratic leadership, it has be borne in mind that the style of Managerial Ethics leadership cannot by how to machine, any means be categorized as the Ethics Essay better of the two leadership styles i.e.

Autocratic and machine Democratic. Though the positives are there with democratic leadership, still previous writings on democracy and democratic leadership suggest that people often reject this form of leadership for at least four reasons. First, some people oppose a democratic leadership structure because it directly threatens their undemocratic authority. Moving toward democracy would strip them of some of their status, power, and, in some cases, wealth (Slater Bennis, 1990). Second, some people have authoritarian values and are not easily swayed from a strong belief in the justness and efficiency of powerful, directive authorities (Bell, 1950; Lassey 1971; Tead, 1935). Third, most people have, to some degree, an unconscious or conscious desire for a hero, a charismatic figure capable of solving our problems and sweeping away our confusion (Abse Jessner, 1962; Smith, 1926). Finally, some reject the notion of democratic leadership for the opposite reason, having no faith whatsoever in leaders of any kind and no belief in A Life Well Lived their necessity (Nagel, 1987; Tead, 1935)

However, Lippitt (1983) identifies a number of 2016 promising trends in the 1970s and early 1980s that are probably still present today: expectations of according to holden shared power and responsibility are increasing; there is a greater degree of collaboration and hack machine communication; and people have an functions of arteries increasing awareness of the need for organizational openness and flexibility. With the baby boomers towards the end of the tenure and entrance of hack a vending machine Gen Y, who thrive in responsibilities and accountabilities, into the workforce democratic leadership could be more widespread than what the A Life present situation unveils. Thus it is clearly evident from the above discussion that there is contextual effect to which kind of leadership style will suit a given situation and will be effective. Hack A Vending 2016! It depends on many factors all of which hasn't been unearthed yet, however a few common factors affecting leadership effectiveness are the organisational culture, the time frame available for decision making for what is lying according, the leader, the task itself, the capabilities of the subordinates and how to hack of course not to miss out the country in which the organisation operates. The study will now aim to understand Global and Indian manufacturing outlook which significantly is a reason for wuss, organisations employing productivity up scaling drives and at arriving at a definition of Productivity. With so much available on the term today with each organisation defining productivity in its own way it becomes really important to have a clear understanding of the definition and factors involved in the term 'Productivity'. 2.2 Manufacturing Outlook ' Global and Indian context. The global manufacturing sector has undergone a boisterous decade: large developing economies leaped into the first tier of manufacturing nations, a severe recession choked off demand, and manufacturing employment fell at an accelerated rate in advanced economies. How To Machine! Still, manufacturing remains critically important to both the developing and the advanced world. In the former, it continues to provide a pathway from subsistence agriculture to Essay on A Life, rising incomes and hack a vending 2016 living standards. In the latter, it remains a vital source of Managerial innovation and how to a vending competitiveness, making outsized contributions to research and development, exports, and productivity growth.

But the carter feminism manufacturing sector has changed'bringing both opportunities and challenges'and neither business leaders nor policy makers can rely on old responses in the new manufacturing environment. Amidst the volatility and uncertainty in the manufacturing sector, its role in the world economy has continued to progress. According to a research by Mc Kinsey and Co., the next decade and half will see the how to entry of approximately 1.8 billion consumers which will lead to worldwide consumption of close to functions of arteries, $ 64 trillion. Developed economies will remain major consumers, however the how to a vending machine share of developing economies will rise which will enhance the living standards of the according to holden residents. How To Hack A Vending Machine 2016! The GDP share of manufacturing in the Indian economy is wuss poised to grow from 16% to 25% by 2022 according to India's national manufacturing policy release. Globally the manufacturing output is growing at about 2.7% annually in developed economies in contrast to 7.4% in the developed economies (2002-2007). When economies industrialize, manufacturing employment and hack output both rise rapidly, but once manufacturing's share of GDP peaks at 20 to 35 percent of GDP, it falls in carter feminism an inverted U pattern, along with its share of employment. The reason is that as wages rise, consumers have more money to spend on services, and that sector's growth accelerates, making it more important than manufacturing as a source of growth and employment. The focus then shifts from mere output to the efficiency, utilization of a vending resources and how do cost aspect of production which the impacts the hiring plans for how to hack 2016, the industry as well. For example manufacturing share of US employment declined from 25% in 1950 to about 9% in 2008.

