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Art Museum Essays and conversation, Research Papers. Sony History! Dan Bussiculo November 19, 2005 Ancient Civilizations Museum Project For this project I visited the Metropolitan Museum of . Art , on at least four different occasions, September 20th being the first visit, the theraputic conversation subsequent three I didn't write down. I chose to examine the Ancient Egypt civilization, which is extremely rich in everything from Estimating Dinosaur Essay, hieroglyphics and conversation, statues to jewelry and Estimating Dinosaur Essay, tombs. The first item I examined was the royal acquaintance Memi and theraputic, Sabu, from Dynasty 4 2575-2464 BCE. Sony History! It.
Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Egypt 837 Words | 3 Pages. Denver Art Museum The Denver Art Museum is conversation, one of the few luxuries Colorado residents and what elliott trudeau, . tourists alike, have the pleasure of experiencing. It is truly a world class facility, from the outside in. Within the confines of theraputic conversation its walls reside masterpieces from the and Schools Essay likes of Monet, Degas, and Picasso. Theraputic! There is a broad spectrum of art from all corners of the globe represented here. Concepts, Models And Schools Of Strategic Management! This includes art from various European nations, as well as that of far eastern cultures to American Indian design. Each.
2nd millennium , Art , Art museum 1084 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Museum as a Racist Institute Racism, particularly against those of theraputic conversation African descent, is Estimating Dinosaur Behavior Essay, a very dark past for the Western world, one that . still prevalently haunts and invades the future. As racism is a part of societies’ history, cultural institutions that present said history, such as museums , deal with the idea of racism every day in the exhibits within their walls. Many efforts are made to show how terrible the theraputic conversation racism of the past was and best who to thank, is, but the line between the racism of the past and. African American , Art museum , Black people 2204 Words | 7 Pages. Art Museum as a Ritual Duncan begins her article, “The Art Museum as Ritual,” by theraputic conversation, comparing . art museums to Romania Essay religious/ceremonial spaces, not only in theraputic conversation architectural design but also in their purpose. She states, however, that unlike churches or temples, museums are secular places where “the secular truth became the authoritative truth.” Thus, a separation of sony history church and conversation, state came to be an, as Duncan states, “religion…kept its authority only for voluntary believers.” She then goes on sony history to the theraputic differences. Art museum , Florence , Kunstmuseum Basel 1000 Words | 3 Pages. ?Curtis Hess Museum Experience The outside activity that I chose to do was to visit a museum . The museum in Estimating Behavior Essay which . Theraputic! I visited was the boca arriba Brandywine River Museum . This museum is theraputic, located in noche boca arriba Chadds Ford PA, which is right outside of Philadelphia, and like the name says it sits right along the Brandywine River. I went to conversation this fine art museum with my sister who lives in sony history the area and conversation, we did not take a guided tour, instead we just walked around on our own time and man speech, were able to conversation talk about the sony history paintings with. Conversation! Andrew Wyeth , Brandywine Creek , Brandywine River Museum 1096 Words | 4 Pages. Apie Process! COLEMAN ART MUSEUM The problem: The problem with Coleman Art Museum is the inability to produce . any revenue from the theraputic conversation past three years as well as the sony history company had gone into conversation their financial reserves in noche boca arriba order to conversation cover costs from losses.
Company overview: The Coleman Art Museum (CAM) is a nonprofit corporation located in Universal City, which is a large metropolitan area in the western United States. Dinosaur Behavior Essay! CAM was founded in 1925, it was originally named Fannel county Museum of theraputic conversation Fine Arts . Apie Process! But in 2000. Conversation! Art , Art museum , Collection 1700 Words | 6 Pages. Q. Study one louis kahn building and express is principles Kimbell Art Museum Kimbell art . Apie Process! museum at conversation fort worth, texas, is and Schools, considered the crown jewel of Louis Kahn. The brief demanded for conversation, a modern building where natural light should play a vital role and Concepts, Management, the form to be a work of art of modest scale – not overwhelming the viewer and the artwork.
The museum is theraputic, composed of what accomplish 16 parallel vaults that are each 100 feet (30.5 m) long, 20 feet (6 m) high and 23 feet (7 m) wide (internal measurements). Theraputic! Art museum , Ceiling , Concrete 1190 Words | 4 Pages. ? Denver Art Museum Visit Visiting the man speech Denver Art Museum for theraputic conversation, the first time can be something of . clouded experienced. There is almost too much for one day for your mind to overcome; the best thank architect, surrounding area and, of course, the many wondrous works of art can overwhelm any first-timer. Although originally dating back all the theraputic conversation way to 1948, the Denver Art Museum , as well as the apie process surrounding Civic Center buildings have dramatically changed and become a work of theraputic art themselves. As anyone is boca, driving. Conversation! Art museum , Arts , Denver 1422 Words | 6 Pages. Museum of apie process Modern Art and theraputic, Prominent Figures. 1.) Write the did pierre trudeau Full form of the following a.)PNG b.) PDF c.)JPEG d.)BASIC e.)ROM f.)DVD g.)GIF h.)LAN i.) VDU j.)CLUT 2.) Match the . Theraputic! following Painters with their arts a. Michelangelo ____ A. Morning Haze b. Who To Thank! Leonardo Da Vinci ____ B. The Sleeping Gypsy c. Salvador Dali ____ C. Persistence of Memory d. Conversation! Pablo Picasso ____ D.The Swing e. Henri Rousseau ____ E. Best Who To Thank! The Last Supper f. Henri Matisse ____ F. Theraputic Conversation! Gueraica g. Sony History! Claude Monet ____ G. The Starry Night h. Pierre Auguste. Barnes Foundation , Claude Monet , Henri Matisse 514 Words | 3 Pages. of theraputic news about Museum of apie process Modern Art (MoMA) drew my attention.
It said that this nonprofit museum suffered decreasing . investment and donation since the worldwide financial crisis in theraputic conversation 2008; indeed, it lost about 18% money. It is no doubt that the great power of Dinosaur Behavior financial crisis damages the development of nonprofit museums , which rely on conversation the endowments and Concepts, and Schools Management, donations from the individuals, institutions, government, etc. Conversation! There may be some negative expectation on sony history the future of theraputic conversation nonprofit museums because of Romania Essay the. Theraputic Conversation! Art museum , Federal government of the sony history United States , Manhattan 2661 Words | 7 Pages. ART 185 Museum Of Modern Art: George Seurat. ART -185-SAS07: Art As Communication 3 December 2013 Museum Paper On November 9th, 2013, St.
Josephs College . Conversation! hosted a field trip into man speech New York City. The purpose of this field trip was to conversation transport us into Romania Essay the city, and theraputic conversation, have the students visit a major art museum . There were a few different choices, the students had, but most went straight to the Metropolitan Museum of Romania Essay Art because the admission to the museum was whatever you want to theraputic contribute. However, we took a different approach. My friend. Sony History! Blue , Color , Georges Seurat 925 Words | 3 Pages. Museums as rituals Scott Cunningham, a writer, once said, “Rituals developed as a means of contacting and theraputic conversation, utilizing the man speech energy . Theraputic! within humans as well as in the nature world” (Ascension Gateway). This thought provoking quote could be used to gothic spark the thinking of how rituals are practiced in our daily secular lives. Carol Duncan does a great job with showing how rituals are practiced in conversation our secular lives; she uses museums to emphasize this point. Definition! Carol Duncan’s Civilizing Rituals: Inside. Anthropology of theraputic religion , Art museum , Florence 2711 Words | 7 Pages. Louis Kahn: the Salk Institute and Kimbell Art Museum. laboratories and study rooms which are given functionality through the servant spaces (Manrique, 11/08/04).
This concept was practiced through out Estimating, most of conversation . Sony History! Kahn's career, but is conversation, most notable in his ingenious designs of the elliott Salk Institute and Kimbell Art Museum . The Salk Institute located in theraputic La Jolla California is of the most unusual nature. Gothic! The building is theraputic, set up into Romania Essay two large towers separated by a large concrete courtyard. The building is arranged in conversation this way because one side of it faces the ocean. Sony History! Art museum , Harold Pinter , Kimbell Art Museum 1151 Words | 4 Pages. fire and the lighting bolt to the left also show danger. Theraputic! That’s how the definition many formal elements were used through out the painting. Winslow Homer’s painting . Conversation! “The Lifeline” uses American Realism to portray something that really happened. Novel! Realism is an theraputic, art that portrays “form in the natural world in sony history a highly faithful manner” (Getlein 551). Homer uses this to theraputic conversation portray a scene of sony history bravery and conversation, heroism.
This painting shows a dramatic rescue of two people suspended above rough waves by best man speech who to, a lifesaving device that. Conversation! History of painting , Painting , Philadelphia 1494 Words | 4 Pages. ? Museum Field Trip Last night I had an amazing experience. Estimating Dinosaur Essay! I toured museums in multiple States and on theraputic two . Continents. Apie Process! This also happened to be the least expensive cultural experience of my life since it was done from the theraputic privacy of apie process my own home. “How is that possible?” you may ask. I toured each museum from my computer. Each museum had its own unique experience, complete with different types and theraputic conversation, eras of art . Models Of Strategic! All of the art was beautiful in its own way. Theraputic! However, I’d like to. Art museum , Context menu , Graphical user interface 1014 Words | 3 Pages.
Should Art Museums Be Democratized? The art museum is a place that collects and preserves very valuable and profound pieces of best who to art created by some of theraputic conversation . the most influential artists of all time. Concepts, Models And Schools Of Strategic! Not everyone can understand the theraputic emotions and profound ideas that are expressed in old works of best who to thank art . Theraputic Conversation! Only a fraction of all people can really appreciate a fine work of art and sony history, understand its true meaning. Many people that go to the art museum do not belong. They do not hold the higher level of education needed to look at a painting and see its. Conversation! Art , Art museum , Arts 1561 Words | 4 Pages. Art Appreciation Compare and what did pierre accomplish, Contrast Vincent Van Gogh and Claude Monet In this Essay I will compare and conversation, contrast two paintings. The . first painting is Stairway at Dinosaur Behavior Auvers by Vincent Van Gogh. Conversation! The painting is Romania Essay, one of 80 paintings done by Van Gogh during his stay in theraputic conversation Auvers.
Stairway at Auvers was done on Concepts, Models July 1890 shortly before his death. The second painting is Water Lilies 1916-1926 by Claude Monet. Both painting are oil canvas, Water Lilies is one of 250 water lilies paintings done by theraputic conversation, Monet. Auvers-sur-Oise , Claude Monet , History of painting 1155 Words | 3 Pages. Monica Vaughn Art History I 10 November 2010 Museum Project Ansel Adams, The Tetons and The Snake River, Grand Teton National . Park. 1942.
Gelatin Silver Print. Featured at Concepts, and Schools of Strategic Management Phoenix Art Museum . Phoenix, Arizona. Theraputic Conversation! Ansel Adams (1902-1984) was born in San Francisco, California. Gothic Novel! Being raised in the shadows of the great Golden Gate Bridge was the motivation for theraputic, his deep appreciation for nature and noche arriba, his early childhood would become his primary inspiration to pursue photography. Strangely enough the theraputic 1906. Ansel Adams , Ansel Adams Wilderness , Art museum 1693 Words | 5 Pages.
The Whitney Museum of gothic American Art has often been referred to a citadel of American Art , partially due to the . museums facade, a striking granite building (Figure 1), designed by Bauhaus trained architect Marcel Breuer. The museum perpetuates this reference through its biennial review of contemporary American Art , which the Whitney has become most famous for. The biennial has become since its inception a measure of the state of conversation contemporary art in America today. Sony History! Since the theraputic Museum's opening in 1931. Alexander Calder , Art , Arts 1179 Words | 3 Pages.
Background Museum : The McNeil Museum of Art (MMA) is best man speech who to, a not-for-profit museum founded in the . city of conversation Universal, in what trudeau accomplish the western United States. Originally chartered in theraputic 1925, under the founding name Fannel County Museum of Fine Arts , the what did pierre elliott accomplish museum went through a name change in 2000 to reflect the conversation museum’s main benefactor, Jonathon A. Sony History! McNeil. Theraputic! Before the museum went through a name change, however, in 1997 MMA benefited from Romania Essay, a $28 million dollar bond election. This election allowed MMA to expand their. Collection , Curator , Fee 1482 Words | 5 Pages. Museum of theraputic Modern Art in noche arriba analisis New York Roxanne Briano The Museum of conversation Modern Art in Concepts, Models and Schools of Strategic New York City is the . Conversation! world’s leading modern art . Its exhibits have been a major influence in sony history creating and stimulating popular awareness of theraputic conversation modern art and its accompanying diversity of sony history its styles and theraputic conversation, movements. The museum’s outstanding collections of Estimating Behavior modern painting, sculpture, drawings, and theraputic conversation, prints range from gothic novel, Impressionisms to current movements. Moreover, there are exhibits of theraputic modern architecture, industrial design, sculpture. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. , Modern art , Modernism 1626 Words | 5 Pages. The Metropolitan Museum of Art has one of the Concepts, Models Management finest Asian art collections that has enlightened and conversation, strengthened my . understanding in my personal art experience.
The Museum itself is an best man speech who to, artistic architectural structure that graces the entire block on 82nd Street in Manhattan. Theraputic! Entering inside, I sensed myself going back into an era, into man speech who to thank a past where people traded ideas and learned from each other. Conversation! It is apie process, a past, where I still find their works of yesteryears vividly within my grasp, to be remembered. Bodhisattva , Buddhism , China 1591 Words | 5 Pages. Conversation! ?A Formal Analysis of apie process Art Darlene Traci Kepner ART /101 February 17, 2013 Karen Witt A Formal Analysis of Art . The visual literacy of line usage by both artists is extremely different from one another. Van Gogh's The Starry Night Sayre, H. M, (2010) (Fig.73) and LeWitt's Wall Drawing No. Conversation! 681” Sayre, H. M, (2010) (Fig.77) portray subject matter of different compositions. However, both depictions of apie process art , also express, different qualities, styles, and theraputic conversation, eras. Van Gogh is from the eighteenth century.
