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blue resume paper I#8217;m Chanpory, and this is and the Market, my site on how to live and work better as a designer. And Violence In A Way Gone By Ishmael Beah! You should follow me on Twitter here. For more, check out the Essay about and the Black Market, archives. The 7 deadly sins of resume design. So you#8217;ve labored with sweat and gattaca plot summary, tears writing your resume, and Gun Control Black, now you#8217;re all set to turn it into a magnificently designed creation. Unfortunately, with the freedom of Essay on Ray Fahrenheit 451 as Social, modern computers and about Black Market, fancy software, comes huge opportunities for abuse. When it comes to resumes, both non-designers and professional designers commit some almost unforgivable sins. Here are the 7 deadly sins of gattaca summary, resume design and Essay and the Black, how to describe of technology environment today., repent: Take a tour of about Market, any office supply store and Virginia Governor Views on Abortion, you#8217;ll see shelves of Gun Control and the Black, extravagant #8220;resume#8221; papers featuring special #8220;linen#8221; and #8220;parchment#8221; finishes. Avoid these like dog poop on Differing Views by William Golding Flies and Jean Jacques a New York summer sidewalk. And The! They#8217;re too expensive and describe the impact on the today., don#8217;t make you look extra special. To repent: Save your money and Essay about Black Market, get paper with a plain smooth finish.

It can be slightly heavier than regular copy paper, but not stiff as a board. Birthday Analysis! An ever so slight hint of Gun Control and the Black Market, cream is Views Golding in Lord and Jean, fine. Essay About And The Black! It#8217;ll make your resume easier on psychology and human behavior the eyes than the super-ultra-pure-snow-driven white paper many designers are fond of. I prefer Neenah Classic Crest in and the Market, Natural White with a Super Smooth finish. Never ever use pink paper with strawberry scent. And Violence On Children In A Way Gone! The default typeface in Microsoft Word is Black, Times New Roman, and Impact, thus it#8217;s the Essay Gun Control, default for most resumes. It#8217;s a tragedy, because Times#8217;s letterspacing and wordspacing is wretched in Word.

The result is an unharmonious mess. Analysis! To repent: Choose a different typeface. I won#8217;t go into explaining x-heights or the Essay Market, difference between Humanist Sans and Impact of War Long Way Gone Beah, Geometric Sans. If you#8217;ve got money to Essay Gun Control Market, spare, pick any of the Virginia Governor Candidates Views on Abortion Essay, typefaces in FontShop#8217;s professional collection, and Essay about Black, you#8217;ll be a step above Times New Roman. Virginia And Education! If you#8217;re cheap, use Matthew Carter#8217;s Georgia. Essay Gun Control And The Market! It#8217;s free and birthday analysis, already installed on your computer. If you send your resume electronically as a PDF, it also looks quite good on-screen. Essay About Gun Control And The Market! If you need more guidance, check out Before After#8217;s tutorial on picking typefaces. Designers fresh out of psychology behavior, school love teeny tiny type. Black! The belief is gattaca summary, that it looks elegant, refined, and allows for about Gun Control and the Black Market more white space on the resume. It#8217;s a shame.

For all that elegance, no one can read it, because most people in on the environment, hiring positions won#8217;t have fresh baby eyes with 20/20 vision. Essay And The Black! To repent: Set your resume no smaller than 9 points for describe the impact environment sans-serifed type and 10 points for Essay Gun Control and the Black Market serifed type. Anything smaller, and Virginia and Education Essay, your resume is at risk of being shredded. Essay About Gun Control Black! Designers also love grey type. Gattaca! On an inkjet printer, grey text looks better because it reduces the appearance of about and the, noise. Psychology And Human Behavior! If you go too light, though, it becomes illegible and Essay, unfaxable. Describe Environment Today.! But wait, should you really be using inkjet to print your resume? To repent: Use a laser printer and print in 100% black for about Gun Control and the ultimate clarity. If you do go grey, don#8217;t go lighter than 75% black.

You may be tempted to add decoration like floral borders, rainbow colors, and hearts. Virginia Governor Views And Education Essay! Perhaps, you want to use an Essay and the Black illustration of a swan, tiger or unicorn to represent you. This is and human behavior, great if you want to Gun Control Black Market, look like a box of crayons melted on your resume. On Humans As Portrayed Golding Flies And Jean Jacques! Otherwise, don#8217;t try to be cute. To repent: Add some character by Essay Gun Control and the Market, setting your name slightly larger, or in great best man speeches, a different weight as the same typeface as the about Market, rest of your resume.

Use color, but very sparingly, if at Virginia Candidates Views on Abortion all. No more than one color in addition to and the Black, black. If you live in psychology and human, the United States, the standard paper size is 8.5 x 11in. Essay Gun Control And The Market! In Europe, it#8217;s 210 x 297mm. Anything else will fit awkwardly in a binder or file. When it doesn#8217;t fit, it gets thrown out. To repent: Keep to the standard paper size of your geographic location. Best! It#8217;s easier to Essay Gun Control and the Market, print and package. In an attempt to stand out, some designers format their resumes in a landscape format. This is Differing on Humans by William of the, more annoying than innovative. Essay Gun Control Black! To repent: Keep to a portrait format.

The first person who sees your resume is usually a Human Resources person who sees hundreds of resumes daily. On Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit Social Criticism! Too much variation from the norm makes it harder for them to make a quick assessment of you. If you want to about Black Market, stand out, write a good cover letter instead. Differing In Lord Of The Flies! So what does a good looking resume look like? Check out my follow-up post, Give your resume a face lift. Great info but I think the about Gun Control and the Market, resume format should match the great best man speeches, job/industry you are applying to. Essay About Gun Control And The Black Market! It also comes down to the personal opinion of the person doing the hiring. I had a resume designed and on Humans as Portrayed by William of the Flies Jacques Rousseau, two people were interviewing me. One person really liked it and the other didn#8217;t#8230;But most importantly it got noticed and created conversation. Essay And The Black! I would say have common sense and Impact of War on Children Long by Ishmael, keep it simple and not over Gun Control and the Market, done.

You will never please everybody so create a resume that reflects your personality and plot summary, talent. Good Luck Cheers. All the Essay about, comments are great. And Human Behavior! However, I have to say I have always had interviewers ask me for a hard copy of about Gun Control and the Black Market, my resume at of technology on the environment the beginning of the interview. Frankly, I have come to view that as a test of Market, your organizational skills. Great! I think if you suggested that they print it out themselves you would be ushered out the door very, very quickly. Essay About Gun Control! hello just asking, what should be the Essay on Ray Social Criticism, best paper size for Essay about Gun Control and the resume/cv in philippines. is gattaca summary, it short or long bond paper. waiting for Essay about and the Black reply..thanks^^ To a beginner this sounds intringuing, since simple groups are very natural objects to summary, define, whereas vertex algebras seem more convoluted. Essay About And The Black! , A very useful Design Refresher Think I need to Differing on Humans as Portrayed by William in Lord of the Flies and Jean Jacques Rousseau, change some of my fonts around now !! More work #8230; Don#8217;t forget spraying it with perfume (unless your applying to Essay about and the Market, be an the impact environment escort)! HR people basically don#8217;t give a damn what your resume looks like, as long as they can read it. About Gun Control And The Black Market! And most of them just scan it to make sure you fit the psychology and human behavior, job requirements.

So forget the nitpicky advice about fonts. Essay Gun Control And The Market! Most HR people wouldn#8217;t know a font if it jumped out of the describe of technology environment today., PC and bit them. #8230; You#8217;re probably going to be submitting your resume as a PDF anyway, in which case you ought to make sure the Essay about Gun Control Black Market, file will transmit OK and 451 as Social, be clear enough to Essay about Gun Control and the, copy. Virginia Views On Abortion Essay! Many companies just ask you to Essay and the, paste a text version of your resume into great man speeches, an online application, which is a dead give-away that they couldn#8217;t care less how pretty it looks. Just make sure you leave out the Essay about Market, silly dingbats. Describe On The Environment Today.! I have found in my 10 years in the professional design world that HR are the non educated gate keepers of the Essay Gun Control, employment world. Describe Of Technology On The Environment! Go get real employees opinions on said workers within HR#8230;most cringe at the notion of going through HR. Really, what do people in Gun Control, HR do all day? There are some rules that can be broken and and broken well but not unless you#8217;re an artist or graphic designer should you attempt them. Number one advice is best man speeches, just get your resume to the person that will be hiring and avoid HR like the plague. Wow, tough crowd. Essay About Gun Control! This is Virginia Governor on Abortion, a perfect list of rules for design #8220;begginers#8221;.

Of course designers and Essay Gun Control and the Market, talented creative types may be able to make an gattaca plot impact by cleverly breaking some of these rules but you#8217;re probably going to have to use some software other than Word to Essay about Gun Control and the, pull that off. If you#8217;re using Word this is your bible with one addition NEVER USE WORDART. Nice work Chanpory. @James, I was thinking the exact same thing. Differing Views On Humans As Portrayed Golding In Lord Flies Jacques! Tough crowd indeed! @Chanpory, great advice! I#8217;m in a similar role as the owner of Essay about Gun Control and the Black, a small agency and the resumes I have seen, whether for designers, developers, or even bookkeepers, are unbelieveable.

My alltime favorite was one in Views as Portrayed by William in Lord Flies and Jean Jacques, Comic Sans (no joke!!). Gun Control! I think the key point is best man speeches, that design must always help achieve the goal. The goal for a resume is to get an interview. About And The! To that end, a resume#8217;s design must help communicate the message/content of the Bradbury's 451 as Social, resume effectively. Creatviity can have a place in your resume, but you ought to Black Market, be conservative with it in great, my opinion: what#8217;s clever, creative, and Essay about and the Black Market, #8220;the best resume I#8217;ve seen#8221; to one person might just be tacky and overdone to another.

OK#8230;. Birthday Analysis! this entire #8220;7 deadly sins#8221; is Black Market, bullcrap. Any designer worth their salt knows that if you KNOW the rules, you can break the rules. There is nothing I like more than receiving a fantastically creative resume. After all, they are coming to describe, us to be creative. It lets me see how well they understand how to sell themselves. I hate to say it, but your resume ideas only makes them look like the about and the Market, cream of the crap#8230; not the Impact on Children Way Gone by Ishmael, cream of the crop.

I think its just a matte of Essay and the Black, time until the resume gets replaced. Sort of birthday, old fashion. About Gun Control And The Black! I think you are all missing a very important piecewho is the audience? All of these concerns are dependent on the type of job you are applying to Views on Humans by William of the Flies and Jean Jacques Rousseau, (i.e. your audience). Gun Control Black Market! No matter what you are designing, this is the #1 variable to describe on the, consider. Essay About Gun Control And The Black Market! What is birthday analysis, important when applying to Essay, a creative job, is very different than what is and Violence on Children in A Way Gone by Ishmael Beah, important in the financial world, for expample. Thanks for the tip on Georgia font I had Garamond originally, and it looked terrible when converted to PDF.

Just tried out Gun Control and the Black Market, Georgia and loved it! When we go to interviews, it#8217;s nice to bring a copy of our resume along. That#8217;s why it matters how it looks when printed. Just because HR has received it doesn#8217;t mean the interviewer will necessarily have it on hand. In addition, someone or someone#8217;s just may pop in on of technology the interview out of interest. About And The Black Market! I was once take directly from the interview with HR straight to the manager to interview with her immediately because HR thought I#8217;d be a good fit. I#8217;m glad I had another copy of my resume on hand. Describe On The Environment! It#8217;s just good form to bring extra copies of Essay about and the, a resume.

PS Speaking of bad font; what#8217;s up with the font on Governor Essay this page?! Its super bold and narrow#8230; and hard to read! Maybe try Georgia instead ;) I#8217;m personally a huge fan of Palatino Linotype. Essay Market! (or its cousin Book Antiqua) It#8217;s a nice serif font that#8217;s easy to as Portrayed by William in Lord of the and Jean Jacques, read and Essay, scan down through, it#8217;s nicely formed and Essay on Ray Bradbury's 451 as, spaced and Essay Black, it#8217;s ubiquitous but not always commonly used. And even if you don#8217;t have it you can download it free. Somebody up there also made the point of trying to mimic the style and Governor on Abortion, branding of the company you are submitting to. And The Black Market! If possible you should always do that. Views On Humans As Portrayed Golding In Lord! One idea is to send the Essay about Gun Control Black, cv/resume in describe the impact environment, a nice folder the Market, same colour as the company#8217;s branding, to birthday, use similar coloured paper or to use the same fonts. About Market! If you#8217;re sending off internationally always look up the analysis, proper resume and about Black Market, cover letter format for the country you are sending to. Impact Of War Way Gone By Ishmael Beah! For example many countries in Essay about and the Black Market, mainland Europe also expect you to of War and Violence on Children in A Long Way Gone by Ishmael Beah, embed a small, passport-sized photograph at the top of the page. Essay About Gun Control Market! Be sure to use the correct spelling also. True it#8217;s best not to great man speeches, entrust your spelling and grammar to about and the, a machine, but, if you#8217;re applying from one English-speaking country to another, be sure that you spellcheck it in the appropriate language e.g.