The figure below depicts how the share of manufacturing follows the inverted U shape as the economy matures. However, the situation in developing economies is far from the above mentioned point and can be safely assumed that the outlook of Managerial Ethics Essay manufacturing looks positive in a global context with the developing economies leading the way. In FY13, India's manufacturing sector grew slower than the how to hack a vending machine rest of the economy, with GDP growth itself having slowed down. Concerns regarding the stability of some of the Eurozone economies, sluggish growth in the US and the slowdown in to holden key emerging economies have affected the Indian manufacturing sector's view of the global economy. How To! The manufacturing sector has been moving at a slower pace than the overall economy for some time now. As a result, the sector's contribution to you spell wuss, GDP has declined marginally from 16.1 to 15.2% in the five years till March 2013. Growth rate in manufacturing reduced from 9.7% in 2010-11 to how to hack machine, 2.7% in 2011-12 and 1% in 2012-13. In FY13, only Parent Participation Essay, 3.3% of the country's growth was generated by manufacturing as opposed to 83% contributed by services, according to The Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. A research conducted by PWC indicates that the how to a vending machine 2016 India, China and the other developing economies will fare better than the rest of the world in regards to the growth of how do wuss manufacturing industry. However, there will be concerns arising out of lack of domestic demand, increasing pricing pressure, interest rates and achieving cost efficiency primarily because of increase in wages. The global economic slowdown, slow growth rates except a few Asian countries and the persistent Euro Zone instability has continued to bother the manufacturing companies' across the globe.

The outlook for the manufacturing companies has not been great in how to hack 2016 the last half a decade and on A Life the volatility that the past has witnessed is there to stay. Along with that the increase in competition and consequently its impact on pricing strategies of the organisations have put even more pressure on the manufacturing companies to how to hack a vending machine 2016, focus a lot on the output vis ' a ' vis costs. Managerial Ethics! With the enhancement in technology and e ' commerce becoming more and more prevalent the customers have a wider range of options to choose from and with this competitive pricing becomes even more important to capture and hack 2016 sustain customer base. Mobile phone industry is a perfect example of the carter same. With the how to hack a vending 2016 foray of low cost manufacturers like Micromax and Karbonn in the mobile industry, the pressure on bigger players like Samsung, Sony, Nokia etc. to remain competitive with their pricing grows. No player in the industry can boast of being the monopolistic company like Nokia once had in the mobile phone industry. The above discussion unveils a harsh reality for manufacturing companies across the globe i.e. to monitor their costs and improve their output for the similar costs that they did earlier. Achieving better capacity utilization will also be at the back of the mind of the manufacturing community. The culmination of cost efficiency, capacity utilization, improving output at the same input resources and various other parameters including financial aspects collectively give rise to what is lying according to holden, the term called 'Productivity' which the how to hack 2016 study tries to define in the manufacturing setup in the Indian context.

Productivity has normally been defined as the ratio of output available at disposal of the organisation to the input resources that is expended. Productivity is the relationship between the quantity of Managerial output and the quantity of input used to generate that output. It is basically a measure of the effectiveness and efficiency of your organisation in generating output with the resources available. Productivity = Output / Input. As it is how to machine 2016 evident that there are two variable involved in the determination of productivity. Output can be measured in what is lying to holden either physical quantity like number of units produced or in financial value like revenue, value added etc. The input can be measured in human resources (number of hours worked, number of hack 2016 labour engaged or the is lying labour cost) or capital deployed to achieve the output. Various Metrics that are used to measure productivity at the organisational are profitability, value added, revenue generated, return on capital employed (ROI / ROCE), organisational growth rate etc.

The measures can be single factor or multifactor basis the need of the organisation and the industry it operates in. At the operational level the commonly used metrics of hack machine 2016 productivity measurement are labour productivity, capacity utilisation etc. In manufacturing companies across the globe the concept of OEE (overall equipment efficiency) / OLE (overall line efficiency) has been commonly used apart from the former productivity measures. In fact, the entire operations can be broken down into smaller elements like production, purchase, maintenance and allied and their productivity is being measured on an individual basis e.g. What According! delivery lead time, production compliance, maintenance cost etc. This gives the organisation required control over the processes and more specifically the hack a vending operations managers to have a closer look at the gaps in the system and take short interval controls. For the purpose of the study two productivity measures were analysed, one being OEE (overall equipment efficiency) and the other being Labour Productivity. 2.3.1 OEE (Overall equipment efficiency) Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is Parent Participation a way to monitor and improve the efficiency of a manufacturing process. Developed in the mid 1990's, OEE has become an accepted management tool to hack a vending machine 2016, measure and evaluate plant floor productivity. Managerial Ethics Essay! The analysis of OEE starts with Plant Operating Time, a measure of the time available for equipment operation.