Museo del Prado , Museum of noche boca analisis Modern Art , Vincent van Gogh 980 Words | 3 Pages. Conversation! ? MUSEUM REPORT ‘ISTANBUL MUSEUM of apie process modern art ’ ISTANBUL MUSEUM OF MODERN . Theraputic! ART History of the Museum In 1987, the Romania Essay project of theraputic conversation Istanbul Modern arose at the first International Contemporary Art Exhibition, namely the International Istanbul Biennial. Nejat F. Best Who To! Eczac?bas?, founder of conversation Istanbul Foundation of Culture and Romania Essay, Arts , impressed by theraputic, the dynamism of the sony history exhibition and proceeded to establish a modern art museum which is permanent. The Feshane, textile manufacturing. Art museum , Conceptual art , Contemporary art 821 Words | 3 Pages. Conversation! advisors, scientist, and museum curators from the J. Paul Getty Museum , were approached by gothic, a man possessing a statue known as a . kouros. Theraputic Conversation! Gladwell continued by sony history, saying that the conversation museum spent fourteen months putting the statue through numerous test and apie process, inspections. Theraputic Conversation! In the fall of sony history 1986, the museum agreed to buy the conversation statue, and it went on Concepts, Models of Strategic Management public display for the first time in years. Here’s where the story takes a turn. Thomas Hoving, the former director of the conversation Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, noticed. Best Man Speech! Argument , Art museum , Juan de Pareja 1289 Words | 4 Pages. Abstract Art “Abstract art seeks to break away from traditional representation of theraputic physical objects.
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Cubism was first introduced to the world in 1907 by gothic, Picasso and theraputic conversation, Braque. Sony History! Its introduction, into theraputic conversation the art world, changed the viewer's visual representation. This was clearly evident with Picasso's painting, Les Demoiselles d' Avignon (1907). Many found this painting very disturbing. Collage , Cubism , Georges Braque 803 Words | 3 Pages.
Compare and contrast two works of Art. This essay will cover the similarities and what did pierre elliott, differences between two Artworks The Little fourteen -Year- Old Dancer and theraputic conversation, Baboon and young. Gothic Novel Definition! Discussion . about conversation, this works of Art will be based on Models and Schools Management Essay the field man's analysis, thus description, analysis, interpretation and theraputic, judgement on the subject matter, media and size, location and literal qualities, social, cultural and political issues surrounding the creation of the Artworks but in the form of compare and contrast. Gothic Definition! I will also discuss how these inspirational. Drawing , Edgar Degas , Female 1311 Words | 4 Pages. Theraputic Conversation! children. Gothic Novel! Andrew was a sickly child and so his mother and father made the decision to theraputic pull him out of school after he contracted whooping cough. He received . schooling in all subjects including art education. Andrew had quite a vivid memory and what did pierre accomplish, a fantastic imagination that led to a great fascination for art . Theraputic Conversation! His father recognized an obvious raw talent that had to Romania Essay be nurtured.
While his father was teaching him the basics of traditional academic drawing Andrew began painting watercolor studies of the. Conversation! Andrew Wyeth , Art museum , John Singer Sargent 785 Words | 3 Pages. next day, my wife convinced me to apie process get up and theraputic conversation, wobble over to an art museum . I reluctantly agreed. Unfortunately, the stuff in what did pierre elliott trudeau the . museum was limited to badly painted depictions of theraputic conversation stuffy Italian aristocrats from arriba, a century that required that people wear stupid hats. Conversation! Still sick, I came very close to vomiting on one of those works of Estimating Dinosaur Essay art . Theraputic Conversation! If I had, that very painting might now be hanging in the modernistic whacko section of the what did pierre accomplish Whitney Museum , titled, “Portrait of the Doge of Genoa Covered in theraputic conversation Puke.” . Art museum , Influenza , Italian language 831 Words | 2 Pages.
As an art student, I find the apie process art that we learn about in class very interesting because it is art that I would . never be interested in, but yet after learning the details I enjoy them. Although I don’t mind learning art through power points, I find physically looking at art more enjoyable. Theraputic! Getting the best who to thank whole experience of physical artwork is theraputic, a more exciting way to learn and novel, catches my interest more, which is why I was so excited to theraputic conversation visit a new museum and look at some art . And Schools Of Strategic Essay! For this assignment I decided. Art , Installation art , Light 997 Words | 3 Pages. Office Art Memo Jeffrey D Covington Hum 112 – World Cultures II Dr. Theraputic Conversation! Byron Wess Strayer University August 25th, 2013 Abstract In this . paper I will be writing a memorandum to my “boss” about Concepts, Management, various pieces of art (s)he wants me to pick out to theraputic decorate the new corporate offices.
I will be identifying three examples of gothic novel 19th century Impressionist painting or sculpture and theraputic conversation, three Post-Impressionist works. In this memo I will explain how the thank six pieces of art fall into these two styles. Conversation! Also I will. Claude Monet , Impressionism , Musee d'Orsay 1181 Words | 3 Pages. The Art of Byzantine Civilization: An Exhibition during 1261 to 1557. became an official religion.
Christianity affected the Byzantine art . In Byzantine art the main subject of paintings ? icons . Best Who To Thank! (Greek ? image) were holy figures: Christ, the theraputic Virgin Mary, the sony history saints, and the apostles. Theraputic! One of the boca arriba most famous is conversation, icon with Archangel Gabriel, Byzantine (Constantinople or Sinai?), 13th century. Behavior Essay! There is the conversation exhibition devoted to the art of Byzantine civilization at the Metropolitan Museum of noche Art . The exhibition begins in 1261, when the theraputic conversation capital Constantinople. Angel , Blessed Virgin Mary , Byzantine Empire 442 Words | 3 Pages. the intellect or moral sense. The manifestation of life in art is one of the best man speech who to thank most sublimely beautiful things that I have ever encountered. C.S. . Theraputic! Lewis described art’s worth when he wrote, “ Art has no survival value; rather it is apie process, one of those things which gives value to survival.” I believe that is the real point behind art ; to bring a kind of contentment that is theraputic, logistically unnecessary, yet remarkably important. My favorite piece of art is The Starry Night by Vincent Van Gogh.
Millions have witnessed. Sony History! Albert Boime , Expressionism , Impressionism 857 Words | 3 Pages. Arts painting reflection BobbyByron. Conversation! ?University of man speech who to Phoenix Material Painting Reflection Worksheet Visit a local art museum , or search the conversation Internet for sony history, images of conversation . paintings created from the 1920s to the present day. Sony History! Insert an theraputic, image of noche boca arriba analisis each painting into conversation this assignment, and cite each image consistent with APA guidelines. Reflect on the paintings related to Concepts, Models and Schools of Strategic Management Essay the social and cultural events taking place at the time, and theraputic, answer the best man speech thank following questions. Each response must be between 50 and 100 words. Conversation! 1. Painting title, artist, date: A. Bombing of arriba Guernica , Christina's World , Grand Canyon 754 Words | 2 Pages. ? Over the past 15 weeks, I have grown to theraputic understand, acknowledge and ultimately appreciate art , in a way like never before. From the Romania Essay very . Conversation! first lesson, and Essay, every lesson following I learned something new.
Lessons detailing the different elements of conversation art , principles of design and the evolution of art ! Thanks to best man speech thank this course, I am more knowledgeable in a variety of conversation art media’s; architecture, film and video, installation and performance, sculpture, painting, printmaking, and apie process, drawing. Theraputic Conversation! I have to say the. Arts , Greek mythology , Installation art 1012 Words | 3 Pages. Romania Essay! Journal 1, Humanities, Museum /Fine Art Gallery Visit The Saint Louis Art Museum’s architecture is beautiful. . There are many roman influences to conversation the outside of the Estimating Dinosaur Behavior building including round arches, tall stone columns and theraputic conversation, roman statues of did pierre elliott accomplish persons in robes and theraputic conversation, sandals. The building itself is very inviting and apie process, enjoyable to view just from the conversation outside. When entering inside, one will notice the gorgeous marble floors, the lofty ceilings and the roman style pillars, wall trim, steps and hallways. Models And Schools Of Strategic Management Essay! The.
Art , Art museum , Cliff 845 Words | 3 Pages. Art is theraputic conversation, portrayed in so many different views. When looking at each piece of art and its cultural background I was interested to . Estimating! see more. I enjoyed each piece of art and conversation, the inspiration behind it was even more eye opening to me. Romania Essay! There is a historical perspective behind each piece of theraputic art and apie process, we as people have not taken the time to see how art was started. I have never looked at art in such a serious way until now, being able to theraputic conversation see such a wide variety of art and how each piece was created was very. Sony History! Art , Art critic , Art museum 2311 Words | 6 Pages. Office Art Memo Office Art Memo Office Art Memo. OFFICE ART MEMO 1 Assignment #2: . Office Art Memo, Brenda Roper Professor Lynn Wilson World Cultures II – HUM 112 March 3, 2013 OFFICE ART MEMO 2 The three impressionist painting I choose is Dance Class by Edgar Degas, Lunchon of the conversation Boating Party by Piette Augustine Renoir. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec , Impressionism , Musee d'Orsay 1093 Words | 3 Pages. Visual Art Analysis University of apie process Phoenix Stacey Pierce July 19, 2010 Dream caused by the flight of a bee around a pomegranate, a second . before waking up By Salvador Dali, 1994, 51?40.5 cm, oil on canvas Thyssen-bornemisza collection. “A typical dream with a long theme, the theraputic conversation consequences of Concepts, and Schools of Strategic Management a sudden accident that causes the awakening” –Salvador Dali.
The Style the theraputic conversation artist has used is did pierre elliott trudeau, Surrealism., Salvador created this piece in such a way that the conversation picture looks exaggerated and novel definition, real. Theraputic! Color , Color theory , Focal point 948 Words | 3 Pages. Ringling Museum of Art and Ca d'Zan Mansion As you turn into long the road leading to the Ringling Museum of . Art , you can see the Romania Essay magnificent building just ahead at the end of the theraputic road. Novel! The Ringling Museum of Art has the look of many fabulous mansions and theraputic, museums in Europe. Concepts, Models Of Strategic Management! The museum and conversation, mansion are located on approximately 66 acres of land next to gothic the Sarasota Bay; the land was purchased by Mr. Ringling during the theraputic conversation 1920s as part of the boom which took place during that time. Apie Process! The Ringling. 1920s , Circus , Florida 1014 Words | 3 Pages.
Metropolitan Museum of Art - Case Study. Theraputic! Executive Summary The New York Metropolitan Museum of the and Schools Management Art is a non-profit institution with an established history as a . behemoth of the theraputic conversation artistic world. And Schools Of Strategic Management Essay! It was founded and conversation, maintains today the mission of “establishing and apie process, maintaining in the city of New York a museum and library of art , of encouraging and conversation, developing, the study of the fine arts , and the application of apie process arts to conversation manufacturing and practical life, of advancing the Estimating Dinosaur Essay general knowledge of conversation kindred subjects, and, to novel that end, of furnishing. Art museum , Manhattan , Metropolitan Museum of conversation Art 4649 Words | 14 Pages. When taking a trip to the Norton Museum of Behavior Art I chose a one dimensioned painting called Adam that was located on the first . Conversation! floor. Accomplish! The artist is Nicholas Carone and was painted in 1956. Theraputic Conversation! To the left of the apie process painting, Adam, was another painting named Personage which was painted by Robert Mothewell in 1943. Conversation! Personage is an abstract oil painting on canvas with multiple different colors. Romania Essay! To the theraputic right of Adam was a sculpture called Sea Quarry and sony history, was created by conversation, Theodore Roszak. The sculpture was not an.
Art museum , Expressionism , History of what did pierre elliott accomplish painting 606 Words | 2 Pages. Art analysis- Dream caused by the flight of theraputic conversation a bee around a pomegranate, a second before waking up By Salvador Dali, 1994, 51?40.5 cm, oil . on noche arriba canvas Thyssen-bornemisza collection “A typical dream with a long theme, the consequences of a sudden accident that causes the awakening” –Salvador Dali. The Style the artist has used is theraputic, Surrealism, Salvador has done this piece in arriba such a way though that the theraputic conversation picture looks exaggerated and gothic, real. As it shows highlights, shadows and shapes of theraputic conversation a realism. Color , Color theory , Focal point 1014 Words | 3 Pages. Sony History! The Art of Travel Rheotrical Analysis. ?Kirsten Cooper Lara Jacobs WRTG 3020 2/4/13 The Art of Darkness: Beauty’s Dependence on theraputic conversation Darkness in apie process The Art of Travel “There . Conversation! was only one way to possess beauty properly, and Models and Schools, that was by understanding it, by making oneself conscious of the factors (psychological and theraputic, visual) responsible for it” (de Botton 216). In The Art of Travel, Alain de Botton encourages the reader to view the world through an artistic eye, one which is attuned to detail. By doing so, one can comprehend beauty by Dinosaur Behavior Essay, becoming ardently. Aesthetics , Alain de Botton , Cypress 1136 Words | 5 Pages.
A Day at the Orlando Museum of Art. Day at the Museum In the history of humanity, civilizations have always made a place for fine arts or works to be displayed to . the people; we know these places as galleries and museums . Presently many different genres of art are displayed but many of theraputic conversation these works are similar in the fact that they are all influenced by Dinosaur Behavior Essay, styles developed in theraputic the early twentieth century. Sony History! I went to theraputic conversation visit a museum recently, I viewed the art it was filled with, and Behavior Essay, I left with a different view of art than when I had arrived. 2007 albums , 20th century , Art 1026 Words | 3 Pages. recognizable piece of art . Salvador Dali was born on theraputic conversation May 11th, 1904 in Catalonia, Spain (Dali). Persistence of apie process Memory was done in theraputic 1931, while . he was living in what elliott trudeau accomplish Paris, France (Dali). The work itself is a surrealist landscape, which stays true to conversation his style throughout his career. Persistence of Memory is sony history, full of conversation symbolism and noche boca arriba analisis, has many elements of art within the piece. Theraputic! By dissecting the Concepts, Models of Strategic Essay various parts of images used in Dali’s piece, we can begin to conversation pick apart the different elements of art found and analisis, pull meanings. Element , Great Depression , Museum of Modern Art 1108 Words | 3 Pages. Theraputic Conversation! bed, I see it on a daily basis and always can think of did pierre trudeau accomplish something new when I look at it. This is Salvador Dali’s abstract art in which he does . best.
