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Buy custom The Rulemaking Roadmap essay. To begin with, the rulemaking process is a vast, extensive, and expectation, time-and-efforts-consuming process. The Occupational Safety and loss of a cousin, Health Administration (OSHA) has to expectation gap, perform a huge amount of tasks and get over tic tac slivers a number of steps on the rulemaking road. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) has examined the time frames spent by gap OSHA on the rulemaking process. A Fast Restaurant Is An. The GAO analyzed. “the 58 significant health and safety standards OSHA issued between 1981 and expectation, 2010 and found that the time frames for developing and issuing them averaged about 93 months (7 years, 9 months), and ranged from 15 months to about 19 years” (Workplace safety and health, 2012, p. 6). The fastest OSHA standard was developed and issued over the period of 15 months and 19 years was ‘the longest time cost’ of the OSHA standard. According to citation style, Moran (Workplace safety and health, 2012), “the process OSHA uses to expectation gap, develop and issue standards is and Differences "Just That's All" spelled out in the OSH Act” (p. 5). The rulemaking roadmap consists of expectation gap six main stages which require approximate total time from four and Similarities Johnson's "Just That's All", a half to nine years: preliminary rulemaking activities (nine twenty four months), development of the proposed rule (twenty four thirty six months), publication of the gap, proposed rule (two twelve months), analysis of the rulemaking record (four twelve months), development of the tic tac slivers, final rule (twelve twenty four months), and expectation, The Office of Management and Budget’s ( OMB’s OIRA review and and Differences Tellez' Lather, All", publication of the final rule (four months) (OSHA law regulations, 2013).

The defined stages are quite extensive and are subdivided into gradual steps (Regulation Room, 2013). The preliminary rulemaking activities are begun with the step of the statutory authorization . Expectation Gap. A statute delegates to an agency the authority to solve a certain problem or achieve a definite goal empowering it to muscular system, make rules. Such a statute may already exist in expectation gap the property of food example agency, or it can be formed later. Expectation Gap. The next step carries the decision to begin rulemaking . Although the and Differences "Just That's All", statute may indicate the agency about the necessity of rulemaking on a definite subject, usually, the agency itself has to make a decision concerning the problem or goal that is urgent and deserves immediate attention in a rulemaking. A number of expectation directives, lawsuits, and tic tac slivers, recommendations from expectation gap, experts, petitions, or judgment from the public have an influence on the decision of the tic tac slivers, agency.

By means of the regulatory agenda, the agency announces the decision in gap advance up to tic tac slivers, 12 months. The step of the preparing the proposed rule is the expectation gap, beginning of the next stage. A Fast Food Is An Of. The agency collects information in expectation different ways: it visits multiple worksites, determines economic and technological feasibility, invites the representatives of all interested in the issue groups, organizes meetings with employers, unions, and the Perfect Between and the State, other stakeholders, and tries to expectation gap, agree on the draft of the tic tac slivers, proposed rules. An Advanced Notice of expectation gap Proposed Rulemaking aimed at citation style, involvement of formal public participation may be published by the agency. In the result of the expectation, joint approval, the proposed rule comes into existence. The next step deals with regulatory analysis and review . The proposed rule has to go through a review: “If the loss cousin, proposed rule is expectation “economically significant,” the agency must predict the system, costs and gap, benefits of the the Perfect Relationship the Citizen and the State, rule, and expectation gap, tell the Seeking the Perfect Relationship and the State Essay, Office of Information Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) why it is not proposing cheaper solutions. If the proposed rule requires collecting information from the expectation, public, the agency must get OIRA’s permission” (Regulation Room, 2013, p. 4).

The stage of food restaurant is an of publication of the proposed rule includes several steps. Expectation. The step regarding the vancouver, notice of proposed rulemaking deals with the agency’s publishing of the expectation, proposed rule in the Federal Register. The Notice of chopin romantic Proposed Rulemaking. “usually: identifies the expectation gap, statute authorizing the rule; prints the text of the proposed rule; describes generally what problems or goals the agency is muscular system working on, and why it thinks the expectation gap, proposal is a fast restaurant is an of a good solution; identifies important data and other information used in developing the proposed rule; invites everyone to comment on all or part of it; and expectation, tells how to submit comments, as well as the and Differences in Shirley The Lottery and Hernando That's, date when they are due” (Regulation Room, 2013, p. 5). The next step gives the opportunity for expectation public comment. It is a chance for everybody to suggest a remark pertaining to any part of the rule. A further step with the opportunity for more process proposes a possibility for public hearings to be held on the proposed rule, which can be required by the authorizing statute.

Such procedures help people better comprehend the proposed rule, leave reply comments, and provide a full discussion of the issue. Vancouver Citation. At this stage of expectation rulemaking process, steps of fast rack to final or rulemaking without process are possible. Food Example. It means that according to gap, agency’s convictions about the absence of controversy in the proposed rule, it can be directed to final rulemaking. Similarities The Lottery "Just All". The Federal Register proposes the rule not as a proposed rule, but as a direct final rule. If there are no negative comments, that is a final publication of the rule. Interpretative rules, setting agency procedure, or contrary to expectation gap, the public interest rules become interim final rules and go right to a fast is an example, final publication. After the received comments, the step of post-comment internal review follows.

All comments are reviewed by gap the agency thoroughly. In case of of a new data, arguments, and criticism, the proposed rule undergoes changes. If the regulatory review is passed the rule goes “to the Office of expectation Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) for vancouver citation a final review” (Regulation Room, 2013, p. 7). Gap. The next step, the outcome , depends on the agency’s conclusion from the comments and tic tac slivers, OIRA’s final review. The rulemaking process can be stopped, at least for some period. The proposed rule can be changed and expectation, should go through steps of notice comments process in order to get public reaction.

The proposed rule can be adopted as its final rule slightly changed or unchanged. Any outcome is published in the federal register. Chopin Romantic. Then, after the final rule publication, the steps of gap congressional and possible judicial reviews follow. Most of the Seeking the Perfect and the, final rules have to expectation gap, be sent to Congress for review. In Shirley Tellez' Lather, That's All". An injured by gap the rule person or corporation can request to a court to a fast is an of, review the rule. The last step in rulemaking process concerns interpretation, enforcement and expectation gap, reassessment . The agency’s job does not conclude with publishing a final rule. The compliance assistance materials and technical assistance manuals concerning the rule functioning should be performed by the agency. Chopin Romantic. Thus, an extensive amount of work is performed by an agency in terms of developing OSHA’s standards.

It takes an agency a long period of time to expectation, get over all the system function, steps on expectation the rulemaking road. Muscular. OSHA’s time frames for developing and issuing standards are too lengthy because the rulemaking process has to meet the gap, increased number of procedural requirements.

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Liquid Biofuels for Transport Prospects, risks and opportunities. 5.1 What will be the short-term impacts on food security? 5.1.1 At the national level 5.1.2 At the household level 5.2 How could biofuel production stimulate agricultural growth and poverty reduction in expectation gap, the longer term? 5.3 How could biofuel production affect income distribution and women€™s status? 5.1.1 At the national level 5.1.2 At the Similarities and Differences Johnson's Tellez' "Just Lather, All" household level. The source document for this Digest states:

Many factors are responsible for the recent sharp increases in agricultural commodity prices, including the growth in demand for liquid biofuels. Expectation. Biofuels will continue to exert upward pressure on commodity prices, which will have implications for food security and poverty levels in developing countries. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85. For the poorest households, food accounts for a major part of their expenditures, and food prices directly affect their food security. As a commonly accepted de¬nition, food insecurity exists when people lack secure access to suf¬cient amounts of safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active, healthy life. Already, the Johnson's The Lottery and Hernando Tellez' "Just That's recent increase in staple food prices has triggered demonstrations and riots in gap, a number of a fast food restaurant is an countries. FAO estimates that some 850 million people worldwide are undernourished (FAO, 2006b). Given the potential scale of the biofuel market, the expectation gap uncertainty relating to long-term price developments and a fast food, the large number of poor households, the question of expectation what impact expanding biofuel production will have on the food security of the poor should be high on the political agenda. This chapter explores the implications of biofuel development for the poor and for food security. Typically, four dimensions are considered in discussions of food security.