For a plant which is in continuous operation will thus have at least 720 hours for operation in a month under the premise that the month consists of 30 days. For e.g. Steel making, glass making are continuous processes since the furnace cannot be shut down for any reason whatsoever as it will take long hours to reach the temperature that is required for the processing. However the same is not true for many other industry like automotive, textile and many others which can have a break in the operations. Hack Machine 2016! From the Plant Operating Time, downtime which are planned by the unit (Planned Shutdown) is deducted to arrive at Planned Production time. Planned Shutdown can be taken due to various reasons ' lack of demand of the product, strike, lockout and many others. Planned Production time is where OEE initiates since the other mentioned items are majorly out of the control of the unit manager. From the Planned Production time three losses inherent in any product manufacturing are reduced to arrive at A Life Lived the Fully Productive Time where value is added during the a vending machine 2016 process in a manufacturing operation.

The three losses are Down Time Loss, Speed Loss and Quality Loss which are categorized as Availability, Performance and how do you spell Quality. Graphically OEE can be represented as (Illustrative): Fig 3. The table below shows the three losses and their definitions. The productive time shown above is the final output that organisations want and try to increase the same through various productivity improvement methods. Availability It is the ratio of Operating Time to Planned Production Time (Operating Time is machine 2016 Planned Production Time less Down Time Loss) Performance It is the ratio of Net Operating Time to Operating Time (Net Operating Time is Operating Time less Speed Loss). It is also calculated as the ratio of Actual Production to Plant Production Capacity. Quality It is the ratio of Fully Productive Time to Net Operating Time (Fully Productive Time is Net Operating Time less Quality Loss). This is also calculated as the ratio Quality Production to Total Production.

OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality. For example, if all three contributing factors are 90.0%, the OEE would be 72.9% where as if all the how do factors are at 80%, the OEE would be 51.2%. How To Hack! This illustration clearly shows that in individual parameters, plant may be performing well (80% is considered a good number) while when combined together in Essay on Well Lived the form of OEE, the performance would be considered gloomy. Worldwide studies indicate that the how to machine 2016 average OEE rate in manufacturing plants is 60% while in world class manufacturing plants Availability factor is 90%, Performance is 95% and Quality is 99.9% thus making OEE to Essay on Well, close to how to a vending machine 2016, 85%. OEE is an effective tool to benchmark, analyse, and improve the carter feminism production process.

The OEE tool gives the managers the ability to measure machines for productivity improvements. OEE not only measures these inefficiencies but also groups them into categories which helps managers in analysing the machine and get a clear picture of the entire manufacturing process. Hack A Vending! A truly comprehensive OEE solution provides machine operators and production managers with continual line notification and control so that actions can be taken to prevent events that can result in downtime, slower cycle speeds, and poor product quality. It's a complete manager's tool to assess and reassess the manufacturing processes or parts of it and take corrective actions in you spell wuss order to improve productivity and help the organisation remain sustainable in the ever increasing competitive environment. 2.3.2 Labour Productivity.

It is one of the how to hack 2016 popularly used metric for assessing the productivity of a plant in a manufacturing company. How Do Wuss! Technically, it is how to a vending 2016 calculated as the ratio of Production in Active Participation Meetings Essay units to the number of labour deployed for the achievement of the output. There are a few variants of the same as well where the numerator remains the same however the denominator may vary as number of labour, total hours deployed by labour or the cost of wages of the labour engaged in how to hack a vending 2016 the manufacturing process. As a formula, Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Number of Labour deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Number of Man-hours deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Wages for the number of labour deployed for the same output.

With different versions available at perusal, different companies use any or a combination of of arteries labour productivity metrics to assess their plant performance. While any one of the productivity measures should suffice the understanding of plants performance, still organisations are carefully choosing a set of how to hack machine 2016 indicators of productivity to Active Participation in IEP, assess their performance vis-??-vis competition. One of the reason can be that having multiple measures allows the managers to hack, have an eye on the detailed performance of subsystems of the entire system and plan accordingly. Having defined all the elements of the relationship which the study aims at establishing, it becomes imperative to look at what the earlier researches have established between the illustrated variables. 2.4 Productivity and Leadership style. The supervisor behaviour (leadership style) is one of the key factors which impacts the performance of the frontline employees in the organisation. Quite some research has been done on the performance and leadership and the inter-linkages between the two. Numerous studies have demonstrated that such effective leadership behaviour is associated with the Active Parent Participation in IEP quality of work of subordinates in service organizations (Bettencourt Brown, 1997; Deluga, 1994; Pillai, Schriesheim, Williams, 1999; Podsakoffet al., 1990; Schaubroeck Fink, 1998). Leaders who develop a good relationship with their subordinates will in turn influence the a vending 2016 level of discretionary behaviour of these subordinates (e.g. Settoon, Bennett, Liden, 1996).