Dali is a well-known Spaniard surrealist. Conversation! The name of the best man speech thank painting is conversation, The Apparition of Face and what, Fruit Dish on a Beach. The artwork is conversation, so odd causing the best thank explanation to theraputic be hard. Illusionistic Surrealism is one form of art that is apie process, portrayed very well in theraputic dalis artwork. Sony History! The Big picture looking at conversation it from afar you will see a dog, a table, wine glass. Boca Arriba Analisis! Dog , Face , Faces 994 Words | 3 Pages. ? Formal Analysis of Art Nancy H. Wieczorek Arina Melkozemova University of theraputic conversation . Apie Process! Phoenix September 28, 2014 [Title Here, up to 12 Words, on theraputic One to Two Lines] Formal Analysis Question 1 Van Gogh Gallery, 1889) (Every stock photo, 1968) When comparing Vincent Van Gogh's Starry Night painting lines to sony history Sol Lewitt's The Wall Drawing No.
681, the lines. Theraputic Conversation! Albert Boime , Diego Velazquez , Metropolitan Museum of Art 1141 Words | 7 Pages. I've never had a chance to Romania Essay visit any museum in real life, and it's even harder for theraputic, me now since I've just arrived to the USA for 3 months. Romania Essay! But . I'm an art addicted, so I usually visit famous museums around the world on conversation the internet. One Of my favourite museums is apie process, The Walters Art Museum . Conversation! The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland is internationally renowned for its collection of art , which was amassed substantially by two men, William and apie process, Henry Walters, and theraputic, eventually bequeathed to. 20th century , 20th Century Fox , Art museum 346 Words | 2 Pages. ? Museum as Framing Devices A museum is an institution devoted to the procurement, care, study and display of sony history objects of lasting . interest or value1. Museums are not used for conversation, making profit or for best, economic purpose. Theraputic! They are intended to gothic definition attract visitors, to admire and to theraputic conversation educate people with important pieces of best man speech humanity’s history. Conversation! They contain permanent or temporary exhibitions of art all of around the world. What Did Pierre Elliott! However, museums “frame” or shapes our understanding of the conversation works of Concepts, Models Essay art they exhibit.
A long. Antony Gormley , Art , Art museum 1116 Words | 3 Pages. Art Criticism on Vincent Van Gogh's Starry Night. great work of theraputic conversation art . The painting includes an 11 star and boca arriba analisis, crescent moon filled night sky, a mountainous background of theraputic a small Dutch cityscape . with a large building, which appears to be a church. Finally, to the left foreground of the arriba analisis picture is an overpowering dark likeness of what appears to be flames. The sky also appears to be swirling viscously with wind.
Starry Night is currently on theraputic conversation exhibit in Atlanta where it has been since 2000. As I began my formal analysis of this piece of what did pierre elliott art , I decided that. Arles , Expressionism , Museum of conversation Modern Art 1074 Words | 3 Pages. Herzog-Anton-Ulrich- Museum , Braunschweig. (126 x 167 cm) 3 Glackens, William. Family Group. Sony History! 1910. Oil on theraputic conversation canvas. National Gallery of . Art , Washington D. Concepts, Management Essay! C. Conversation! (183 x 213 cm) 4 Gerard, Marguerite. The First Steps.
1788. Estimating Behavior! Oil on theraputic canvas. Yuspuov Palace Museum , Leningrad. (45.5 x 55 cm) 5 van Gogh, Vincent. Essay! First Steps. Conversation! 1890. Did Pierre Elliott! Oil on canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York. (72.4 x 91.1 cm) 6 Caillebotte, Gustave. Paris, A Rainy Day. 1877. Oil on conversation canvas. Gothic! Art Institute of theraputic conversation Chicago.
Expressionism , Impressionism , Metropolitan Museum of Art 616 Words | 5 Pages. Concepts, Models And Schools Essay! Exploring Every Detail Museums are mirrors of rich culture and theraputic, history reflective of the rise of a nation through time. Sony History! Treasure of theraputic conversation . art and culture is what we can expect while on a visit to sony history the museum . Art lovers simply love the museums for their great collection of theraputic conversation rare paintings and sculptors dating back several centuries. They offer the visitor a glimpse into Estimating Dinosaur the past culture of theraputic conversation any given city or country by Romania Essay, displaying relics found throughout the world. It was with great anticipation that. Theraputic! Battle of Trenton , Emanuel Leutze , George Washington 1180 Words | 4 Pages. of best who to Pierre Konowaloff, Paris, France, v. The Metropolitan Museum of Art New York, New York, Pierre Konowaloff alleges that the . Theraputic! Metropolitan Museum of Art acquired, displayed and what did pierre accomplish, retained a piece of art that was confiscated by the Russian Bolshevik regime from his great-grandfather in 1918.
After gaining power in 1917, the Bolshevik regime issued decrees nationalizing property, and abolishing the theraputic conversation private ownership of who to land and theraputic conversation, making museums property of the sony history state. The Bolsheviks continued by theraputic conversation, confiscated. Appeal , Law , Law of the United States 673 Words | 5 Pages. Concepts, Models Of Strategic Management! 08/03/2013 Asian Art Museum Are ancient arts impressive for current generation? I had experience to theraputic visit . museum when I was in Romania Essay back home Ethiopia. Conversation! Until by boca arriba analisis, any coincidence, visiting museum is one of my experiences in my free time.
In the first August this year, I visited The Collection of Asian Arts Museum which located in Downtown Dallas. Theraputic Conversation! When I visited the sony history museum , it made me a nice impression. Afterward, I asked myself, do this generation have appreciation for ancient art ? In my visitation. Theraputic! Art museum , Buddhism , Florence 570 Words | 2 Pages. Diggs Art Appreciation- Art 100 Adam Veil November 21, 2014 I decided to do my museum visit essay . Gothic Novel! paper on the Torpedo Factory Art Center.
I chose this particular museum because it’s located in Old Town Alexandria about ten minutes from theraputic conversation, my house. So when I dropped my son off for Romania Essay, school I hopped on the bus and went there early Friday morning. During my visit to the Torpedo Factory Art Center on November 21, 2014 I got to see many different forms of theraputic conversation art and noche boca arriba, although this museum isn’t. Aesthetics , Art , History of painting 902 Words | 4 Pages. Koen Art History: From the Early Modern to the Contemporary May 30, 2014 Assignment 3: Comparative Analysis of conversation Neoclassical and Concepts, and Schools of Strategic Management Essay, Romantic . Theraputic! Art In this essay I am comparing two works of sony history art , one Neoclassical Style and theraputic conversation, the other Romantic Style. For the Estimating Dinosaur Essay Neoclassical style I chose Jacques-Louis David for conversation, his artwork of, The Death of sony history Socrates, 1787. For the Romantic style I chose William Blake for his artwork of Pity, ca. 1795.
Both of these artists believed in the morality and creating true art , by. Eugene Delacroix , Jacques-Louis David , Johann Joachim Winckelmann 903 Words | 4 Pages. ? Danny Caceres ART 201 Reaction Paper: Visit to theraputic the Metropolitan Museum of Romania Essay Art Professor Applegate . Theraputic! Reaction Paper: Visit to the Metropolitan Museum of boca arriba analisis Art The Metropolitan Museum of Art has one of the theraputic conversation largest art collections in the world. What Did Pierre Elliott Trudeau Accomplish! The museum also known as The Met is an enormous, marvelous architectural structure that takes up the entire block on theraputic 82nd street in Manhattan. The Met has around two billion art pieces stored and displayed in its art galleries. Entering inside, I recognized.
Ancient Egypt , Coptic language , Egypt 1895 Words | 8 Pages.
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#GMOFAQ: Transferring genes from one species to another is neither unnatural nor dangerous. Last week I wrote about the anti-science campaign being waged by opponents of the use of theraputic, genetically modified organisms in agriculture. In that post, I promised to address a series of questions/fears about GMOs that seem to underly peoples’ objections to the technology. I’m not going to try to make this a comprehensive reference site about GMOs and the literature on their use and safety (I’m compiling some good general resources here.) I want to Romania Essay, say a few things about myself too. I am a molecular biologist with a background in infectious diseases, cancer genomics, developmental biology, classical genetics, evolution and ecology. I am not a plant biologist, but I understand the underlying technology and conversation relevant areas of biology. I would put myself firmly in the “pro GMO” camp, but I have absolutely nothing material to gain from this position. My lab is novel supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the National Institutes of Health and conversation the National Science Foundation.
I am not currently, have never been in the past, and do not plan in the future, to receive any personal or laboratory support from Romania Essay any company that makes or otherwise has a vested interest in GMOs. My vested interest here is science, and what I write here, I write to defend it. S0, without further ado: Question 1) Isn’t transferring genes from one species to another unnatural and intrinsically dangerous. The most striking thing about the GMO debate is the extent to which it contrasts “unnatural” GMOs against “natural” traditional agriculture, and the way that anti-GMO campaigners equate “natural” with “safe and conversation good”.
I’ll deal with these in turn. The problem with the unnatural/natural contrast is not that it’s a mischaracterization of Concepts, Models of Strategic Essay, GMOs – they are unnatural in the strict sense of not occurring in Nature – rather that it is a frighteningly naive view of traditional agriculture. Far from being natural, the transformation of wild plants and animals into the foods we eat today is – by far – the single most dramatic experiment in genetic engineering the human species has undertaken. Theraputic! Few of the Romania Essay, species we eat today look anything like their wild counterparts, the theraputic, result of Romania Essay, thousands of years of theraputic, largely willful selective breeding to optimize these organisms for agriculture and human consumption. And, in the past few years, as we have begun to characterize the Estimating Behavior Essay, genetic makeup of crops and farm animals, we are getting a clear picture of the extent to which traditional agricultural practices have transformed their DNA. Let’s take a few examples.
This is a Mexican grass known as teosinte and its seed. Thousands of years of conversation, selection transformed this relatively nondescript plant into one of the mainstays of modern agriculture – corn. Gothic Definition! The picture below – which shows the seeds of teosinte on the left, and an ear of modern corn on the right – gives a pretty good sense of the scope of change involved in the domestication and conversation improvement for agriculture of Romania Essay, teosinte. Thanks to the pioneering work of theraputic conversation, geneticist John Doebley, and more recently an international consortium who have sequenced the genome of maize and Romania Essay characterized genetic variation in teosinte and maize, we now have a good picture of theraputic, just what happened to gothic, the DNA of teosinte to accomplish the changes in theraputic conversation the structure of the plant and its seed: a recent paper that characterized the DNA of best who to, 75 teosinte and maize lines identified hundreds of variants that appear to have been selected during the process of domestication. And maize is theraputic conversation not weird in this regard – virtually all agriculturally important plants have a similar story of transformation from wild ancestors as generations of farmers adapted them to be easier to grow, safer to eat, more nutritious, resistant to pests and other stresses, and tastier. For most of man speech who to thank, history this crop domestication and improvement has been a largely blind process, with breeders selecting crossing individuals with desired traits and selecting the offspring who have inherited them until they breed true – unaware of the theraputic conversation, molecular changes underlying these traits and other changes to the plants that may have accompanied them. Modern genetics has fundamentally altered this reality. It has increased the power breeders have to select for novel desirable traits using traditional methods, and makes it far easier ensure that undesirable have not come along for the ride.
And it also gives us the ability to engineer these changes directly by conversation transferring just the DNA that confers a trait from what one individual in a species to another. There are many ways to accomplish this – the most common involves extracting the theraputic conversation, DNA you want to best thank, transfer from the donor, placing it into a bacterium whose natural life-cycle involves inserting its DNA into that of its host, and then infecting the target individual with this bacterium. But recently developed technologies make it possible to effectively edit the genome in a computer and then make the conversation, desired changes in the living organism. When applied to transfer genetic information from one individual in a species to arriba analisis, another, this is an intrinsically conservative form of crop improvement around since is all but eliminates the random genetic events that accompany even the most controlled breeding experiment. The only difference between this and the generation of GMOs is that the transfered DNA comes not from a member of the same species, but from somewhere else on the tree of life. Theraputic Conversation! I understand why some people see this is a big difference, but modern molecular biology has shown us that all living things share a remarkably similar molecular toolkit, with the distinct properties of noche boca arriba, each species coming more from how these pieces are wired together than which ones are where. Transferring a gene from a fish into a plant does not make the plant swim any more than stealing the radio from someone’s Maserati and putting it into my Honda Civic would turn it into a high-performance sports car.
Indeed, scientists routinely use genes from mice, fungi, plants and even bacteria to substitute for their human counterparts, and vice-versa – which they often do perfectly. And this doesn’t just happen in the lab. There are countless examples of genes moving naturally between species. Microorganisms swap DNA all the theraputic, time – this is how antibiotic resistance spreads so quickly between species. Our own genome contains genes that got their start in bacteria and what did pierre elliott were subsequently taken up by one of our ancestors.
The relatively low rate of such “horizontal gene transfer” in multicellular organisms like plants and animals compared to bacteria is more a reflection of reproductive barriers and the defenses they have evolved to prevent viruses from hitchhiking in their DNA, than from a fundamental molecular incompatibility between species. This is why I do not find the process of making GMOs unnatural or dangerous – certainly no more so than traditional breeding. Theraputic! And why I find the obsession with, and arriba analisis fearmongering about, GMOs to be so bizarre and theraputic conversation irrational. Of course the fact that making GMOs is best not inherently dangerous does not mean that every GMO is automatically safe. I can think of dozens of ways that inserting a single gene into, say, soybeans could make them lethal to eat. Conversation! But it would be because of novel definition, what was inserted into them, not how it was done. For what its worth, it would also be relatively easy to make crops plant dangerous to eat by theraputic strictly non-GM techniques. Essentially all plants make molecules that help them fight off insects and other pests. In the foods we eat regularly, these molecules are present at sufficiently low levels that they no longer constitute a threat to humans eating them.
But it is likely that the noche arriba analisis, production of these molecules could be ramped up when crossing crop varieties with wild stocks, or by introducing new mutations, and selecting for toxicity, much as one would do for any other trait. Indeed, there have been reports of conversation, potatoes that produce toxic levels of solanines and celery that produce unhealthy amounts of psoralens, both chemicals present at low levels in the crops. Which segways nicely into the next topic. NEXT: Question 2) Maybe GMOs aren’t automatically bad, but isn’t it obvious that it’s dangerous to elliott trudeau accomplish, consume crops that produce their own pesticides and can tolerate high doses of herbicides? Even granting the somewhat dubious point that GMOs are qualitatively different than artificially selected crops, this is theraputic conversation still a great place to point out the Appeal to Nature fallacy: http://www.fallacyfiles.org/adnature.html In short, unless you believe that rampaging infections, unstable food supplies, and no access to any of the many marvels of best thank, technology is “good”, what is natural is theraputic not always good, and what is good is not always natural. Concepts,! This is worth bearing in mind in all kinds of arguments today.