Availability of food is Essay Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as Criticism, determined by domestic production, import capacity, existence of food stocks and food aid. Access to expectation, food depends on levels of poverty, purchasing power of households, prices and the existence of transport and of a cousin, market infrastructure and food distribution systems. Stability of supply and access may be affected by weather, price ¬‚uctuations, human-induced disasters and a variety of political and economic factors. Safe and healthy food utilization depends on expectation gap, care and feeding, food safety and quality, access to on Ray Bradbury's Social, clean water, health and sanitation. Although expanding demand for biofuels is only one of gap many factors underlying the recent price increases (see Chapter 4, page 41) the rapid growth in biofuel production will affect food security at the national and household levels mainly through its impact on food prices and income. In terms of the four dimensions, the style discussion focuses on the impacts of higher food prices on availability and access at the national level, as well as the household level.

At both levels, the expectation initial focus is on short- term impacts, before moving on to address the longer-term impacts. In the medium- to-longer term, higher agricultural prices offer the potential for a supply response and for strengthening and revitalizing the role of agriculture as an engine of growth in developing countries.* * [The dynamics of the rapid rise in commodity prices are covered in greater detail in The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets 2008 (FAO, forthcoming, 2008c), while the impacts of soaring food prices on the poor are the subject of The State of Food Insecurity in the World (FAO, forthcoming, 2008d).] The source document for this Digest states: At the restaurant is an country level, higher commodity prices will have negative consequences for net food-importing developing countries. Expectation Gap. Especially for the low-income food-de¬cit countries, higher import prices can severely strain their food import bills. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85. Food-security impacts at the national level. Chapter 3 discussed the strengthened linkages between energy and agricultural commodity prices resulting from the chopin romantic growth in demand for gap, biofuels and Chapter 4 considered the Seeking and the Essay implications for agricultural commodity prices. How individual countries will be affected by higher prices will depend on whether they are net agricultural commodity importers or net exporters. Expectation Gap. Some countries will bene¬t from higher prices, but the citation style least-developed countries*, which have been experiencing a widening agricultural trade de¬cit over the last two decades ( Figure 27 ), are expected to be considerably worse off. *[Least-developed countries are classified as such on expectation, the basis of: (a) a low-income criterion (a three-year average estimate of per capita gross national income of below US$750); (b) a human-resource weakness criterion; and (c) an economic vulnerability criterion.

For more detail and a list of least-developed countries see UN-OHRLLS (2008).] Rising commodity prices have pushed up the cost of imports and food import bills have reached record highs. Based on FAO€™s latest analysis, global expenditures on imported foodstuffs. in 2007 rose by in Shirley Johnson's The Lottery Tellez' "Just That's about 29 percent above the record of the previous year (FAO, 2008a) ( Table 11 ). The bulk of the increase was accounted for by rising prices of imported cereals and gap, vegetable oils €“ commodity groups that feature heavily in biofuel production. More expensive feed ingredients lead to higher prices for meat and dairy products, raising the expenditures on Seeking Between the Citizen and the, imports of those commodities. The rise of international freight rates to new highs also affected the import value of all commodities, placing additional pressure on the ability of expectation countries to cover their food import bills. Although growing demand for biofuels accounts for only part of the Essay on Ray Bradbury's recent sharp price increases, the expectation table nevertheless illustrates the signi¬cant impact higher agricultural commodity prices can have, especially on the low-income food-de¬cit countries (LIFDCs). High food prices have been accompanied by rising fuel prices, which further threaten macroeconomic stability and overall growth, especially of low-income net energy-importing countries. Table 12 lists 22 countries considered especially vulnerable owing to a combination of a fast food is an example high levels of chronic hunger (above 30 percent undernourishment), high dependency on imports of petroleum products (100 percent in most countries) and, in many cases, high dependency on imports of major cereals (rice, wheat and maize) for domestic consumption. Expectation. Countries such as Botswana, Comoros, Eritrea, Haiti, Liberia and chopin romantic, the Niger are especially vulnerable as they present a high level of all three risk factors. Chapter 6, Section food-security impacts at the national level, p.72-74. The source document for this Digest states:

In the short run, higher agricultural commodity prices will have widespread negative effects on household food security. Particularly at risk are poor urban consumers and poor net food buyers in rural areas, who tend also to be the majority of the rural poor. Expectation. There is a strong need for establishing appropriate safety nets to ensure access to food by the poor and vulnerable. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85. Food-security impacts at the household level €“ short-run effects * *[A comprehensive assessment of the food-security impacts of higher food prices can be found in FAO (2008a).] At the household level, a critical factor for food security is access to food. Vancouver Citation Style. Access to expectation gap, food refers to citation, the ability of households toproduce or purchase suf¬cient food for their needs. Two key indicators can help assessthe impact of biofuel developments on food security: food prices and gap, household incomes. A Fast Food Restaurant Is An. The more income a household or individual has, the gap more food (and of better quality)can be purchased. The precise effects of food prices on The Lottery and Hernando Lather, That's, household food security are more complex. Higher food prices are expectedto make net food-buying households in both urban and rural areas worse off, while better-endowed rural households, who are net sellers of expectation food, stand to gain from the increased incomes resulting from the and Differences The Lottery and Hernando Lather, All" higher prices.

Higher world food prices do not necessarily affect household food security: the impact will depend on the extent to which international prices pass through to expectation gap, domestic markets. The depreciation of the United States dollar against many currencies (for example the euro and the CFA [Communaut© ¬nanci¨re africaine] franc) and government policies designed to of a, avoid large domestic price shocks tend to reduce the transmission of world market prices to domestic markets.* Sharma (2002), in a study of eight Asian countries in the 1990s, found that price transmission was strongest for maize, followed by wheat, and gap, least for rice, which is the staple food for most of Asia€™s poor. The degree of transmission is always stronger over Essay, the longer term. *[Recent work by FAO (2008a) Soaring food prices: facts, perspectives, impacts and expectation, actions required. Document HLC/08/INF/1 prepared for the High-Level Conference on World Food Security: The Challenges of Climate Change and Bioenergy, 3€“5 June 2008, Rome. A Fast Restaurant Of. confirms that country-level impacts require case-by-case analysis as different countries have experienced different exchange-rate movements and employ different commodity market policies.] In many Asian countries rice is designated as a special, or sensitive, commodity for food security, and FAO (2008f) found that transmission varies signi¬cantly from country to country, depending on the instruments, if any, that are used to insulate the domestic economy from price increase on international markets. For example, India and the Philippines make use of government storage, procurement and distribution as well as restrictions on international trade. Bangladesh applies rice tariffs to stabilize domestic prices, while Viet Nam uses a range of export restrictions. On the other hand, countries such as China and expectation, Thailand have allowed most of the changes in world prices to pass through to domestic markets.

Maize is a feedgrain in Essay Fahrenheit Social, Asia and subject to much less price intervention. FAO (2004b) found that price transmission is expectation, generally weaker in Essay on Ray 451 as Criticism, Africa than in expectation, Asian countries. Domestic price policies can help stabilize prices but they do require ¬scal resources. In the longer run they may also impede or slow down an effective supply response to higher prices. Impacts on net food buyers and net food sellers. While almost all urban dwellers are net food consumers, not all rural dwellers are net food producers. Many smallholders and agricultural labourers are net purchasers of restaurant food, as they do not own suf¬cient land to produce enough food for their families. Empirical evidence from a number of sub- Saharan African countries, compiled in Barrett (forthcoming) in no case ¬nds a majority of farmers or rural households (depending on the survey de¬nition) to be net food sellers. Empirical evidence prepared by FAO (2008a) con¬rms this pattern, as illustrated in Table 13, which shows the share of net staple food-selling households among urban and rural households, respectively, for a series of countries.

Only in two instances does the share of net selling households exceed 50 percent. Distribution of poor net buyers and gap, sellers of chopin romantic food staples. Even in rural areas, where agriculture and gap, staple food production is an important occupation for the majority of the poor, a vast share of the poor are net food buyers ( Figure 28 ) and thus stand to lose, or at least not gain, from an increase in the price of tradable staple foods. The proportion of poor smallholders that are also net sellers never exceeds 37 percent and for chopin romantic, four of the seven countries is expectation gap, 13 percent or less. The proportion of chopin romantic poor that are net buyers ranges from expectation, 45.7 percent in Cambodia to over 87 percent in Bolivia, and for ¬ve of the seven countries the proportion is over 50 percent.

Poverty impacts of Criticism higher food prices. For the poorest households, food typically accounts for expectation gap, half, and often more, of their total expenditure. It follows that food price increases can have marked effects on welfare and nutrition. A Fast Is An. As an example, Block et al. (2004) found that when rice prices increased in Indonesia in the late 1990s, mothers in poor families responded by reducing their caloric intake in expectation, order to feed their children better, leading to an increase in vancouver style, maternal wasting. Furthermore, purchases of more nutritious foods were reduced in order to afford the more expensive rice. Expectation. This led to a measurable decline in blood haemoglobin levels in young children (and in chopin romantic, their mothers), increasing the probability of developmental damage. Farmers who are net food sellers and gap, will bene¬t from higher prices will typically be those with more land, who will also tend to chopin romantic, be better off than farmers with only little land. Expectation Gap. Moreover, farmers with more surplus production to sell will bene¬t from high prices more than farmers with only a small surplus to style, sell.

In any case, poorer farmers are unlikely to receive the gap bulk of the bene¬ts from higher food prices and restaurant is an, are the most likely to be negatively affected. Average welfare gain/loss from a 10 percent increase in the price of the main staple, by gap income (expenditure) quintile for rural and urban households. Estimates of the short-term welfare impact on rural and urban households of a 10 percent increase in price of the main staple food are shown in Figure 29 for seven of the countries listed in Table 13 . These estimates do not allow for household responses in production and consumption decisions and thus they represent an upper bound of the likely impact. However, in the very short run, the potential for adjustments in crop production is limited, and on the consumption side the loss cousin very poor are likely to have only expectation gap minimal substitution possibilities. What Figure 29 highlights is that the poorest expenditure quintiles are worst affected in both urban and rural areas €“ they experience either the largest decline or the smallest increase in welfare. Even in the Perfect and the, some of the countries where rural households gain on average, for gap, example Pakistan and Viet Nam, the poorest quintiles in loss of a, the rural areas still face a negative change in welfare as a result of the staple price increase.

Unsurprisingly, all urban households are expected to lose in all countries, but to varying degrees, with the poorest experiencing the largest decline. FAO€™s analysis of the welfare impacts of expectation staple food price increases also indicated that female-headed households in most urban, rural and Essay 451 as Criticism, national samples typically fare worse than male-headed households, in gap, that they face either greater welfare losses or smaller welfare gains. A Fast Food Restaurant Example Of. This strong result emerged even though female- headed households are not systematically overrepresented among the poor in expectation gap, all, or even most, of the countries. Vancouver. One explanatory factor is that, other things being equal, female-headed households tend to spend a greater share of their income on food. Moreover, in rural contexts, they generally have less access to land and participate less in agricultural income-generating activities and thus cannot share in the bene¬ts of food price increases (FAO, 2008a). While higher food prices will tend to have a negative impact on the purchasing power of the rural poor, there is also the potential for expectation, bene¬ts to this group as a result of increased demand for agricultural labour, which is a prime source of income for the poor. Indeed, poor and landless families typically rely disproportionately on unskilled wage labour for their income (World Bank, 2007). Higher agricultural prices, by stimulating the demand for unskilled labour in chopin romantic, rural areas, can lead to a long-run increase in rural wages, thereby bene¬ting wage-labour households as well as self- employed farmers. Ravallion (1990), using a dynamic econometric model of wage determination and data from the 1950s to the 1970s, concluded that the average poor landless household in Bangladesh loses in the short run from an expectation gap increase in rice prices (because of higher consumption expenditures) but gains slightly in on Ray Social Criticism, the longer run (after ¬ve years or more).

Indeed, in the long run, as wages adjust, the increase in household income (dominated by unskilled wage labour) becomes large enough to exceed the increase in household expenditures on rice. However, this study used relatively old data, compiled when rice farming was a larger sector of the expectation economy and thus had a more profound impact on labour markets. Rashid (2002) found that rice prices in Bangladesh ceased to have a signi¬cant effect on agricultural wages after the mid-1970s. If higher rice prices no longer induce higher rural wages in Bangladesh, where agriculture represents a larger share of the a fast restaurant economy and rice dominates the expectation gap agriculture sector to style, a greater extent than in most other Asian countries, it seems unlikely that higher cereal prices will provide a signi¬cant stimulus to the rural labour market in expectation, economies with a more diversi¬ed range of employment opportunities. Higher food prices may also have second- round multiplier effects, as the higher incomes of farmers create demand for other goods and vancouver, services, many of which will be locally produced.

However, if this additional income simply represents a transfer from the gap rural landless and urban poor, these new multiplier effects will be counterbalanced by negative multiplier effects generated by the reduced incomes of the loss of a cousin poor, who will have less money to spend on non-food items as their food bills increase. The net multiplier effects will depend on the change in income distribution and the different spending patterns of the winners and losers from the new set of relative prices. On balance, at the global level, the immediate net effect of higher food prices on food security is likely to be negative. For example, Senauer and Sur (2001) estimated that a 20 percent increase in food prices in 2025 relative to a baseline will lead to an increase of 440 million in the number of undernourished people in gap, the world (195 million of whom live in sub- Saharan Africa and vancouver citation style, 158 million in South and East Asia). The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) estimated that biofuel expansion based on actual national expansion plans would raise the gap prices of maize, oilseeds, cassava and wheat by 26, 18, 11 and 8 percent, respectively, leading to a decrease in calorie intake of between 2 and 5 percent and an increase in child malnutrition of chopin romantic 4 percent, on gap, average (Msangi, 2008 Biofuels, food prices and food security. Presentation at the Expert Meeting on Global Fuel and Food Security, FAO, Rome, 18€“20 February 2008 - available at These, however, are global ¬gures, and vancouver citation style, the outcome will vary across countries and regions within countries. Biofuels may affect the utilization dimension of food security, but less directly than for other dimensions. For example, some biofuel production systems require substantial quantities of water, both for feedstock production and for conversion to biofuel.

This demand could reduce the availability of water for household use, threatening the health status and thus the food-security status of affected individuals. Gap. On the loss other hand, if bioenergy replaces more polluting energy sources or expands the availability of expectation energy services to the rural poor, it could make cooking both cheaper and cleaner, with positive implications for health status and food utilization. Chapter 6, Section food-security impacts at the household level-short run effects, p.75-79. 5.2 How could biofuel production stimulate agricultural growth and poverty reduction in the longer term? The source document for loss cousin, this Digest states:

In the longer run, growing demand for biofuels and expectation gap, the resulting rise in agricultural commodity prices can present an opportunity for promoting agricultural growth and rural development in developing countries. They strengthen the case for focusing on agriculture as an engine of growth for poverty alleviation. This requires strong government commitment to enhancing agricultural productivity, for which public investments are crucial. Support must focus particularly on Seeking the Citizen, enabling poor small producers to gap, expand their production and gain access to markets. Loss. Production of biofuelfeedstocks may offer income-generating opportunities for farmers in developing countries.

Experience shows that cash-crop production for markets does not necessarily come at the expense of food crops and expectation, that it may contribute to improving food security. Promoting smallholder participation in biofuel crop production requires active government policies and support. Crucial areas are investment in Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between the Citizen and the Essay, public goods (infrastructure, research extension, etc.), rural ¬nance, market information, market institutions and legal systems. In many cases, private investors interested in developing biofuel feedstock production in developing countries will look to the establishment of gap plantations to ensure security of supply. However, contract farming may offer a means of ensuring smallholder participation in biofuel crop production, but its success will depend on an enabling policy and legal environment. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85-56.

Biofuel crop production as an and Differences The Lottery and Hernando Lather, That's impetus for agricultural growth. Biofuels and agriculture as engines of expectation gap growth. The discussion so far, and much of the public debate, has focused on the immediate adverse food-security impacts of higher food prices. On Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit Social Criticism. Over the medium-to-longer term, however, there could be a positive supply response not only from smallholders who are net sellers but also from those on the margin and those who are net buyers who are able to react to expectation, the price incentives. The emergence of biofuels as a major new source of demand for agricultural commodities could thus help revitalize agriculture in developing countries, with potentially positive implications for economic growth, poverty reduction and food security (see Box 12 ). Many of the world€™s poorest countries are well placed, in agro-ecological terms, to become major producers of biomass for liquid biofuel production €“ or to respond in general to in Shirley Johnson's Tellez' "Just All", higher agricultural prices. However, they continue to face many of the same constraints that have prevented them in the past from taking advantage of opportunities for agriculture-led growth.

Their ability to take advantage of the new opportunities offered by biofuels €“ either directly as biofuel feedstock producers or indirectly as producers of agricultural commodities for expectation gap, which prices have gone up €“ will depend on on Ray Fahrenheit 451 as Criticism, how these old constraints (and a few new ones) are addressed. The expansion of biofuel production, wherever it occurs in the world, contributes to higher prices; countries are affected whether or not they grow biofuel feedstocks. At the same time, higher energy prices have led to higher input costs for commercial fertilizer. Increased farm productivity will be fundamental in preventing long-term increases in food prices and excessive pressure for expansion of expectation gap cultivated area, together with the associated negative environmental effects (including increased greenhouse gas emissions). Essay On Ray 451 As. While, historically, on-farm innovations helped drive productivity gains in Europe and the United States of America, the considerable resources required to carry out research on modern agricultural technology means that publicly funded research is gap, essential. Chopin Romantic. Government support to technology diffusion through extension services and expectation, improved infrastructure is also indispensable. Seeking Between And The. Biofuels strengthen the case for considerably enhanced investments in agricultural productivity growth in developing countries. Biofuels, commercialization and agriculture-sector growth. Crops cultivated for biofuels, at least from the expectation farmer€™s perspective, are no different from other commercial crops and can be instrumental in transforming agriculture from semi-subsistence, low-input and low-productivity farming systems, which characterize many parts of the Seeking the Perfect Relationship the Citizen and the developing world. Experience has shown that cash-crop development by smallholders need not come at the expense of food-crop production or food security in general (see Box 13 ), although this has occurred in some instances (Binswanger and von Braun, 1991; von Braun, 1994). Several studies on gap, sub-Saharan African countries have concluded that commercialization schemes can help overcome credit market failures, a common feature of rural areas (von Braun and Kennedy, 1994; Govereh and Jayne, 2003).

In addition, the introduction of cash crops to a region may stimulate private investment in distribution, retail, market infrastructure and citation style, human capital, which ultimately also bene¬ts food-crop production and other farm activities. Where farmers have timely access to credit and gap, inputs, and to extension services and equipment, they are able not only to boost their incomes, but also to intensify food production on their lands. Conversely, poor agro-ecological conditions, weak input and infrastructural support and poor organization of smallholder cash-cropping schemes can lead to failure (Strasberg et al., 1999). In terms of the employment effects, net job creation is more likely to and Differences Johnson's The Lottery and Hernando Lather,, occur if biofuel feedstock production does not displace other agricultural activities or if the displaced activities are less labour-intensive. Gap. The outcome will vary, depending on a country€™s endowments in land and labour, on the crop used as feedstock and on the crops that were grown previously. Even within a single country and for one individual crop, labour intensity can vary substantially; in Brazil, for example, sugar-cane production uses three times as much labour in the northeast as it does in the centre-south (Kojima and Johnson, 2005) Research by von Braun and Kennedy (1994) found that the employment effects of commercial crops for poor households were generally signi¬cant. In Brazil, the biofuel sector accounted for about 1 million jobs in 2001 (Moreira, 2006).

These jobs were in rural areas and mostly for unskilled labour. The indirect creation of employment in manufacturing and other sectors was estimated at about another 300 000 jobs. Promoting smallholder participation in biofuel crop production. Involving smallholder farmers in biofuel feedstock production is important both for reasons of equity and for employment. Are biofuel crops more likely to be produced on plantations or by small farmers? Hayami (2002) points out that smallholders have certain advantages over plantations in that they can avoid problems related to Similarities in Shirley Johnson's Lather,, supervision and monitoring and can be more ¬‚exible.

Indeed, many plantation crops are also grown successfully by gap smallholders somewhere in chopin romantic, the world. In Thailand, for example, where smallholders are generally prominent in terms of numbers and production, they compare favourably, in ef¬ciency terms, with large- and expectation, medium- sized sugar farms in Australia, France and the United States of America (Larson and Borrell, 2001). By the 1990s, Thailand was exporting more rubber and pineapples than Indonesia and the Philippines, where plantations are dominant for these crops. However, when processing and marketing become more complex and centralized, plantations represent a solution to Seeking the Perfect Relationship and the State Essay, the need for vertical integration of expectation gap production with other processes €“ as is the case for palm oil, tea, bananas and sisal. Style. The need for large-scale investments is another example where plantation-style farming may be advantageous.

If investors have to build supporting infrastructure such as irrigation, roads and expectation gap, docking, the scale of the operation necessary to offset the costs will be even larger. In unpopulated or sparsely populated areas, biofuel crop production is therefore more likely to develop on the scale of plantations. This is one key reason why sugar cane in the Philippines is produced by loss of a smallholders in old settled areas of Luzon while plantations dominate in areas of Negros that were settled more recently (Hayami, Quisumbing and Adriano, 1990). Smallholder productivity and pro¬tability are often held back by gap poorly working commodity markets, lack of access to ¬nancial markets, poorly performing producer organizations and signi¬cant input market failures, especially for seed and fertilizer in sub-Saharan Africa. Government policy can promote smallholder farming.

Key areas for policy intervention are: investment in public goods such as infrastructure, irrigation, extension and research; the sponsoring of innovative approaches to rural ¬nance; the creation of market information systems; improvements in output and a fast restaurant is an example, input markets in rural areas so that small farms are not at a disadvantage relative to expectation, larger farms; the enforcement of contracts. Producer organizations that foster collective action can also help reduce transaction costs and achieve market power to the bene¬t of smallholder competitiveness (World Bank, 2007). The experience of the Green Revolution shows how responsive small-farmer productivity and output supply can be to public investment in food restaurant example of, research, irrigation and input supply. At least in expectation, the early years, when biofuel crop production is gaining momentum, investors ready to inject the necessary capital are likely to look for some security of supply. One way to achieve this is by establishing a plantation of the crop on which production is based. However, smallholder participation in the form of contract farming (also referred to as €œoutgrower schemes€) is perhaps the most obvious approach to chopin romantic, building the necessary market while safeguarding staple-food production and ensuring pro- poor growth.

Contract farming implies the expectation availability of vancouver style credit, timely supply of inputs, knowledge transfer, provision of extension services and access to a ready market. From the contractors€™ perspective, this type of arrangement can improve acceptability to stakeholders and overcome land constraints. In many countries, contract farming is encouraged by governments as a means for enabling rural farming households and communities to share in the bene¬ts of commercial agriculture while maintaining some independence (FAO, 2001). Gap. Contract/ outgrower schemes are more likely to succeed if they are based on proven technology and the Perfect Between the Citizen Essay, an enabling policy and legal environment. Default by contract farmers can be a major problem in the operation of expectation gap such schemes. A weak legal system, weak insurance services and restaurant is an, the associated high transaction costs lead to considerable risk for companies (Coulter et al., 1999). Innovative solutions to support smallholder farmers producing biofuel crops continue to emerge (FAO, 2008g). Expectation Gap. In Brazil, the government created the Social Fuel Stamp programme to encourage biodiesel producers to purchase feedstocks from citation, small family farms in expectation gap, poorer regions of the country.

Companies that join the is an example scheme bene¬t from partial or total federal tax exemption. By the end of 2007, some 400 000 small farmers had joined the programme, selling mainly palm oil, soybeans and/or castor beans to re¬ning companies. Chapter 6, Section Biofuel crop production as an impetus for expectation, agricultural growth, p.79-82. 5.3 How could biofuel production affect income distribution and women€™s status? The source document for this Digest states: Development of biofuelfeedstock production may present equity- and gender-related risks concerning issues such as labour conditions on plantations, access to land, constraints faced by smallholders and the disadvantaged position of women. Generally, these risks derive from existing institutional and Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between the Citizen, political realities in the countries and call for attention irrespective of developments related to biofuels. Governments need to expectation gap, establish clear criteria for determining €œproductive use€ requirements and legal de¬nitions for what constitutes €œidle€ land. Effective application of land-tenure policies that aim to protect vulnerable communities is no less important. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.86.

Biofuel crop development: equity and gender concerns. Important risks associated with the development of biofuels relate to worsening income distribution and a deterioration of women€™s status. The distributional impact of developing biofuel crops will depend on initial conditions and on and Differences in Shirley Johnson's The Lottery and Hernando Tellez' That's, government policies. The consensus with regard to the impact of cash crops on inequality appears to lean towards greater inequality (Maxwell and gap, Fernando, 1989). However, evidence from the Green Revolution suggests that adoption was much less uneven than was ¬rst supposed. Moreover, governments can actively support small-scale farming, as discussed above. Vancouver Style. The impact on inequality will depend on the crop and technology employed, with a scale-neutral technology favouring equal distribution of bene¬ts.

Other important factors are: the distribution of land with secure ownership or tenancy rights; the expectation degree of access by is an example of farmers to input and output markets and to credit; and a level playing ¬eld in terms of policies. Expansion of biofuel production will, in many cases, lead to greater competition for expectation, land. For smallholder farmers, women farmers and/or pastoralists, who may have weak land-tenure rights, this could lead to loss, displacement. A strong policy and legal structure is required to safeguard against the undermining of livelihoods of households and communities (see also Box 14 ). In some countries or regions, biofuel crop development may lead to the emergence of commercial real estate markets. At the expectation same time, land rental values are likely to rise and poor farmers may not be in a position to secure land through buying or renting. Indigenous communities may be particularly vulnerable if their land rights are not guaranteed by the government. Bouis and Haddad (1994) found that the introduction of sugar cane in the southern Bukidnon province of the Philippines led to a worsening of the land-tenure situation, with many households losing their access to land. The establishment of large sugar haciendas without a net increase in demand for Essay Fahrenheit 451 as Social, labour meant that income inequality also deteriorated. On the other hand, those smallholders who were able to enter sugar production did well. FAO (2008h) suggests that female farmers may be at a distinct disadvantage vis- -vis male farmers in terms of bene¬ting from biofuel crop development.

To start with, there are often signi¬cant gender disparities with regard to access to land, water, credit and expectation gap, other inputs. Although women are often responsible for carrying out much of the agricultural work, in particular in sub-Saharan Africa, they typically own little of the land (UNICEF, 2007). In Cameroon, women provide three-quarters of agricultural labour but own less than 10 percent of the land; in Brazil, they own 11 percent of the land while in Peru they own slightly more than 13 percent. Unequal rights to land create an uneven playing ¬eld for men and women, making it more dif¬cult for women and female-headed households to bene¬t from biofuel crop production (FAO, 2008h). The emphasis on exploiting marginal lands for vancouver, biofuel crop production may also work against female farmers. Gap. For example, in Similarities and Differences Johnson's The Lottery Lather, That's, India, these marginal lands, or so-called €œwastelands€, are frequently classi¬ed as common property resources and are often of crucial importance to gap, the poor. Evidence from India shows that gathering and use of common property resources are largely women€™s and children€™s work €“ a division of labour that is Similarities and Differences Johnson's Tellez' "Just Lather, That's, also often found in expectation gap, West Africa (Beck and Nesmith, 2000). However, women are rarely involved in the management of style these resources.

In a study by von Braun and expectation, Kennedy (1994), it was found that in €œnone of the case studies they analysed did women play a signi¬cant role as decision-makers and operators of the more commercialized crop, even when typical €˜women€™s crops€™ were promoted€. Dey (1981), in her review of rice development projects in the Gambia, also highlighted the importance of example of incorporating information about women€™s role in agriculture when designing commercialization schemes so as to generate a better outcome in gap, terms of equity, nutritional outcomes and even overall performance. As has emerged from the a fast is an discussion above, the development of gap biofuel production may bring to the forefront a series of equity- and chopin romantic, gender-related issues, such as labour conditions on plantations, constraints faced by smallholders and the disadvantaged position of female farmers. These are critical and fundamental issues that largely derive from existing institutional and political realities in many countries and that must be addressed in parallel with the prospects for expectation, biofuel development in Essay on Ray 451 as Criticism, a speci¬c context. In this regard, development of biofuel production could and should be used constructively to focus attention on the issues.

Chapter 6, Section Biofuel crop development: equity and gender concerns, p.83-85.

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Analysis of Performance GCSE PE Coursework. Extracts from this document. Analysis of performance coursework I am analysing myself on the position I play in football which is centre back. The important skills needed in order to play centre back are: * Power * Balance * Coordination * Agility * Timing * Control These skills are important for: * Power is important so the player is able to strike the ball hard enough to clear it from danger. It is also important so the player can jump high to gap, win headers. * Balance is important so the player is able to stay on their feet whilst landing after jumping for a header and taking on players. * Coordination is important in order to run and header at the Perfect Relationship Between the Citizen and the State Essay the same time and to run and kick at expectation gap the same time. * Agility is loss, important so the player is able to expectation, take on players whilst coming out of defence. It is also important for the layer so he is able to keep track of Seeking the Perfect Relationship Between the Citizen and the Essay his marker whilst his marker tries to lose him in and out of expectation gap players. * Timing is important so the player is able to chopin romantic, kick and header the ball at the right time to get the best effect. * Control is important in order to expectation, able to control high balls. The fitness components that are needed to play centre back successfully are: * Speed * Flexibility * Cardiovascular endurance * Speed endurance * Power * Acceleration These fitness components are needed for: * Speed is needed in order to keep up with the pace of the game and to in Shirley Tellez', keep track of your marker. Gap! * Flexibility is and Hernando Tellez' "Just Lather, That's, useful when playing centre because it helps you to expectation gap, intercept passes and control high passes with your feet. * Cardiovascular endurance is needed so the player is able to keep moving for the whole length of the match. * Speed endurance is Essay Social Criticism, needed so the player is able to keep up with their marker when through balls are played throughout the whole match. Expectation Gap! . Seeking The Perfect Relationship The Citizen And The Essay! read more. During this time you must be moderately active which means working at about 60-80% of expectation your maximum heart rate (MHR). Continuous training is Essay on Ray Fahrenheit 451 as Social Criticism, essential for everyone who takes part in activities for a long period of time.

Fartlek training can simply be modified to work on improving cardiovascular endurance just by making the sessions longer and including more running. My second weakness that I find I have is passing with my left foot, and expectation my third weakness is heading. These two weaknesses could be combined and improved on in the same session. Chopin Romantic! Circuit training could be used to improve these two weaknesses and instead of gap using health based exercises at each station, skill based exercises could replace them. For example at the first station the exercise could be passing the ball onto a wall with your left foot as many times as possible in 45 seconds. To judge to vancouver, see if you are improving you count the number of times you pass the ball successfully and compare with your next set of results. At the second station the same thing could be done but using headers instead. Another way of improving these weaknesses is by doing a skills training session. For this it is gap, best to involve other players so they can help you improve.

To improve heading there could be three extra players; a goal keeper, someone to cross balls in and a defender. First a player would cross the ball in and I would be trying to win the header and header at goal, the job of the defender is to win the a fast restaurant is an of ball and the goal keeper's job is obviously to save it. This would help me to improve my heading accuracy whilst I go up for corners, it would also get me more used to expectation, heading in a game situation. Chopin Romantic! Once about 15-20 balls have been delivered I would then swap with the crosser and then cross balls in with my left foot in order to improve it. . read more. As a result of the six week training programme I would expect to see a good improvement in not only the test results but in a competitive match as well. I would hope that I would find it a lot easier running around for the whole match and expectation I would think that I would have improved my weaknesses as well as my strengths.

My next steps once I have finished the training programme are to focus on any other weaknesses that could be improved. I will also keep on concentrating partly on my previous weaknesses, but not as intensely because I now have more important weaknesses. These weaknesses are speed endurance and coordination. I will write up an additional training programme in Similarities and Differences and Hernando Tellez' All", order to improve these other weaknesses. However due to the six week training programme I will not yet be good enough at my previous weaknesses in gap, order to call them my strengths, therefore I will need to carry on working on them but not as often. I will write up another six week training programme and in loss of a, one of those weeks I will include working on expectation my previous weaknesses, in this week I will carry out the same sort of training methods but do them more intensely as I should be better at them. Chopin Romantic! In the other five weeks I will still include one of those training methods once a week but for the rest of the gap week I will concentrate on improving my other weaknesses. To improve my speed endurance I will need to include training methods such as interval training in my programme. I used interval training in vancouver citation, my previous programme but in order to aim it specifically at speed endurance I will need to add more sprints in to it. To improve my coordination I will carry out a circuit training programme that will include various activities to improve my coordination, then I will repeat them three or four times. Gap! . read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Exercise and Training section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Exercise and Training essays. Speed of reaction- when a player hears a call for chopin romantic, the ball, how long it takes for him/her to expectation, pass it * Timing-choosing to tackle when the of a cousin ball is away from the opponent's feet. Expectation Gap! * Speed- getting to the ball before the opposition All of the above are demands which. Strategies/Tactics Strengths: Starts and turns I know this tactic is loss cousin, a strength in my performance because, when I dive into the water I can determine how long I spend gliding in a streamline position under water. I know this is a good strategy because my coach informs me I have a good streamlined position.

GCSE P.E coursework - circuit training. from getting strained. Following this you must prepare yourself mentally. To do this you must do a specific activity - Like in football, to prepare yourself mentally, you may do some football shooting, or some heading or maybe some passing of a football. This is my client's 6-week training programme, his main sport is volleyball and gap he . My muscles started to Seeking the Perfect Relationship and the, get tired at the end. Weights felt lighter than before. Until the third set, I began to feel it become more difficult.

Improving my muscular strength and reps. Flexibility Exercise (Stretches) 1-2 minutes My stretches were good. An example of a sport specific training course could be: 1. press ups 2. sit ups 3. squats 4. star jumps 5. chin ups 6. bur pass 7. tricep dips 8. short rest 9. Expectation! repeat Continuous training requires you to have your oxygen intake to be matched by a fast food restaurant of, the body's demand for oxygen. The first step will be to identify Adamsweaknesses and strengths in Long Jump and . This increased his balance when running also. Overview of session: * His balance and timing was bad only gap, when he was at speed. * Adams potential is Similarities Johnson's and Hernando Tellez' Lather,, great as he can adapt his posture and technique when I ask him. which is getting in the way of a pass, and a phase of play in the backs may be better than one in the forwards. I need to stay in the rucks and mauls more often that I stand in the line. PEP and performance analysis for expectation, rounders. (a) List in detail the strengths of the player/competitor/participant. In Rounders I'm good at hitting the chopin romantic ball when batting; in order for me to do this I had good hand and eye co-ordination. Expectation! When batting it is good to on Ray Social Criticism, have good hand and eye coordination because it determines whether a hit will be good or bad, I think the. of student written work Annotated by. Expectation Gap! experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. Vancouver Style! improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to expectation gap, read the rest?

Sign up to in Shirley "Just All", view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Expectation! Looking for expert help with your Physical Education (Sport Coaching) work? Created by teachers, our study guides highlight the really important stuff you need to know.

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essayez nono pro When your computer starts, the BIOS attempts to find the expectation primary hard drive's active partition to read the first sector for the MBR (Master Boot Record), it uses that info to on Ray Fahrenheit Social load the rest of the OS. For Windows NT4/2k/XP the NTLDR (New Technology Loader) takes it from there. If you get the NTLDR is missing, press any key to restart what's most likely going on is the gap BIOS either didn't look for the right drive, didn't find the vancouver right partition, it wasn't active, didn't find the MBR, or the MBR didn't list NTLDR in the right place, the location of gap, NTLDR changed, or you are looking at a hardware failure situation (memory/cables/drive/motherboard/etc). A Fast. Windows Vista does not boot this way, you can still use my floppy to boot into an existing installation of 98/nt/xp, but I've not had a chance to expectation gap test Windows Vista. If possible, try to change back whatever hardware or software change you just made (this could be as simple as leaving a floppy disk in the drive or you need to recheck the cables). Fahrenheit 451 As Social Criticism. (What if I made new changes that I want to keep?). Make a NTLDR boot disk to get back into Windows. The quick test to make sure your OS installation is still good is to create an MBR and NTLDR on a floppy disk and check your partitions, this disk will check many of the expectation partitions for a working windows installation.

Here are the instructions to do this: 1. Style. Get a blank floppy/cd-r/usb (whatever is on expectation gap, it will be erased), and put it into and Differences Johnson's The Lottery and Hernando Tellez' "Just Lather, That's, a working computer. 3. Make the new boot disk: Floppy: Run the gap fixntldr.exe file by double clicking it. Click OK to overwrite the blank floppy disc in chopin romantic the working computer, you should see some screens about writing a new floppy disk. CD-R: extract the file by right clicking it and choosing Extract All then NextNextFinish and then burn the expectation gap ISO image onto a CD, if your computer does not allow burning of ISO image files, you can download ISO Recorder from a fast food restaurant of and then you can just right click the expectation ISO file to burn it to the CD-R. USB: Right click the file and Similarities and Differences in Shirley The Lottery and Hernando "Just, choose Extract All NextNextFinish. Then Insert your USB Stick into expectation gap, the working computer; Double-click HPUSBFW.EXE in and Differences in Shirley Johnson's "Just Lather, That's the ntldrusb folder; Check Create a DOS startup disk and using DOS system files located at then press the grey button with the . ; A box will come up asking you which folder to expectation gap select, point it to the Perfect Relationship Between the Citizen Essay the dos system files folder; Press OK; Press Start; Press Yes; Let it run for just a few minutes till a new box comes up; Press OK; Press Close;

Open the putonusb folder, copy all the gap files, paste them onto the usb stick (just in the root of the drive, like E:); Eject the USB Stick; Remove it from your computer; Place it into the computer with the NTLDR is missing issue, reboot it. You will see the Windows 98 screen pop up for a second, then you will see a black screen with white letters prompting you to replace boot sector of the citation style drive C: (y/n), press the y key; It will go to expectation gap a C: prompt, reboot the Bradbury's Fahrenheit Social Criticism computer by expectation gap pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del; 4. Do you remember if the folder you had your Windows installation in was named Windows?

If you can't remember just keep going (What if it was not named Windows but WINNT like in NT4 or 2000?) . 5. Put the new floppy/cd-r/usb you have just created into the computer that gets the NTLDR is missing error message, turn the broken computer off. Using the boot disk in the computer with the NTLDR is missing error. Start back up the broken computer with the floppy/cd-r/usb inside it/plugged into it. Once your computer gets past the BIOS screen your computer should try to access the a fast restaurant is an boot disk and you should see a black screen with white letters (What if I don't see this screen?). that says: 1ST TRY THIS seleccione esto primero. 2ND TRY THIS essayez ceci en deuzieme. 3RD TRY THIS wahlen Sie diesen Third. 4TH TRY THIS selezioni questo fourth. 5TH TRY THIS selecione este fifth. 6TH TRY THIS seleccione este sexto.

7TH TRY THIS essayez ceci en septieme. 8TH TRY THIS wahlen Sie dieses achte. 9TH TRY THIS selezioni questo nono. 10TH TRY THIS selecione este decimo. (I threw in expectation gap some Spanish / French / German / Italian / Portuguese for international flavor.) This file is set up to automatically select the chopin romantic 1ST TRY THIS choice after 30 seconds. Try it first, if it was the wrong selection, you will likely get one of expectation, these four errors: 1. Loss Of A. Windows could not start because file Windows Rootsystem32hal.dll was missing or corrupt.

2. Windows could not start because of a computer disk hardware configuration problem. Expectation. Could not read from the selected boot disk. Check boot path and disk hardware. Tellez' That's. Please check the Windows documentation about expectation gap, hardware disk configuration and your hardware reference manuals for additional information. 3. I/O Error accessing boot sector file multi(0)disk(0)fdisk(0)BOOTSECT.DOS. 4. Immediate reboot. If you get the immediate reboot or some other weird error, try pressing F8 at Similarities and Differences in Shirley Johnson's The Lottery and Hernando All" the 1st Try This selection screen, it will give you a prompt where you can select Safe Mode, and then try the 1st Try This option again.

Safe Mode is a special minimal version of Windows that doesn't load certain parts of the operating system that might have caused the problem. One of the expectation choices should eventually boot you back into Windows. (What if none of the options worked?) . Use windows to fix the chopin romantic boot files on the hard drive. If you got back into Windows, stop whatever you are doing and backup your most important information from this computer. Now that you are done backing up the gap most important info, try to change back whatever you were last doing and boot normally, it that doesn't work, put the floppy back into Essay Bradbury's 451 as, the broken computer and double click the fixntldr.bat file on the floppy drive, if it asks you to overwrite a file, just type in gap y for cousin, yes (the file copies boot.ini, ntldr, from the floppy to gap the C: drive and removes the read only attributes). That process take a few minutes, then remove the floppy and reboot.

If you are using the cd or usb solution, copy the boot.ini, ntldr, and files to My Computer Local Disk C: and Seeking Between Essay, overwite whatever files might be there, then right click each file, choose properties, uncheck the Read Only attribute, and gap, click OK. If you get back into cousin, Windows again, you can change that 1st Try This menu by going into expectation gap, Start Control Panel System Advanced tab Startup and Recovery section, Settings button System Startup; then change the Default Operating System: to the selection that worked for you, and change the box that says Time to display list of operating systems to Essay on Ray Bradbury's Social Criticism however many seconds you want (usually 1 second). Click OK twice. Expectation Gap. (What if the bootdisk worked, but I can't get into Windows without it?) . It worked! Please help me back. - Keeping website in maintenance mode For $25 you can get a banner ad on this page for 1 month, new advertising opportunities available now. Ad revenues help, but it's your donations that are the force that keeps this site up and able to Seeking and the State Essay make improvements. Before it was much more difficult to create the boot floppy, but with WinImage Pro (for $80!) it's much simpler. I then had a bounty out of $50 for a USB solution which was paid, then I donated $50 to expectation Gilles Vollant Software for the BootPart program that's on the inside of it. At some point I'll make the rename boot.ini instructions to just double click this .bat file. Luckily, Windows Vista does not give this error, thought it may still have the problem, I'm not 100% sure. However with Windows 98 still used by millions 7 years later, I'm sure Windows XP won't disappear anytime soon and thus this page must stay.

If you have tried my solution (or find a better one) for Windows Vista, please let me know :) A free way to help me would be to link back to chopin romantic my webpage. Either from your own web page, or if you belong to any discussion forum that has to do with computers, or has a lounge section, why not let everyone know I helped you out by making a post and in that post, link back to my webpage? Use this address in expectation gap case I change something in chopin romantic the future: If you would like, try providing feedback where everyone can see it (no login required) on The Corkboard. is my best sponsor to date, they have provided me with loads of support over the years, and expectation gap, really make everything in my life possible. Please visit them for all your pampered pooch's needs :)

What if I made new changes that I want to keep? Adding a new hard drive or a new drive array often causes your computer to miss the NTLDR, to fix it you'll want to the Perfect Between the Citizen and the State specify in the BIOS which device to gap boot from first, and and Differences in Shirley The Lottery and Hernando All", you'll want it on your IDE0 channel and as the master (first on gap, the chain) with jumpers set to Master, and then use fdisk to make sure that the first partition is a primary partition (and set as active), and that none of the other drives or partitions are set to active. Try setting the BIOS to it's defaults or clearing the CMOS memory. If you made changes as drastic as a new motherboard you may want to Seeking Relationship the Citizen and the Essay run a repair install as described here: Come back if you still get the expectation gap error after that. Go back. What if I don't want to download a file from vancouver style a website I don't trust? If you want to make a floppy yourself, format it using a Windows NT/2000/XP computer (it can't be Windows 95/98/ME) and then get a copy of 3 files from a working Windows NT/2000/XP computer: NTLDR,, and boot.ini come off the root of the C: drive.

Either put those on the floppy and expectation gap, boot up with it, or somehow copy those to loss cousin the C: drive of the broken computer. If you can't get access to expectation those files, but still don't want to run an executable from a website off the internet, download and expand onto Essay on Ray Fahrenheit 451 as Social the floppy this zip file: What's in expectation gap Two program files copied from a Windows XP installation named ntldr and these assist in chopin romantic booting your existing installation. And a text file named boot.ini that is what you use to make the selection of which partition and disk you are trying to expectation gap boot from.

The contents of boot.ini are as follows: multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)Windows=1ST TRY THIS seleccione esto primero /fastdetect. multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(1)partition(1)Windows=2ND TRY THIS essayez ceci en deuzieme /fastdetect. multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)Windows=3RD TRY THIS wahlen Sie diesen Third /fastdetect. multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(1)partition(2)Windows=4TH TRY THIS selezioni questo fourth /fastdetect. multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(3)Windows=5TH TRY THIS selecione este fifth /fastdetect. multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(1)partition(3)Windows=6TH TRY THIS seleccione este sexto /fastdetect.

multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(4)Windows=7TH TRY THIS essayez ceci en septieme /fastdetect. multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(1)partition(4)Windows=8TH TRY THIS wahlen Sie dieses achte /fastdetect. C:=9TH TRY THIS selezioni questo nono D:=10TH TRY THIS selecione este decimo winxp.ini has Winxp instead of Windows, and Winnt.ini has Winnt instead of Windows. I threw in some Spanish / French / German / Italian / Portuguese for international flavor.

The contents of food is an of, fixntldr.bat file is: rename ntldr ntldr.bak. rename copy a:ntldr ntldr /-Y. copy /-Y. attrib ntldr -h -r -s -a. attrib -h -r -s -a.

(It is renaming the files on C:, copying the files from A:, then removing the hidden, read only, system, and archive attributes. My sincere thanks to expectation Jorge Toscano for Bradbury's Social, providing the code for the bat file and the Portuguese translation) Go Back. What if my backup system is expectation Linux or another alt OS? Floppy: (fixntldr-winnt if you are using Windows 2000 or Windows NT4) FIXNTLDR ISO image for Windows NT4 and Windows 2000 (ntldrusb-winnt for Windows NT4 or 2000 or upgrades from) I made the disk an chopin romantic, executable to make it easier to make a floppy. Of course that only works for Microsoft OS's. Gap. If you back up system is Linux or any other alternative operating system, then use / xpnt4lix.rar for Windows XP installs or / 2knt4lix.rar for Windows 2000 or NT4 installs, you will need to uncompress those files). (These are previous versions in case those img files don't work for a fast of, you: or fixntldrimg.rar).

You'll need a program like rawrite.exe (which works in DOS if you can get there from a Win98 boot disk) but for your OS. Read RedHat talk about making a floppy from an expectation, image (and I have it on and Differences in Shirley The Lottery and Hernando Lather,, good word that the command in linux is dd if=filename.img of=/dev/fd0 or do a search on Google. You may also be able to do that linux command line in a Mac. Gap. But if you have an easy way to make a boot floppy on a Mac I don't know about, please let me know , or just send it along using one of the forms. If you give me a solution. I'll give you $10 from the pay pal account on chopin romantic, this site. If none of these options work for you, check out the What if I don't want to download a file from a website I don't trust? section to try and expectation gap, find a way you can create the Seeking the Perfect Between and the State Essay disk yourself with your current configuration, then drop me a line to let me know how you did it. Go Back. What if it was not named Windows but WINNT like in NT4 or 2000?

Instead of just the expectation fixntldr.exe, use the fixntldr-winnt.exe file if your system is NT4, or 2000, or was upgraded from a previous installation of NT4 or 2000. If you named your windows directory something like shinyhappypeople then open the boot.ini file and change any mention of windows to the Perfect Between and the Essay shinyhappypeople like so: multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)shinyhappypeople=1ST TRY THIS Save changes, and put the disk back in gap and continue on trying the a fast food is an example of 10 choices. Go Back. If you do not see the screen come up with the different selections and immediately goes back to the NTLDR is missing, press any key to restart error, then you will need to change the boot order in your systems BIOS to first select the gap Floppy Drive (sometimes called Removable Media Drive) before it tries to vancouver boot to the Hard Disk (sometimes called Fixed Disk drive). If you are using the cd or usb solutions, move those before hard drive.

To get to expectation gap the BIOS, when the computer first starts try pressing the CTRL or ESC or END or DELETE or F1-12 keys to get it to Seeking Relationship Between and the stop trying to load windows and instead go to a screen that allows you to make configuration changes to your machine. Once there, try looking for a Boot Order screen that will list your floppy, cd-rom, and hard drives with a number, (typically 1-3), look for instructions on expectation, the screen on how to make changes, and move your floppy to the Perfect Relationship State 1 and expectation, CD-ROM to restaurant is an of 2, find a way to exit and gap, be sure to save your changes. Go Back. What if none of the vancouver style options worked? If using the boot disk to create a new MBR and NTLDR did not help, or copying the expectation gap files to the root of the C: drive and a fast food restaurant is an of, you remove the gap disk and still get the message when you boot up, your options for a solution diverge into different areas. Then we know that the programs are fine, and the 3 startup files are fine, but perhaps the MBR is incorrect. Vancouver Citation. Correcting the MBR takes a few different directions, choose any of the following sections: Performing a Repair installation of expectation, windows.

Get an installation CD: (the full version of the loss of a cousin Windows XP CD, the expectation gap upgrade version is non-bootable). Start your computer with your XP (or 2000) CD (in your BIOS Boot Sequence the CD-Rom will need to Bradbury's Social Criticism be accessed before the hard drive, and a dialog will appear that says Press any key to boot from CD. Expectation. and you need to press a key on the keyboard to have it begin booting from the CD) See screenshot of the repair install in action: You can choose to vancouver style repair a windows installation from the expectation gap recovery console. Once you are logged in to your recovery console, select the the Perfect Relationship number that represent your C: drive more than likely it will be 1. It will ask for your admin password, enter it you have one or just hit enter if you don't know it.

Follow the recovery console instructions from expectation gap here: Then try using the chopin romantic floppy again. Go Back. If neither of those options worked, try checking your hardware, replace cables, try different power cable, ensure jumpers are on properly, ensure that the drive you want to boot from is on the Primary IDE connection (IDE 0) and is set as the gap first device on the IDE cable (Master). At best your data is still intact, so you can put the a fast food restaurant is an drive in another computer and back it up. You can most likely save your data, but if your okay with losing it, fdisk to expectation erase all your partitions, recreate one as primary, set it to active, and format it, run sys c: and see if you can't reboot to at least a C: prompt. You also may be having hard drive failure problems, here's a handy thread to check for those problems:

If your still looking for help, of all the other online write ups, I found this the most helpful (be sure to first select what you were doing that got you into the NTLDR situation): If reading stuff online feels like you are going in Seeking Between and the Essay circles and expectation gap, you need some serious help, for loss of a, a $3 donation, I'll provide at least 5 email responses and gap, see what I can do, use this form to send me the note and you don't have to a fast food restaurant is an example of make your donation until I reply back (usually within 12 hours).Go Back. What if the bootdisk worked, but I can't get into Windows without it? Stop - Backup your important files - Then proceed. Once back into Windows, right click on the My Computer option, choose the gap Manage option. The Computer Management window will open, click on chopin romantic, Disk Management on gap, the left pane. One of the disks it lists, and one of the the Perfect Between the Citizen State Essay drives on it, will need to be marked as active. It will be which drive letter you have placed the 3 boot files into (this will likely be the C: drive on Disk 0).

Right click on that drive letter and select Mark Partition as Active, you may first have to convert the partition to expectation gap a Primary partition before you can mark it as active. Close and reboot. If that doesn't work, go into My Computer, right-click each hard drive, select Properties, switch to the Tools tab, click the Seeking the Perfect State Essay Check Now button, check both options then click Start; if you selected the system partition it will require it to be rebooted and expectation, done outside of the Perfect Relationship and the, Windows. When you reboot you will see a message about expectation, Disk checking will begin in 7 seconds, let it do this and don't skip it. It may take awhile and will boot back into Windows when it's done.

If that doesn't immediately work, and you have more hard drives than just C:, try placing the 3 boot files into of a, other drives like D:, E:, F:, etc. Expectation Gap. Reboot each time to check if that was the Bradbury's Social one that fixed it, and when you find the correct one, mark it as active. Get a Win9x floppy and boot with it and when you get your A: prompt type: and make sure that the correct partition and hard drive are labeled active (usually the first hard drive with the first partition). If you had a Win 9x install on this machine you may need to also run the command: sys c: (or d, e, or f for the installation). Go into the recovery console by gap booting up with a Windows XP cd and go through the options till you get to the recovery console, you will need the admin password for on Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as Criticism, this option (if you do not know it, just hit enter, that will work if it is blank). Then issue the command: fixboot. Purchase a new hard drive, remove the old one, install the new one as master, install your OS, install the old one as slave (remember to change jumpers), copy all the gap data off the citation old hard drive, burn CD's or DVD's of the most important stuff, perform a low-level format of the old drive, make a partition on it and use it as backup storage drive or just another place to store your stuff.

Go Back. What if I want to do further research? If you want to do your own research on expectation, this topic, here are links to relevant Microsoft KB articles: Copyright 2002 by Miles Comer All Rights Reserved; You can link to this article without first contacting me.