In a field experiment, Lam and Schaubroeck (2000) found that using credible and influential people as service quality leaders could enhance the positive attitudes of bank tellers towards service quality initiatives, which result in a more favourable customer rating of functions service. MacKenzie, Podsakoff, and Rich (2001) found that transformational leaders could alter the service behaviour of a vending machine frontline salespeople. Not only does effective leadership behaviour affect individual service quality, it also enhances team service quality. However, specific relationship between productivity measures of workmen and supervisor's leadership in carter the Indian manufacturing context with the how to hack a vending 2016 blue ' collar workmen hasn't received the requisite attention of the academicia which this study is trying to of arteries, aim at. Sauer (2011) confirms the importance of leadership and its effect on the performance of employees. How To Machine! Sauer's study explained the importance of leadership behaviour and Ethics Essay how the leader's performance style will affect the organization. Danish et al. (2011) discussed the effect of leadership and a manager's style, showing that these had a significant effect on the administration and its effectiveness. According to a research done of a vending machine 511 frontline service providers in 6 service organisations by Harry et al., the leadership style of the supervisor plays a dominant role in producing better service quality, which is the output in this case, when the work environment and organisation culture are not conducive for better efficiency. The leadership style used for the study were task oriented, people oriented and ethically oriented. However, in organisations where the Parent Participation in IEP work culture is hack machine 2016 good, leadership fails to make an impact.

An alternate viewpoint can be that leadership plays a key role in creating the kind of environment where performance can be better (Dickson, Smith, Grojean, Ehrhart, 2001; Koeneet al., 2002; Litwin Stringer, 1968). Hence, the frontline employees may not be able to gauge the importance of leadership. The situation was worse when both work culture and supervisor leadership were lacking which is a clear indication that each factor present in a positive way nullifies the Essay on Lived negative effect of the other factor. Hack A Vending Machine! In short, the study aims to carter feminism, examine the relative contribution of service climate and effective leadership behaviour to employee service quality, and the interaction effect of these two independent variables on the service quality. Johannes et al., in their study of 161 pairs of supervisor-subordinate pair in 24 companies of Germany revealed that transformational leadership related more strongly and positively to a vending 2016, innovation for subordinates low in functions organization-based self-esteem. When subordinates were low in self-presentation propensity, active-corrective transactional leadership was negatively, and transformational leadership was positively associated with task performance.

This research again testifies the hack a vending machine 2016 fact that leadership is a significantly affecting variable in subordinate's performance. This research also has interpretation on psychological aspects of the subordinates' i.e. self-esteem and Managerial Ethics Essay self-presentation. It also testifies the fact that different demographics of employees may want different kind of leadership to be effective and efficient in their task performance. This adds another dimension to machine 2016, the leadership performance relationship. A study conducted by Heba et al. Feminism! among 320 heads of instructional departments from randomly selected schools show that the principals' leadership style has a significant impact on hack 2016, the teacher's motivation to functions, achieve the desired task goals. Transformational leadership exhibited a positive correlation with the teacher's achievement motivation which is connected to performance excellence. Another research in the same area by Onne Janssen illustrates that when supervisors are perceived to be supportive of risk taking fosters innovation and the supervisors who are perceived as not supportive hinder the employees from carrying out innovative work in their task area or otherwise. The survey of 170 employees in a Dutch company reveals that when employees perceive that their supervisors respond to how to a vending 2016, employee innovation in a supportive and respectful manner, they feel stimulated to use their influence to persuade their subordinates and other actors to support the according development and realization of their new ideas. LMX (Leader Member Exchange) embodies the hack a vending machine relationship between a leader (Supervisor) and follower (Subordinate) and was initially conceptualized by Parent in IEP Meetings Essay, Graen and 2016 colleagues (Dansereauetal.1973, Graen 1976, Graen and Cashman, 1975). According to LMX theory the leader ' follower relation falls on a continuum where one of the ends is of arteries developed relationship i.e. high involvement and on the other end is exchange ' based relationship which has low involvement.

The managers should be able to how to 2016, understand these aspects of what is lying to holden leadership since they have a significant impact on the employee behaviours and hack consequently productivity and performance. However, Hofstede showed that high involvement / low involvement is also a characteristic of culture of the country which he defined as power distance. A research on 577 employees in 3 wood manufacturing companies in Pennsylvania illustrates that employees who are led by Active Parent in IEP Essay, supportive leader display better organisational commitment, job satisfaction and 2016 have higher performance that the peers who have no supportive leader. Also, the intention to quit the organisation was far lesser which has cost and productivity implications in the longer run as well. Another study on the same lines was done by Shahabuddin et al. on 80 employees working with IT in real estate and housing development industry in Bangladesh. The study reveals that leadership indeed has a role to play in job satisfaction of the employees which in Ethics Essay turn leads to higher productivity and performance on the job. It was found that supervisors who engaged in positive motivational behaviours tend to have more satisfied subordinates and a vending 2016 better performance from their group members.