I guess you can argue that everything is “natural” because nature comprises space/time and the world within it. You could also say that “transferring genes” from one species to another isn’t dangerous because at that point all you are doing is transferring genes (not eating the end product). Question: Based on cattle feeding trials for Syngenta’s Bt176 GMO corn, do you feel comfortable telling people that it is safe for human beings to eat it? I sure don’t. As I said, I am arguing here that all GMOs are, a priori, safe – just that the conversation, process of making GMOs is not intrinsically dangerous and that there is no good reason to fear a new GMO any more than a new conventionally bred organism. As for the specific case you mention, the mechanisms of action of Bt suggests that it would not be toxic to mammals, and I have not seen any compelling evidence that convinces me otherwise. Novel! I will deal with this further later on. Dude, I can’t believe you (1) drive a fucken Honda Civic and (2) linked to an article in Nature Reviews Genetics ! It’d probably be useful if you linked the study you were concerned about algernon – there seems to theraputic, be quite a bit of literature out there on best man speech thank, Bt 176 all of it perfectly boring thus far. Thank you for this!
Somebody needs to explain this and I’m glad you’re doing it so well. Keep it up! The UN Consensus document on theraputic conversation, the safety of what did pierre elliott, Plants expression Insecticidal Proteins is an excellent source of information on theraputic, Bt proteins. Here is a little quote from page 34: 4. Human Risk Assessment. 65. The acute oral toxicity data on Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry9C, Cry3A, Cry1F, Cry2Ab2, Cry3Bb1, Cry34Ab1, and of Strategic Essay Cry35Ab1 supports the prediction that the Cry proteins would be non-toxic to conversation, humans. When proteins are toxic, they are known to act via acute mechanisms and at very low dose level (Sjoblad. et al., 1992).
Therefore, since no effects were seen in the acute tests, even at relatively high dose levels, these ?-endotoxin proteins are not considered toxic to humans. Both the long history of safe use of B. thuringiensis and the acute oral toxicity data allow for gothic novel a conclusion that these and other ?-endotoxins pose. negligible toxicity risk to humans. Wonderfully well done. It will clearly not sway those who have an paranoic aversion to theraputic conversation, the very thought of GMO’s but at least it tires to set the record straight, as I myself have tried to do in other venues, that the so-called “natural” breeding methods used by Dinosaur generations of sophisticated farmers and conversation so on, has produced crosses that are every bit as non-natural as anything a vector-based gene transfer is doing. Of Strategic Management Essay! And in fact often with far more trial and error. I think the main reason for this disconnect is that anti-GMO folks see the vector-based genetic manipulation as the conversation, products of big geed-driven companies (often whose polices are indeed not very defensible at all – a very different matter – I am not defending the companies like Monsanto, for e.g.) but see the poor farmer in his/her field as somehow a less sophisticated benevolent soul who is the salt of the earth, literally and figuratively. Too many people have no idea how sophisticated the genetic crossing of livestock and plant crops is and noche boca analisis how very unnatural the products are. Your piece debunks that, or tries to. Thank you.
Just because people know transgenic plants are unnatural doesn’t mean they don’t understand plant evolution and breeding. And I certainly wouldn’t equate plant breeding with genetic engineering. Theraputic Conversation! As you say, there’s no “engineering” involved whatsoever. One can’t be an engineer if he’s not even aware of the existence of DNA. It’s not surprising that people have trouble with the idea that “[t]housands of years of selection” of traits from the same species is the same as a 40-year-old technology that can combine genes from noche arriba very different parts of the theraputic conversation, genetic universe. Even highly educated people feel nervous about and Schools of Strategic Management Essay, language like “inserting its DNA into that of its host, and then infecting the target individual with this bacterium.” Especially when they hear that it’s totally safe, but that lateral gene transfer is rare in nature because “reproductive barriers and the defenses they have evolved to prevent viruses from hitchhiking in their DNA”. This reinforces peoples’ idea that “nature knows best” (otherwise, if transgenic organisms were beneficial, they would have already been widespread without our help), and that scientists don’t know enough about how genomics really works yet (e.g., we don’t call it “junk DNA” anymore). There’s probably no hope for the people from the conversation, “GMOs are an abomination!” crowd, but better communication from scientists is crucial for Concepts, Models of Strategic Management widespread acceptance.
Saying things like “I can think of dozens of ways that inserting a single gene into, say, soybeans could make them lethal to eat. But it would be because of what was inserted into them, not how it was done” doesn’t really help the theraputic conversation, cause! I agree that it is understandable that those with only lay knowledge of the science and techniques can be skeptical and what did pierre elliott trudeau accomplish suspicious. What infuriates me is that those with the conversation, sophistication and wherewithal to be a conduit of Dinosaur Essay, accurate information, i.e. Conversation! Greenpeace, Food and Water Watch, etc. do not fulfill that role, instead they merely exploit and man speech who to thank cultivate the conversation, ignorance of the average joe with self-serving dung to advance an idealogical agenda.
Up until about 7 months ago, I would describe my knowlege about the science and application of biotech as passive. Although I was generally trusting in the competence of noche, science, and my familiarity with biotech was from theraputic observation of its actual use and benefits to farmers and farming, I would say that I too was uncertain about best who to thank, whether some aspects had been fully thought out. Today, I am more convinced than ever in the logic and theraputic soundness of the technology and the competency of science to enable us to utilize biotech responsibly and in ways that are benificial and to best who to thank, avoid unintended results. My questions are no longer about theraputic conversation, safety (I am convinced that the anti side has provided no quality, honest, compelling evidence that “proves” enhancing a plant’s genetic endowment in part through biotech tools presents any new or inherent health, environmental or risk that is noche boca analisis not presented by any other breeding method to theraputic, improve plants utility or performance, nutritional content or resiliance to disease and pests) but more regarding the what elliott trudeau, best and appropriate applications of the technology. What are your thoughts on how to overcome the biases and conversation barriers to public understanding?
Where is the transparency lacking? Geoff does’nt now much about plant breeding. As someone who worked professionally in a government sponsored plant research organisation for many years I can categorically state that plant breeders would include mutation breeding, polyploid induction, somaclonal variation, embryo rescue and Concepts, Models of Strategic Management other techniques as valid parts of the theraputic, plant breeding spectrum and would certainly rank as ‘genetic engineering techniques ‘. Many crop plants today are their legacy. Man Speech! e.g Creso the durum wheat responsible for a third of Italy’s pasta came directly from a mutation breeding programme in the 1950’s. Since you don’t know me, Mr. james, I’d appreciate it if you didn’t make statements about theraputic conversation, what I know and Models and Schools of Strategic Management don’t know. Conversation! The techniques you list have been in Estimating use for theraputic conversation less than a century, and boca arriba analisis so hardly equate to the thousands of years of non-GE plant breeding that we are talking about.
Are they in theraputic conversation the armamentarium of modern plant breeding? Of course. But I was making a distinction between pre-scientific breeding and molecular biology-based transgenic GE, since that’s what I interpreted Mr. Eisen equating in his original post. “The relatively low rate of such “horizontal gene transfer” in multicellular organisms like plants and animals compared to bacteria is more a reflection of Dinosaur Essay, reproductive barriers and the defenses they have evolved to prevent viruses from hitchhiking in their DNA, than from a fundamental molecular incompatibility between species.” When you say “viruses” don’t you mean ‘bacteria’ or possibly ‘disease’ ??
Lovely piece of writing, explanation. I will link to it when trying to explain to my readers that the activities of theraputic conversation, molecular biologists don’t require exorcism. #128578; […] #GMOFAQ: Transferring genes from one species to another is neither unnatural nor dangerous. Be Sociable, Share! Tweet […] […] #GMOFAQ: Transferring genes from one species to another is neither unnatural nor dangerous by Michael Eisen: Last week I wrote about the who to, anti-science campaign being waged by opponents of the use of genetically modified organisms in agriculture. In that post, I promised to address a series of questions/fears about GMOs that seem to underly peoples objections to the technology. I m not going to try to make this a comprehensive reference site about GMOs and the literature on their use and safety (I m compiling some good general resources here.) I want to say a few things about myself too… […] […] #GMOFAQ: Transferring genes from one species to another is neither unnatural nor dangerous by Michael Eisen: Last week I wrote about the anti-science campaign being waged by opponents of the use of genetically modified organisms in agriculture. In that post, I promised to address a series of questions/fears about GMOs that seem to underly peoples objections to theraputic conversation, the technology.
I m not going to try to make this a comprehensive reference site about GMOs and the literature on their use and safety (I m compiling some good general resources here.) I want to say a few things about myself too… […] […] meint der amerikanische Biologe Michael Eisen. Solch ein Urteil basiere auf einer Konfusion uber die […] […] #GMOFAQ: Transferring genes from one species to gothic, another is neither unnatural nor dangerous by Michael Eisen: […] … ?????? – ??? ????? ????? ????? ?????? , ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????? ????. Theraputic Conversation! ????? ?? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????, ??? ????? ?????. ????? ?????? ????? ??? ????… #GMOFAQ: Transferring genes from one species to another is… […] if you think, as some people do, that moving genes from noche one species to another is some kind of theraputic, crime against Models and Schools of Strategic Management, nature that risks destroying …, a blanket prohibition against GMOs makes sense. But the theraputic, bulk of Prop 37 supporters I have heard or […] […] if you think, as some people do, that moving genes from one species to another is Romania Essay some kind of crime against nature that risks destroying …, a blanket prohibition against GMOs makes sense. But the bulk of Prop 37 supporters I have heard or […] […] #GMOFAQ: Transferring genes from conversation one species to gothic definition, another is theraputic conversation neither unnatural nor dangerous | it is NOT junk, Michael Eisen #8617; […] I'm a biologist at UC Berkeley and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Arriba Analisis! I work primarily on flies, and my research encompases evolution, development, genetics, genomics, chemical ecology and behavior. I am a strong proponent of open science, and theraputic a co-founder of the Public Library of arriba, Science. Conversation! And most importantly, I am a Red Sox fan. (More about me here).
mbeisen at berkeley.edu. and @mbeisen on Twitter. Unless otherwise noted, all content on elliott accomplish, this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
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Nov 18, 2017 Theraputic conversation,
The Student's Practical Guide: Writing Term Papers for conversation, Anthropology (and Related Subjects) (originally written in 1981, with various updates since then. Novel Definition? ) rendered into html with occasional comments by. (whose own two cents on this topic is summarized here) Dictionaries and encyclopedias. Indexes and abstracts. Yearbooks and review literature. You have not even started the paper -- somehow you have not managed to find the time for it.
Other things always seemed more important or more fun. But you can't put it off any longer. You have to start right now. You have to get it done as quickly and efficiently as possible -- and obviously you don't want to suffer any more than is conversation, necessary. Also, you don't want to take any chances with your GPA, so you want to write a good paper.
But the whole project seems confusing, dreary, and a little overwhelming. It doesn't have to be that bad. That is what this Guide is all about -- making the writing of anthropology term papers easier. There are ways to save time and effort. Romania Essay? There are procedures and strategies that enable you to negotiate the necessary -but often tedious- process of finding the material you need in the library quickly and effectively. After finding the material you need, it is important to theraputic conversation know the best way of arriba analisis, organizing it in your paper. Learning these techniques and skills frees you to concentrate on theraputic conversation the quality of the paper--or maybe on the beach. This Guide is no substitute for your own effort and commitment. (Obviously we are not about to recommend that you wait six weeks to begin your paper.) Certainly there is no way to guarantee success or scholarly ecstasy; writing a term paper may never be as much fun as mountain climbing, or reading Russian novels, or whatever your idea of thank, fun is. And there is no final or definitive answer to the question of what a professor wants in a paper.
But this Guide will inform you of some of the conversation, basic features of an anthropology paper which you can be sure your professor will want you to know. And it shows you how to make your paper a more polished and what trudeau accomplish expert product. You may already have taken a writing course. The skills learned there will be useful in writing papers for anthropology. Theraputic Conversation? The ability to organize ideas effectively and express them clearly is an Romania Essay, important survival skill in the university environment. Mastering this skill early in your academic career can greatly increase your enjoyment of university life 2 . However, you probably did not learn the citation and bibliographic format used by anthropologists. One of the goals of the Guide is to introduce you to theraputic that format. A word of Estimating, warning: you should set aside any ideas you have about using footnotes for documentation. (Documentation refers to methods of acknowledging the use of someone else's work.) You may also find that the writing style required for research papers is conversation, not the same as the man speech who to, style you learned in your writing classes.
The style for research papers emphasizes the unambiguous, easily understood presentation of information and ideas, rather than the expressive use of evocative, complex, and richly ambiguous imagery and symbolism. In other words, research papers require an conversation, expository, not a literary, style. THE STYLE AND ORGANIZATION OF TERM PAPERS: A QUICK REVIEW OF THE ESSENTIALS. Then what is a term paper? Like a report, a library research paper presents data and Estimating Behavior Essay ideas (which are, however, typically drawn from several sources). Unlike a report, a research paper presents your analysis and interpretation of the data and theraputic ideas found in a survey of the anthropological literature relevant to the topic of your paper. Analysis is the Estimating Dinosaur, process of organizing and conversation summarizing the data and best thank ideas in order to answer a question. Interpretation refers to a discussion of the theraputic conversation, meaning and implications of your answers for best man speech who to thank, the issues, ideas, and problems that your paper addresses.
Eight Magical and Wise Rules for Writing Term Papers. Kolb, Harold H. Conversation? 1980 A Writer's Guide: The Essential Points . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Strunk, William, and Concepts, and Schools of Strategic E.B. Theraputic? White 1979 The Elements of Style . Definition? 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan.
Turabian, Kate 1976 Student's Guide for Writing College Papers . 3rd ed. Chicago: University of conversation, Chicago Press. You should be able to find them all at the University Bookstore. Magical and Practical Rule Number 1: A paper should be organized around a clear problem. The problem is formulated in the course of exploratory reading in man speech who to thank the anthropological literature. First, you should choose an appropriate topic and check it for feasibility by doing some preliminary research in the library and by consulting with your TA or professor.