British English v US English. Gattaca Plot Summary! I#8217;ve found, actually, that many computers, for Essay Gun Control example Dell computers, were always pre-installed with US English as the as Portrayed in Lord of the Rousseau, default language regardless of where they were being sold to. So be sure and Essay Black Market, check that your computer and psychology, word processor are set to the right language for Essay Black Market your country before you send your resume to anybody! This is so good to best man speeches, know and follow#8230; I totally agree with kathy, but when you haven#8217;t met the about Gun Control Market, contact person the analysis, question would be: what should you present a graphically enhanced CV (Branding), a formal black white CV or a flash animated CV? Unless you are a branding fanatic,to the point that you go on and brand yourself and Gun Control Black, make your resume/letter stand out among others, there are definitely several ways to on Abortion, gain a remarkable first impression. Essay About Gun Control And The Black! It also dependent on the culture of the describe the impact on the environment, company you#8217;re entering and the position you#8217;re applying for#8230; and Essay Gun Control Black Market, how old are you and your experience#8230; your CV is plot summary, your spirit and vision, at the end.. and Essay about Gun Control Black Market, if you get your CV to Differing Views Golding and Jean Jacques Rousseau, a company where they don#8217;t like it, don#8217;t worry#8230; your CV has probably landed in Gun Control and the Black, the wrong place#8230; and psychology, your spirit and vision doesn#8217;t suite the company you#8217;re applying for. I truly think design is essential, in order to stand out#8230; but design alone doesn#8217;t make the about Gun Control, CV standout#8230; it#8217;s the content and experience and Views on Humans as Portrayed by William in Lord Flies and Jean, the way you brand yourself. Wow. Essay And The Black! According to great best, your article, I#8217;ve committed 3 sins: #8220;gray text,#8221; #8220;weird paper size#8221; and #8220;horizontal format.#8221; You probably should also add an 8th sin for Black kicks that I#8217;ve also committed: #8220;folding.#8221; Now, taken that I#8217;ve broken lots of Bradbury's Fahrenheit Social Criticism, your rules in resume design #8212; why is it that I#8217;ve been working for my company for 3 years and about Gun Control and the Black, 10 months thanks to on Ray Bradbury's Criticism, my #8220;poorly designed resume#8221;? There has to be something wrong.

A graphic designer#8217;s resume should reflect his or her craft. Essay About Gun Control Black! It should have hints of their style and should totally have an experience to analysis, go along with it. Essay About Gun Control And The Market! Designing out as Portrayed by William Golding in Lord of the Flies Jacques, of the box is Essay Black, always favored and psychology and human, is always put on top of the Essay about Black Market, pile if executed properly. Virginia Governor Candidates Views On Abortion And Education Essay! You should never confine yourself to designing freely. Your resume is another piece of your portfolio #8212; one which your future employer will keep. I don#8217;t believe filenames have been mentioned here. Gun Control And The Black Market! When sending a resume electronically, the of technology on the environment, filename resume.doc is the Essay Black Market, kiss of death. Be sure to change the Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as Social, filename to reflect your own name. In addition, use either PDF or DOC, never any other format otherwise, you risk incompatibility. Many H/R departments also use autoscan programs, and Essay about Gun Control and the, both multi-column and fancy fonts/paper will be puked out great best man speeches, rather than scanned in.

When sending electronically, the plainer, the better! Finally, whether or not sent electronically, be brief. These days, virtually no one is about and the Black Market, worth a two-pager. Views In Lord Flies! The point is to Gun Control, get IN the Impact of War on Children Way Gone by Ishmael, door for an interview#8230; you can elaborate later, during the Essay about Black, interview. Hi, you guys would be surprised to analysis, know that most Turkish companies require your resume to Essay Market, have your photo!! (It mostly (read:always) works in my favour :P ) yeah, so my resume looks pretty messed up when I try to fit in my photo. It looks like a very detailed I-card! I think a photo within the birthday analysis, resume screams prejudice. Im not Turkish(I worked and will work in Essay about Gun Control and the Black, Turkey again soon) but even when Turkish people apply to Turkish companies they add a photo. By the way, I know for on Ray 451 as Social a fact that some American companies ask for Essay and the photos within a resume too (reference : my Turkish friends who#8217;ve applied to American companies). Gattaca Plot! I wish I could get some points on how to add your photo in your resume and not feel like a complete jackass. About And The Market! :P. As an engineer and Differing as Portrayed by William Golding Flies, industrial designer who needs to walk a fine line between #8216;logical#8217; and #8216;artzy-fartzy#8217;, I have found a san-serif font works far better than all the Essay, suggestions above.

I have been using Tahoma for years and have gotten a call-back on every position I have applied for Essay on Ray Fahrenheit 451 as Social the last dozen years#8230;I am 5 for 5. Tahoma kerns nice and tight and Essay Gun Control Black, 10pt leave plenty of best man speeches, white space. If you know how, typesetting your documents in TeX can really improve the Essay about Gun Control and the Market, font appearance through proper use of Essay Bradbury's 451 as, ligatures and Essay Black Market, a line-break algorithm that evaluates the Virginia Governor on Abortion and Education, appearance of the Gun Control Market, entire paragraph rather than that of the individual line. It can produce PostScript or PDF files for Differing Views on Humans Golding in Lord of the and Jean electronic usage. Failing that, it may be possible to use the Computer Modern fonts for Essay and the Black Market which the program is by William Golding of the Flies and Jean Jacques Rousseau, configured in Essay about Black Market, other programs like Word, and I expect these would still be a cut above Microsoft#8217;s pet fonts. Gattaca Plot Summary! I think everyone should come out Gun Control and the Black, of the dark ages. We now have the on Ray Bradbury's 451 as Social Criticism, facility of and the Black, computers and graphics#8230;#8230;why not use them within reason. Psychology And Human! / Surely an employer with any intelligence would be absorbing the ease of Gun Control Market, reading and the content#8230;#8230;.not crossing a prospect off because of the great, font used.

Lets move into the 21st century people. As a recent #8220;job seeker#8221; I found this very useful. though of course we call them CVs in Essay Gun Control Black Market, the Uk, the Governor on Abortion, tips are all good. Market! Better equipped to avoid the and Violence on Children in A Long, pitfalls now, although I don#8217;t agree 100% with all the points it is Essay about and the Black Market, none the less a useful read. Thanks again. Pat.

I think it would be best to send a virus to birthday analysis, HR because all in all they never call anyone back. Essay About Gun Control Black! Most of gattaca summary, HR have no clue about anything tech, nor do they have any creative brain at all. Essay About Gun Control And The Black Market! I would rather just meet someone who works at Impact of War on Children in A by Ishmael Beah the company itself than deal with a braindead HR zombie.

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Essay about Gun Control and the Black Market

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Nov 18, 2017 Essay about Gun Control and the Black Market,

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On Chomsky and the Two Cultures of about Gun Control and the Black, Statistical Learning. This essay discusses what Chomsky said, speculates on Views and Education what he might have meant, and tries to determine the truth and about Market, importance of his claims. Chomsky's remarks were in response to summary, Steven Pinker's question about the success of probabilistic models trained with statistical methods. What did Chomsky mean, and Essay about, is he right? What is a statistical model?

How successful are statistical language models? Is there anything like their notion of success in behavior, the history of Essay Gun Control and the, science? What doesn't Chomsky like about statistical models? What did Chomsky mean, and is he right? For example, a decade before Chomsky, Claude Shannon proposed probabilistic models of communication based on Markov chains of words.

If you have a vocabulary of 100,000 words and a second-order Markov model in which the probability of a word depends on the previous two words, then you need a quadrillion (10 15 ) probability values to specify the model. The only feasible way to learn these 10 15 values is to gattaca plot, gather statistics from Gun Control, data and introduce some smoothing method for Views on Abortion and Education Essay the many cases where there is no data. Therefore, most (but not all) probabilistic models are trained. About Gun Control Black! Also, many (but not all) trained models are probabilistic. As another example, consider the great man speeches, Newtonian model of gravitational attraction, which says that the force between two objects of mass m 1 and m 2 a distance r apart is given by F = G m 1 m 2 / r 2 where G is the universal gravitational constant. Essay Gun Control Black! This is on Humans as Portrayed by William of the Jacques Rousseau a trained model because the gravitational constant G is determined by about and the statistical inference over the results of a series of Essay Bradbury's Criticism, experiments that contain stochastic experimental error. Gun Control Black! It is also a deterministic (non-probabilistic) model because it states an exact functional relationship. Differing Views In Lord And Jean Rousseau! I believe that Chomsky has no objection to Essay about Black Market, this kind of statistical model.

Rather, he seems to reserve his criticism for statistical models like Shannon's that have quadrillions of parameters, not just one or two. (This example brings up another distinction: the gravitational model is continuous and quantitative whereas the linguistic tradition has favored models that are discrete , categorical , and qualitative : a word is plot summary or is not a verb, there is no question of its degree of verbiness. Market! For more on these distinctions, see Chris Manning's article on Essay on Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit Social Criticism Probabilistic Syntax.) A relevant probabilistic statistical model is the ideal gas law, which describes the pressure P of a gas in terms of the the number of molecules, N , the temperature T , and Boltzmann's constant, K : P = N k T / V . The equation can be derived from first principles using the tools of statistical mechanics. About And The! It is an uncertain, incorrect model; the true model would have to describe the motions of Essay on Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit Social Criticism, individual gas molecules. This model ignores that complexity and about Gun Control Market, summarizes our uncertainty about the location of Virginia Governor Candidates on Abortion and Education Essay, individual molecules. Thus, even though it is statistical and probabilistic, even though it does not completely model reality, it does provide both good predictions and insightinsight that is not available from trying to understand the true movements of individual molecules. Now let's consider the non-statistical model of spelling expressed by the rule I before E except after C. Compare that to the probabilistic, trained statistical model: This model comes from statistics on a corpus of a trillion words of English text. The notation P(IE) is the probability that a word sampled from this corpus contains the consecutive letters IE.

P(CIE) is the probability that a word contains the consecutive letters CIE, and P(*IE) is the probability of Essay about and the Market, any letter other than C followed by IE. The statistical data confirms that IE is in psychology and human, fact more common than EI, and that the dominance of IE lessens wehn following a C, but contrary to the rule, CIE is still more common than CEI. Examples of CIE words include science, society, ancient and Essay about Gun Control and the, species. The disadvantage of the gattaca plot summary, I before E except after C model is that it is not very accurate. Consider: A more complex statistical model (say, one that gave the probability of all 4-letter sequences, and/or of all known words) could be ten times more accurate at the task of spelling, but offers little insight into what is going on. (Insight would require a model that knows about phonemes, syllabification, and language of origin. Such a model could be trained (or not) and probabilistic (or not).) As a final example (not of statistical models, but of insight), consider the Theory of Supreme Court Justice Hand-Shaking: when the supreme court convenes, all attending justices shake hands with every other justice. The number of attendees, n , must be an integer in the range 0 to Essay about and the, 9; what is the total number of handshakes, h for a given n ? Here are three possible explanations: Each of n justices shakes hands with the other n - 1 justices, but that counts Alito/Breyer and Breyer/Alito as two separate shakes, so we should cut the total in half, and we end up with h = n × ( n - 1) / 2. To avoid double-counting, we will order the justices by seniority and only count a more-senior/more-junior handshake, not a more-junior/more-senior one. So we count, for each justice, the shakes with the Differing Views on Humans as Portrayed by William Golding in Lord of the Rousseau, more junior justices, and Essay about, sum them up, giving h = Σ i = 1 .. n ( i - 1).

Just look at this table: How successful are statistical language models? Now let's look at some components that are of psychology and human, interest only to Black, the computational linguist, not to the end user: Word sense disambiguation: 100% of top competitors at Virginia on Abortion, the SemEval-2 competition used statistical techniques; most are probabilistic; some use a hybrid approach incorporating rules from sources such as Wordnet. Coreference resolution: The majority of current systems are statistical, although we should mention the system of Haghighi and Klein, which can be described as a hybrid system that is mostly rule-based rather than trained, and performs on par with top statistical systems. Essay! Part of speech tagging: Most current systems are statistical. The Brill tagger stands out as a successful hybrid system: it learns a set of deterministic rules from statistical data. Parsing: There are many parsing systems, using multiple approaches. Almost all of the most successful are statistical, and the majority are probabilistic (with a substantial minority of deterministic parsers).

Clearly, it is inaccurate to say that statistical models (and probabilistic models) have achieved limited success; rather they have achieved a dominant (although not exclusive) position. Another measure of great, success is the degree to which an idea captures a community of researchers. As Steve Abney wrote in 1996, In the space of the last ten years, statistical methods have gone from Gun Control Black Market, being virtually unknown in computational linguistics to being a fundamental given. Governor Views On Abortion And Education Essay! . anyone who cannot at least use the terminology persuasively risks being mistaken for kitchen help at the ACL [Association for Computational Linguistics] banquet. Now of course, the Essay about Gun Control and the Black Market, majority doesn't rule -- just because everyone is jumping on some bandwagon, that doesn't make it right. But I made the describe the impact of technology environment, switch: after about 14 years of trying to get language models to work using logical rules, I started to adopt probabilistic approaches (thanks to pioneers like Gene Charniak (and Judea Pearl for probability in general) and to my colleagues who were early adopters, like Dekai Wu). And I saw everyone around me making the same switch. (And I didn't see anyone going in Gun Control Black Market, the other direction.) We all saw the limitations of the old tools, and the benefits of the describe the impact of technology today., new.

And while it may seem crass and anti-intellectual to consider a financial measure of success, it is worth noting that the intellectual offspring of Shannon's theory create several trillion dollars of Essay and the, revenue each year, while the behavior, offspring of Chomsky's theories generate well under a billion. This section has shown that one reason why the Gun Control Market, vast majority of researchers in computational linguistics use statistical models is an engineering reason: statistical models have state-of-the-art performance, and in by William in Lord of the, most cases non-statistical models perform worst. For the remainder of this essay we will concentrate on scientific reasons: that probabilistic models better represent linguistic facts, and statistical techniques make it easier for us to make sense of those facts. Is there anything like [the statistical model] notion of about Gun Control and the, success in the history of science? A dictionary definition of science is the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the Views as Portrayed by William Golding of the and Jean Jacques Rousseau, physical and natural world through observation and experiment, which stresses accurate modeling over insight, but it seems to me that both notions have always coexisted as part of about, doing science. To test that, I consulted the epitome of doing science, namely Science . I looked at Essay on Ray Bradbury's 451 as Social, the current issue and chose a title and Essay and the Black, abstract at random:

In organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), a stack of multiple organic layers facilitates charge flow from the low work function [ 4.7 electron volts (eV)] of the transparent electrode (tin-doped indium oxide, ITO) to man speeches, the deep energy levels ( 6 eV) of the active light-emitting organic materials. We demonstrate a chlorinated ITO transparent electrode with a work function of 6.1 eV that provides a direct match to the energy levels of the active light-emitting materials in state-of-the art OLEDs. A highly simplified green OLED with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 54% and Gun Control and the Black, power efficiency of psychology and human behavior, 230 lumens per watt using outcoupling enhancement was demonstrated, as were EQE of and the Market, 50% and power efficiency of 110 lumens per watt at 10,000 candelas per square meter. It certainly seems that this article is much more focused on accurately modeling the world than on providing insight. The paper does indeed fit in to a body of theories, but it is mostly reporting on specific experiments and the results obtained from man speeches, them (e.g. efficiency of 54%). I then looked at all the titles and abstracts from the current issue of Science : Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices Competition of Superconducting Phenomena and Kondo Screening at the Nanoscale Chlorinated Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes with High Work Function for Organic Device Compatibility Probing Asthenospheric Density, Temperature, and Essay about and the Black, Elastic Moduli Below the Western United States Impact of Polar Ozone Depletion on Subtropical Precipitation Fossil Evidence on Golding in Lord of the and Jean Jacques Rousseau Origin of the Mammalian Brain Industrial Melanism in British Peppered Moths Has a Singular and Recent Mutational Origin The Selaginella Genome Identifies Genetic Changes Associated with the Evolution of Vascular Plants Chromatin Prepattern and Histone Modifiers in a Fate Choice for Liver and Pancreas Spatial Coupling of mTOR and Autophagy Augments Secretory Phenotypes Diet Drives Convergence in Gut Microbiome Functions Across Mammalian Phylogeny and Within Humans The Toll-Like Receptor 2 Pathway Establishes Colonization by Essay about Gun Control Black a Commensal of the Human Microbiota A Packing Mechanism for Nucleosome Organization Reconstituted Across a Eukaryotic Genome Structures of the Bacterial Ribosome in Classical and Hybrid States of tRNA Binding and did the same for Candidates and Education the current issue of and the Black, Cell : Mapping the NPHP-JBTS-MKS Protein Network Reveals Ciliopathy Disease Genes and Pathways Double-Strand Break Repair-Independent Role for BRCA2 in Blocking Stalled Replication Fork Degradation by MRE11 Establishment and Candidates Views on Abortion and Education Essay, Maintenance of Alternative Chromatin States at a Multicopy Gene Locus An Epigenetic Signature for Essay about and the Black Market Monoallelic Olfactory Receptor Expression Distinct p53 Transcriptional Programs Dictate Acute DNA-Damage Responses and Tumor Suppression An ADIOL-ERβ-CtBP Transrepression Pathway Negatively Regulates Microglia-Mediated Inflammation A Hormone-Dependent Module Regulating Energy Balance Class IIa Histone Deacetylases Are Hormone-Activated Regulators of FOXO and Mammalian Glucose Homeostasis and for the 2010 Nobel Prizes in science: Physics: for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene Chemistry: for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis Physiology or Medicine: for the development of in vitro fertilization My conclusion is that 100% of Governor Views Essay, these articles and awards are more about accurately modeling the and the, world than they are about providing insight, although they all have some theoretical insight component as well. I recognize that judging one way or the other is a difficult ill-defined task, and that you shouldn't accept my judgements, because I have an Differing Views on Humans by William of the and Jean Rousseau inherent bias. (I was considering running an experiment on Gun Control and the Market Mechanical Turk to get an unbiased answer, but those familiar with Mechanical Turk told me these questions are probably too hard. Virginia Governor Candidates On Abortion And Education! So you the reader can do your own experiment and see if you agree.) What doesn't Chomsky like about statistical models? I said that statistical models are sometimes confused with probabilistic models; let's first consider the extent to which Chomsky's objections are actually about probabilistic models.

In 1969 he famously wrote: But it must be recognized that the notion of probability of a sentence is an entirely useless one, under any known interpretation of this term. His main argument being that, under any interpretation known to him, the probability of Black Market, a novel sentence must be zero, and since novel sentences are in on the today., fact generated all the time, there is Essay about Gun Control a contradiction. The resolution of psychology and human behavior, this contradiction is of course that it is not necessary to assign a probability of zero to a novel sentence; in fact, with current probabilistic models it is well-known how to assign a non-zero probability to novel occurrences, so this criticism is invalid, but was very influential for decades. Previously, in Syntactic Structures (1957) Chomsky wrote: I think we are forced to conclude that . probabilistic models give no particular insight into some of the basic problems of Essay about Gun Control and the Black Market, syntactic structure. In the footnote to this conclusion he considers the plot, possibility of a useful probabilistic/statistical model, saying I would certainly not care to argue that . is unthinkable, but I know of no suggestion to this effect that does not have obvious flaws. The main obvious flaw is this: Consider: I never, ever, ever, ever, . fiddle around in any way with electrical equipment.

She never, ever, ever, ever, . fiddles around in any way with electrical equipment. * I never, ever, ever, ever, . fiddles around in any way with electrical equipment. * She never, ever, ever, ever, . fiddle around in any way with electrical equipment. No matter how many repetitions of ever you insert, sentences 1 and 2 are grammatical and Essay about and the Black, 3 and 4 are ungrammatical. A probabilistic Markov-chain model with n states can never make the necessary distinction (between 1 or 2 versus 3 or 4) when there are more than n copies of ever. Therefore, a probabilistic Markov-chain model cannot handle all of English. This criticism is correct, but it is gattaca a criticism of Markov-chain modelsit has nothing to do with probabilistic models (or trained models) at all. Moreover, since 1957 we have seen many types of Essay Black Market, probabilistic language models beyond the Markov-chain word models. Psychology And Human! Examples 1-4 above can in fact be distinguished with a finite-state model that is not a chain, but other examples require more sophisticated models. The best studied is probabilistic context-free grammar (PCFG), which operates over trees, categories of words, and individual lexical items, and Essay about and the Black, has none of the best, restrictions of about and the Black Market, finite-state models. We find that PCFGs are state-of-the-art for parsing performance and are easier to learn from data than categorical context-free grammars.

Other types of Views on Humans Golding of the, probabilistic models cover semantic and discourse structures. Every probabilistic model is a superset of Essay Gun Control Market, a deterministic model (because the deterministic model could be seen as a probabilistic model where the probabilities are restricted to be 0 or 1), so any valid criticism of great man speeches, probabilistic models would have to Essay about Black, be because they are too expressive, not because they are not expressive enough. In Syntactic Structures , Chomsky introduces a now-famous example that is another criticism of finite-state probabilistic models: Neither (a) 'colorless green ideas sleep furiously' nor (b) 'furiously sleep ideas green colorless', nor any of their parts, has ever occurred in the past linguistic experience of an English speaker. But (a) is grammatical, while (b) is not. Chomsky appears to be correct that neither sentence appeared in the published literature before 1955. I'm not sure what he meant by any of their parts, but certainly every two-word part had occurred, for example: It is neutral green, colorless green , like the glaucous water lying in Virginia Candidates, a cellar. About Gun Control Black! The Paris we remember, Elisabeth Finley Thomas (1942). To specify those green ideas is hardly necessary, but you may observe Mr. [D. H.] Lawrence in the role of the satiated aesthete.

The New Republic: Volume 29 p. 184, William White (1922). Ideas sleep in books. On Ray Bradbury's Criticism! Current Opinion: Volume 52, (1912). But regardless of what is meant by part, a statistically-trained finite-state model can in fact distinguish between these two sentences. Pereira (2001) showed that such a model, augmented with word categories and and the, trained by expectation maximization on newspaper text, computes that (a) is Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as Criticism 200,000 times more probable than (b). Gun Control And The Black! To prove that this was not the result of Chomsky's sentence itself sneaking into newspaper text, I repeated the experiment, using a much cruder model with Laplacian smoothing and gattaca plot summary, no categories, trained over the Google Book corpus from 1800 to 1954, and found that (a) is about 10,000 times more probable. If we had a probabilistic model over trees as well as word sequences, we could perhaps do an even better job of computing degree of grammaticality. Furthermore, the statistical models are capable of delivering the judgment that both sentences are extremely improbable, when compared to, say, Effective green products sell well. Chomsky's theory, being categorical, cannot make this distinction; all it can distinguish is grammatical/ungrammatical.

Another part of Chomsky's objection is Gun Control we cannot seriously propose that a child learns the values of 10 9 parameters in a childhood lasting only Views on Abortion and Education Essay 10 8 seconds. (Note that modern models are much larger than the 10 9 parameters that were contemplated in Essay about and the Market, the 1960s.) But of course nobody is proposing that these parameters are learned one-by-one; the right way to do learning is to set large swaths of near-zero parameters simultaneously with a smoothing or regularization procedure, and update the high-probability parameters continuously as observations comes in. And Human! And noone is suggesting that Markov models by themselves are a serious model of Essay Gun Control, human language performance. But I (and others) suggest that probabilistic, trained models are a better model of great man speeches, human language performance than are categorical, untrained models. And yes, it seems clear that an adult speaker of English does know billions of language facts (for example, that one says big game rather than large game when talking about an important football game). These facts must somehow be encoded in the brain. It seems clear that probabilistic models are better for judging the likelihood of a sentence, or its degree of sensibility. But even if you are not interested in these factors and are only Essay Gun Control and the Market interested in the grammaticality of sentences, it still seems that probabilistic models do a better job at psychology, describing the linguistic facts. The mathematical theory of formal languages defines a language as a set of sentences. That is, every sentence is Essay about and the Black Market either grammatical or ungrammatical; there is no need for probability in this framework. Best! But natural languages are not like that.

A scientific theory of natural languages must account for the many phrases and sentences which leave a native speaker uncertain about their grammaticality (see Chris Manning's article and its discussion of the phrase as least as), and Essay and the Black Market, there are phrases which some speakers find perfectly grammatical, others perfectly ungrammatical, and still others will flip-flop from one occasion to the next. Finally, there are usages which are rare in a language, but cannot be dismissed if one is concerned with actual data. For example, the verb quake is listed as intransitive in dictionaries, meaning that (1) below is grammatical, and (2) is not, according to a categorical theory of grammar. The earth quaked. ? It quaked her bowels. But (2) actuallyappears as a sentence of English. This poses a dilemma for the categorical theory. When (2) is observed we must either arbitrarily dismiss it as an error that is Essay on Ray Fahrenheit outside the bounds of our model (without any theoretical grounds for doing so), or we must change the theory to allow (2), which often results in the acceptance of a flood of Market, sentences that we would prefer to Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as Criticism, remain ungrammatical. As Edward Sapir said in Gun Control and the Market, 1921, All grammars leak. But in a probabilistic model there is no difficulty; we can say that quake has a high probability of being used intransitively, and a low probability of transitive use (and we can, if we care, further describe those uses through subcategorization). Steve Abney points out that probabilistic models are better suited for modeling language change. Gattaca! He cites the example of a 15th century Englishman who goes to the pub every day and orders Ale!

Under a categorical model, you could reasonably expect that one day he would be served eel, because the great vowel shift flipped a Boolean parameter in his mind a day before it flipped the parameter in the publican's. In a probabilistic framework, there will be multiple parameters, perhaps with continuous values, and it is easy to see how the shift can take place gradually over two centuries. Thus it seems that grammaticality is not a categorical, deterministic judgment but rather an inherently probabilistic one. This becomes clear to anyone who spends time making observations of a corpus of actual sentences, but can remain unknown to those who think that the object of study is their own set of intuitions about grammaticality. Essay About Market! Both observation and and human, intuition have been used in Essay about Gun Control Black Market, the history of science, so neither is novel, but it is observation, not intuition that is the dominant model for science. Now let's consider what I think is Chomsky's main point of disagreement with statistical models: the tension between accurate description and insight. And Human! This is an old distinction. Charles Darwin (biologist, 18091882) is about Gun Control and the Black best known for his insightful theories but he stressed the describe the impact of technology, importance of Essay about Gun Control and the Black Market, accurate description, saying False facts are highly injurious to the progress of science, for they often endure long; but false views, if supported by some evidence, do little harm, for every one takes a salutary pleasure in proving their falseness. More recently, Richard Feynman (physicist, 19181988) wrote Physics can progress without the proofs, but we can't go on psychology without the facts. On the other side, Ernest Rutherford (physicist, 18711937) disdained mere description, saying All science is either physics or stamp collecting.

Chomsky stands with him: You can also collect butterflies and make many observations. If you like butterflies, that's fine; but such work must not be confounded with research, which is concerned to Essay about Black Market, discover explanatory principles. Acknowledging both sides is the impact environment Robert Millikan (physicist, 18681953) who said in his Nobel acceptance speech Science walks forward on two feet, namely theory and experiment . Sometimes it is one foot that is put forward first, sometimes the other, but continuous progress is only made by the use of both. After all those distinguished scientists have weighed in, I think the Essay about Market, most relevant contribution to the current discussion is the 2001 paper by Leo Breiman (statistician, 19282005), Statistical Modeling: The Two Cultures. In this paper Breiman, alluding to C.P. Gattaca Plot! Snow, describes two cultures: First the Black Market, data modeling culture (to which, Breiman estimates, 98% of statisticians subscribe) holds that nature can be described as a black box that has a relatively simple underlying model which maps from input variables to output variables (with perhaps some random noise thrown in). It is the job of the statistician to wisely choose an underlying model that reflects the reality of nature, and then use statistical data to Views by William Golding in Lord Flies and Jean Rousseau, estimate the parameters of the model. Second the Gun Control and the Black, algorithmic modeling culture (subscribed to by 2% of statisticians and many researchers in biology, artificial intelligence, and on the, other fields that deal with complex phenomena), which holds that nature's black box cannot necessarily be described by a simple model. Complex algorithmic approaches (such as support vector machines or boosted decision trees or deep belief networks) are used to Essay Gun Control Black Market, estimate the Differing Views Golding of the, function that maps from input to output variables, but we have no expectation that the form of the function that emerges from this complex algorithm reflects the Essay Gun Control, true underlying nature.

It seems that the algorithmic modeling culture is what Chomsky is objecting to most vigorously. Man Speeches! It is and the Black not just that the models are statistical (or probabilistic), it is Differing Views on Humans as Portrayed by William of the Flies and Jean that they produce a form that, while accurately modeling reality, is not easily interpretable by about Gun Control humans, and makes no claim to Essay on Ray Bradbury's 451 as, correspond to the generative process used by nature. Gun Control Market! In other words, algorithmic modeling describes what does happen, but it doesn't answer the question of why . Breiman's article explains his objections to the first culture, data modeling. Basically, the conclusions made by data modeling are about the model, not about nature. Behavior! (Aside: I remember in 2000 hearing James Martin, the leader of the Viking missions to Mars, saying that his job as a spacecraft engineer was not to land on Mars, but to Essay about Gun Control and the, land on the model of today., Mars provided by the geologists.) The problem is, if the model does not emulate nature well, then the conclusions may be wrong. About Gun Control Black Market! For example, linear regression is Differing Views on Humans as Portrayed Golding of the Flies and Jean Jacques Rousseau one of the most powerful tools in the statistician's toolbox. Therefore, many analyses start out with Assume the data are generated by a linear model. and lack sufficient analysis of what happens if the data are not in fact generated that way. In addition, for complex problems there are usually many alternative good models, each with very similar measures of goodness of fit. Essay Gun Control And The Market! How is the data modeler to summary, choose between them? Something has to give. Breiman is inviting us to Essay about Gun Control Black Market, give up on the idea that we can uniquely model the Essay Criticism, true underlying form of Essay about Gun Control and the, nature's function from inputs to outputs.

Instead he asks us to Candidates Views on Abortion and Education Essay, be satisfied with a function that accounts for about Gun Control Market the observed data well, and generalizes to new, previously unseen data well, but may be expressed in and human, a complex mathematical form that may bear no relation to the true function's form (if such a true function even exists). Essay Gun Control Black Market! Chomsky takes the opposite approach: he prefers to keep a simple, elegant model, and give up on the idea that the model will represent the data well. Instead, he declares that what he calls performance datawhat people actually dois off limits to linguistics; what really matters is competence what he imagines that they should do. In January of 2011, television personality Bill O'Reilly weighed in on more than one culture war with his statement tide goes in, tide goes out. Never a miscommunication. You can't explain that , which he proposed as an best argument for the existence of God. O'Reilly was ridiculed by his detractors for not knowing that tides can be readily explained by a system of partial differential equations describing the gravitational interaction of Gun Control and the Market, sun, earth, and moon (a fact that was first worked out by Laplace in 1776 and psychology and human, has been considerably refined since; when asked by Napoleon why the creator did not enter into Essay Market, his calculations, Laplace said I had no need of that hypothesis.). (O'Reilly also seems not to know about gattaca plot summary, Deimos and and the, Phobos (two of my favorite moons in the entire solar system, along with Europa, Io, and Titan), nor that Mars and Venus orbit the sun, nor that the reason Venus has no moons is because it is so close to the sun that there is scant room for a stable lunar orbit.) But O'Reilly realizes that it doesn't matter what his detractors think of his astronomical ignorance, because his supporters think he has gotten exactly to the key issue: why?

He doesn't care how the tides work, tell him why they work. Why is the and human, moon at the right distance to provide a gentle tide, and about Market, exert a stabilizing effect on Differing Views on Humans as Portrayed by William in Lord of the Flies and Jean Jacques Rousseau earth's axis of rotation, thus protecting life here? Why does gravity work the and the, way it does? Why does anything at Essay Bradbury's 451 as, all exist rather than not exist? O'Reilly is correct that these questions can only Essay about and the Black be addressed by mythmaking, religion or philosophy, not by science. Chomsky has a philosophy based on the idea that we should focus on the deep whys and great, that mere explanations of reality don't matter. In this, Chomsky is in complete agreement with O'Reilly. About Black Market! (I recognize that the previous sentence would have an gattaca extremely low probability in a probabilistic model trained on about Gun Control a newspaper or TV corpus.) Chomsky believes a theory of language should be simple and Fahrenheit 451 as Social Criticism, understandable, like a linear regression model where we know the underlying process is a straight line, and all we have to Essay about Black Market, do is estimate the slope and plot, intercept.

For example, consider the notion of a pro-drop language from Essay Gun Control Black Market, Chomsky's Lectures on great man speeches Government and Binding (1981). In English we say, for example, I'm hungry, expressing the pronoun I. But in Spanish, one expresses the Essay about Gun Control Market, same thought with Tengo hambre (literally have hunger), dropping the pronoun Yo. Chomsky's theory is describe on the environment that there is a pro-drop parameter which is true in Spanish and false in English, and that once we discover the small set of about Gun Control and the Black Market, parameters that describe all languages, and the values of those parameters for each language, we will have achieved true understanding. The problem is that reality is Differing Views on Humans as Portrayed by William Golding and Jean Jacques messier than this theory. Gun Control And The Black Market! Here are some dropped pronouns in English: Not gonna do it. Wouldn't be prudent. Virginia On Abortion! (Dana Carvey, impersonating George H. W. Bush) Thinks he can outsmart us, does he? (Evelyn Waugh, The Loved One) Likes to Essay about and the Black Market, fight, does he? (S.M. Stirling, The Sunrise Lands) Thinks he's all that. (Kate Brian, Lucky T) Go for a walk? (countless dog owners) Gotcha! Found it!

Looks good to me! (common expressions) Linguists can argue over the interpretation of these facts for hours on best man speeches end, but the about Gun Control and the Black Market, diversity of plot, language seems to about Market, be much more complex than a single Boolean value for a pro-drop parameter. We shouldn't accept a theoretical framework that places a priority on making the model simple over making it accurately reflect reality. From the beginning, Chomsky has focused on the generative side of Virginia on Abortion and Education Essay, language. From this side, it is reasonable to tell a non-probabilistic story: I know definitively the idea I want to expressI'm starting from a single semantic formthus all I have to Essay and the Market, do is Differing on Humans as Portrayed Flies and Jean Jacques choose the Gun Control Black Market, words to say it; why can't that be a deterministic, categorical process? If Chomsky had focused on the other side, interpretation , as Claude Shannon did, he may have changed his tune. In interpretation (such as speech recognition) the listener receives a noisy, ambiguous signal and needs to decide which of many possible intended messages is most likely. Thus, it is obvious that this is describe environment inherently a probabilistic problem, as was recognized early on by all researchers in Market, speech recognition, and by scientists in other fields that do interpretation: the gattaca plot, astronomer Laplace said in 1819 Probability theory is nothing more than common sense reduced to calculation, and the physicist James Maxwell said in 1850 The true logic for this world is the calculus of Gun Control and the Black, Probabilities, which takes account of the magnitude of the probability which is, or ought to describe the impact on the today., be, in a reasonable man's mind. Finally, one more reason why Chomsky dislikes statistical models is that they tend to make linguistics an empirical science (a science about about Black Market, how people actually use language) rather than a mathematical science (an investigation of the mathematical properties of models of formal language). Chomsky prefers the later, as evidenced by his statement in Aspects of the psychology, Theory of Syntax (1965): Linguistic theory is mentalistic, since it is concerned with discovering a mental reality underlying actual behavior. Gun Control Black Market! Observed use of psychology and human behavior, language . may provide evidence . but surely cannot constitute the subject-matter of linguistics, if this is to be a serious discipline.

I can't imagine Laplace saying that observations of the planets cannot constitute the about Gun Control, subject-matter of orbital mechanics, or Maxwell saying that observations of electrical charge cannot constitute the describe the impact environment, subject-matter of electromagnetism. Essay About And The Black Market! It is true that physics considers idealizations that are abstractions from the messy real world. For example, a class of great man speeches, mechanics problems ignores friction. But that doesn't mean that friction is not considered part of the subject-matter of physics. It was reasonable for about Gun Control and the Plato to think that the ideal of, say, a horse, was more important than any individual horse we can perceive in the world. In 400BC, species were thought to Fahrenheit 451 as, be eternal and unchanging. We now know that is not true; that the horses on another cave wallin Lascauxare now extinct, and that current horses continue to Essay and the Black, evolve slowly over time. Thus there is no such thing as a single ideal eternal horse form. We also now know that language is like that as well: languages are complex, random, contingent biological processes that are subject to Virginia Candidates Views, the whims of evolution and cultural change. What constitutes a language is not an eternal ideal form, represented by about and the Black Market the settings of a small number of parameters, but rather is the Differing Views as Portrayed Golding of the Jacques Rousseau, contingent outcome of complex processes. Since they are contingent, it seems they can only be analyzed with probabilistic models.

Since people have to continually understand the about Market, uncertain. ambiguous, noisy speech of others, it seems they must be using something like probabilistic reasoning. Chomsky for Fahrenheit Criticism some reason wants to avoid this, and therefore he must declare the actual facts of language use out of bounds and declare that true linguistics only exists in Essay Gun Control, the mathematical realm, where he can impose the formalism he wants. Then, to get language from this abstract, eternal, mathematical realm into the heads of people, he must fabricate a mystical facility that is exactly tuned to the eternal realm. This may be very interesting from a mathematical point of view, but it misses the point about what language is, and how it works.

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10 mistakes that could ruin your resume. The goal of a resume is to let a potential employer know why you're the Essay about Gun Control and the Market, best person for the job. Here are 10 practices that impede that goal. There is one goal for your resume: To show a potential employer why you are the best person for the job. Of Technology Today.. However, there are so many things that can get in the way of what should be a clear message.

Here are ten of the most common mistakes made in resumes. This may be one of the most difficult concepts for job hunters to grasp, but your resume is not something you create for yourself . Essay Gun Control And The Black Market. You create it, format it, and organize it so that it's easy for a hiring manager to gauge your fit with the gattaca plot summary, job he or she is offering. It's important to tailor your resume to each job you apply to. I promise you, no hiring manager is going to study your resume for specifics that would apply to the job at hand. Your resume has to and the Market, make them obvious. Great Man Speeches. For example, if you're applying for a project manager position, highlight any experience and accomplishments that show your expertise in project management, even if you have to Essay about Black Market, switch to a functional resume format to do it. While the bulk of your work experience may be in gattaca summary, tech support, it's really not applicable to Essay Gun Control Black, the job at hand, so don't concentrate on the day-to-day minutiae. Essay Social. Concentrate instead on those instances where you demonstrated leadership, ingenuity, and organizational skills. Hiring executives have a low threshold for resume bloopers. A study on claims that one out of four executives will toss a resume into the wastebasket if they spot a typo.

But sometimes even the most careful people can miss a typo or two. Here are some tips for making sure you're sending out pristine copies of about and the Market, your resume: Enlist detail-oriented family members, friends, or mentors to proofread your resume and psychology behavior, provide honest feedback. Take a timeout. Before submitting your resume, take a break and come back to it with a fresh set of eyes. You might catch something you missed the first time. Print a copy. It's easy to overlook typos or formatting mistakes when reading a resume on a monitor, so print it out for about Gun Control and the Market, review. Try a new perspective. Sometimes readers inadvertently skip over parts they have read previously. Review your resume backward to help avoid this problem.

You can read it from Views on Humans by William Golding in Lord of the Flies and Jean, bottom to top, or from the right side of Gun Control, a line to the left. This takes away the mental expectation that sometimes tricks us into thinking a word is spelled correctly, etc. Read it out Governor Views Essay loud. Essay About. This can also help you find phrases that don't make sense. There are all kinds of opinions as to how long a resume should be. On Ray Fahrenheit. Most people say to keep it to one page, but many people say that two pages are OK, particularly if you have 10 or more years of experience related to your goal or you need space to Essay about Market, list and summary, prove your technical knowledge. Either way, the goal is to keep your resume lean yet meaningful. Essay Black. List only psychology behavior, your selling points that are relevant to the job at hand and let go of Essay about Black, some details that have no bearing on gattaca summary your current goal. You may have become proficient in Windows NT in a previous job, but it's not something that would have a bearing on a job today.

4. Essay Black. Your resume is not very readable. Never underestimate resume formatting. Consider that some hiring managers have to Essay Fahrenheit, look through hundreds of resumes for each job opening. Also consider that those employers will usually take, at Essay Gun Control and the Black, most, only thirty-five seconds to by William Golding in Lord of the Flies and Jean Rousseau, look at Essay about Black Market, a one-page resume before deciding whether to keep or discard it. You should design your resume so that employers can read the document easily and process information quickly. To judge the formatting of on Ray Fahrenheit 451 as Social Criticism, your resume, ask yourself these questions: Am I using too many fonts? It's best to stick to one or two fonts. You can vary the size and add bold if necessary to make headings stand out but don't go overboard.

You don't want your resume to look like a ransom note built out of newspaper clippings. Am I overdoing the emphasis thing? As I said in Essay about Black, the previous point, you can create emphasis by using bold , italics, underlining, etc. Psychology And Human. However, you don't want to mix methods or overuse them. You would not, for and the, example, want to summary, CAPITALIZE, ITALICIZE, AND UNDERLINE pieces of text. It's overkill and hard on the eyes. Is there too much text on the page? There's nothing more intimidating to Essay about Gun Control Black, a reviewer than blocks of dense text on a resume.

Here are some things to of technology on the environment today., keep in mind: Set your margins at about 1-inch all around, use bulleted points to break up paragraphs of text that list your accomplishments, and about and the Black Market, make sure your sections are distinct. Don't be afraid of white space! If you have to choose between crammed-in text and an extra resume page, go with the latter. You can see in Figure A how much more readable the list of accomplishments are when put into great best man speeches bullets separated by white space. 5. Your name appears in the Word header . Essay About. Your name should appear prominently at Candidates on Abortion and Education Essay, the top of your resume, but even though it looks kind of cool, avoid using Word's header feature for this information. (Using Word's header feature will make your name appear automatically at Gun Control Black Market, the top of every page of your resume.) The problem is a lot of scanning software used by HR departments won't work on headers and footers so your resume could get lost in the shuffle. As Portrayed Of The And Jean Jacques Rousseau. 6. Your resume doesn't include keywords. Gun Control Black Market. It's an unfortunate fact of life that many organizations use scanning software (mentioned above) when vetting resumes. This is often done as the preliminary step in and human, weeding out any people whose qualifications and experience don't match the about Gun Control Black, job being filled.

So be very sure that you pepper your resume with relevant keywords. That is to say, don't use one in summary, every sentence and don't use keywords that you don't have experience with just for the sake of sneaking in under the radar. Sooner or later you'll have to Essay about Black, own up. The actual job description is the Essay on Ray 451 as Criticism, best starting place for Essay about Gun Control and the Black Market, finding relevant keywords. 7. You list your experience instead of your accomplishments. First of all, never use expressions such as Duties included or Responsibilities included.

These lists outline only what was in your job description; they don't say whether you did them well or not. And they don't show how you stood out from the other people in Differing on Humans of the Rousseau, your company who were doing the same things. To help rewrite your responsibilities to accomplishments, try asking yourself: What special things did I do to set myself apart? How did I do the Essay and the Market, job better or differently than anyone else? What did I do to make it my own? What were some problems or challenges that I faced? How did I solve or overcome those problems? What were the results of my efforts?

How did the company benefit from my performance? For example, did it make or save money or save time? It might help to use an accomplishment tracker template like this one available from and human, TechRepublic. 8. Essay Gun Control And The Black. You use vague verbs and subjective adjectives. Virginia Governor Candidates On Abortion And Education. Avoid, at all costs, those abstract verb phrases like Assisted with. or Handled. or Managed. Those phrases can mean almost anything. Every time you're tempted with one of those phrases, ask yourself How ? How did you assist with something? What exactly did you do? Also, try using more dynamic words like constructed, coordinated, determined, established, executed, etc.

On the same ticket, it is and the, very easy to say you skillfully completed some task or that you have extraordinary people skills. But unless you can back those statements up with concrete evidence, it's just you saying something good about yourself. So explain why your task completion was skillful. Did it come in under budget and within time restraints? What evidence do you have of your great people skills?

Did you get recognized for this in some way? Were you assigned more end users than other staffers? Any detail that you can offer in explanation will help. Criticism. 9. About And The. Your resume is like all the Criticism, others. We're not saying that you should make yourself stand out by formatting your entire resume in a cursive font. We're saying that, since you're a tech pro, a prospective employer is probably going to expect something a little more advanced. Essay About Gun Control And The Market. Toward this goal consider: Including a link to psychology behavior, your online portfolio. Online portfolios can be anything from a blog or a website, to a dedicated solution (something that's just a portfolio, without any of the extra stuff). Make it something that loads fast, is visually professional, and showcases your accomplishments, mission statement, career progression, and leadership aptitude.

Before you put the link in your resume, ask yourself how well the site answers questions any potential employers might have about you. Adding a QR code. A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional, barcode-like image that, once scanned, directs potential employers to about Gun Control and the Black, carefully selected, customized web pages for more information about a job seeker. It's a tech-savvy way to illustrate your strengths. 10. You lie/exaggerate on your resume. Decision makers routinely conduct background checks and online research to verify a resume.

And sometimes what they find out can embarrass you down the line; a lesson learned the hard way by former CEO Scott Thompson. At the very least, don't claim education that you don't have. But you should also be careful about exaggerating any experience you have. It could take only a few targeted questions in an interview to reveal your deception. Toni Bowers is psychology, Managing Editor of Gun Control and the Market, TechRepublic and is the award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and IT management issues.

Toni Bowers is Managing Editor of behavior, TechRepublic and is the award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and Gun Control Market, IT management issues. We deliver the of technology, top business tech news stories about the companies, the people, and the products revolutionizing the planet. Our editors highlight the TechRepublic articles, galleries, and Gun Control, videos that you absolutely cannot miss to stay current on the latest IT news, innovations, and tips.

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essay voltaire The Life of Voltaire. Click here for printer friendly version of this page. I am going to introduce you to Voltaire, poet, novelist, playwright, historian, scientist and about Gun Control Black Market, philosopher. Differing By William In Lord Flies And Jean Jacques. Seen by many as the embodiment of the French Enlightenment, Voltaire was a complex, contradictory character. A tireless campaigner against injustice and advocate of religious and Essay Gun Control and the Black, social tolerance, he was also fiercely anti-Semitic, describing the Jews as an ignorant and barbarous people and describe of technology on the environment today., arguing that Africans are a separate species as different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of Essay Gun Control and the Black Market greyhounds. A great polemicist, who persistently denounced the hypocrisy of the ruling class and gattaca plot, the Catholic Church, he rarely stood by his own words, choosing instead to claim his works were falsely attributed to him. However, none of these things should be taken out of context.

This was a time when the ideas of universal humanity and equality were mere babes in arms and about and the Black Market, the France that Voltaire grew up in was one in which the monarchy, nobility and clergy ruled with an iron hand, keeping the majority of the people in Fahrenheit 451 as a state of poverty and virtual slavery. It was an age of Essay about Black burning of books and imprisonment without trial at the whim of the ruling class. No wonder then that Voltaire, especially after some of man speeches his early experiences of the injustices of the regime, chose not to acknowledge his own words. Less of an original thinker than many of the Enlightenment thinkers, he is Essay about Gun Control Black Market, particularly important for on Ray Social Criticism challenging the church and promoting the ideas of Gun Control and the Black Market John Locke and Essay on Ray Fahrenheit Social, Isaac Newton in France. Voltaires life was tempestuous and fascinating, full of affairs, spells in prison and in exile from his beloved home town of Paris. Born Franois Marie Arouet in November 1694, he was a sickly child who was not expected to live beyond a few days, so right from the beginning he managed to surprise everyone by surviving. His father, Franois Arouet, was a minor treasury official of some property, but it was his mother Marie Marguerite DAumard who was probably to thank for his introduction to good society, having been a close friend of the abbe de Chateauneuf, who was his sponsor and tutor in his early years. Chateauneuf, who was his godfather as well as his teacher, was an unusual character, especially for a priest. Skeptical and irreligious, he encouraged his pupil to reject the superstition which was rife at the time.

Amongst other things he taught the bright young boy deism and literature and there can be no doubt how influential this was on Voltaire. In 1704, some two years after the death of his mother, Voltaire was packed off to the Collge Louis-le-Grand in Paris, where he was educated by Gun Control and the Market, the Jesuits for Social Criticism seven years. He was an unusual pupil, caring little for games or sport, mixing little with his peers and spending much of his time talking to the teachers. Although he later claimed that he learned nothing but Latin and the Stupidities there this period was almost certainly important in the early development of his literary talents. Here he wrote poetry and was introduced to theatre. There was a tradition at Jesuit schools, dating back to the Renaissance, of performing plays in Latin and in the vernacular and the young Voltaire took to the stage with enthusiasm. Essay About And The. This left a deep impression on him, so much so that by the time he left the Collge at the age of 17 he had decided that he wanted to become a writer.

On his return from school his father was somewhat dismayed by the young mans ambitions, having mapped out a career in describe of technology law for his son. Literature, he said, is the profession of the man who wishes to be useless to society, and Market, a burden to his relatives, and to Bradbury's, die of hunger. Voltaire was thus forced to take a job as assistant to a lawyer, but spent as little time as possible working, devoting his energy to about and the, writing satirical poetry. However, it was not long before his father found him out and describe environment today., sent him off to the provinces where he studied law for two years. During this time he devoted his time to writing poetry, essays and Market, historical studies and consequently did poorly in describe of technology environment his studies. Exasperated, Franois Arouet tried once again to influence his sons choice of career, obtaining a job for Essay about and the him as secretary to the French ambassador in Governor Holland. Here Voltaire fell in love for the first time with Olympe Dunoyer, otherwise known as Pimpette. The girl was quite well connected but had no money, was a Protestant and, worst of all, had a mother who was a writer with a less than respectable literary reputation. The barriers were to prove too great for the young lovers. Pimpettes mother disapproved of the Essay about Gun Control Black Market, relationship and Voltaires father attempted to intervene by obtaining a lettre de cachet to ban the match.

Lettres de cachets were sealed warrants issued by the king, usually used to Differing on Humans as Portrayed by William of the Flies and Jean Jacques Rousseau, secure the imprisonment without trial of people who were disliked or distrusted by the crown. In the end the lettre de cachet was not used as Pimpette decided that their future together was too uncertain and she withdrew from the relationship herself. Heartbroken and about Gun Control Market, miserable, Voltaire turned more seriously than ever to great best, literature, and was never to stop writing until his death at the age of 83. Essay And The Black Market. Returning to Governor Candidates Views, France he worked for a short time in a lawyers office, but got into trouble for Essay about Gun Control Market writing libellous poetry and his father sent him to the country where he stayed for 451 as Social nearly a year with Louis de Caumartin, the marquis de Saint-Ange. His fathers idea was that he continued to study law, but in true character Voltaire instead directed his energy into writing essays and historical research. In 1715 Louis XIV died, and around the Essay Gun Control and the Black Market, same time Voltaire returned to Paris once again. The kings reign had been coloured by misery, tyranny and hunger and news of his death was received with great joy by Virginia Candidates Views on Abortion and Education, the majority of the about and the, population. His funeral, which Voltaire attended, was treated more like a day of celebration than mourning. Hopes were high that things were going to change for the better. These hopes were to be dashed and it was not until the psychology and human behavior, French revolution nearly 70 years later that things were really going to change, but lets not get ahead of ourselves.

Voltaire was welcomed into the literary society of Paris as his work and his reputation for audacity were widespread by this time. Falling into Essay and the Black Market, the circle of duchess of summary Maine, he once again got himself into trouble by contributing to a libellous satirical poem ridiculing the prince regent Orleans, with whom the duchess had something of a feud. As a consequence he was exiled from Paris in May 1716, first to Tulle and then to Sully. He enjoyed his sojourn at Sully, spending is time hunting, socialising and of course writing, but he was still anxious to return to the Capital. Utilising some tactical flattery in his poems and Gun Control and the Black Market, epigrams he managed to bring his exile to a close in less than a year, returning to Paris early in 1717, but his freedom was to be short lived.

This time he was not the the impact of technology today., author of the Essay about Gun Control Black Market, work that got him into trouble, but his reputation for brilliant satire was such that many works were being falsely attributed to him by this time. He was accused of Virginia on Abortion and Education Essay writing two anonymous libels, the Puero Regnante and Essay about Black Market, Jai vu and in Virginia Governor Candidates Views Essay May 1717 found himself in Pariss notorious prison, the Bastille, for the first time. He was to spend eleven months there. This was a turning point for Voltaire, for Gun Control and the Black he felt the sting of injustice most keenly, and it surely influenced his later campaigning against the injustices dealt out to others. Despite it being some time before he could obtain pen and ink, he set to work on a new play from the outset, and the impact of technology environment today., the resulting tragedy, Oedipe was to be his first theatrical success. It was also during this stay in the Bastille that he began the Henriade , an Market, epic poem about Henry IV, and gattaca plot, decided to adopt the pen name Voltaire, saying I was very unlucky under my first name. I want to see if this one will succeed any better.

There are various theories as to where the name Voltaire originates, but the Essay about, most likely is on Ray Fahrenheit, that it is simply an anagram of Arovet l.i which is a Latinized, shortened form of Arouet le jeune [Arouet the young]. Gun Control And The. From this time on he was known as Arouet de Voltaire, or simply Voltaire, to all. On his release from prison in 1718, Oedipe was produced in Paris, playing to packed houses and huge acclaim. The tragedy ran for forty-five nights, establishing Voltaires reputation as a great playwright at the early age of 23 and making the young man a considerable amount of great man speeches money in the process. It also secured him a pension from the regent, but thankfully for posterity, this was not to keep Voltaire quiet. Pensions to artists, as favours from the rich and Essay about, powerful, all too often stifled criticism but Voltaire refused to allow his sponsorship to hinder his thoughts or writings. He could at this point easily have accepted an easy life of luxury spent in good society, but keeping his mouth shut was just not in Voltaires nature and he carried on Essay on Ray Social Criticism regardless, criticising the and the Black, church and state and poking fun at the powerful. Governor Views. It was not long before this landed him in trouble again. Late in 1725 he had a run in Essay about Gun Control Black Market with a powerful young nobleman, the Chevalier de Rohan, who insulted Voltaire and psychology behavior, of course consequently found himself at the sharp end of the poets tongue.

Soon after, Voltaire was called out while dining with the Duke of Sully and was soundly beaten by and the Market, Rohans hirelings. Great Best Man Speeches. Voltaire found himself isolated with regard to this affair and eventually, some three months later, challenged Rohan to a duel. Essay Gun Control Black. However Rohans family obtained a lettre de cachet and Voltaire was arrested on the morning of the duel and was thrown into the Bastille for Virginia Governor Views on Abortion and Education Essay the second time. During his short spell of imprisonment Voltaire had a stream of admiring visitors but this did not mitigate his circumstances: He was confronted with two options; another term in prison or exile. This was to Essay about Market, be a turning point in Voltaires life as he plumped for exile in England, where he spent most of the next three years, and the ideas he was exposed to there were to prove more influential than any he had encountered before. Voltaire was impressed by a number of things that stood in stark contrast to how things were in Views and Education Essay France at Essay about Gun Control and the Market that time, in particular the respect for Essay on Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as Social freedom of speech and the religious tolerance he found there. He was also quite taken with Englands constitutional monarchy and remained a monarchist for the remainder of his days despite the actions of the kings of Gun Control Market France against describe on the today., himself and the people during his lifetime. Voltaires timing was good for a change. George I died soon after his arrival in Essay about Black Market England and although the Essay Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as Social Criticism, new king, George II, was not a fan of Essay about and the Black Market literature, Queen Caroline loved poetry and he was welcomed into Virginia Governor, society. Making the most of this in about Gun Control and the Black a characteristically astute move he published an English edition of the Henriade dedicated to the queen and made a small fortune. Mastering the Views Essay, English language in a mere six months, he made friends with a fascinating and stimulating range of people, including the Prime Minister, Sir Robert Walpole, Lord Bolingbroke, the poet Alexander Pope and the playwright William Congreve.

He also came across the Quakers and was struck by their tolerance and simplicity, and Essay about Black Market, even more so by the absence of priests in that religion. Most important of all, though, he came across the work of two of the great thinkers of the 17th century: the greatest natural scientist of them all, Isaac Newton and the philosopher of freedom John Locke. They were to influence him deeply and his later philosophical rationalism and study of the natural sciences stems from this most important of introductions. While in of technology on the today. England Voltaire of course kept on writing, producing his Essay Upon Epic Poetry and Essay Upon the Civil Wars in France , published in Essay about Gun Control Black Market 1727 and beginning a ground-breaking biography of Charles XII of Sweden published in 1731. In the work on Charles XII Voltaire suggested that humans control their own destiny, rejecting the idea that divine intervention guides history and best, this marks the beginning of his rejection of religion, a position that was of course very dangerous to about and the Black, hold. Returning to France in 1729 with a whole new set of ideas behind him he set to work with his usual vigour. His Letters Concerning the English Nation , published first in English in 1733, openly praised the great best man speeches, more tolerant society he found in England and characterised Englands constitutional monarchy as a better, more progressive form of government than that of France. About Black. Voltaire knew that it was dangerous to publish the book in Paris and held it back for a while, but somehow it got out of his hands and was published in French as Lettres Philosophiques sur les Anglais in 1734. Predictably this caused a storm: the publisher was sent to the Bastille, and copies of the book were burned publicly in Paris by the hangman, denounced as scandalously contrary to religion, morals and society. This time Voltaire managed to avoid prison, but was forced to flee Paris once again, this time moving to the Chteau de Cirey on the borders of France, Champagne and Lorraine.

From this time on, having become acutely aware of the dangers of speaking (and writing) his mind, Voltaire began his habit of disowning his own works. Psychology And Human Behavior. This has been interpreted by some as an act of cowardice, which in some ways it was, but it did provide him with the freedom to continue to criticise without risking his liberty and without finding himself exiled time and again. The Cirey residence which, apart from a brief period of refuge spent in Holland in 1736-7, was to last until 1740, was the beginning of a new era for Voltaire and has been described as the first stage of his literary manhood. Black. A few months earlier, in 1733, Voltaire had met a brilliant young woman, Emilie de Breteuil, marquise du Chtelet, who he quickly realised was on best man speeches his wavelength and it was at Essay Gun Control and the Black her invitation that he moved to Cirey. Emilie, or Madame du Chtelet as she is Views and Education Essay, generally known, was twelve years his junior, married and had three children. Nevertheless they began an affair that was to Essay, last over the impact of technology, fifteen years until her death in 1749.

Her husband was well aware of Essay about and the Market their affair and tolerated it. Voltaire and Madame du Chtelet set forth on a voyage of discovery together, studying the natural sciences and performing their own experiments. They also studied history, focusing on people they thought had contributed to civilisation up to that point, and philosophy, in particular metaphysics. Their relationship was stormy, full of arguments and Virginia Candidates Views Essay, difficulties, but their common intellectual interests ensured that they did not part. Together they collected over 21000 books on a variety of subjects, which they studied and discussed at length. They thought of about and the themselves as Newtonians and great best man speeches, Madame du Chtelet even invented a verb to newtonise to characterise their thinking. She was an able mathematician and scientist, exciting and difficult and a constant stimulation to about Black, Voltaire. Essay Bradbury's 451 As Social Criticism. Some of the work they produced, in particular Madame du Chtelets translation of Essay about Black Newtons Principia and Voltaires Elements de la Philosophie de Newton (Elements of the impact environment today. Newtons Philosophy), which they worked on Essay about and the together, were extremely important in introducing the new ideas in gattaca plot natural philosophy to the Continent. Voltaire produced a number of other works during the Cirey residence, including Essai sur la poesie epique (Essay on Epic Poetry), which introduced the famous story of Newton recognising the existence of the Essay, force of gravity thanks to an apple falling from a tree.

In March 1736 Voltaire received a letter from the crown prince of Prussia, Frederick, which was to mark the beginning of psychology behavior a long and important relationship. They eventually met in Gun Control September 1740 after a long correspondence in which Frederick had repeatedly tried to get Voltaire to come to gattaca, live in Prussia. However, it was not until after the Essay, death of Madame du Chtelet several years later that he eventually succeeded, at least in part thanks to the fact that he omitted to include Madame du Chtelet in his invitations, earning her hatred in the process. Between 1740 and 1749 Voltaire moved about quite a bit, dividing his time primarily between Brussels, Cirey and Paris. These years included spells as an ambassador-spy first in Prussia in 1740, then in Brussels (1742-3) and time spent at court where he became friendly with the kings mistress Madame du Pompadour. He also wrote his most successful play in this period, Le Fanatisme, ou Mahomet le Prophte , (Fanaticism, or Mohammed the prophet) which played in Lille first in 1741 and in Paris the following August.

The play portrayed Mohammed as a power-hungry intriguer, and there was no doubt in the minds of the Catholic clergy that this was a veiled attack on best man speeches Christian fanaticism. They promptly pronounced it profane and Essay about and the Black Market, sacrilegious and had it burned. However, Voltaire was becoming wilier in his advancing years and wrote to the pope asking his permission to dedicate Mahomet to him. The pope agreed, sending Voltaire his blessing and accepting the dedication of behavior your admirable tragedy. The cardinals had no choice but to Essay about and the Black Market, go along with it Voltaire had won for once. By this time Voltaires genius was recognised far and wide. In France he was hailed by Virginia Candidates on Abortion and Education Essay, many as the greatest poet and playwright, he had been placed in Black Market Germanys Hall of Fame and had been elected a member of the Royal Society in England, butthe recognition he really wanted had eluded him thus far. The Acadmie Franaise had passed him over time and again, considering him too controversial a figure and this frustrated Voltaire greatly. Finally, in best 1746, with Madame du Pompadour, the king and Essay about Market, the pope behind him, they could no longer refuse and he was admitted to the Acadmie. Being Voltaire, delighted as he was, he could not resist offending all and sundry with his inaugural paper. It was typically witty, cheeky and sacrilegious and resulted in him having to retreat to Governor Candidates Essay, Cirey once again.

He did not know at the time of course, but another turning point was on the horizon for Voltaire. In September 1749 Madame du Chtelet died after the Essay Black, birth of Governor and Education Essay a child, and poor Voltaire was devastated. He was fifty five and somewhat lost, not knowing which direction to turn or where he wanted to Essay about Gun Control, be. He spent some time in Paris, and even thought of resettling there, but he could never stay out of trouble for long enough to be safe in the French capital and eventually, in 1751, accepted the invitation of Frederick of Views on Abortion and Education Essay Prussia, who was king by this time, to move there. This was not to prove as much of a success as either Voltaire or Frederick had envisaged. Essay Market. Their long correspondence had convinced them both of the wisdom of Voltaires move,but actually being in close proximity with each other turned out to be very hard. They fought all the time and Voltaire stirred up lots of psychology and human behavior trouble in Fredericks court. He was neither humble nor confident enough for this type of life, and it exaggerated all his worst traits jealousy, greed and a barely controllable restlessness. Essay Gun Control And The Black Market. After two years both of Differing on Humans by William in Lord Rousseau them had had enough and Voltaire was granted a leave of absence, leaving Potsdam in 1753. All these tensions of course did not stop him writing and it is during his time in Essay and the Potsdam that he produced an interesting little work that is probably the first piece of science fiction. His Micromgas (1752) features two ambassadors from another planet who visit Earth and witness the Virginia Governor Candidates Views, folly of the human race.

Finding himself unable to obtain permission to return to Essay about Gun Control, France, especially after the publication in January 1754 of Essai sur les moeurs , Voltaire bought a country house just outside Geneva, which he called Les Dlices. By this time he was a man of considerable wealth, fitting out Les Dlices with great style, including the installation of a private theatre, and buying a number of smaller properties around the region in behavior different jurisdictions so that he always had a bolt-hole in times of trouble. Essay And The Black. He entertained constantly, performing in his own plays and living the sort of life he had always wanted. His work continued to go from strength to strength, writing plays and verses which well reflected his experience and literary skill. There were however a few problems yet to haunt him.

Geneva had at the time a law forbidding all theatrical performances and, although Les Dlices was outside the city state a resolution was passed by the Consistory of Geneva urging people not to attend plays at Voltaires residence. Voltaire was not happy about this, but his past experience at the wrong end of the great best, law guided him on this occasion and he shifted his performances to his house in Essay about and the Market Lausanne. It is almost certainly as an indirect consequence of this that DAlembert criticised the theatre ban in psychology and human his article on Geneva in the Encyclopedie probably at Voltaires instigation. At the end of Essay about and the Black Market 1758 Voltaire bought an even more extensive property on the shore of Lake Geneva, a few miles from Geneva itself and on French soil. It was here, at Ferney, that he was to spend the majority of his last twenty years. Ferney was to become the intellectual capital of Europe. There he continued to entertain the great and the good and, more importantly, continued to write, producing some of his best work. His satirical story Candide , published in Essay on Ray 451 as Criticism 1759, is one of Essay about Gun Control and the Black Market his best loved and most widely read works.

Full of his usual wit this philosophical romance is an outright attack on the religious and philosophical optimism popular at the time. The protagonist, Candide, is young, innocent and nave and goes through a bizarre set of adventures plagued by bad luck, preyed on by a rich cast of characters full of hypocrisy, greed and psychology and human, treachery, while throughout he attempts to Essay and the Black, reconcile his experiences with the philosophy he was taught by his friend and teacher the best philosopher in the world Doctor Pangloss. The character of Governor Candidates on Abortion Essay Pangloss, who teaches that all is for the best in this best of all possible worlds, is Essay about Gun Control and the Black Market, widely thought to be a caricature of Gottfried Leibniz the great Prussian engineer, logician, mathematician and rival of describe the impact on the Newton, but it is likely that Pangloss is at least in about and the Market part also based on the French philosopher-scientist Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, with whom Voltaire had had a dispute during his time in summary Prussia and whom Voltaire had previously ridiculed in Lhistoire du Docteur Akakia (The story of Dr Akakia) in 1752. I recommend reading Candide if you want to get a feeling for Voltaires writing. About Black Market. It is only a short novel and it is very entertaining. You can see why it caused quite a storm it is irreverent, extremely cutting and is a great example of Voltaires satire. I will quote a few sections from John Butts translation to give you an idea of Virginia Governor Views and Education what I mean. Essay About And The Black Market. At one point he asks his rather brilliant servant Cacambo about the Jesuits of Paraguay, who tells him: I was once a servant in the College of Assumption, so I know how the Differing Views as Portrayed Golding of the and Jean Jacques, reverend fathers govern as well as I know the Essay about Market, streets of Cadiz. Its a wonderful system they have.

There are thirty provinces in their kingdom, and it is more than three hundred leagues across. The reverend fathers own the whole lot, and the people own nothing: thats what I call a masterpiece of plot summary reason and justice. I dont think I have ever seen such godlike creatures as the reverend fathers. Essay Gun Control. They fight the Kings of Spain and Portugal over here and give them absolution in Europe. In this country they kill Spaniards, and in Madrid they send them to Heaven. Delightful isnt it? Later, speakingto an old man in the legendary country of Eldorado Candide asks Do you mean to say you have no monks teaching and disputing, governing and intriguing, and having people burned if they dont subscribe to their opinions? To which the old man replies We should be stupid if we had we are all of the same opinion here, and the impact environment, we dont know what you mean by monks. When Candide passes through France on his journeys Voltaire takes full advantage to about Gun Control and the, poke fun at his own nation. Psychology Behavior. After a visit to the theatre he asks how many plays have been written in French. About five or six thousand, replied the abb . Thats a lot, he remarked; how many are good? Fifteen or sixteen, replied the other. And when they later go to dinner Voltaire describes it as follows: The supper was like most Parisian suppers, first of Gun Control Black all silence followed by an indistinguishable noise of words, then some witticisms, most of which were insipid, some scandal, some false reasoning, a little politics and a good deal of Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as Criticism slander.

Five years after the publication of Candide Voltaire published his greatest work of philosophy the Dictionnaire Philosophique (Philosophical Dictionary). Essay About Gun Control. The Dictionnaire consists of a series of articles on a range of subjects, many of which were written for the Encyclopedie . In it he defined his idea of the ideal religion, teaching morality but rejecting dogma. These were of course dangerous views to hold and Voltaire denied his own authorship once more, especially as the man speeches, book was condemned in Paris, Amsterdam and Geneva. Like Candide this is a great work to read if you want get a feel for Gun Control Black Voltaires character his wit, his passion, his strengths and weaknesses are all here. Before I come to the close of the plot summary, story of Voltaires life I have to make some mention of his tireless campaigning on behalf of the oppressed which took up much of his time and energy in the last years of his life. Voltaire had of course experienced first hand the injustices of the Essay, judicial system in France and this was certainly a major factor in cementing his commitment to its reform. The Calas affair is Views, perhaps the best known case that he took up, and I will outline it here for you as an example, although it is Essay and the, just one of many. Jean Calas was a Protestant and respectable merchant who lived in the town of gattaca plot Toulouse. One of his sons wanted to study law but at this time that was only possible if you were a member of the Gun Control Market, Catholic Church. The son got very depressed and killed himself, something that was considered a mortal sin at the time.

His family, finding the poor man hanging by the neck, decided to conceal the suicide as they did not want to see his body drawn and quartered and fed to dogs as was the common practice for those who took their own lives. However, things were to go horribly wrong as a rumour started that Jean Calas had murdered his son because he wanted to become a Catholic, renouncing the Protestantism of his family. The whole city was up in arms and the old man was convicted of murder on the basis of the flimsiest hearsay evidence. Refusing to confess even after horrendous torture, Calas was tied to on Ray Fahrenheit 451 as Criticism, a wooden cross, had his arms and legs broken and was strangled publicly by the executioner, after which his body was burned at the stake. The state then confiscated his property, leaving his widow homeless and Essay about and the, destitute, and placed his children in Catholic institutions. Voltaire heard about this terrible affair and of technology, decided to investigate the Essay Gun Control and the Black Market, case. He took one of the psychology, old mans sons to Ferney, found out what had happened and set out to clear Calas, writing dozens of letters to important people throughout Europe, including Catherine of Russia and his old friend Frederick the Great, hiring a lawyer, raising money for Essay Gun Control the family and preparing a case to plot, vindicate Calas. Essay And The Black Market. He worked tirelessly for six years, eventually securing a unanimous vote in the parliament of Paris declaring Calas innocent. Calas himself was of course dead, but the reversal of his conviction meant that his estate was returned to his family and the children returned to Views on Abortion and Education Essay, their mother. Voltaire also gave them an estate to live in once the case was over.

This was to be just one of many such cases taken up by Essay Gun Control and the Black, Voltaire in his Ferney years. Many of them, like Calas, were sadly proven innocent after their execution, but there can be little doubt that the Essay on Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as Criticism, lives of many other innocents were saved as a consequence of Voltaires campaigns. This Voltaire is the one who should really be remembered, for this was a heroic struggle against Essay Gun Control Black Market, oppression forged at no small risk to himself for, in of technology on the today. his own words it is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong. After a lifetime of denying authorship of his own work when it threatened his own safety, this mature Voltaire was a man of principle and bravery who did a great service to the cause of liberty and justice. In 1778, after nearly twenty years of exile in Ferney, Voltaire had an unbearable longing to Gun Control Market, return to Paris. He had just completed his latest tragedy Irene and its first performance was to take place at the National Theatre in Paris. Voltaire wanted nothing more than to be there to oversee its production. His niece Madame Denis, who had been his companion for many years, was also very keen to return to the buzz of life in Essay Bradbury's 451 as the French capital and encouraged him to go.

So, in February they set out on about Gun Control the five day journey to his longed-for home, arriving to a heros welcome, the streets lined with cheering fans. The journey and Bradbury's Fahrenheit Social, the excitement were too much for about Gun Control and the Market the 83 year old man and he fell seriously ill after a couple of weeks. On 28 th February, believing he was about to die, he wrote I die adoring God, loving my friends, not hating my enemies, and detesting superstition. However, this was not to be the end. He recovered and resumed preparations for great the opening of Irene . At the end of March he attended a performance of this, his last completed work. The reception was huge, the theatre packed with an effusive audience who repeatedly demanded he speak from the box and crowned him with a laurel wreath.

Voltaire decided to begin a new life in Paris, buying a house, working on another tragedy and attending meetings of the French Academy, but his health would not permit it. In May he became seriously ill again and died at the end of the month. Essay And The Black Market. Having refused to sign a general retraction of his works before his death, the Essay on Ray Fahrenheit Social, church refused to give him a Christian burial, but his body was taken secretly to the abbey of Scellieres in Champagne and Essay about and the, buried there. His heart was embalmed and given to Madame Denis. In 1791, some thirteen years later, the National Assembly ordered that his body be brought back to Paris, and in July of that year his remains were transferred to the Pantheon. However, even this was not to be the end of the story, for in 1814 his remains were stolen by Differing Views on Humans as Portrayed by William of the and Jean, a group of religious zealots and dumped in a pit. It was only fifty years later when it was decided to return his embalmed heart to the other remains that this was discovered. Thus there was a remarkable end to the history of this remarkable multi-faceted man. Voltaire is the perfect example of an Enlightenment figure whose contribution to the Age of about Gun Control Black Reason was incredibly important. The sheer volume of work he produced in his 83 years is mind-boggling. Essay 451 As Criticism. Not only was he one of the most renowned playwrights of all time, he was instrumental in propagating the new methods of the natural sciences in Europe and in arguing for freedom of thought and the civil rights.

There is a certain irony related to his legacy, for Essay Gun Control Market the French Revolution was to Candidates on Abortion Essay, begin eleven years after his death and about and the Black Market, his writings and his campaigns certainly influenced the turn of events, but Voltaire would have been quite horrified by that knowledge. He was a strong advocate of progress but he distrusted the judgement of the masses, who he considered stupid and uneducated. As a consequence, he was opposed to democracy. Having been highly influenced by his stay in England, he believed rather in plot an enlightened monarchy in which the king would be advised by philosophers like himself. Although it has been argued that he contributed little in terms of original thought I think that this is a little unfair when you consider that, amongst other things, he presented history for the first time without the idea of divine intervention ( Charles XII , 1731), attempted the first history of the about Gun Control Black, world as a whole ( Essai sur lhistoire generale set sur les moeurs et lesprit des nations , 1756) and wrote what is Essay on Ray 451 as, possibly the first work of science fiction ( Micromgas , 1752). Most of all, though, what I love about Gun Control and the, him as figure is his disrespect for gattaca authority and his genuine wish to see an end to tyranny and oppression. C J M Hewett, August 2006.

Voltaire on the World Philosophy Series. Five biographies of Voltaire by Clarence Darrow, Robert Green, Jim Herrick, Joseph Lewis and Thomas S. Vernon ( Voltaire and Frederick the Great from Books and Characters, French and English by Lytton Strachey, 1915, edited by Geoffrey Sauer. Works by Voltaire. Poem on the Lisbon Disaster (1756) by Voltaire edited and translated by Joseph McCabe.

Letters on Newton from the Letters on the English or Lettres Philosophiques, c. 1778. On Francis Bacon from Essay Gun Control and the, Letters on the English or Lettres Philosophiques, c. 1778. John Lockes Theory of Knowledge ( An Essay Concerning Human Understanding ) by Caspar Hewett.

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essay title how to Advice about writing an essay. The importance of and the Black Market, essays. Some suggestions for on Humans by William Golding Flies and Jean Jacques good essay writing: You will develop your own techniques for essay writing, so use the following plan as advice, not as a straightjacket. The plan starts with bullet points. Click on the coloured word by one of these to go to Essay about Gun Control the advice about the describe environment today. point.

Use your analysis to start drafting your introduction. Start your bibliography. Review your resources, starting with what you already know and moving on to what you need to research. Generate ideas and use these to about Gun Control and the Black Market draft a summary of what your essay may be about. Read and take notes from the recommended sources, guided by the preparation you have already done.

Develop your ideas in the light of your reading. One way to do this is by revising your draft summary. Draft the body of the essay without looking at gattaca summary your notes or books. Then turn to the notes and books for the evidence for and the Black the arguments you have made in the essay. Essay Fahrenheit 451 As? Reference as you go along . Show your draft to someone else who will give you feedback on the issues listed below. Rewrite your essay in the light of their feedback.

Most courses give you essay titles that point you clearly in and the Market the direction your essay should go. Gattaca Plot? Begin by analysing this title and the guidance given in Essay Market other ways, like the behavior reading list. The parts of an essay title are its key words. Every aspect of the essay title needs to be covered by your essay. So analysing lets you see what your essay should contain.

It also helps you to about Black Market focus your essay. You should not just write around a subject in a general way. It is really important to on Humans as Portrayed by William Golding Jacques spend time thinking about what the essay title means, and how to answer it. About? Analysing helps you see what is wanted. A title we can analyse as an Candidates example is Outline the concepts of reason and politics in Plato's Republic . Show how they relate. This tells you a source you must use (a book by Plato, called the Republic ), and about Gun Control and the Market two concepts (reason and politics) that you should investigate in it. The title also tells you that you should outline the concepts of reason and politics that you find in the Republic , and that you should show how they relate . Sources are often suggested in a reading list rather than in the title. Now that you know what you are doing, review your resources : What you need to know. Where information can be obtained. Use your analysis to and human behavior start drafting your introduction . The analysis has given you a plan of the Essay about and the Black essay, which is used to man speeches draft the first outline of the Essay Gun Control Market essay introduction. Your introduction will eventually contain a summary and an argument, as well as an outline . Start your draft bibliography . Your bibliography will relate to references in the body or text of the essay, which you add as you go along.

Drafting the introduction and body of the text is best man speeches, discussed in greater detail below. Use whatever technique you find necessary to start your ideas flowing. Once they have started to flow, you will be able to Essay about and the Black Market tighten them up. Develop your ideas. It is important to Bradbury's 451 as Social Criticism build the essay on ideas that you develop yourself, and not to just follow the Gun Control and the Black pattern of ideas that someone else has provided. You will need, therefore, to Views Golding in Lord develop a technique that uses your notes on books, but does not let the notes set the pattern of your essay. Your essay needs to be organised by you and to Essay and the Market express your interpretation and understanding of the the impact of technology on the today. subject. This is Gun Control Black, what people mean when they say that you should write in your own words. The best way to do this is to force yourself to the impact of technology on the environment write without referring to books or notes. Having made your notes, put them aside for a while and write your first draft essay without looking at them or your books. When you have the first draft of the essay written in your own words (that is, without referring to books or notes) you can go to books and notes for the quotations and references that you need to substantiate your argument and for material that will help you to develop your essay further.

As you look for evidence in your notes and books you will probably find that you need to Gun Control revise your arguments. Rewrite your essay including all the evidence that you can find to man speeches back up your argument in your notes, or in about the books, articles etc you are using. Adjust your argument if the evidence does not fit it. Try drafting your essay in four parts: an introduction a body (which includes references) a conclusion a bibliography (which relates to the references in gattaca plot the body) If you draft on paper, the draft of Essay about Gun Control Black, each part should be on separate sheets to allow you to man speeches redraft more easily. You will probably find you redraft the introduction more often than the Essay about Gun Control and the Black Market other parts. The parts will be physically put together in your final version. The introduction explains the academic problem as you see it and tells the reader what is in your essay.

To do this, always include an outline (plan) of the Virginia on Abortion and Education organisation (structure) of the body of the Essay Black Market essay. You should also include a summary of the essay. A good introduction will also include an argument statement . The draft outline usually follows naturally from the analysis of the essay title . As a start, you may organise the the impact on the essay in the order that the issues are raised in the title. As you proceed with the essay, its plan will become more complex (sophisticated), and the outline in the introduction should be updated as the essay develops. The issues you deal with in an essay should follow on from one another in a meaningful way. Regularly revising a summary of the essay will help you see if you are doing this. Your argument is the case that you are making. You make a statement of it in the introduction and a demonstration of it in the body of the Gun Control Black Market essay.

The body of the behavior essay presents the evidence for the statement. The body of an Essay Black Market essay is also called its content or text . It is the largest part of the essay and contains the points you want to make in great man speeches greater detail than the Essay about Gun Control and the Black introduction (because they are being explained) and with the evidence for describe the impact environment them. It must show the Gun Control and the Black reader that you know your subject. You do this by explaining the subject to the reader. It is a fatal mistake to think the plot summary marker already knows this subject. I will discuss it without explaining it. The marker is about Gun Control and the Market, looking for evidence that you know the Essay on Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as subject. Just as a mathematician will want to see how students have worked out the answers to their sums, an essay marker will want to see how students reach conclusions. It should also present the evidence for the essay's argument.

The conclusion If your essay's argument has been stated in the introduction, your conclusion can be just a brief summary of your main points. If you find that your conclusion includes important points not already fully covered, you should seriously consider whether they need including in the introduction, or omitting. The bibliography is the Essay about Black list of books and other sources you use for the essay. The bibliography should relate to references in the essay. See ABC Referencing for a list of what you need to reference . Reference as you go along is not just much easier than trying to write all the references when the essay is almost finished, it is also one of the most powerful ways of improving your academic writing. To prepare references as you proceed, you will need to begin a draft bibliography as soon as you begin reading, record the source of all notes you take, and enter references in and Education Essay drafts you write. To prepare a draft bibliography you should make a list of each book or article you use, recording: The author's surname and initial, The year of edition you are using. This is at the front of most books. If several dates are given, the one you want is the copyright date. Essay And The Black? This is often shown by the sign The place of publication,

The Publisher. Describe Of Technology Today.? When you make notes from books, make sure that you make a note of the about Gun Control and the Black book the best notes come from and the page number. About Gun Control And The Black Market? Then, if you use those notes in gattaca summary an essay, you will know which book and what page to reference. Referencing drafts is relatively easy if you have sorted out your bibliography entry for the work you are referencing. If you want to Essay Gun Control and the Black reference something on page ten of and human behavior, a book whose Bibliography entry is: Smith, A. 1997, Invented Book, Burke Publishers, London. You just need to enter (Smith, A. p.10) in the text of your draft at the point you want to about Gun Control Black reference the book. You could get good ideas about making your essay clearer by asking a friend to look at the draft. Sometimes tutors will look at essay drafts and gattaca plot make comments.

Or you may get comments from English Support Tutors. Click here for an explanation of feedback. and why friends and other students. may be good at giving it. Points that other people could give you feedback on. The Bibliography and References . The reader can check that there is a bibliography at the end of the essay and that the key word in each bibliography entry matches the key word in the relevant references. About Gun Control And The Black Market? The reader should feel confident that he or she would be able to find the source that is being referred to in each case. References to books should give a page number.

If the reader does not know the Harvard system of referencing, the writer should explain it. The Introduction . The essay should have an introduction that is distinct from the body of the essay and explains what the essay is about. If this exists, does it give the reader a framework (outline or essay plan) of the order in which issues are to be dealt with in the essay? If so, the gattaca reader should look at the body of the essay to see if it is clear to him or her that the author is and the Black Market, following the outline. The outline indicates the organisation, or structure, of the essay. Readers will be able to say if this was clear to them, and Differing on Humans by William in Lord Flies and Jean Jacques may be able to make suggestions for about Gun Control and the Market improvements.

It is helpful if the the impact of technology today. introduction also says what the key texts used for the essay are. It does not need to use this term, but it should show what the Gun Control Black Market essay is man speeches, based on. The outline of the essay is the essential part of an introduction. As students' essay writing skills develop they will also begin to include an argument and a summary of the essay in the introduction. Student groups can help one another by discussing what these terms mean, by seeing if they can recognise arguments in Essay about Black one another's essays, and by of technology on the environment today., discussing how to Essay and the construct a summary. Content Does the Essay on Ray 451 as Social essay show to the reader what the writer knows about the about Market subject? Or are there issues that the reader is left in the dark about? How much does the Virginia and Education Essay reader feel he or she has learnt about the subject by reading the essay? Readability Can the reader understand the essay?

Is it clearly written or are there words that are difficult to read, or which appear to be missed out, or spelt in a way that the reader is not sure which word is meant? Does the essay explain the terms it uses (especially terms relevant to the title)? Is the meaning of every part of the essay clear and unambiguous? If the reader notes terms and passages that he or she finds difficult to understand, the Essay about Gun Control writer can explain them verbally. This should help the psychology and human behavior writer to rewrite the passages and explain the terms in the essay. It is useful to check (proof-read) your essay through for Essay Black different things. Check that you have written the title at Candidates on Abortion Essay the top of the about Gun Control Market essay. Think about the title and check that your essay discusses every aspect of it . Check that the introduction correctly describes the body of the great man speeches essay. About And The Black Market? The structure of the essay should follow the Governor Candidates on Abortion and Education outline and the summary should accurately describe what the essay says. Check that you say what you mean. It is suprising how often some of us write something different to what we meant to say.

These are mistakes that a friend may notice quicker than the writer does. Check for logical argument : Have you got an about Gun Control Market argument? Have you stated it in the introduction? Have you followed your argument through logically in the body of the essay? Have you recapped it in the conclusion? Check for the use of great best, evidence to back up the argument. Evidence may be references to an author you are interpreting. Have you shown how your argument is supported by quotations and other references to the authors your essay is about?

Check for the accurate presentation of quotations and references . Are quotations clearly identified? Do the Gun Control and the references use the Harvard system? Do the gattaca summary references allow the reader to trace the work and page they refer to? If you are using a wordprocessor, take time to run the spellchecker. Market? Then read the essay through for Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as the spelling mistakes that a spellchecker misses, and for its grammar. About And The Black? You may have a friend who can read the essay through for spelling mistakes and grammatical errors. Someone else can often see errors that the writer misses. Some people find computer grammar checkers useful.

Check that the essay is laid out in logical paragraphs , with a clear line between each paragraph to make sure they do not become merged. When you have finished your essay, make a last check that the outline, argument and summary in your introduction correctly describe the rest of the essay. If they do not, rewrite the introduction. Only submit your essay after you have made sure you have a copy and that the Differing Views on Humans as Portrayed in Lord of the and Jean Jacques Rousseau copy is safely filed where you will be able to Gun Control recover it. If your essay was written on a wordprocessor you will have an electronic copy of it. If not, make a photocopy.

It is important to keep a copy of your essay in case the original goes astray. Views Essay? Essays are also sources you will want to refer to later. About Gun Control And The? So file it in a way that is convenient for Views on Abortion and Education future reference. Essays are valuable records for future reference. Click here for advice on record keeping. There may be courses which are very strict about Gun Control Market, word limits, but usually the following student will be throwing away marks by not writing an extra hundred words: I have written as concisely as I can, but there is an essential point I have not been able to explain properly because of the word limit.

I need the material I have to explain the subject properly, but this means that my argument is not fully stated. I am already 10% over the limit and gattaca plot summary I would need an extra hundred words to state it fully. The marks lost (if any) for taking the extra hundred words will almost certainly be small compared by the marks gained by a fully stated argument. If your essay is more than 10% under the Essay about Gun Control word limit, or if it is Virginia Governor Views Essay, very long, you should not pad it out with material, or hack material out. Instead, look at the content of the essay to Essay about and the Black Market see if you can improve that by lengthening or shortening . What to do if your essay is too short. Sometimes essays are short because the writer has only Essay on Ray Fahrenheit 451 as Social Criticism done part of what was asked. Check to see that every aspect of the title has been covered, that any other instructions have been followed and that you have an adequate introduction that is followed through in the body of the essay. An essay can be too short because it needs to be more explicit. Look at whether you have fully explained everything.

It may be that you have left a lot of the thoughts in your head to be inferred, rather than saying them. Gun Control Market? The reflections of this student may help you: I realised through my essay drafts that I tend to psychology and human condense information making the essay very short and straight to Essay Gun Control and the Black the point. I have made improvements, but the habit is ingrained and I need to make more. To do this, I must expand on Essay Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as Social, my thoughts, ideas and about and the Black Market opinions, explain in more depth the point I am trying to make, and write an essay imagining that the person who may read it has no clue about the subject.

You may need to and human include quotations to illustrate what you have said, or you may find that you have used quotations without explaining them. If your essay is and the, well explained and linked to the sources it draws on by referencing and quotation, see if there are points that could be better explained or more points that would benefit by referencing and quotation. What to do if your essay is too long. Do you always know what you are saying, or are there places where you are just throwing words in? Replace vague passages that do not say anything important, and passages that ramble, with sentences that are to the point. Try focusing your introduction more on the title, and then checking to see that the body of the essay sticks to what you focused on and does not wander all over the place. Remove material that is not relevant to what you say you are doing. Using ways like this should improve the Virginia Governor Candidates on Abortion and Education Essay essay and about Gun Control and the shorten it at the same time.

Précising and paraphrasing are good practice for any writer. One use of Précising is to creat a summary or abstract of your writing for the introduction . Traditonal steps in précis writing. You could précis any piece of writing, including your own. In the traditional précis students reduce a passage of writing to a third or a quarter of its original length by taking these steps: Read through the Virginia Governor Candidates on Abortion and Education Essay whole passage to Essay Gun Control and the Market get an Bradbury's Fahrenheit overall view. Read it through again, underlining each important point. These will all need to be included in the précis. Write a summary of the passage with all the underlined (above) points in the appropriate order, omitting all unnecessary matter. Compare the summary with the original and add anything of importance that had been left out. Check the approximate length to see how close you are to the length aimed at. Re-read carefully to see if the summary flows smoothly and is grammatically correct.

Some essays are difficult to understand because material has been copied from books with no understanding of the meaning. These essays are often too long as well, as the writer does not know what to about cut out. Differing By William In Lord Flies Rousseau? If this is what you do, read about: avoiding copying and plagiarism.