Through their education, training, and experience, managers develop their personal leadership style (Hersey et al., 2001). This leadership style is a fundamental concern of managers and Managerial Ethics Essay researchers (Wood, 1994) due to its effect on subordinates deliver more productive work when the how to machine 2016 leader have specific leadership styles (Mullins, 1998). If managers adopt their subordinates' preferred style giving employees the functions respect and fair treatment they deserve, then this is seen to lead to job satisfaction, which in will affect the functioning of the organisation (Spector, 1997). Satisfied employees are absent less, show less job stress, stay at work longer, and make positive contributions to their organisations (Griffin, 2002). Furthermore, Yousef (2000) showed that leadership behaviour was positively related to job satisfaction and therefore managers needed to machine, adopt appropriate leadership behaviour in functions of arteries order to improve it. Leadership style affects a range of factors such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intention, and stress (Chen and Silverthorne, 2005) and so contribute to organisational success (Rad and Yarmohammadian, 2006). A study of 220 Jonardian resort hotel employees consisting of 110 subordinates and hack a vending 2016 110 managers could not refute the possibility of a relationship between job satisfaction and Active Participation Meetings leadership style of managers.

However, job satisfaction was found to be a function of demographical factors as well. The study also revealed that democratic leadership was most prevalent which again has been reinforced by another study conducted on 300 employees across manufacturing and service organisations in the public and private setup. This study shows that participatory and altruistic management style were the hack 2016 most desirable among various management styles. Few key findings of the exploratory study are: ' Management styles vary from culture to culture and within the specific culture from industry to industry. ' Participative management style is difficult to practice as sharing of power is not easy for managers. ' Excessive altruism in business organizations may negatively affect organizational effectiveness. ' A strong positive relationship between the management styles and the effectiveness of human resources in functions of arteries terms of their 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' The various researches studies in varied industries and countries show a definite correlation between leadership and performance and/ or job satisfaction; many a times mediated by other factors like organisational culture, work environment etc. The correlation holds true for most of the industries and work settings whether it be a service industry or a manufacturing industry, same with public and hack a vending private sectors as well. However, the studies need to be furthered for the blue collar employees who have a major role to play in the manufacturing setups since they are the ones responsible for generating the primary product of the company.

Their motivation, needs and job satisfaction needs to be taken care of their supervisors if they have to extract the maximum productivity out of them. The productivity and leadership relation is also affected by the country's culture wherein different countries respond differently to leadership styles. Meade (1967) noticed that morale, productivity and Managerial quality of product were superior in the groups which had authoritarian leadership, these results being opposite from those reported by Lippitt and White (1943) and Lippitt (1940) who used a similar sample of boys in an American setting. This can be the output of the kind of culture the sample was exposed to how to hack a vending machine 2016, in their upbringing. While American children learn democratic practices at carter an early age, Indian are subjected to hierarchy and authority right from the how to a vending machine 2016 beginning of their life and hence they get used to it as they grow. Another study by Essay, Meade (1967) established that Chinese college students demonstrated more group cohesion in decision making in presence of authoritarian leadership than they did to democratic leadership, while Chinese ' American demonstrated a balanced result to hack, both authoritarian and democratic leadership. The studies in what is lying according to holden general have shown positive results in presence of leadership which has a human element imbibed in how to hack a vending machine it rather to task orientation. Feminism! Hence, participative, transformational and how to hack machine democratic leadership emerge to be favoured for job satisfaction and engagement of employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and better performance. A study by Robert et al. discloses negative effects of functions close and punitive supervision style. The study of 24 groups of 4 females each in how to hack machine 2016 the age group 17-19 under controlled environment reveals substantial increase in aggressive feelings toward the supervisor and in indirect aggression toward the supervisor through lowered productivity, an insignificant increase in verbal aggression toward the supervisor, and an increase of in IEP Essay borderline significance in aggressive feelings toward co-workers in case of a vending close supervision. When subjected to punitive supervision the test group displayed significant increase in Managerial indirect aggression through lowered productivity and in verbal aggression.

This kind of situation won't be favourable for the business when every organisation is vying for enhanced productivity and cohesiveness in group activities within and outside of the how to a vending machine organisation. The study having established the fact that there is a relationship between leadership style and productivity of employees, aims to find out the most appropriate style of leadership for higher productivity of workmen in a manufacturing industry. Managerial Essay! It feels that democratic leadership style would fare better than authoritarian style since everyone would want to have a say in the decision making process which consequently affects them in one way or the how to 2016 other. As many manufacturing organisations these days are practicing TPM, Lean, Quality Circles, 5S and Six Sigma concepts to improve productivity all of which in some way or the other lead to added responsibilities for the workmen and Essay on Well more say in hack a vending 2016 the technical decision making of the plant. Organisations have realised that for how do you spell wuss, growth to be sustainable it has to be collaborative effort of each small unit in the organisation and not just top down approach.

However, with the education level, skill sets and imbibed Indian culture which is predominantly authoritarian it remains to be seen if democratic leadership is correct approach for the workmen and not authoritarian/ autocratic leadership and vice versa. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is how to 2016 qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and in IEP Meetings Essay we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to a vending machine, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to A Life Lived, provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Leadership Styles And Productivity . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/business/leadership-styles-productivity.php [05-10-17]. If you are the hack 2016 original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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essayez racehorse Below is hack 2016, a list of of arteries our trainers. Born in Berriwillock, in the Mallee District of Victoria, Darren was raised on the family farm. During this time he worked for various trainers in the area, including Jack Coffey in Birchip and John Castleman in Mildura. Darren then worked for Colin Hayes at the world-renowned Lindsay Park training complex, and spent a few months working in a stable in Ireland. On returning to Australia, Darren worked at Lindsay Park Stud. In 1990, Darren moved to Stawell and began working as a farrier, servicing trainers in how to machine 2016 the Wimmera and Western District areas of Active Participation Essay Victoria, he then began breaking-in horses for a large state wide client base. Darren obtained his Owner-Trainer License in 1995 and his Full License in 1997. On relocating to Ballarat in 2001, the hack machine 2016, property was completely refurbished and is constantly being upgraded. Darren has been leading Country Trainer since 2005 training over 100 winners each season.

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Growing up with his father Frank Hill training trotters and functions gallopers in how to a vending 2016 New Zealand, Bruce worked in the family training business for six years before gaining further experience working for what according, some of New Zealand's leading trainers. Bruce took out his own trainers licence in the mid-seventies and by 1980 had travelled a horse to Melbourne which lead to his decision to make Australia his home. He immediately secured a job as travelling foreman for hack machine, the powerful Geoff Murphy stable where he worked for three years and went on to be Geoff's Melbourne foreman for a further four years. During this time Bruce looked after such great horses as GROSVENOR , SOVEREIGN RED and even the Melbourne Cup winner GURNERíS LANE! From 1987 until 1997 Bruce trained a small team of horses and Managerial Essay put into practice the skills he had picked up from leading mentors, specifically, training a horse to peak at the right time in a vending machine 2016 the right race. After his largest client passed away, Bruce moved to the Gold Coast, where he took on of arteries, the position as foreman for a vending machine 2016, Gerald Ryan, one of Managerial Australia's leading trainers. How To Machine 2016? Bruce worked for Gerald for almost ten years, winning races such as the Queensland Guineas with SAXON, MAGNIFIER and how do REGENT STREET and the Queensland Oaks with MON MEKKI. When Gerald decided to transfer to Sydney, Bruce had no hesitation in taking over Ascot Lodge. The transition was smooth and a vending machine the winners kept on coming

Between Belhus Racing Stables and Grand Syndicates, we now have around a dozen horses with Bruce. How Do Wuss? Although he's a man of hack a vending machine few words, he lets his horses do the talking, and is lying that suits us just fine. Some of the winners heís trained for hack machine, us include Media Maid (6 wins), Liberty Island, High On You, Lilly The Filly, Dubawi Sniper and our Stakes winning bargain MAN OF HIS WORD who was bought for just $10,000 and has won over $300,000 at the time of writing. Youíll enjoy having a horse trained by Bruce Hill! Robbie Laing is a great bloke to have a horse with! A likeable type whoíll always find the Parent in IEP, time to have a chat with his owners, heís been a leading trainer amongst the Victorian ranks for over 30 years now. The key to Robbieís success as he explains it himself, is Ďpatienceí, and coupled up with sometimes unconventional methods of machine training his horses, there seems to Parent Participation Essay, be no end to Robbieís ability to hack machine, get the best out of a racehorse. Parent Participation In IEP Meetings? Whether itís winning an early two year old with a precocious youngster, winning The Grand Annual Steeplechase over 4000m at Warrnambool, or even winning one of the biggest races on the Australian racing calendar like the prestigious VRC Derby for three year olds, Robbie Laing can do it all.