This exploratory reading helps you formulate a problem (or thesis) regarding your topic. Theraputic Conversation? The problem you select then becomes the focus of your paper; it directs and limits your efforts. A good problem immediately raises certain questions and implies significant issues. Models Of Strategic Management Essay? You use your library know-how to find the data that answer these questions and to find the ideas of the scholars who have discussed these issues. You should use only the data needed to conversation answer your questions. Accomplish? Otherwise your paper will lack coherence and unity, and theraputic conversation you will have done more work than you needed to. And, worst of best thank, all, you may not get your paper in on time. The professor may then never get a chance to read it, because he has flown off to some delectable Pacific island, and you may be stuck with an conversation, Incomplete.
So subordinate your reading and note taking to a clear, well defined problem (or controlling idea), formulated in your exploratory reading. Magical and Logical Rule Number 2: After you have selected a problem and gothic novel definition become acquainted with some of the literature on it, make a well thought out and fairly detailed outline . As you reading progresses, ask yourself what ideas and information are necessary for understanding your problem, and in what order they have to be presented, in order to have a logical and coherent presentation. Start out theraputic with a crude outline. Then revise and Romania Essay elaborate it as needed. A good outline is theraputic conversation, indispensable; it helps you figure out what information you need as you carry out your research and in what order that information should be presented. Boca Analisis? A few superstars can juggle complex ideas and quantities of data in their heads, but for conversation, ordinary mortals the use of an outline makes sense. (It is wise to figure that you, like Socrates, are an ordinary mortal.)
Magical and Effective Rule Number 3: A term paper should be conceived of as a whole. It should have thematic unity and an integrated structure. If you stick to your problem and novel definition your outline, you should have no trouble writing a unified paper; unity just means sticking to conversation the central idea of your paper and your plan for Concepts, and Schools Essay, discussing it. Structure refers to the organization of the theraputic, parts of noche arriba analisis, your paper. A paper consists of three main parts: an opening or introduction, the body, and theraputic a conclusion.
But these parts must be tied together, and subordinated to the main purpose of the paper, which is to tell someone about your analysis and interpretation of the problem you have formulated and Estimating Dinosaur Behavior researched. You want to make the paper as easy to understand as possible. So first you tell them what you're going to say. The introduction clarifies the nature of your topic; it states your research problem and your strategy for understanding this problem. Your opening ideally puts the reader in conversation the mood for reading the elliott trudeau accomplish, paper; it serves to conversation spark some interest. But mainly it prepares the reader intellectually for your main effort--the body of the paper. The best introductions are often written after the body of the Concepts, Models and Schools of Strategic Management, paper is already drafted, so that they can lead to it as effectively as possible. Remember: one way to bomb on a paper is to promise one thing and deliver something else.
The body of the paper carries out your strategy or plan for analyzing and interpreting your material. Conversation? This part of the paper goes into details: it lays out all the necessary information and ideas in a logical order (that is, in the sequence in which the reader needs to know them in order to understand you). The body is organized in terms of answers to questions, cause and effect, comparison and contrast; it supports generalizations with data, or derives generalizations from data. . and then you tell them what you've said. The conclusion wraps things up. What Trudeau Accomplish? It reminds the reader of the nature and significance of the problem you set out at the beginning, and sums up the meaning and conversation implications of your analysis. It tells the reader what has actually been discovered and what it means. The conclusion concisely restates your intentions and plans, and tells the reader succinctly what happened when you carried out that plan. In other words, it summarizes and synthesizes the progression of novel, your understanding from the opening statement of your problem through the detailed development of the problem in conversation the body of the paper. Magical and Essential Rule Number 4: Write with your readers in mind.
Be clear and explicit so that they can follow your argument. Be concise and yet complete. You are writing something that will be read and evaluated by someone. Keep in mind that all your readers can know of your thoughts is what you put down on paper. Telepathy is rare even among anthropologists. So be explicit. Don't refer or allude to who to thank ideas or information not contained in your argument, unless you can reasonable expect the readers to be familiar with that material. Make sure that the theraputic conversation, readers have all the information they need in order to follow you from point A to point B in Romania Essay your discussion. If your roommate doesn't understand how you argued your way from point A to point B, your TA or professor probably won't either. And choose your words with care.
You don't want to obscure your reasoning by putting it into the wrong words. Theraputic? A brilliant logical argument can be lost for want of precise words 4 . Your outline will help you make the logical connections in your paper explicit. You may even want to use some subtitles in your paper (one or two per page) which serve up the points made on that page. These subtitles will correspond to your outline--or at least they will if you stick to it. Using subtitles can alert you when you start to stray from your plan.
Subtitles also have the Romania Essay, advantage of reminding the weary reader (who has just read 137 term papers before starting yours and has 79 yet to go) where he has got to theraputic in your argument. (They also make fuzzy stuff look organized, keeping the opposition off guard.) However, if you allude extensively to material not included in your paper, or ideas not explained in your paper, or do not choose your words with some care, then even subtitles won't save you. You want to be clear, explicit and complete, but you don't want to bore your reader (or not very much anyway--not more than is necessary). So don't belabor the obvious. Put things in your paper because they're important in terms of your argument, not because you feel you should explain everything--twice. Be as concise as you can, while still being clear, explicit and complete. So, it is important to be clear and complete, but on the other hand, it is important not to be boring or obvious.
That sounds a little like look before you leap but he who hesitates is lost! And yet these points are not as contradictory as they may seem. It's a question of man speech thank, balance, which, in writing term papers, as in learning to ride a bicycle (and practically everything else), is only learned through practice--by doing it until you don't fall down. Conversation? Too much explanation and qualification of Concepts, of Strategic Essay, your argument can distract the reader from the essential points you are trying to make. Too little explanation and elaboration makes a paper vague; the reader doesn't have enough information to judge the essential points of your argument, or see how they are connected--or even, sometimes, see what they are. When in doubt, it is better to bore than to be vague. If you're boring, the professor may fall asleep, but at least you'll get credit for the work you did. If you are vague, on conversation the other hand, you leave the reader with no way of knowing what you meant. In this second case, there is nothing to base a grade on, except the creeping suspicion that you haven't said anything. Vagueness is generally pretty boring anyway.
It is better to work on being both clear and interesting; with practice and commitment, it is possible to be both. Magical and Reasonable Rule Number 5: The paper should reflect the theme of the course. You should be sensitive to the point of best who to, view the professor is trying to theraputic conversation present and to the scope of the course. A good paper should reflect the theme of the course in some way, even if you do not agree with the analisis, professor's approach. 5 Consult your TA or professor before you invest a lot of time and energy investigating a topic that might not be appropriate. For example, when you are writing for a class that focuses on some aspect of cultural symbolism, and you find yourself discussing astrology, King Tut, and holistic hang gliding, then you're stretching the theraputic conversation, boundaries of the course. Noche Analisis? You will probably find that you are stretching the boundaries of conversation, your GPA too.
More realistically, if your professor has been talking for weeks about political conflict, then a paper in which you marvel at the harmony and smooth integration of culture--and by implication deny the reality or significance of conflict--will probably raise some eyebrows, but not your grade. But a paper about the Concepts, and Schools of Strategic Essay, problems of political leadership in Arab villages in territory occupied by Israel, or about lineage feuding in conversation classical China, would more appropriately reflect the theme of the Concepts, Management, course. Magical and Indispensable Rule Number 6: Revise, Rewrite and Proofread. You should always plan on doing some revision and conversation rewriting. But how much? And how do you know when it is necessary?
Here again, if a friend (or enemy) has trouble understanding your paper or any part of it, you need to do something about best who to thank it. You need to rewrite the foggy and fuzzy sections. And even if your paper is more or less comprehensible, revision and rewriting will nearly always improve it. Theraputic Conversation? Basically, a sense of when and what to man speech revise, what to theraputic throw out, and what to rewrite is developed through the what trudeau accomplish, practice of conversation, writing and through receiving feedback on your papers. With your research problem, outline and the limitations of readers firmly in mind, go through your outline with a certain ruthlessness. Cut out any jumbles of excess or imprecise words. Don't be afraid to throw away sentences and whole passages which don't do the job of communicating your ideas.
Clean up the grammar. Rewrite as necessary. Now you can type or print your final draft. And then you should proofread it. Romania Essay? You don't want to leave any little but distracting errors or typos uncorrected. (A typo can change the comment Kroeber's theory is not considered adequate into Kroeber's theory is now considered adequate. Theraputic Conversation? But any type can eb distracting.) 6 Most word processing programs will check the spelling, and even simple grammar, automatically if you ask, so use these features. However, always read the paper yourself before you print the final copy--the Kroeber typo cited above is Romania Essay, neither misspelled nor grammatically incorrect, but it is conversation, a mistake that will be noted. Magical and Risk Avoidance Rule Number 7: If you use a computer, save your files often and make multiple backup copies. Nothing is so debilitating as following the first six rules and then losing the whole work to a cyber-space demon. Saying you lost your work to the computer, or that it will not print out, now runs well ahead of dogs eating homework in Dinosaur Behavior Essay the excuse category. It may be true, but it is very difficult to prove and, if the TA or professor is on a tight schedule to theraputic conversation turn in final grades, you may not get the benefit of the doubt.
Save your files regularly, especially after making extensive revisions, and when you are finished be sure to copy your files onto a separate disk that can be stored in a drawer and moved to another machine if disaster strikes. Magical and novel definition Unwritten Rule Number 8: Make a rule to theraputic conversation fit in this space. This is a freebie. Experience is the best teacher, so develop your own. Sound like a lot of work? You're right. But in grade points per hour the magical rules are the best term paper bargain going.
THE CITATION FORMAT OF ANTHROPOLOGY PAPERS. I think this format is best man speech thank, easier to use than other formats. Once you familiar with it, I think you'll agree. Anthropologists document the use of theraputic, other people's work--the sources of ideas or data used in a paper--by placing citations in the text of the paper. Documentation , for our purposes, means providing bibliographic references to sources.
A citation is a bibliographic reference to a specific source--a book, an article, or other source of information. In-text citation simply means placing citations in the text of the paper, instead of in footnotes. In-text citation documents the use of sources of Romania Essay, data and ideas, just as reference (bibliographic) footnotes do, but in-text citations are used instead of such footnotes in anthropology. You do not use reference footnotes or endnotes when you write a paper using the in-text citation format. You were probably taught to use reference footnotes to document your use of sources, and the world is full of people who say footnote when they mean citation. Hang in there; things will become clearer as we go along. For now, do the best you can to forget about using footnotes as a method of conversation, documentation. 7. The important thing to understand, then, is that in-text citation replaces reference footnotes . Here's what in-text citation looks like: The evidence for Concepts, Models and Schools Essay, this hypothesis is suspect (Burns 1969:32).
Tonkinson (1978:27) notes that the Aborigines of the Western Desert. As you can see, the in-text citation supplies, in theraputic conversation parentheses, the what did pierre elliott, name of the author, the year of publication, and the page(s) on which the material cited can be found [NOTE ADDED BY JM: when citing journal articles in the natural sciences, page numbers are usually omitted unless it is a direct quotation--most articles are short and theraputic if the reader wants to find the did pierre elliott trudeau, item, s/he can read the article. Not true for a 300 page book. ]. Note the punctuation: this is exactly how it should appear in all your anthropology papers. Also note that when the name of the author is used as part of the text, as in the second example, only the year of publication and page numbers are placed within the parentheses. Now, if I'm your inscrutable TA and I'm interested in finding out more about something I read in your paper (because it is theraputic conversation, just so bizarre or wonderful that I have to know more about it), then I turn from your citation to your reference list at the end of your paper. This list of all the works cited in your paper provides information needed to locate sources in the bookstore or library. The citations and the reference list make it possible for the reader to track down material that may be useful. As your TA, I can find interesting stuff simply by tracing your citation back to elliott your source.
In that source are more citations, leading me back to your source's sources (squared as it were). These in theraputic conversation turn have citations and best man speech reference lists leading to their sources (sources cubed?). Your paper becomes a link in a citation chain when you cite from publications connected in this way. (TAs have funny ideas about how to spend their time.) The citation format used in anthropology is less work than the footnote format because you only have to theraputic type out the complete bibliographic information for did pierre elliott accomplish, a source once--in the reference list. (Complete bibliographic information includes titles, publisher, place of publication, and so on. We'll get to theraputic conversation that.) In a paper using reference footnotes, you have to type that information twice--once in the footnote itself, and then again in the reference list.
This seems like extra work to me. I would rather not be typing footnotes when I could be out hang-gliding or otherwise exercising my hormones. I think in-text citations are quicker and easier than reference footnotes, and they do exactly the same thing in terms of documenting the use of a source and providing access to that source. Since anthropology term papers do not use reference footnotes, you never have any reason to use Latin abbreviations such as ibid or op cit. In the best who to thank, footnote format, you use these expressions when you refer more than once to a single source. But when you use in-text citation, you give the same information every time that you refer to a source: the author's last name, year of publication of the work cited, and theraputic conversation the page(s) on noche boca arriba analisis which the idea or data you use appears. What if you refer to two different books or articles by the same author? How do you let the reader know that two different publications are being cited? You simply use the year of publication to distinguish them.
They will be listed chronologically under the author's name in the reference list. What if they were published the same year? Then you can add lower case letters after the publication date. (Stone 1979a) (Stone 1979b) What happens if two authors have the same last names? In that case, you use the initials of their first names, or their full names if they have the same first names, so that it is clear in your text which author you mean. So, if you cite both Karl Marx and Groucho Marx, you would use the initials of the theraputic, first names in boca analisis the citations, even though the years of publication are different. (K. Theraputic Conversation? Marx 1853:334) (G. Marx 1949:24) If two sources have the same first and last names, then you may have to use middle initials, if available.
The general rule is always to try to give enough information so that the arriba analisis, reader will know exactly what individual or publication in the reference list you are referring to. If there are two authors for a publication you wish to cite, you cite them this way: (Stone Burns 1956) If there are more than two authors, then you can probably get away with using the name of the senior author--the one whose name appears first in theraputic conversation an article, or under whose name a book is cataloged--followed by et al. which means and others. Smith, Burns, Garcia, and Sullivan 1980:87 can be cited as (Smith et al.
1980:87). Smith is the senior author; do not use the alphabetical order of authors' names in deciding what names to use in a citation. (Note: American Anthropologist , a major journal, now prohibits the use of et al. in the text, because it is undemocratic. I recommend the use of et al. --not because I'm undemocratic, but because it seems to me that a citation with three or more names interferes with the ease of reading the text, and I do not believe many instructors would object to this use of et al. in term papers. In your reference list, you must use the names of all the what did pierre trudeau, authors. Unless you are undemocratic.) An Exception to the Ban on Footnote: Multiple Citations. There is an exception to theraputic conversation the rule against who to thank, using reference footnotes for citing your sources. If you have many citations for one sentence (in other words, many sources for one piece of information), then you may use a footnote to avoid cluttering the theraputic, text and disrupting the reader's attention to your reasoning. Beagles are fond of Estimating, bagels (Collins 1967:67; Crenshaw 1934:98; Morton 1978:81-89 1979:97). Conversation? This means that. Beagles are fond of bagels.
1 This means that. 1. see Collins 1967:67; Crenshaw 1934:98; Morton 1978:81-89 1979:97. Using the reference footnote makes this easier to read without losing the sense of the text. The idea is to avoid doing anything to distract the reader's attention from and Schools Management Essay, what you have to say. Unless an idea is very complex or profound --like Beagle bagelphilia- or the data very technical or surprising, you rarely need to conversation use many citations for one particular chunk of information. A single citation will generally do. Sometimes you may wish to use several citations in order to direct the reader to a particular literature or to important examples of something. A footnote is appropriate in did pierre trudeau accomplish such cases.
For example, for the statement Beagles are fond of bagels, you might use this footnote: 1. The best references on Beagles and. bagels are Collins 1967, Crenshaw 1934, and Morton 1978 1979. Footnotes should go at the bottom (foot) of the page.
Some publishers put them at the end of the book. They claim this saves typesetting money (although with computerized typesetting that is conversation, no longer true). The real reason is that they hate readers. In any event, term paper footnotes should go at the bottom of the page. Gothic Novel Definition? It not only keeps the theraputic, professor from best man speech, cursing your future posterity as he fumbles his way to theraputic the back in search of a note, it also improves the chances that he will actually pay attention to Estimating Behavior them. (Nothing is more infuriating, by the way, than to make one's way to the back of the book in search of theraputic conversation, footnote 73 from chapter fourteen only to find that it says op cit in reference to something last discussed six chapters earlier.) Cite corporate authors (organizations or groups) by their corporate names. (National Anthropological Institute 1989) A very long corporate name may be abbreviated. Estimating Dinosaur Essay? The National Institute of Mental Health can be cited in the text as NIMH. However, the full corporate name must be used in the reference list. And you must be sure that you always provide enough information that a reader can find the source in the reference list without problems.
If an individual can be identified as the author, the theraputic, person rather than the organization should be cited. Occasionally, you will run across a work that has neither a personal nor corporate author. In that case you can use a few identifying words from the boca arriba, title of the source, which are placed in the author position in the entry in the reference list. There are as yet few employment opportunities in the field of Martian anthropology (Martian Anthropology 1986:569). This citation corresponds to the following reference list entry: Martian Anthropology: An Overview of a Non-field. 1986 Encyclopedia of the Inner Planets. Abridged.
Space City L-5:L-5 Publishing Matrix. Other people's exact words must be placed within quotation marks, or set off from the text by theraputic conversation, indentation and single spacing. A citation must be placed near the Concepts, and Schools of Strategic, beginning or at the end of the quotation, so that it is theraputic conversation, clear who is Romania Essay, being quoted. You could acknowledge a quotation from conversation, Clifford Geertz as follows: Culture is the fabric of meaning in terms of which human beings interpret their experience and guide their action; social structure is the form that action takes, the boca arriba, actually existing network of social relations (Geertz 1957:533). Here's another way to cite this quotation:
In an theraputic, article critical of functional analysis, Geertz (1957:533) distinguishes between culture and social structure: Culture is the fabric of boca analisis, meanings in terms of which human beings interpret their experience and guide their action; social structure is the theraputic conversation, form that action takes, the actually existing network of social relations. Note that no citation is gothic novel definition, needed at the end of the quote. Finally you might choose to incorporate Geertz's works into your text in conversation the following manner: According to Geertz, culture is the fabric of meaning by which people interpret their experience and guide their action (1957:533). Note: when you put somebody's words inside quotation marks, be sure to quote exactly--spelling, grammatical errors--everything must be just as it is in the original. Paraphrase or Summary. Even when you put other people's ideas or information into your own words, you must cite the did pierre elliott, source of the idea and date. For example, suppose that for a paper on socialization or cultural transmission I want to use T.R. Williams' idea that children take an conversation, active part in elliott trudeau their own socialization into society. Williams calls this the generative function of socialization. He defines this as.
comprising all of the theraputic, ways children reflect upon, think about, and Dinosaur sort out the theraputic conversation, content of culture, in order to develop for themselves a cognitive map of adult culture (Williams 1972:224). I don't want to quote him, though, because I know using too many quotations is a cheap trick. It's my paper, after all, so I paraphrase him as follows: Williams (1972:224) notes that children are active agents in their own socialization. They do not merely absorb the norms and Romania Essay values of adult behavior in a passive manner. Rather, they think about theraputic conversation their experience of cultural behavior, and develop their own theories about their position and roles in the system of social interactions that surround them. Data and Specialized Knowledge. All specialized knowledge--anything that cannot be considered common knowledge in the field in which you are writing--must be documented. Estimating? Data from a source must be cited.
Naraun society is divided into three status classes. The highest rank (temonibe) consists of descendants from the eldest daughter of the woman who founded the clan (Alkire 1972:44). Data from an theraputic conversation, ethnography on Romania Essay a group is often specialized knowledge --anthropologists are specialists on the people they study. How do you know if something is common knowledge? There are fuzzy areas, of course. Conversation? Generally, though, you can rely on common sense. Definition? You don't have to document the fact that the Plains Indians hunted buffalo on horseback in the nineteenth century. But if you describe the life of the Sioux before they got horses or moved onto the Great Plains, or describe a fight the Pawnee had with the conversation, Sioux while on a buffalo hunt in 1858, then you need to provide a citation referring the Romania Essay, reader to the source of your information. Common knowledge means common in the field in which you are writing. (That anthropologists are mostly geniuses is common knowledge--among anthropologists.
Others may disagree--but they don't know the field.) Most anthropologists know what clans, lineages, cross cousin marriage, and classificatory kinship are, but only specialists can be expected to know the difference between Aluridja and Kariera type kinship systems, and so if you write a paper on how a particular group of Australian Aborigines combine features of both, a reference citation is called for, such as: A pretty good rule of thumb is that if you knew it before you started your research, you probably don't need to provide a citation, unless you read about it recently. But if you learned it in the course of your research you'd better cite it. 8 When in doubt, go ahead and cite. A citation must identify quotations. This can be done in several ways. Short quotations can be incorporated in a paragraph by using quotation marks and a citation. Theraputic Conversation? If you have more than a couple of lines, you can show that you are quoting by indenting and using single spacing. Here is an example of a longer quotation in a sample text: Language requires and reinforces shared understandings. There has to be some level of gothic definition, agreement concerning the meanings and use of words and sentences in order for communication to be possible.
So it is reasonable to assume that language in some sense standardizes the understandings of individuals. However, Sapir, for one, notes in this context that although language acts as a socializing and theraputic uniformizing force, it is, rather paradoxically, at the same time the most potent single factor for the growth of individuality (1933:27). Remember, using citations is just like so many other things; it takes some practice. So don't worry if it doesn't feel right at did pierre elliott first. You'll get the hang of it, and soon you will be doing it automatically. Now what about paraphrases? A paraphrase is conversation, a rewording of noche arriba analisis, someone's ideas or information. Suppose I want to use some information I find in Tools for Thought by C.H. Waddington, for a paper describing the impact of the information explosion on anthropological research. Theraputic? In a section of Waddington's book entitled Complexity of Information in the Modern World, he discusses the analisis, number of theraputic conversation, scientific journals published as an what did pierre elliott trudeau accomplish, index of theraputic, complexity.
Here is the passage I'm interested in. The first two journals wholly devoted to science-- The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of best man speech who to, London and theraputic the French Journale des Savants --were both started in 1665. A number more were started at Romania Essay regular intervals during the next century. The process really got under way in earnest around 1760; since then the number of new journals established has doubled every fifteen years. By now well over 100,000 scientific journals have been founded. Not all have persisted, and nobody knows quite how many journals are being published at theraputic the present time.
As long ago as 1938, Bernal estimated that they were some 33,000 current scientific publications. Another estimate in the late 1960's put the number at 50,000, containing about 1 million separate scientific papers per year. One attempt to handle this mass of material has been the foundation of secondary journals, whose function it is to summarize and abstract the papers published in gothic novel definition the primary journals. Theraputic? The first of these appeared as long ago as 1714 in Germany. By the time there were enough of them to Models and Schools of Strategic Essay form a representative sample, they also started to multiply, at the same exponential rate as the primary journals, doubling in numbers every fifteen years, and reaching a total of theraputic conversation, 1,900 by the mid 1960's.
By this time there had been developed a tertiary level of periodical publications, giving information about the abstracting journals (Waddington 1977:32- 33). I want to use some of these facts in a paper on how this flood of information affects anthropological research. First I make a point and then I paraphrase Waddington in support of that point. Then I go on to cite another source. The library is best thank, a sophisticated information retrieval system. It is designed to give us access to theraputic conversation the information we need.
But we have to learn how to use it strategically, not haphazardly. This is especially true in anthropology, where the boca, literatures used are both extensive and diverse. The general need for sophisticated library research strategies becomes apparent when we consider the volume of information that confronts us. Waddington reports that the first scientific journals were established in 1665. Since 1760 over 100,000 journals have been established; it was estimated in the 1960's that as many as half of that number were still being published. These 50,000 surviving journals publishsomething on the order of one million papers a year. Efforts to manage this flood of information include the use of theraputic conversation, secondary journals to condense and did pierre trudeau accomplish make accessible the contents of the primary journals. By the 1960's there were at least 1900 of these secondary journals (Waddington 1977:32-33). The situation in conversation anthropology is the same. In 1875- 76, the library of the Peabody Museum, perhaps the first specialized anthropological library in the United States, had less than 1000 publications in its collection; by 1975 it had 130,000 (Currier 1976:16). The third edition of Murdoch's Ethnographic Bibliography of North America, published in 1960, contained 17,3000 entries for books and Romania Essay articles; the theraputic conversation, fourth edition, published in 1976, contains an additional 28,000 entries for books and what did pierre elliott trudeau accomplish articles published between 1959 and 1972 (Currier 1976:27).
Note how the citations identify the theraputic conversation, source of the information. A citation is not needed for every sentence; a series of sentences (or passages) may only require a single citation, as in the paraphrase of Waddington above, if it is clear that the information contained in the entire passage is from Models and Schools Essay, a single source (and from only a few pages of the source). If you pull together information from different places in a book or long article (as I did from the theraputic, article by Currier), then you need to use a citation within the paraphrase to indicate the Estimating Dinosaur Essay, different pages in the source where the theraputic conversation, material you used can be found. Transitions from one source to what elliott accomplish another obviously require you to position a citation in such a way that the reader can see that you have switched from conversation, one source to another. The crucial thing is that it must always be clear what ideas came from where. If it is not clear, then it is wrong. When discussing a single book at who to length, you do not have to theraputic conversation acknowledge the general concepts, concerns, or themes in it each time you mention one. But it must be clear to the readers that you are in fact discussing an idea or theme from that particular book.
You must, of course, cite the pages where more specific data or concepts are found, when you use them, so that the reader can find them. For example, you don't have to cite page numbers every time you state or imply that Frederik Barth, in his book Political Leadership among Swat Pathans , is interested in political leadership and authority, because that is the grand theme of the book. Gothic Definition? It runs all through it. Therefore, you don't have to cite specific pages when you say something non-specific about Barth's book. Barth shares this concern about the problem of political leadership. His study of the Swat Pathans (1959) is a good early example of an approach to politics developed within social anthropology. Once you have clearly established that you are discussing Barth's 1959 study of the Swat Pathans, you can drop the (1959) --as long as the reader knows you are referring to Barth's general theme or conceptuali- zation. But as soon as you go on to discuss Barth's specific formulations, then you have to provide the theraputic, reader with page numbers.
Barth states that among the boca analisis, Swat Pathans, Politically corporate groups are created by the actions of leaders (Barth 1959:72). These corporate groups are person-centered. The leader is the focus of the group; the group only exists in terms of and by virtue of theraputic, his authority. The group includes anyone the leader can get to join him in collective action in Dinosaur Behavior response to threat, crisis, or conflict. Theraputic? Note that since the quotation and paraphrase come from the definition, same page, one citation is adequate to theraputic identity both. Compare the best who to thank, paraphrase with the original: Politically corporate groups are created by the actions of leaders. Any such group consists of all the persons whom a leader is able to mobilize in theraputic conversation the event of conflict.
Its limits are undefined except in relation to the leader, and novel definition its solidarity derives from the latter's authority (Barth 1959:72). Theraputic Conversation? In theory, if you are not indebted to someone for an idea or date, you do not have to cite him or her, even if you come across their statement of that concept or information. However, in practice, it is noche arriba, usually better to go ahead and cite such a source, if the material is theraputic, pertinent. If nothing else, you strengthen your argument by indicating that reputable scholars have made the same point. Besides, citing a source entitles you to list it in your bibliography and shows the professor how hard you worked. Of Strategic? You don't want the professor to think you have done a slap dash job of research because you have failed to use a significant source. Also, you don't want to risk an unfair suspicion of plagiarism--more on that in theraputic conversation the next section. Plagiarism is the use of someone's work without acknowledgment, as if it were your own. If in your term paper you were to use someone's dates, ideas, or words without documenting that use with a citation, then you would be guilty of plagiarism. Plagiarism is cheating.
The penalties for plagiarism include an Romania Essay, F on a paper, failing the class, and theraputic probation or suspension from the university. To avoid plagiarism, you have to did pierre elliott accomplish know how to document your use of other people's work. Theraputic Conversation? This is novel definition, what we went over in the last section; in-text citation is the conversation, system of documentation used in anthropology. Documentation is more than a good thing to gothic definition know--it is your responsibility to know how to document your use of sources, and to make sure that you do so in theraputic conversation every paper that you write, whether you use in-text citation for an anthropology paper, or reference footnotes for Estimating Behavior, a literature paper. It is pretty easy to tell when a student has plagiarized. Professors and TAs are not dummies (or anyway not total dummies, or anyway not always total dummies). 9 They've had lots of experience in reading student papers, and they know what to expect. It is not always easy to theraputic tell whether a student meant to noche boca analisis cheat (although some cases are so outrageous that there can be no doubt) but most professors and TAs can tell whether he did cheat. Read this section and the section on the use of citations with care, so that you never unintentionally fail to document the source of material you use in your papers.
It is not all that hard to avoid plagiarism once you know what is involved. Theraputic Conversation? I'll advise you on how to avoid unintentional plagiarism. The main thing is to know how to document any use of sources correctly. A quotation, the use of someone's words, not only requires a citation, but must be set off from best man speech who to, your writing by quotation marks or by indentation and theraputic conversation single spacing. This is true of phrases as well as of what did pierre, whole sen- tences and passages. Consider the following example from theraputic conversation, African Religions of Brazil by Robert Bastide. The original is: All religion is a tradition --a dual tradition of stereotyped actions and did pierre elliott accomplish rites and of mental images and myths. It has often been claimed that the theraputic conversation, two elements are inseparable, myths being a definition or justification of the noche boca analisis, ceremonial action (Bastide 1978:240). And here is the same passage plagiarized almost word for word in student paper. (The paper is hypothetical.
If a student did this, he would find his graduation getting pretty hypothetical too.) This religion is a dual tradition, like any other; a tradition both of theraputic, stereotyped actions and rites and of psychological images and myths. The two elements are inseparable, with myth being the definition of ceremonial action. Romania Essay? Only a few, very minor, changes have been made; essentially it consists of Bastide's words. Here is an example of how to use this passage properly: According to Bastide, all religion is a tradition and theraputic conversation as such consists of stereotyped actions and rites and best man speech mental images and myths. He notes that it is possible to view ritual and theraputic conversation myth as a unitary phenomenon in which myth is a statement of the purpose or meaning of ritual (Bastide 1978:240).
It is clear that Bastide is being quoted, so a single citation at Romania Essay the end of the passage does the trick. Remember: it is still plagiarism even if you put someone's thoughts or data into your own words (in a paraphrase or summary) and do not acknowledge that use with a citation. Theraputic? Plagiarism occurs whenever a citation is noche, required, but is not given, whether for quotes or paraphrases, ideas or data. Besides confusion about the theraputic, purposes and methods of documentation, the major cause of unconscious plagiarism is probably lousy note taking. Whenever you take a note you should record whether it is a quote, a paraphrase, or summary. You should also immediately take down all the who to, bibliographic information you will need, should you later decide to incorporate that material into your paper.
If you don't do this, and you need to use that material, you'll have to haul yourself kicking and screaming back to the library to get this information. That will look pretty silly. (You would be wise if you also wrote down the conversation, call numbers of library materials you use, so that you can find that stuff again without having to look it up in the computer card catalog.) If you photocopy pages from something, you should immediately write down complete bibliographic information on the copy or, better yet, photocopy the title page. Otherwise in thank a couple of weeks you may want to theraputic conversation use it, but have only a vague notion of where it came from. And so you won't be able to use it, until you go back to the library and get the information you need to document your use of it. 10. The Bibliographic Format of Concepts, Models and Schools of Strategic Management Essay, Anthropology Papers: THE REFERENCE LIST. A reference list is not a real bibliography in the sense of seeking either to cover a subject comprehensively, or to identify sources which share certain special qualities (as in a select bibliography). Conversation? A reference list is best thank, less ambitious; it is an inventory of sources actually used rather than of all sources or selected sources. (Some people refer to reference lists as bibliographies, and others don't.
Personally, I don't think it matters what you call it as long as you know how to construct one.) A reference list gives the necessary bibliographic information in a particular format. The bibliographic format presented here is derived, for theraputic conversation, the most part, from the journal American Anthropologist and from the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences . The format may be somewhat different in other journals, and still more different in did pierre other disciplines. The reference list follows the theraputic conversation, text of the paper. It can be headed at the top of the Estimating Dinosaur Behavior Essay, page References Cited or Works Cited. The entries in the list are organized alphabetically by the last names of the authors. Here is what an entry for theraputic conversation, a book looks like: Geertz, Clifford. 1973 The Interpretation of Cultures . New York: Basic Books. and for a journal article:
Keesing, Roger 1979 Linguistic Knowledge and Cultural Knowledge: Some Doubts and Speculations. American Anthropologist 81 :14- 36. The above examples give the general form for entering sources in boca analisis a reference list. You should use the same layout and punctuation. Start typing from the regular margin. Notice what bibliographic information is required: 1. Theraputic Conversation? Last name of author, then first name (and middle initial).
[NOTE ADDED BY JM: In the natural sciences (that goes for BioAnthro), first names are not generally used, just initials. There are about a gazillion nuances and Concepts, Models and Schools of Strategic styles; in general, use the style that is used by conversation, most of the sources you are citing--i.e., pay attention to your sources and do like they do .] 2. Date of publication. 3. Title. Man Speech? 4. Information about the publisher or periodical, or other information about the source of the publication. a. If a book, then the city of publication and theraputic conversation name of the publisher. b. If an article, then the trudeau accomplish, name of the periodical, volume number, and pages on which the article appears. (Note: if the journal or periodical does not number pages consecutively for the entire year, you also need to give the issue number. Theraputic? See point 7 below.) The above form will work for man speech thank, most entries. Theraputic? But there are a variety of little details and special problems that you will encounter from time to time. Let's consider these one by one. 1. Book, single author.
Include complete subtitles. Tonkinson, Robert. 1978 The Mardujara Aborigines: Living the Dream in Australia's Desert . Estimating Essay? New York: Holt, Rinehart, and theraputic Winston. 2. Book or article, more than one author. Only the name of the first author is best man speech who to thank, reversed. Berger, Peter, and Thomas Luckmann. Theraputic? 1966 The Social Construction of man speech who to thank, Reality . New York: Doubleday. Harrison, G.A., J.S.Weiner, J.M.Tanner and N.A. Barnicot.
1977 Human Biology: An Introduction to Human Evolution, Variation, Growth, and Ecology . 2nd ed. Conversation? Oxford: Oxford University Press. Remember that it is (usually) acceptable, in a reference such as the one above, to use the principal author's name followed by best man speech who to, et al in your in-text citation, but that you must give all of the authors' names in theraputic conversation the reference list entry. 3. More than one publication by same author. In this case, you list the works chronologically (by date of publication).
The earliest work is cited first. Bailey, F.G. 1963 Politics and Social Change . Berkeley: University of California Press. 1969 Stratagems and Spoils: A Social Anthropology of Politics . Oxford: Blackwell. If more than one work was published in the same year, list them alphabetically and boca arriba use lower case letters to distinguish them, as in the in-text citation (1963a, 1963b). 4. City and State of Publication. If a book was published in some little known city or town--Tuba City, Arizona, or Weed, California, for example--then you should note the theraputic conversation, state, as well as the city, of novel definition, publication. Rosenberg, G. and D. Anspach 1973 Working Class Kinship . Theraputic Conversation? Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books.
Place of Romania Essay, publication is not required for periodicals, except to avoid confusion, as when journals with the same of similar names are published in different places. 5. Editor or compiler. Hunt, Robert, ed. 1967 Personalities and theraputic conversation Cultures: Readings in gothic definition Psychological Anthropology . Austin: University of Texas Press. 6. Chapter or article in book. Williams, T.R.
1972 The Socialization Process: A Theoretical Perspective. In Primate Socialization . Frank E. Poirer, ed. Pp. 207-260. New York: Random House. Notice that in theraputic is underlined (or italicized in print). This is to make sure that no one thinks it is did pierre trudeau accomplish, part of the title of the theraputic, book.
Also, note that the name of an editor, when not in the author position, is not inverted. 7. Journal Articles. If the periodical has continuous pagination, you omit the issue numbers. Singer, M. 1980 Signs of the Self: An Exploration in Semiotic Anthropology. American Anthropologist 82 : 485-507. Nowadays, most scholarly journals do not start off each issue with new pagination; rather, pagination is continuous throughout a volume, so providing an issue number would be superfluous. However, some periodicals start each issue with page one, in which case you must give the issue number in your entry. Romania Essay? Whenever you are not sure whether pagination is continuous, provide the issue number, in parentheses, after the conversation, volume number.
Washburn, Sherwood L. 1978 The Evolution of Man. Scientific American 239(3) :194-211. If you read Helen Sebba's translation of a book by Roger Bastide, the complete entry would be as follows: Bastide, Roger 1978 The African Religions of Brazil: Toward a Sociology of the Interpenetration of Civilizations . Helen Sebba, trans. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Original: Les Religions Afro-Brasiliennes: Contributions a une Sociologie des Interpenetrations de Civilisations, Paris, 1960).
All of the above information is not always available, in which case you have to make do with what is available. There are also variations in what is Romania Essay, done. For example, sometimes the language of the original is given: Translated from the Nahuatl by. . 9. Corporate Author. Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition 1978 Cognition as a Residual Category in Anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology 7 :51-69. 10. Reprints of Older Works.
You should give the original publication date in brackets, if available, as well as the date of the reprint. Smith, Arthur H. 1971  Village Life in China . Boston: Little, Brown. You probably should cite this in the text by conversation, both dates, at least on what did pierre elliott its first use, so the conversation, reader will be aware of the historical context of the source. Your page citation should be to the edition you used. Blom, Frans and Oliver LaFarge 1926 Tribes and Temples . New Orleans: Tulane University Press. Collier, Jane F. 1973 Law and Social Change in Zinacantan . Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1974 Women in Politics. In Women, Culture and Society . Models And Schools Of Strategic Management Essay? M. Rosaldo and L. Lamphere, eds. Conversation? Pp. 89-96. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
1977 Political Leadership and Legal Change in Zincantan. Law and Society Review 11 :131-163. Emerson, Richard 1962 Power-dependence Relations. American Sociological Review 27(1) :31-40. Levi-Strauss, Claude 1975 La Voie Des Masgues . 2 vol. Dinosaur Behavior? Geneva: Editions Albert Skira. Strickmann, Michel 1974 Taoism, history of. Theraputic? The New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 15th ed. Romania Essay? Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britanica. Vol. 17.
Pp. 1044- 1050. Part of what makes a library confusing is the fact that it has to organize tons of different kinds of stuff-- books, magazines and journals, government publications--from all over the world, about everything from the anthropology of art to conversation zymurgy, in a way that can be used efficiently by everyone from anthropology students to zymurgists. Anthropology uses an extremely wide range of library materials. If you go into the library blind, you won't find most of them. To use the library effectively for anthropological research, you have to know the gothic, functional relationship between critical reference works (that is, various indexes and bibliographies) and the anthropological literature. And, of course, you have to know how to use each individual reference work, when you find it.
Using a reference work, such as the Social Sciences Citation Index , is theraputic, not simple. But with practice it becomes automatic. Romania Essay? Librarians are not uniquely gifted superstars; they have simply taken the time to learn how the conversation, library works. If you take a little time, you can become fluent at using the library too (not as good as the librarians, but pretty good). 11 This Guide will get you started, and will, we hope, be something you can refer to as needed, whenever you do research in the University Library, for Romania Essay, anthropology or allied disciplines. The Library: How to Get Started.
So you walk into the library. What do you do first? Encyclopedias are good places to theraputic begin your exploratory reading, if you have some idea for a topic. (But term papers are never based solely on encyclopedia articles.) I suggest you go either to the Encyclopedia Britannica , 15th ed., or to the International Encyclopedia of the Romania Essay, Social Sciences , or to a specialized area or subject encyclopedia, if one is available for your topic. (See the conversation, next section for descriptions of individual reference works, including the best man speech, ones mentioned here, plus directions on how to find them in the reference areas.) Encyclopedias and conversation handbooks are the best way to get a quick introduction to a topic--to see if it really interests you and to check it for feasibility. And you can use their reference lists to identify good sources. When you find a source in a reference work you then have to go to the computer card catalog (a now archaic reference to the time when you actually consulted the paper cards directly) and find its call number, so that you can locate it in what trudeau the stacks.
The stacks are all those shelves of conversation, books that really make up a library. The reference area is a kind of map of the stacks. Using the reference works shelved in the reference area enables you to find that dingy brown book on the far end of the bottom shelf on the east side of the Concepts,, sixth floor which is just what you need for theraputic, your paper. Concepts, Models And Schools Of Strategic Management Essay? (It beats starting with the first book on conversation the first floor and flipping through every book until you find the best man speech who to thank, one you need.) After you have a call number, you can go find the book you want. When you find it--or the conversation, place where it would be if it were on the shelf--take time to look at the books next to it on the shelf. Since they are in Romania Essay the same call number sequence, they may be relevant to your topic. This kind of browsing (by call number sequence) is often an effective way of theraputic conversation, finding useful sources. The same type of browsing is also possible to do electronically, but then you can't actually flip through the books themselves. Once you lay your hands on one good source, you can use its citations and Romania Essay reference list to theraputic conversation identify additional sources. These sources will lead you on Estimating Behavior Essay to their sources, and so on--this is the method of pursuing a citation chain, which was mentioned earlier, in the section on the use of citations. (Incidentally, many sources will use old fashioned reference footnotes instead of theraputic conversation, in-text citations, and may omit a reference list on the theory that the information was already given in footnotes. That is a pain, and we are inclined to think dark thoughts about their ancestry, but we're not so prejudiced that we'd pass up a good source on that account.)
Since each source can cite only earlier sources, a citation chain normally leads from recent to earlier and Estimating Behavior Essay earlier publications. But it is also possible to pursue it in the opposite direction, i.e., from earlier to later citations. This is done by means of a remarkable set of reference tools called the Social Sciences Citation Index . We'll get to that. Reference Works: Encyclopedias. Encyclopedias attempt to summarize the knowledge in an area. Here are two of the best encyclopedias for anthropological research. (Also see the section on more specialized handbooks.) The New Encyclopedia Britannica (1990) 15th ed. 30 vols. Theraputic? Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.
There are three parts to this encyclopedia. The first is a one volume outline of best who to thank, knowledge entitled the Propaedia. It is also a guide to the encyclopedia. Theraputic Conversation? Then there is Estimating Dinosaur Essay, a ten volume Micropaedia which briefly summarizes knowledge in a subject. It is intended to function as a ready reference, and as an index to the last nineteen volumes.
It doesn't give the kind of in theraputic conversation depth information needed even for exploratory reading on Dinosaur a topic, but it may give you ideas for a topic and leads to follow. The final nineteen volumes are the Macropaedia. They give what the editors (pretentiously) call knowledge in depth. Often the articles in the Macropaedia are written by scholars famous in their fields. (The articles are initialed, and the initials are identified at the end of the conversation, Propaedia volume if you get curious.) These selections are the ones you are most likely to find useful. The reference lists are good. Note: one of the distinctive features of the 15th edition is its excellent cross indexing. The Micropaedia is a splendid index to the Macropaedia.
It is always best to best man speech thank start there. Theraputic Conversation? The Propaedia also indexes the Macropaidia, though less obviously. Don't skip them. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (17 vols.) edited by gothic novel definition, David Sills, New York: Macmillan, 1968-79. Volume 17 is the index volume. USE IT! It is much better than relying on the broad subject headings used in the encyclopedia proper. The index volume lists specific topics--going to it first saves you time. Page 84 of the index gives a list of the articles on anthropology. This encyclopedia has signed articles by conversation, heavyweights in gothic novel definition their field. For example, Melford Spiro wrote the article on Culture and Personality.
The reference lists are excellent. Reference Works: Indexes and Bibliographies. Social Sciences Index. As you turn from the world of general encyclopaedias, this is probably the index you will want to turn to first. It is selective about the material it covers, and so the sources you find by using it have a pretty good chance of theraputic, being high quality. It is Romania Essay, easy to theraputic conversation use.
For example, suppose you are interested in Brazil. You look in Concepts, Management Essay the index for 1980 under the subject heading Brazil and find that it says, among other things: Brazil see also. You then turn to the anthropological research heading. There, under Brazil, a journal article is listed. Theraputic Conversation? The title, author, journal name, and volume and page numbers are given: Final report on noche analisis the meeting of anthropologists and Indian experts. R. Cordoso de Oliveira. Cur Anthrop 20 :451-4 Je' '79. Cur Anthrop is the abbreviation used in this index for the journal Current Anthropology. (You can tell because there is a list of conversation, abbreviations used in the front of the index.) The volumes in which the article appears is 20, on arriba analisis pages 451-454, in conversation June 1979.
The article was written by R. Cordoso de Oliveira. To get your hands on the article itself, look up the Romania Essay, journal name in the serials record . This is a list of the journals and magazines in theraputic conversation the library, and gives their call numbers. The serials record is found both in print and on computer at various locations--one is near the best, reference desk. The serials list also tells you what volumes the library has. Volumes that are bound are shelved in the stacks. Unbound periodicals may be located in the Current Periodicals room.
Some unbound periodicals are also shelved in the stacks. Armed with the call number for the journal and the volume and page number from the Social Science Index reference that you found, you may now march confidently into the stacks, walk right to the the shelf, and pull out the conversation, volume you need, flip it open, and voil?: the desired article. (Remember, that if that article is useful, the sources it lists in its reference bibliography may also be useful.) Essay and General Literature Index. This index identifies the novel definition, contents of books (for example, essays in collections). The computerized card catalog does not do this. In the index for theraputic conversation, 1970-74, under the heading Brazil, you find nothing interesting.
You turn to the anthropology heading. Again nothing seems useful. But it refers you (see also) to various other headings, including ethnology. Under ethnology, you strike out. But it says see also kinship. Turning to noche analisis the kinship heading, you find an article on kinship in theraputic Brazil. This is how it is listed in the index:
Kinship Levi-Strauss, C. Noche Boca? Social Structures of conversation, Central and Eastern Brazil. In Gross, D.R., ed. Peoples and Cultures of Native South America . p. Romania Essay? 263-74. You could not have found this particular article in the card catalog, but you can look up the book edited by Gross. You would jot down the above information, and turn to the back of the index, where there is a section which lists alphabetically all of the books which have had their contents indexed. Under Gross, D.R., you find the following information.
Gross, Daniel Russel (ed) Peoples and Cultures of Native South America: An Anthropological Reader . Ed. with introductions. Published by conversation, the American Museum of Natural History Press 1973. You use this information to look up the Estimating Dinosaur, book. The big advantage of this index is that it indexes the contents of books. The fact that an article or essay has been selected for inclusion in a collection means that there is a fair chance that the article is of high quality. Catalog of the Library of the Peabody Museum of conversation, Archeology and Ethnology, Harvard University. This is a reproduction in book form, of the card catalog of the Estimating Dinosaur Essay, Peabody Museum Library. It is perhaps the best retrospective bibliography for anthropological research. 12 It also indexes the contents of selected journals and books. It is divided into an author catalog and a subject catalog.
The catalog is periodically updated with supplements which index works acquired since the main catalog was published. 1. Theraputic Conversation? Subject Catalog The subject catalog of the Peabody Museum Library is organized by topical divisions (ethnology, technology), by human groups (political, linguistic, and Estimating Behavior Essay social) and by geographical areas. Theraputic? The human groups headings, such as Basques and Berbers, have subject sub- headings, such as Basque-Sociology-Economics. The broader topical divisions may be broken down into subtopics (Anthropology-Theory). Publications under a particular geographical heading, like those for human groups, have subject sub-headings. So you can look first for the geographical area that interests you, and then you look for the subject headings that interest you. Keep in mind that some of the subject headings in the catalog may be out of date, since they were set up years ago.
Suppose I am interested in Bali, an island in Indonesia. Boca Arriba? Under Bali in the fourth supplement to theraputic the catalog are reproduction of thirty-one cards in the catalog of the Peabody Museum Library. Subject headings follow the geographical headings; there are cards that say Bali Island--Ethnology, meaning that the publication listed on that card concerns the eth- nology of Bali. Here are some of the noche arriba analisis, subject headings that appear under the geographic heading of Bali: Sociology--Acculturation and Culture Change. The Peabody catalog indexes the contents of many books and journals. For example, on a card headed Bali Island-Sociology-Authority and Leadership, we find a chapter in a book listed: Hobart, Mark Orators and theraputic Patrons: Two Types of Political Leaders in Balinese Village Society. ( In : Political Language and Oratory in best who to thank Traditional Society . London: New York: Academic Press. c.1975, p. 65-92.) Notice that this entry does not give you the name of the editor of the volume in which this work appears; it does give you page numbers.
We also find a journal article on marriage (under the subject heading Sociology-Marriage). Boon, James A. The Balinese Marriage Predicament: individual, strategical, cultural. ( In : American Ethnologist . 1976 v.3 no.2 p.191-214; diagrs.) Both of the above appear in the fourth supplement , which updates the catalog. The fourth supplement was published in 1979, and catalogs 100,000 entries not cataloged in theraputic conversation the third supplement. You should use both the main catalog and each of the supplements in your search of the literature. Otherwise you can miss valuable sources. For example, if I had not looked in the main catalog under Bali, I might have missed the Concepts, Models and Schools, following older, but classic, work:
Bateson, Gregory Balinese Character: a photographic analysis ; by Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead. New York, 1942. Conversation? xvi, 227 p. Romania Essay? 100 illus. (Special Publications of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. II.) Remember, this catalog is the best place to locate many older works; it is an excellent retrospective bibliography. 2. Theraputic Conversation? Author Catalog. Suppose you already know that a particular author has done major work on your topic. For example, maybe you are interested in some aspect of your topic. For example, maybe you are interested in some aspect of the work of Alfred Kroeber on California Indians. Under Kroeber, Alfred Louis, in the Peabody author catalog are listed 126 entries on works by Estimating Dinosaur, Kroeber, covering the course of his career from 1900 through the 1950's.
There are numerous articles on California Indians. After the publications by Kroeber are listed various works about Kroeber, which may also be useful. The first supplement to theraputic the author catalog had another thirty-two entries by or about Kroeber--many of these are reprints of works also listed in the main catalog. These reprints may be more accessible to Concepts, Models and Schools of Strategic Essay you than the original publications, so it may pay off to theraputic conversation check the supplements even on older authors. Social Sciences Citation Index.
The Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) is the what did pierre trudeau accomplish, versatile and sophisticated index we mentioned before. It consists of three different kinds of indexes, which are designed to theraputic be used together: the gothic novel, Permuterm Subject Index , the Citation Index , and the Source Index . This is one of the major accomplishments of modern library science, and it's well worth the time it takes to get acquainted with it. 1. Subject and Source Index. If you have a topic, and want to find articles about it, you can use the SCCI Permuterm Subject Index . Permuterm means that the words in titles have been used to index articles; an article will be listed under various combinations of the words in the title, which are called terms and theraputic conversation co-terms. For example, suppose that you have a topic in the area of psychological anthropology. You know that culture and personality studies are an best man speech who to, important part of this field.
So it makes sense to pick culture as you Primary Term and personality as a Co-Term. Theraputic Conversation? In the best, Permuterm Subject Index for 1980, under the primary term culture and the co-term personality the name Shweder is conversation, listed. Romania Essay? Now you turn to the Source Index for 1980 and theraputic look up Shweder. This turns out to be a bonus: not one, but three articles by Shweder are listed. Gothic Novel Definition? (There was even a little symbol in the Subject Index which indicated that.) The SSCI Source Index gives you the conversation, following information for best who to, the first of Shweder's articles: Shweder, R.A.
Rethinking Culture and conversation Personality Theory 2: Critical Examination of two more Classical Postulates. This is basically the same bibliographic information you find in a reference list: author, title, journal, volume and issue number, page numbers, and date of publication. Only the order is man speech thank, different from the format given earlier. The only mystery here is the 77R. That indicates the number of conversation, sources that Shweder cites. Seventy-seven sources is a lot. Of Strategic Management Essay? When you find a journal article with more that thirty or forty works listed in its reference list, you can be pretty sure that it is a major review of theraputic conversation, a subject.
The article by Shweder is probably a review of Dinosaur Essay, some aspect of culture and theraputic personality theory, and so may be quite useful--for its reference list, if nothing else. One beautiful thing about the gothic definition, SSCI is that in the Source Index it lists the reference sources of theraputic, every article indexed. So you not only have a reference to Shweder's article in Ethos , you have a list of all the sources he cited, even before you go look at his article. What? His reference list is given right below the entry for theraputic conversation, his article. Let's look at one of Shweder's sources, as listed in gothic definition the Source Index.
Bateson G. 67 AM Behavioral Sci 10 29. Bateson is the author. 67 means 1967. The name of the journal in which the article appears is American Behavioral Scientist. (The Index has a listing of all abbreviations used.) 10 refers to the volume number of the journal, 29 is the page number. The Citation Index of the SSCI enables you to find out which authors are being cited by others. The authors who cite Shweder's articles on culture and personality, for conversation, example, are probably writing about the Estimating Behavior Essay, same or related issues. The person who cites Shweder may provide follow-up work or an theraputic, evaluation of Shweder's work.
So by using the Citation Index , you can listen in to the dialogues being carried on by various groups of scholars who are interested in the stuff that interests you. When you find a good article on your topic, you can find other sources by finding out who has cited that article (or author) since its publication. The Citation Index lets you pursue citation chains in a new direction. Romania Essay? Before, you could only trace sources cited in theraputic an article you had your hands on, which meant you could only find works published before the date of what trudeau accomplish, publication of the article you have. But with the Citation Index you can find sources published after that date, because this index tells you who has cited the article you have since its publication. Theraputic Conversation? So not only can you find a lot of potentially useful sources fast by using the SCCI, you can also keep up with the most recent developments and ideas in a field, and check to see how a work was later evaluated, a theory revised, or a conceptual framework expanded, modified or given up as worthless. This kind of library research is likely to pay off a lot faster than paging through journals one by one.
Here's how you go about using the SSCI Citation Index : First you look up the what elliott accomplish, author in the index. The titles of the author's articles are listed, by year of publication, under his or her name. Theraputic Conversation? Under the titles are listed the names of the Estimating Essay, authors who cite that article, along with the bibliographic information you will need to look up these new sources. Book Review Digest. Suppose you want to theraputic know whether or not African Political Systems , edited by Meyer Fortes and E.E. Evans-Pritchard is worth using in novel your paper. Theraputic Conversation? You can use the Book Review Digest to find out. First, look up Fortes in Concepts, of Strategic Management Essay the author/title index which is published in conversation separate volumes (Author-Title Index 1905-74). Trudeau Accomplish? This provides the title and year of publication of all books included in the Digest . You will find that African Political Systems was published in 1941.
Turning to the volume for 1941, you will find digests (that is, summaries) from several reviews of this book which appeared in conversation various periodicals, including American Anthropologist and American Political Science Review . If a book is Concepts, Models and Schools, not reviewed by a major journal, it may not be worth using. There are a lot of pretty funny people writing pretty funny books, and it is embarrassing to base part of a term paper on theraputic a book which seems to be scholarly and rigorous, only to have the professor tell you that the results were considered impossible, or that fraud was involved, or that the noche boca, author is famous for being an idiot. Therefore any book which seems to contain startling or controversial information or interpretation is theraputic conversation, worth checking out in the Book Review Digest . Gothic? If you find no summaries there, be sure to check the Book Review Index . Here you can find the citations to a much larger number of theraputic conversation, book reviews but without summaries. Models And Schools? You will have to look them up yourself. Since academic journals are nortoriously slow about reviewing books, you may find that a book published in 1990 has the bulk of its reviews appear in 1991 while others will straggle in theraputic conversation over the next couple of years, so do not confine yourself just to the year the book was published. Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) The Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) are a microfiche collection of books, articles and unpublished papers on more than 300 ethnic, religious, cultural and gothic novel national groups worldwide. They are particularly valuable if you want to do a cross-cultural comparison quickly since each piece of writing is intensively indexed by topic. Materials are arranged according to a classification system based on the following manuals:
Outline of Cultural Materials . 5th ed. 1982. Subject index to the HRAF files. Assigns a numerical designation to more than 700 categories of human culture. It is used in conjunction with the Outline of World Cultures to locate information in the HRAF files. It is advisable to use several reference works when surveying the literature in preparation for a research paper. Theraputic Conversation? And remember that indexes and bibliographies organized by geographical areas index sources that focus on particular subjects (such as culture and boca analisis personality or political systems), and the subject indexes will include sources that focus on ethnographic areas. This is not an theraputic conversation, exhaustive list of reference works useful in anthropological research. I have tried here to did pierre elliott accomplish list only the conversation, ones you will probably find most useful. There are many other useful reference sources.
Try browsing in the reference area sometime to get a feel for the diversity of novel definition, available reference works. 13 There is theraputic conversation, a list available in the reference area devoted just to and Schools Management Essay reference works in anthropology, and there are similar lists for other subjects as well. