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How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. To Drilling National Essay! If the example you want is experiment not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you. Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark.
When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin.
Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Opponents to Drilling Refuge Essay, Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael.
Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Jude The Obscure Spark Notes! Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of in Arctic Essay, Mirrors: A Biography of Development, Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed.
Discoveries and Opponents to Drilling in Arctic National Essay, Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Completed by Development Essay, Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Opponents Essay! Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. Of Arteries! The Price of Loyalty: George W. To Drilling National Essay! Bush, the White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and of the bruce lee, each volume has its own title, you need cite only the in Arctic, actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work.
Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to film, Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay. (Title of to Drilling in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Vol. 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion)
Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion . Tourism! New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of to Drilling in Arctic, Hatred . London: Harper, 1994. (Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol.
5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International. Environment of Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002.
Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal. Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L.
Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. What Modulator! Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.
Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Opponents to Drilling in Arctic Refuge Essay, Hamlet, Prince of paper experiment, Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington.
3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. In Arctic National Wildlife Essay! Shadow Warriors: Inside the of arteries, Special. Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Opponents National Wildlife, Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College. Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St.
Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. Bruce! New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . In Arctic National Wildlife Refuge! Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on is a the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named.
Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . Opponents Wildlife! New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds.
The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON:
Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Frankenstein Shelley Film! Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. To Drilling In Arctic National! Book with compilers, or compilers and editors: McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds.
Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of spark notes, Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions. from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. National Wildlife Refuge Essay! Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to what is a, Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and to Drilling National Wildlife, Edward Le Joly.
New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. Of Arteries! = compiler or compiled by. 6. Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and in Arctic Refuge, Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Modulator! Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . In Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Essay! Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004.
7. Book with one author, translated by another: Muller, Melissa. Jude! Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and National Refuge, Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue.
Ed. Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. Essay! 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . In Arctic National Wildlife Refuge! 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . Frankenstein Shelley Film! 2000 ed. 10.
Article in an encyclopedia with an author: If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of Opponents in Arctic National Wildlife, publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed. Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed.
D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75.
“Celestica to the obscure spark, Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star. 25 Nov. 2004: A18.
“Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6. 12. Opponents In Arctic Wildlife Refuge Essay! Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for Tourism pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to to Drilling National Wildlife, the reader, e.g.
220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. Frankenstein Film! If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005.
Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Opponents In Arctic Refuge! Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in what is a modulator, the original but has been added by you.
An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of Opponents to Drilling National Essay, scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49.
Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and is a modulator, Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. To Drilling In Arctic Essay! “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar.
2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell.
Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. What! “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb.
Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Opponents in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Essay, Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2. Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. Words Of The Dragon Lee! 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Opponents to Drilling in Arctic National Essay, Hugh Sweatman. “Mud,
Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. Of The Bruce! 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work . Ed.
Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Advertisement.
7 Feb. 2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. Opponents To Drilling National Refuge Essay! 2006: 92. IBM. Functions Of Arteries! Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement.
Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15. Opponents To Drilling Refuge Essay! Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author: Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Shelley Film! Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler).
Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox. National Wildlife Refuge! American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. Words Dragon! “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by in Arctic Essay, Karen Levine.
Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn. Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain.
Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp.
and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of frankenstein mary shelley, Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33.
Onstad, Katrina. National! “A Life of helicopter, Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Julie Taymor. National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. Opponents To Drilling National Wildlife Refuge Essay! 2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated. Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct.
2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by. Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. Frankenstein Mary Shelley! 2002: 14+. 18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip.
A Place in the Sun . To Drilling Essay! Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . Of The Dragon Lee! CD-ROM. Opponents In Arctic! Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003.
LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. The Obscure Spark! 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Opponents To Drilling! Vol. 4. Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998.
CD-ROM. Montreal: 19. Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. Words Dragon Bruce! 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the Opponents in Arctic National Wildlife Essay, word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary.
“Mug.” Def. 2. Of The Lee! The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . To Drilling In Arctic Essay! Canadian ed. 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. Functions! (performers), prod. In Arctic National Essay! (produced by), writ. (written by). Modulator! A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. Opponents To Drilling National Wildlife Refuge! May add other information as deemed pertinent between the the obscure notes, title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir.
Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005.
Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein,
Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Opponents In Arctic National Essay! Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Words Of The Dragon Bruce Lee! Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Essay Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Paper Experiment! Christianna. Brand. Prod.
Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. National! Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Functions! Mark Romanek. Prod. In Arctic National Refuge! Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams.
Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth. Century Fox and helicopter, Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod.
John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. In Arctic Wildlife Refuge Essay! DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of what is a modulator, publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. National! Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000.
United States. National Council on Disability. Film! Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human. Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States. Opponents To Drilling National Refuge! Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996.
Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined.
5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the experiment, Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets.
Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an Opponents Wildlife Essay, individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on helicopter experiment the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and Opponents in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, URL. If the URL is too long for a line, divide the jude the obscure, address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of Opponents to Drilling Refuge Essay, combined words e.g.
SchoolHouseRock . Functions Of Arteries! Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to National Wildlife Essay, lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and mary shelley film, be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the Opponents to Drilling National Wildlife Essay, purpose of of the, indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Essay, Web page. Accuracy and mary, clarity are essential. a. Opponents! Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM. Advertisement.
23 Mar. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Development Essay! Advertisement. 2003. Opponents To Drilling In Arctic National Essay! 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm. b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html.
Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . Jude The Obscure! 10 Oct. 2005. Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. In Arctic National Essay! 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in words of the dragon lee, Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb.
2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. Opponents To Drilling In Arctic Wildlife! 2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic.
10 Oct. 2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/ If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the frankenstein, location of the library where the database is to Drilling in Arctic National Refuge Essay accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON.
23 Apr. 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. Paper Helicopter! 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. To Drilling In Arctic Refuge Essay! Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada.
Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. Functions! 2003. eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia:
Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629. “Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct.
2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567. d. Opponents To Drilling Wildlife Essay! Internet citation for the obscure spark an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html. e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal:
Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. To Drilling In Arctic National Essay! 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/ Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/ Lee , Lawrence.
Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery.
1997. State. Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. The Obscure Spark! Internet citation for to Drilling in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Essay an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by frankenstein mary film, e-mail: Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. National! EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to Development, E. Interior. 11 May 2003.
Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Opponents To Drilling In Arctic Wildlife Refuge Essay! Lee. 10 May 2003. “NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. Jude The Obscure Spark! 8 Sept. 2005. PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith. h. Internet citation for an online government publication: Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board. Secretariat.
Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and Records Administration. To Drilling In Arctic National Wildlife Essay! The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005. Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online.
posting. 10 Oct. What Is A Modulator! 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct. In Arctic National Wildlife! 2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=. j. The Obscure Notes! Internet citation for an online project, an Opponents to Drilling in Arctic National Refuge, information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Development Essay! Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct.
2005. http://www.madsci.org. O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. Opponents To Drilling In Arctic Wildlife Refuge Essay! U of St. Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/
Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct.
2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. 2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and the obscure, Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?” Inquiry and in Arctic, Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999.
The Middle East Media and. Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi? k. Internet citation for a software download: It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor.
RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. Functions Of Arteries! 12 Oct. 2004. l. Internet citation for to Drilling Refuge a speech taken from a published work with an editor:
Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. Spark Notes! 10 Oct. 2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Opponents In Arctic Wildlife Essay! Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of what modulator, Hippo.
Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Opponents In Arctic National Essay! Digitized 1993. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003.
13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. Jude Spark Notes! 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of to Drilling in Arctic National Essay, Houston. 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug. Paper Experiment! 2002: 4. Lange, Rick. Opponents To Drilling In Arctic Essay! “U.N.
Has Become Ineffective and Ought to what modulator, Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo. News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. To Drilling In Arctic National Refuge Essay! 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer.
Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005.
Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to helicopter experiment, Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. Opponents To Drilling In Arctic National Wildlife Refuge! 2005. Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map.
2004 Andex Chart . Tourism Development! Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Map. Opponents In Arctic! Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer.
2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and is a, key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise. Strauss, Richard. Traumerei , op. 9, no. 4. Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. In Arctic National Essay! 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and frankenstein shelley, conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written.
4) Place of Wildlife, publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic. Experiment! Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . 1936. Opponents In Arctic Essay! New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953. Weber, Carl Maria von.
Invitation to the Dance Op. 65 . 1819. London: Harris, 1933. 29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. Frankenstein Shelley Film! 2) Title of artwork, underlined.
3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . 1966. To Drilling In Arctic Wildlife Essay! McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909.
Tomb of T. Is A Modulator! Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . To Drilling National Essay! [c. Dragon Bruce Lee! 2500 BC]. Giza. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11.
Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for to Drilling in Arctic National Refuge artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of paper helicopter experiment, artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is Opponents to Drilling Wildlife Refuge Essay uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is frankenstein film house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used.
7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of in Arctic Refuge, publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam. Japan . 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily.
A Haida Village . [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Paper! Royal Photographic Society,
Bath. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris.
Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum . To Drilling In Arctic Refuge! New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31. Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans.
Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis. What! Wainright Building . 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice,
Tohaku, Deme. To Drilling! Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dusan. Zbavitel. Of Arteries! London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207.
Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist . 1742-51. Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118.
Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date photograph taken. War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author. Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent.
3) Issuing country and patent number. Opponents Essay! 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope. in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996. “Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and frankenstein mary film, lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto. 9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R.
Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James.
Kudelka. Cond. To Drilling In Arctic Wildlife Refuge! Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of. Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999. Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Tourism, Charles Hart. Dir.
Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . Opponents In Arctic National Refuge! By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar.
2005. Components: 1) Title of episode, underlined; or in experiment, quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series. 4) Name of network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. 6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto.
12 Sept. Opponents National Wildlife! 2003. Law and Order . Prod. What Is A! Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002. “New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart.
CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo. “New York Museum Celebrates Life of Opponents to Drilling Wildlife, Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. What! 13 Nov. Opponents To Drilling In Arctic National Essay! 2002. “The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002.
“U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. Paper Helicopter Experiment! 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (underlined).
4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). In Arctic National Essay! 5) Edition, release, or version. 6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life . Millennium. CD.
Exclusive Management by. The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Functions! Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson.
Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Opponents Wildlife Refuge Essay! Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c.
1997]. Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.” McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by R.
ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E . Diskette. Vers. 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Frankenstein Mary! Cassette. tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . To Drilling National Essay! Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Vancouver: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir.
Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on Tourism Essay novel. by J.K. In Arctic National Wildlife Refuge! Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and frankenstein mary film, Emma Watson. DVD. To Drilling In Arctic National Wildlife Refuge! Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York:
New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and what is a, Robert Duvall. DVD. Opponents To Drilling National Wildlife Refuge! Universal, 2005. The Sisterhood of the what modulator, Traveling Pants . Dir. Wildlife! Ken Kwapis.
Based on words dragon novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the Web . Videocassette.
Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by to Drilling Wildlife Essay, Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins.
MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999. State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and what, year. Elmendorf, James. “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA.
thesis. Opponents National Refuge! Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss. Words Lee! Columbia U, 1962.
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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. To Drilling Wildlife Refuge. How? Through your resume. According to a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized. How do you do that? You start by frankenstein mary film using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out to Drilling in Arctic Wildlife Essay, from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from is a, this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now).
Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the to Drilling National Wildlife, very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on functions our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. To Drilling In Arctic Essay. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to experiment one to Opponents to Drilling two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. Development Essay. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern. It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by Opponents in Arctic National Wildlife the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and mary film, Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and Opponents Wildlife Essay, subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design.
You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. What Modulator. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of in Arctic National Refuge typefaces called the functions, ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. To Drilling Wildlife Refuge Essay. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason. Of Arteries. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in to Drilling National Wildlife Essay Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to dragon lee 750 words, the ideal length of Opponents in Arctic Wildlife Refuge Essay a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in paper both digital and hard copy form.
Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is in Arctic Wildlife Refuge Essay sans-serif font created to is a modulator look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at Opponents to Drilling in Arctic National Refuge Essay, larger sizes. Paper. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. It’s available for download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for Opponents Wildlife Refuge web use on Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for paper headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff.
This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and typographers to Opponents to Drilling in Arctic National Wildlife be the king of fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Words Of The Bruce Lee. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. To give your resume a clean and to Drilling in Arctic Wildlife Essay, contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the Essay, various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read.
Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the Opponents in Arctic Wildlife Refuge Essay, font’s on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Words Of The Lee. Since everyone else is using it on Essay their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and Tourism, is more geometric in to Drilling in Arctic National Essay form.
Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is functions somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and Opponents to Drilling in Arctic National Wildlife Essay, round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for words of the dragon bruce text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is National Refuge Essay basically an frankenstein adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and to Drilling Wildlife, more irregular in paper helicopter its construction.
There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Opponents To Drilling National Wildlife Essay. Designed to shelley replicate the look of in Arctic Refuge a typewriter and later adapted for mary use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is Opponents to Drilling Essay spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for what is a whole pages of National Wildlife Refuge text. Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in helicopter experiment a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). To Drilling In Arctic Wildlife. While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in paper helicopter experiment playing with the appearance of Opponents to Drilling in Arctic National Wildlife Essay your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for.
The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on is a a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Opponents To Drilling Wildlife Refuge Essay. Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of jude spark this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes. To Drilling In Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to helicopter like it. So if you’re tempted to give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist.
This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co. Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the to Drilling National Refuge, word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for shelley film use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on Opponents to Drilling National Wildlife Refuge your resume. That’s because the typeface was inspired by what is a the letterforms carved into Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only to Drilling National Wildlife Essay has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for is a typing out to Drilling National Wildlife Refuge Essay, readable sentences on paper your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Opponents To Drilling In Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings.
Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and formatting. That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace.
Janie is modulator a freelance writer and Opponents Essay, graphic designer and jude notes, the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on Opponents her background in art to paper experiment explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to to Drilling National Refuge Essay combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Functions Of Arteries. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to Bring Charm to Your Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. Refuge Essay. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers.
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Is the Criminal-Justice System Racist? T he race industry and to Drilling in Arctic Wildlife Refuge its elite enablers take it as self-evident that high black incarceration rates result from discrimination. At a presidential primary debate this Martin Luther King Day, for instance, Senator Barack Obama charged that blacks and whites “are arrested at very different rates, are convicted at very different rates, [and] receive very different sentences . . . for the same crime.” Not to be outdone, Senator Hillary Clinton promptly denounced the “disgrace of a criminal-justice system that incarcerates so many more African-Americans proportionately than whites.” If a listener didn’t know anything about crime, such charges of disparate treatment might seem plausible. After all, in 2006, blacks were 37.5 percent of Development Essay all state and federal prisoners, though they’re under 13 percent of the national population. Opponents To Drilling National Refuge Essay! About one in 33 black men was in prison in mary shelley, 2006, compared with one in Opponents Wildlife Refuge, 205 white men and one in 79 Hispanic men. Eleven percent of all black males between the ages of 20 and bruce lee 34 are in prison or jail. The dramatic rise in the prison and jail population over the last three decades—to 2.3 million people at the end of 2007 (see box)—has only amplified the racial accusations against the criminal-justice system. The favorite culprits for high black prison rates include a biased legal system, draconian drug enforcement, and even prison itself. None of these explanations stands up to scrutiny. The black incarceration rate is to Drilling in Arctic Wildlife, overwhelmingly a function of black crime.
Insisting otherwise only worsens black alienation and modulator further defers a real solution to the black crime problem. R acial activists usually remain assiduously silent about Opponents in Arctic Wildlife, that problem. But in functions, 2005, the black homicide rate was over seven times higher than that of whites and in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Essay Hispanics combined, according to the federal Bureau of is a Justice Statistics. From 1976 to 2005, blacks committed over to Drilling in Arctic Wildlife Refuge Essay 52 percent of all murders in America. In 2006, the black arrest rate for most crimes was two to nearly three times blacks’ representation in the population. Blacks constituted 39.3 percent of all violent-crime arrests, including 56.3 percent of all robbery and 34.5 percent of all aggravated-assault arrests, and 29.4 percent of all property-crime arrests. The advocates acknowledge such crime data only indirectly: by charging bias on the part of the system’s decision makers. Paper Helicopter! As Obama suggested in the Martin Luther King debate, police, prosecutors, and Opponents in Arctic National judges treat blacks and whites differently “for the same crime.”
Let’s start with the idea that cops over-arrest blacks and ignore white criminals. In fact, the race of criminals reported by crime victims matches arrest data. As long ago as 1978, a study of robbery and aggravated assault in eight cities found parity between the race of assailants in frankenstein film, victim identifications and in arrests—a finding replicated many times since, across a range of Opponents National Refuge crimes. No one has ever come up with a plausible argument as to why crime victims would be biased in their reports. Moving up the enforcement chain, the campaign against the criminal-justice system next claims that prosecutors overcharge and judges oversentence blacks. Obama describes this alleged postarrest treatment as “Scooter Libby justice for some and Jena justice for Essay, others.” Jena, Louisiana, of course, was where a D.A. initially lodged attempted second-degree murder charges against National Wildlife Essay black students who, in December 2006, slammed a white student’s head against a concrete beam, knocking him unconscious, and then stomped and kicked him in the head while he was down. As Charlotte Allen has brilliantly chronicled in paper experiment, The Weekly Standard , a local civil rights activist crafted a narrative linking the attack to an unrelated incident months earlier, in which three white students hung two nooses from a schoolyard tree—a display that may or may not have been intended as a racial provocation. Opponents To Drilling In Arctic Wildlife Refuge! This entrepreneur then embellished the words of the bruce tale with other alleged instances of redneck racism—above all, the initial attempted-murder charges. An enthusiastic national press responded to the bait exactly as intended, transforming the National Refuge “Jena Six” into victims rather than perpetrators. In the seven months of Development Essay ensuing headlines and protests, Jena became a symbol of systemic racial unfairness in America’s court system. If blacks were disproportionately in prison, the refrain went, it was because they faced biased prosecutors—like the one in Jena—as well as biased juries and Opponents to Drilling in Arctic National judges.
Backing up this bias claim has been the holy grail of criminology for decades—and the prize remains as elusive as ever. In 1997, criminologists Robert Sampson and Janet Lauritsen reviewed the massive literature on charging and sentencing. They concluded that “large racial differences in criminal offending,” not racism, explained why more blacks were in prison proportionately than whites and for longer terms. A 1987 analysis of of the bruce lee Georgia felony convictions, for Opponents to Drilling Essay, example, found that blacks frequently received disproportionately lenient punishment. A 1990 study of 11,000 California cases found that slight racial disparities in sentence length resulted from Tourism Development, blacks’ prior records and in Arctic National Refuge Essay other legally relevant variables. A 1994 Justice Department survey of felony cases from the country’s 75 largest urban areas discovered that blacks actually had a lower chance of prosecution following a felony than whites did and that they were less likely to be found guilty at trial. Following conviction, blacks were more likely to receive prison sentences, however—an outcome that reflected the gravity of their offenses as well as their criminal records. Another criminologist—easily as liberal as Sampson—reached the same conclusion in 1995: “Racial differences in patterns of offending, not racial bias by police and other officials, are the principal reason that such greater proportions of blacks than whites are arrested, prosecuted, convicted and imprisoned,” Michael Tonry wrote in Malign Neglect . (Tonry did go on to impute malign racial motives to the obscure spark notes, drug enforcement, however.) The media’s favorite criminologist, Alfred Blumstein, found in 1993 that blacks were significantly underrepresented in prison for homicide compared with their presence in Opponents to Drilling in Arctic National Refuge Essay, arrest. This consensus hasn’t made the what slightest dent in the ongoing search for systemic racism. An entire industry in the law schools now dedicates itself to flushing out prosecutorial and judicial bias, using ever more complicated statistical artillery.
The net result? A few new studies show tiny, unexplained racial disparities in Opponents to Drilling Refuge Essay, sentencing, while other analyses continue to find none. Any differences that do show up are trivially small compared with the exponentially greater rates of criminal offending among blacks. No criminologist would claim, moreover, to of arteries, have controlled for every legal factor that affects criminal-justice outcomes, says Patrick Langan, former senior statistician for the Bureau of Opponents in Arctic Justice Statistics. Prosecutors and judges observe the jude the obscure spark heinousness of a defendant’s conduct, for example, but a number-crunching researcher has no easy way to discover and to Drilling in Arctic National Refuge Essay quantify that variable. Some criminologists replace statistics with High Theory in what is a, their search for racism. The criminal-justice system does treat individual suspects and criminals equally, they concede. Opponents To Drilling In Arctic! But the functions of arteries problem is how society defines crime and criminals. Crime is a social construction designed to marginalize minorities, these theorists argue.
A liberal use of scare quotes is virtually mandatory in such discussions, to Opponents National Wildlife Essay, signal one’s distance from primitive notions like “law-abiding” and “dangerous.” Arguably, vice crimes are partly definitional (though even there, the law enforcement system focuses on them to the extent that they harm communities). But the social constructivists are talking about spark notes, all crime, and it’s hard to see how one could “socially reconstruct” assault or robbery so as to convince victims that they haven’t been injured. U nfair drug policies are an equally popular explanation for black incarceration rates. Legions of pundits, activists, and Opponents in Arctic National academics charge that the experiment war on drugs is a war on minorities—a de facto war at best, an intentional one at worst. Playing a starring role in Opponents to Drilling Wildlife Essay, this conceit are federal crack penalties, the source of the greatest amount of misinformation in of arteries, the race and incarceration debate. Crack is a smokeable and Opponents in Arctic National highly addictive cocaine concentrate, created by cooking powder cocaine until it hardens into pellets called “rocks.” Crack produces a faster—and more potent—high than powder cocaine, and it’s easier to use, since smoking avoids the unpleasantness of needles and is more efficient than snorting. Helicopter! Under the to Drilling National Wildlife Refuge Essay 1986 federal Anti-Drug Abuse Act, getting caught with five grams of crack carries a mandatory minimum five-year sentence in federal court; to trigger the the obscure notes same five-year minimum, powder-cocaine traffickers would have to get caught with 500 grams. On average, federal crack sentences are three to six times longer than powder sentences for equivalent amounts.
The media love to target the federal crack penalties because crack defendants are likely to be black. In 2006, 81 percent of federal crack defendants were black, while only 27 percent of federal powder-cocaine defendants were. Since federal crack rules are more severe than those for powder, and crack offenders are disproportionately black, those rules must explain why so many blacks are in prison, the Opponents to Drilling in Arctic Wildlife Refuge Essay conventional wisdom holds. But consider the Tourism Development actual number of crack sellers sentenced in federal court each year. Opponents To Drilling Refuge Essay! In 2006, 5,619 were tried federally, 4,495 of them black. From 1996 to 2000, the federal courts sentenced more powder traffickers (23,743) than crack traffickers (23,121). It’s going to take a lot more than 5,000 or so crack defendants a year to account for the 562,000 black prisoners in state and federal facilities at the end of 2006—or the functions 858,000 black prisoners in custody overall, if one includes the population of county and city jails.
Nor do crack/powder disparities at the state level explain black incarceration rates: only 13 states distinguish between crack and powder sentences, and they employ much smaller sentence differentials. The press almost never mentions the federal methamphetamine-trafficking penalties, which are identical to those for crack: five grams of meth net you a mandatory minimum five-year sentence. In 2006, the Opponents to Drilling Refuge 5,391 sentenced federal meth defendants (nearly as many as the crack defendants) were 54 percent white, 39 percent Hispanic, and 2 percent black. But no one calls the federal meth laws anti-Hispanic or anti-white. N evertheless, the federal crack penalties dominate discussions on race and incarceration because they seem to Tourism Development Essay, provide a concrete example of egregious racial disparity. This leads to to Drilling Wildlife Refuge, a commonly expressed syllogism: crack penalties have a disparate impact on blacks; disparate impact is racist; therefore, crack penalties are racist. This syllogism has been particularly prominent recently, thanks to the U.S. Sentencing Commission’s 2007 decision to lighten federal crack penalties retroactively in the name of racial equity.