Training from his state of the art stables which have fabulous facilities at Cranbourne on the Eastern outskirts of 2016 Melbourne, Robbie is very much a hands on trainer who works with a dedicated team of Parent Essay experienced and reliable staff. He can train his horses out of how to hack normal yards and stables, he can train them out of paddocks if required, and he can train them along the beaches of the Mornington Peninsula if thatís what he feels suits the horse the best. In fact, being a former jockey who still rides trackwork, Robbie can often be seen at Melbourne beaches wading his horses through the salt water pre and wuss post race which is how to a vending, of course, extremely beneficial to their legs and carter their general well being. Some of his better horses over the last three decades have been ROMAN ARCH (G1 Australian Cup), POLANSKI (G1 VRC Derby), PERFECT BLISS (1000 Guineas), PANTANI (Adelaide Cup South Australian Derby), DIRECT CHARGE (Maribynong Plate), DANERICH , SIR PENTIRE (VRC St Leger), MANTLEPIECE (Coongy Hcp), SHEíS GOT GEARS, SPECTROLITE, BOOMWA , etc, and at any given time, Robbie always seems to have a good horse in his stable. Thereís no doubt that your horse will get the best care and attention, and be given the best chance of winning a race, when itís prepared by Robbie Laing. For the best part of the last 20 years or so, Lindsey Smith has been considered among the very best thoroughbred horse trainers in how to machine 2016 Western Australia. Astute, knowledgeable, friendly and funny (donít they love interviewing him on Racing Radio!), Lindsey rose to angela feminism, prominence in the late Ď90s through the deeds of the outstanding stayer Old Cobber winning 11 races and finishing second and how to hack a vending 2016 fourth in the 1998 and 2000 Perth Cups respectively. Lindsey's training career rose to dizzy heights at how do you spell, the start of the new millennium when racking up a whole host of feature races, his amazing run of how to hack 2016 success taking him all the way to Flemington where he saddled up superstar galloper Old Comrade to win the 2002 Australian Cup, and Managerial Essay the champion 3yo stayer Plastered to win the 2004 Victoria Derby. Lindsey is a true big race trainer - you name it and hack a vending he's more than likely won it. His Western Australian honour roll includes the Railway Stakes (twice), Kingston Town Classic, WA Derby, WA Guineas, WA Oaks and Perth Cup.

In the you spell, years since, Lindsey has remained entrenched among the best in the business, training his team of hack a vending machine 2016 capable gallopers from his well-developed Casuarina (40km south of Perth) property and you spell putting the polish on how to hack a vending machine 2016, a consistent stream of city winners. Apart from is lying according to holden, his many big race winners highlighted more recently by Scales Of Justice's win in the G1 Railway Stakes, some of his other recent winners at the time of writing include: Bombs Away, Cougar Express (Bunbury Cup, Apprentices Cup), Flying Time (7 wins and over how to a vending machine 2016, $230,000), Modello (8 wins and over what according to holden, $320,000), Zarantz (4 wins in a row), Ringmeister (7 wins and over $270,000), Honest Lies (6 wins and over $260,000), Madassa, Itís Dynamite, Woken, Silver Magic Ships, etc If the Winners Circle is how to a vending, where you want to what to holden, be, then there are few better trainers to get you there with a quality young horse than Lindsey Smith. Many trainers have a family rich in hack 2016 racing history. To Holden? Trainers often train because they are following in how to hack machine 2016 the footsteps of a pathway that has been laid by the generations before them. Parent Participation Meetings Essay? Luke Oliver is machine 2016, different. He simply grew up loving racing.

From the how do, first time he attended the races as a young boy he knew the how to 2016, passion he had for the sport of kings would one day become part of his every day life. After spending his early adulthood working in feminism the corporate banking sector Luke soon found the hack machine 2016, draw of the thoroughbred to be an overwhelming calling. Of Arteries? Yet how does a young man, without a racing family or even racing peer group network to call on, become a racehorse trainer? With the solution to hack a vending 2016, this problem not readily apparent Luke decided to resist the urgings of functions of arteries those around him to 2016, make haste slowly and decided on a more simple if somewhat rushed approach - he went to the nearest city track to his home and knocked on the first trainers door he found and demanded a job. That trainer was revered Caulfield trainer James Riley. Is Lying According? Somehow Luke managed to convince James to take him on and the rest, as they say, is history. Luke has carved his reputation like most successful trainers by how to a vending machine improving horses he has been sent or purchased from other trainers. Ethics Essay? Two great examples are Sensational Toy and Royal Ida. Luke purchased Sensational Toy for just $3,000 as a seven year old mare who hadnít won for over two years . Using his skills as a horseman he ran the how to hack machine 2016, mare for just over two years winning ten times with her and Managerial Essay amassing $350,000 in prize money.

Royal Ida was purchased out of a paddock and hack machine retirement at what is lying, the age of nine by Luke in August 2009 for $15,000. Two years on how to hack a vending, he has won over what is lying, $300,000 including the Group 3 Standish Handicap at Flemington. Similar stories can be told with horses like Scenic Scene, Ulysses and Overtake. This year is proving a transitional one for Luke due to him being sent a number of young and unraced horses because of the success he has achieved in his short training career. Thereís no doubt that your horse will be given every possible chance to achieve itís best in the hands of the very capable Luke Oliver. I have to pass on my how fantastic Luke and hack 2016 Steve were at the races yesterday. I have been in what is lying to holden mounting yards and winners rooms with friends who have owned horses before and who have been trained by highly regarded well known trainers who don't engage with their clients at all. Luke and Steve were totally the opposite and were fantastic. Certainly made the experience of being personally involved in how to a vending machine my first winner even better.

Good choice to have Luke Oliver training for Ethics, you. Brett Hereward.. Graeme Rogerson is one of Australasia's most successful and a vending 2016 gifted racehorse trainers. A lifetime of you spell dedication has seen Graeme rise to the top of the a vending machine 2016, international racing scene. Heís not only an outstanding trainer and judge of horseflesh as evidenced by many of his outstanding gallopers, but he is a true international racing entrepreneur and functions of arteries an outstanding ambassador for the industry. Thereís no need to list some of his better horses and hack 2016 his biggest wins-thereís not enough space on this page-Iíd need a completely separate book for that alone. Suffice to Well Lived, say that in 2012, Graeme was inducted into the NZ Racing Hall of a vending 2016 Fame, in recognition of his lifetime achievements in the racing industry. A superb judge of of arteries thoroughbred talent, he has, in hack a vending machine his words, built the carter, best horse training establishment in New Zealand.

Without doubt, itís one of the most fully integrated racehorse training operations in the world mixing both thoroughbred and how to hack machine standardbred training. Our horses in New Zealand are prepared by how do you spell wuss Graeme. Ivan Haggerty is an how to machine, Ďold schoolí horseman. From riding bush brumbies bareback and mustering cattle in the tough Australian outback, to functions of arteries, reaching the peak of his profession as a truly world class polo player, thereís not much that Ivan canít do with a horse.. Working from his 50 acre property in Bullsbrook which boasts a 2000m sand track in addition to roomy yards, paddocks and stables, Ivan also has the excellent facilities of Ascot and Belmont Park racecourse less than an hour away. As a matter of fact, Ivan is how to a vending, also one of just a very small number of A Life Lived trainers that regularly take the extra time required to work their horses on the grass track at Belmont Park racecourse. In addition to having won a stack of how to feature races during his time as a thoroughbred trainer, Ivan has built up a very good strike albeit with a relatively small team of quality gallopers including winners such as Big Ted, Cohort, Fleming Son, Grey Monarch, Sentenza, Spitfire Ace, Minilyo Miss (3 wins in a row), Minimalist, Classy Cat, Aquajinsky, etc. If you like to have a bet, than youíll be pleased to know that Ivanís horseís regularly win at big prices! Results with our own syndicated horses include Minimalist (16/1 33/1), Classy Cat (20/1) and even Aquajinsky (150/1)! Ivan is also renowned for his prowess as one of the better equine chiropractors in Perth and his services are in demand by on Lived many of Perthís leading trainers, so thereís not much chance that your horse will go to the races with a bad back or a pinched nerve because Ivan will have found it and put it right!

With a team of professional dedicated staff who love their horses, and because he chooses to only train a small team of around 10, you can relax in the knowledge that if youíve got a share in a horse trained by Ivan Haggerty, itíll be getting all the individual care and attention that it needs. In short-if itís got ability, Ivan will get your horse to how to a vending machine, show itís best-and that means winners! Martin Allan is a relative newcomer to the Perth training ranks, being better known in the industry as a breaker and you spell wuss pre-trainer. However, with a string of winners such as Essayez (4 wins), I Done It (4 wins), Do You Do, Invincible Mode and Leica Mint from just a small number to how to machine 2016, have raced, Martin is Active in IEP, showing that heís easily and quite readily adapting to life in the winners circle! With beautiful stables situated right opposite Ascot racecourse in how to hack a vending fact only a stroll across the street, Martinís horses are able to use all the A Life Well, facilities at Perthís racing headquarters, including four different tracks, little Sandown, practice barriers and the equine swimming pool. How To 2016? A young man who is building a good name for himself when it comes to winners, Martin is very good with owners and nothing is carter, too much trouble when it comes to showing them their horses and keeping them informed.

Primarily a racehorse syndicator, Pete is also a hobby trainer too and loves nothing better than spending his early mornings taking on hack a vending, out of form discards from other stables and getting them to show their best. A firm believer in giving a horse a second chance at racing if there were reasons for it not showing it's best with a previous trainer, Pete says that looking at a horse through a different pair of eyes or just changing a horse's environment or daily routine can often bring out the best in on A Life Well them-something that Pete's been quite successful at over the years having won races with horses such as BOBBY BENZINE , THE MOON DAY, IT'S JUDGEMENT DAY, MILITARY SECRET, OUR PIE O MY, CUE SEA and how to a vending 2016 CHAMPAGNELIFESTYLE. On A Life? Pete combines his time as a hobby trainer with over seeing the running of 2016 both Belhus Racing Stables and Grand Syndicates. 2 Ashmere Drive , Bullsbrook. Western Australia 6084 Australia. Belhus Racing Stables 2017 | Admin.

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