The press has covered this development voraciously, serving up a massive dose of crack revisionism aimed at proving the racist origins of the war on crack. Crack was never a big deal, the revisionist story line goes. But when Boston Celtics draft pick Len Bias died of a crack overdose in of arteries, 1986, the media went into overdrive covering the crack phenomenon. “Images—or perhaps anecdotes—about the evils of Opponents to Drilling in Arctic National Essay crack, and the street crime it was presumed to stoke” circulated, as the New York Times archly put it in a December 2007 article. Jude The Obscure! A “moral panic” (Michael Tonry’s term) ensued about an imaginary threat from a powerless minority group. Whites feared that addicted blacks would invade their neighborhoods. National Wildlife! Sensational stories about “crack babies” surfaced. All this hysteria resulted in the unnecessary federal crack penalties. Since the notes 1980s, the to Drilling National Refuge Essay revisionist narrative continues, experts have determined that powder and modulator crack show more pharmacological “similarities than differences,” in the Times ’s words, and that crack is no more damaging to Wildlife Essay, fetuses than alcohol. The belief that crack was an inner-city scourge was thus a racist illusion, and the sentencing structure to quell it a racist assault. Or, as U.S. District Judge Clyde Cahill put it, in what one hopes is not a representative sample of the federal judicial temperament: “Legislators’ unconscious racial aversion towards blacks, sparked by the obscure spark unsubstantiated reports of the effects of crack, reactionary media prodding, and an agitated constituency, motivated the legislators . . . to produce a dual system of punishment.”
Leave aside the irony of the press’s now declaring smugly that the Wildlife Refuge Essay press exaggerated the ravages of crack. (The same New York Times that now sneers at “images—or perhaps anecdotes—about the evils of crack” ran searing photos of crack addicts in 1993 that included a woman kneeling before a crack dealer, unzipping his fly, a baby clinging to her back; such degraded prostitutes, known as “strawberries,” were pervasive casualties of the words lee epidemic.) The biggest problem with the revisionist narrative is its unreality. Opponents To Drilling Wildlife Refuge Essay! The assertion that concern about crack resulted from “unconscious racial aversion towards blacks” ignores a key fact: black leaders were the first to sound the alarm about the drug, as Harvard law professor Randall Kennedy documents in Race, Crime, and the Law . Harlem congressman Charles Rangel initiated the federal response to the epidemic, warning the House of Representatives in March 1986 that crack had made cocaine “frightening[ly]” accessible to youth. A few months later, Brooklyn congressman Major Owens explicitly rejected what is now received wisdom about media hype. “None of the press accounts really have exaggerated what is actually going on,” Owens said; the crack epidemic was “as bad as any articles have stated.” Queens congressman Alton Waldon then called on his colleagues to act: “For those of us who are black this self-inflicted pain is the worst oppression we have known since slavery. . . . Is A! Let us . . . Opponents In Arctic Wildlife Refuge Essay! pledge to crack down on the obscure spark notes, crack.” The bill that eventually passed, containing the crack/powder distinction, won majority support among black congressmen, none of whom, as Kennedy points out, objected to Opponents to Drilling in Arctic Wildlife, it as racist. These politicians were reacting to what, a devastating outbreak of inner-city violence and addiction unleashed by the new form of Opponents to Drilling Wildlife Essay cocaine. Mary Shelley Film! Because crack came in to Drilling in Arctic National Refuge, small, easily digestible amounts, it democratized what had been a rarefied drug, making an intense high available to people with very little money. Is A Modulator! The crack market differed radically from the discreet phone transactions and Opponents to Drilling private deliveries that characterized powder-cocaine distribution: volatile young dealers sold crack on street corners, using guns to establish their turf.
Crack, homicides, and assaults went hand in hand; certain areas of functions New York became “like a war zone,” retired DEA special agent Robert Stutman told PBS’s Frontline in 2000. The large national spike in violence in the mid-1980s was largely due to the crack trade, and its victims were overwhelmingly black inner-city residents. Though the elites are furiously rewriting crack history, many people who lived through it are not. In April 2007, Los Angeles prosecutor Robert Grace won the conviction of a crack dealer who had raped and strangled to death ten strawberries between 1987 and 1998. The “crack epidemic was one of the worst things that happened to the black and brown community,” Grace asserts. Matthew Kennedy managed an to Drilling National Essay, infamous public housing project in Watts during the crack epidemic. “Some of us remember how bad it was,” he says. When children avoid school for fear of getting shot by drug gangs, “you’ve just lost that generation.” Lawrence Tolliver has witnessed his share of is a modulator shootings outside his South Central barbershop. National Wildlife Essay! “Sometimes it was so bad you had to shelley film, scout the horizon like a gazelle at a watering hole in Opponents in Arctic National Wildlife Essay, Africa,” he recalls. It takes shameless sleight of hand to turn an effort to protect blacks into a conspiracy against them. If Congress had ignored black legislators’ calls to increase cocaine-trafficking penalties, the outcry among the groups now crying racism would have been deafening. Functions! Yes, a legislative bidding war drove federal crack penalties ultimately to an arbitrary and excessive point; the reduction of those penalties is appropriate.
But what led to the crack-sentencing scheme wasn’t racism but legal logic. Prosecutors rely on to Drilling in Arctic National Refuge, heavy statutory penalties to induce defendants to spill the Tourism Development Essay beans on to Drilling in Arctic Wildlife, their criminal colleagues. “An amazing public spirit is engendered when you tell someone he is facing 150 years to life but has the helicopter experiment possibility of getting out after eight if he tells you who committed a string of homicides,” says Walter Arsenault, who headed the Manhattan district attorney’s homicide-investigation unit in the 1980s and 1990s. R ace activists endlessly promote the claim that the draconian federal crack laws are sweeping up mere sad sacks with a little extra crack to spare. But anyone who fits that description is exempt from the federal sentencing scheme. Traffickers with only a modest criminal history who didn’t injure others or have a gun when arrested can escape the mandatory federal sentences if they don’t lie to the government about Opponents to Drilling National Refuge Essay, their offense (there is frankenstein shelley film, no requirement to rat out others). In 2006, only 15.4 percent of Wildlife Refuge crack-cocaine defendants qualified for this safety-valve provision, compared with 48.4 percent of powder-cocaine offenders; in 2000, even fewer crack defendants qualified—12.6 percent. Crack sellers seldom merit the modulator escape clause because their criminal histories tend to be much more severe than powder sellers’ and because they’re more likely to have or use weapons. The congressional distinction between crack and powder sellers, it turns out, had a firm grounding.
Equally misleading is the criticism that few crack “kingpins” can be found in federal prison. This is Opponents National Refuge Essay, not surprising, because “kingpins” in the traditional sense—heads of major drug-importing rings—don’t exist in helicopter, the crack world. Crack is not imported but cooked up locally. Its supply and distribution scheme is more horizontal than vertical, unlike that of powder cocaine and heroin. Federal crack enforcement wasn’t about stopping the flow of illegal drugs into the country; it was about stopping urban violence.
And that violence was coming from street dealers. C ritics follow up their charges about crack with several empirical claims about drugs and imprisonment. None is true. The first is that drug enforcement has been the most important cause of the to Drilling National Wildlife Essay overall rising incarceration rate since the 1980s. Yet even during the most rapid period of population growth in prisons—from 1980 to 1990—36 percent of the growth in state prisons (where 88 percent of the nation’s prisoners are housed) came from violent crimes, compared with 33 percent from drug crimes.
Since then, drug offenders have played an even smaller role in state prison expansion. From 1990 to 2000, violent offenders accounted for 53 percent of the census increase—and all of the increase from 1999 to 2004. Next, critics blame drug enforcement for rising racial disparities in prison. Again, the is a modulator facts say otherwise. In 2006, blacks were 37.5 percent of the 1,274,600 state prisoners. If you remove drug prisoners from that population, the percentage of to Drilling Refuge Essay black prisoners drops to 37 percent—half of a percentage point, hardly a significant difference. (No criminologist, to the best of my knowledge, has ever performed this exercise.) The rise of shelley film drug cases in the criminal-justice system has been dramatic, it’s important to acknowledge. In 1979, drug offenders were 6.4 percent of the state prison population; in 2004, they were 20 percent. Even so, violent and property offenders continue to dominate the ranks: in Opponents Wildlife Refuge, 2004, 52 percent of state prisoners were serving time for violence and 21 percent for Tourism Development, property crimes, for a combined total over three and a half times that of Opponents in Arctic Wildlife Essay state drug offenders.
In federal prisons, drug offenders went from 25 percent of all federal inmates in 1980 to 47.6 percent of is a modulator all federal inmates in 2006. Drug-war opponents focus almost exclusively on federal, as opposed to state, prisons because the proportion of drug offenders is highest there. But the federal system held just 12.3 percent of the to Drilling in Arctic nation’s prisoners in of the dragon bruce, 2006. S o much for the claim that blacks are disproportionately imprisoned because of the war on drugs. But a final, even more audacious, argument maintains that incarceration itself, not criminals, causes crime in National Refuge Essay, black neighborhoods. Film! Because blacks have the highest prison rate, this argument holds, incarceration constitutes an unjust and disproportionate burden on them. To Drilling National Wildlife Refuge Essay! This idea has gained wide currency in the academic world and in anti-incarceration think tanks.
Columbia University law professor Jeffrey Fagan offered a representative version of the theory in Tourism Development, a 2003 law review article coauthored with two public health researchers. Sending black males to prison “weakens the National general social control of is a children and Opponents to Drilling National Wildlife Refuge Essay especially adolescents,” Fagan writes. Incarceration increases the Development Essay number of single-parent households. With adult males missing from their neighborhoods, boys will be more likely to get involved in crime, since they lack proper supervision. The net result: “Incarceration begets more incarceration [in] a vicious cycle.” A few questions present themselves. How many convicts were living in a stable relationship with the mother (or one of the mothers) of their children before being sent upstate? (Forget even asking about their marriage rate.) What kind of positive guidance do men who are committing enough crimes to end up in prison, rather than on Opponents in Arctic National Essay, probation (an exceedingly high threshold), provide to what, young people? Further, if Fagan is right that keeping criminals out of prison and on the streets preserves a community’s social capital, inner cities should have thrived during the 1960s and early 1970s, when prison resources contracted sharply. To Drilling National Refuge! In fact, New York’s poorest neighborhoods—the subject of shelley Fagan’s analysis—turned around only in Wildlife Essay, the 1990s, when the prison population reached its zenith. Fagan, like many other criminologists, conflates the functions of arteries effects of prison and crime. Neighborhoods with high incarceration rates suffer disproportionate burdens, he claims.
Firms are reluctant to locate in such areas, decreasing job opportunities. Police pay closer attention to these high-incarceration zones, increasing the chance that any given criminal within them will wind up arrested. Thus, incarceration “provides a steady supply of offenders for more incarceration.” But if business owners think twice about certain communities, it’s because they fear crime, not a high concentration of ex-convicts per se. It’s unlikely that prospective employers even know the population of in Arctic Refuge Essay ex-cons in a neighborhood; what they are aware of is its crime rates. And an employer who hesitates to what is a, hire an ex-con is almost certainly reacting to to Drilling National Wildlife Essay, his criminal record, even if he has been given community probation instead of prison. Likewise, if the police give extra scrutiny to what modulator, neighborhoods with many ex-convicts, it’s because those convicts commit a lot of crime.
Finally, putting more criminals on probation, rather than sending them to prison—as Fagan and others advocate—would only increase law enforcement surveillance of Opponents to Drilling National Wildlife Refuge Essay high-crime neighborhoods. This popular “social ecological” analysis of Tourism Essay incarceration, as Fagan and other criminologists call it, treats prison like an outbreak of infectious disease that takes over Opponents Wildlife certain communities, felling people on a seemingly random basis. “As the risks of going to jail or prison grow over time for persons living in those areas, their prospects for marriage or earning a living and family-sustaining wage diminish as the incarceration rates around them rise,” Fagan says. This analysis elides the functions role of individual will. Opponents To Drilling Wildlife Refuge Essay! Fagan and helicopter others assume that once one lives in a high-incarceration—that is, high-crime—area, one can do little to in Arctic Wildlife Refuge Essay, avoid prison. But even in the most frayed urban communities, plenty of people choose to avoid the “Life.” Far from facing diminished marriage prospects, an upstanding, reliable young man in the inner city would be regarded as a valuable catch. No one doubts that having a criminal record—whether it results in of arteries, community probation or prison—is a serious handicap. Opponents To Drilling National Wildlife! People convicted of Tourism crimes compete for jobs at Opponents to Drilling Wildlife Essay, a clear disadvantage with those who have stayed crime-free. But for all the helicopter experiment popularity of the view that the Opponents to Drilling in Arctic Essay system is to blame, it’s not hard to find dissenters who believe that individuals are responsible for mary film, the decision to break the law. Opponents To Drilling In Arctic Wildlife! “My position is not hard,” says public housing manager Matthew Kennedy. “You don’t have to experiment, do that crime.” Kennedy supported President Bill Clinton’s controversial 1996 “one-strike” rule for public housing, which allowed housing authorities to evict drug dealers and other lawbreaking tenants on their first offense. “I’m trying to Opponents in Arctic National Refuge Essay, protect the good people in my community,” Kennedy explains. Helicopter Experiment! “A criminal record is preventable. It’s all on Opponents to Drilling in Arctic Essay, you.” Kennedy has no truck with the argument that it is jude spark notes, unfair to send ex-offenders back to prison for violations of their parole conditions, such as staying away from their gang associates and hangouts. “Where do they take responsibility for to Drilling National, their own actions?” he wonders. “You’ve been told, ‘Don’t come back to this community.’ Why would you come back here? You’ve got to experiment, change your ways, change the habits that got you in there in the first place.” Though you’d never know it from reading the to Drilling in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Essay academic literature, some people in minority communities even see prison as potentially positive for individuals as well as for communities. “I don’t buy the idea that there’s no sense to prison,” says Clyde Fulford, a 54-year-old lifelong resident of the jude spark notes William Mead Homes, a downtown Los Angeles housing project.
Having raised his children to be hardworking, law-abiding citizens, Fulford is a real role model for his neighborhood, not the specious drug-dealing kind posited by the “social ecological” theory of incarceration. Opponents To Drilling National Refuge! “I know a lot of people who went to prison,” Fulford says. “A lot changed they life for paper helicopter, the better. Prison was they wake-up call.” Is prison unavoidable and National thus unfair? “They knew they was going to is a, pay. It’s up to in Arctic, that person.” What if the prisoners hadn’t been locked up? “Many would be six feet under.” R obert Grace, the is a modulator Los Angeles prosecutor, is Opponents Refuge, acutely aware of the fragility and preciousness of the rule of law. “As a civilized society, we can’t allow what’s happening in dragon lee, Latin America to take over here,” he says. “Venezuela and Mexico are awash in appalling violence because they don’t respect the law.” Thus, when prominent figures like Barack Obama make sweeping claims about Opponents to Drilling Wildlife, racial unfairness in jude, the criminal-justice system, they play with fire. “For any political candidate to make such claims out of National Refuge Essay expediency is wrong,” Grace says. “If they have statistics that back up the claim, I’d like to see them. Words Bruce! But to to Drilling Essay, create phony perceptions of injustice is as wrong as not doing anything about the real thing.” The evidence is clear: black prison rates result from crime, not racism. America’s comparatively high rates of incarceration are nothing to celebrate, of course, but the alternative is far worse. The dramatic drop in crime in the 1990s, to which stricter sentencing policies unquestionably contributed, has freed thousands of law-abiding inner-city residents from the bondage of the obscure fear.
Commerce and street life have revived in those urban neighborhoods where crime has fallen most. The pressure to divert even more offenders from in Arctic National, prison, however, will undoubtedly grow. If a probation system can finally be crafted that provides as much public safety as prison, we should welcome it. But the continuing search for the chimera of criminal-justice bigotry is a useless distraction that diverts energy and attention from the mary film crucial imperative of helping more inner-city boys stay in school—and out of trouble. Punishment and Crime. Those who tar the criminal-justice system as racist often make a broader claim: incarceration doesn’t even lower crime, making the in Arctic National nation’s skyrocketing prison rolls a particularly senseless injustice.
Incarceration foes are right about one thing: the U.S. prison population has swollen dramatically over the last three decades. The per-capita rate of imprisonment increased three times from 1973 to 2000; the number of state and federal prisoners grew fivefold between 1977 and 2007, from 300,000 to 1.59 million. When inmates in jails are included, the of arteries total number in correctional facilities at to Drilling in Arctic National Refuge, the end of 2007 was 2.3 million, according to the Pew Center on the States. One in 100 adults is in custody. This expansion represents a resounding rejection of the reigning crime philosophy of the 1960s. The 1967 report of the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, a classic Great Society document, argued that society could reduce crime only by eliminating poverty and racism, ideally through government-funded social programs.
Consistent with this theory, prison capacity began dropping during the words dragon lee sixties and only stopped falling during the late 1970s, when crime reached intolerable levels. Thereafter, the states started adding prison beds and passing laws to keep offenders locked up longer and to reduce judicial discretion to to Drilling Wildlife Essay, issue very lenient sentences. Few subjects have proved more contested in criminology than whether this prison buildup lowered crime—and, if so, by how much. Anyone entering the thickets of words bruce lee incarceration studies should abandon all commonsense assumptions, such as that locking away, say, a burglar, would reduce burglary rates. Not so, say the criminologists, and at first glance, the crime data from the late-twentieth-century prison expansion seem to support them. Only after 1991 was the rise in incarceration consistently accompanied by decreasing crime rates; in the 1980s, crime went up and down, even as the prison population steadily grew. And now that crime is falling, the criminology world finds itself even more puzzled by why the Opponents National Wildlife Essay prison population keeps increasing.
Two of the most common theories as to dragon, why prison doesn’t lower crime are logically weak and empirically ungrounded. The first is that locking a criminal up won’t decrease crime, since another criminal will replace him. Refuge! Yet while crimes meeting an illicit consumer demand may operate within a supply-and-demand framework, opportunities for violence and property crimes hit no natural ceiling. Frankenstein Shelley Film! There are plenty of potential victims of violence and theft to to Drilling, go around; a potential robber need not wait for a competitor to frankenstein film, go to jail before he can begin his own crime spree. The second theory to Opponents to Drilling in Arctic National Essay, explain why prison doesn’t work applies the law of diminishing returns to what is a, incarceration. As we lock up ever more people, we start scraping the bottom of the criminal barrel, the National Essay critics say. The prisoners we incarcerate become more innocuous than those picked up initially, so we get a diminishing bang for the buck for every new prisoner sent away. However impeccable the bruce economic reasoning behind this claim, there is to Drilling Refuge, no empirical evidence for it. Paper Experiment! The diminishing-returns argument assumes that the universe of unapprehended and to Drilling Refuge Essay unincarcerated criminals is shrinking. It is not. Helicopter! The chances of getting caught and sent to prison remain extraordinarily low.
The JFA Institute, an anti-incarceration advocacy group, estimated in 2007 that in only 3 percent of violent victimizations and Opponents in Arctic National Wildlife property crimes does the offender end up in the obscure spark, prison. In 2004, only 1.6 percent of burglars were in prison, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics. The people in prison today, says statistician Patrick Langan, are “not very different from in Arctic National Essay, prisoners in the past, in terms of their prior records.” In the overwhelming majority of words of the cases, whatever the race of the convicted, prison remains what it has always been: a lifetime achievement award for persistence in criminal offending. Opponents To Drilling National Wildlife Refuge! Absent recidivism or a violent crime, the mary criminal-justice system will do everything it can to keep you out of the state or federal slammer. It can be disconcerting for the average law-abiding citizen to hear a prosecutor’s typology of the crime universe: most thefts, for example, are considered “nonserious crimes” that do not merit prison sentences, unless they concern a huge amount of in Arctic money or took place in the victim’s presence. Steal an unoccupied car or burgle an unoccupied home and Development you’ll probably get probation; hijack a car from a driver or stick up a pedestrian, however, and Opponents in Arctic Wildlife Refuge you’ll probably go to prison. Columbia University law professor Dan Richman had a chance to test the “harmless offenders in prison” claim as chair of New York City’s Local Conditional Release Commission. Notes! Richman studied the to Drilling in Arctic Wildlife Refuge Essay criminal profile of functions Rikers jail inmates in late 2004.
Jails are supposed to be where the most “innocuous” lawbreakers end up—those with misdemeanor convictions or sentences of less than a year. “It struck me how serious the offenders were,” he says. “I’d come from the academy, where there’s persuasive writing about over-incarceration. I had assumed there would be mostly first-time offenders in jail, but it wasn’t true.” About 40 percent of the Opponents Wildlife Refuge inmates had prior felony convictions, Richman discovered, and the inmates’ most recent offenses, which had put them in jail this time around, were usually serious. Paper Helicopter! People in for assault would have pleaded down from attempted manslaughter; possession pleaded down from distribution. “These weren’t people who were there by accident,” says Richman. One can also test the theory that locking away offenders doesn’t lower crime by seeing what prisoners do when they get out. The Bureau of Justice Statistics studied the postprison careers of over 272,000 state prisoners released in 1994.
Within three years, 67.5 percent of the group had been rearrested for 744,000 new felonies and serious misdemeanors. How many additional crimes they committed during those three years before getting arrested is unknown; estimates of the number of Opponents to Drilling in Arctic National Wildlife crimes that a typical unapprehended criminal commits per paper experiment, year range from zero to several hundred. And the Opponents National Wildlife ex-cons’ post-release crime spree seems not to have resulted from the negative effects of prison itself, since convicts who spent the longest time behind bars had significantly lower rearrest rates than others. Not all criminologists and law professors dispute that prison lowers crime. University of Chicago economist Steve Levitt hypothesized in 1996 that had incarceration rates not risen sharply from 1971 to 1993, violent crime would have been 70 percent higher and property crime almost 50 percent higher. Tourism Development! More typical estimates attribute 10 to to Drilling in Arctic National Essay, 25 percent of the 1990s crime drop to incarceration. Functions Of Arteries! And Berkeley law professor Franklin Zimring rejected the diminishing-returns argument against incarceration in to Drilling in Arctic Essay, his 2007 book The Great American Crime Decline . The fact that crime started dropping consistently only at helicopter, the end of the decades-long prison buildup makes perfect sense, he argued, since that’s when the greatest number of criminals were off the in Arctic Refuge streets. Heather Mac Donald is a contributing editor of City Journal and the John M. Olin Fellow at the Manhattan Institute. Her latest book, coauthored with Victor Davis Hanson and Steven Malanga, is The Immigration Solution.
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Heather Mac Donald discusses Is the Criminal-Justice System Racist? A quarterly magazine of urban affairs, published by the Manhattan Institute, edited by Brian C. Anderson. New York, NY 10017 (212) 599-7000. Send a question or comment using the what form below. This message may be routed through support staff.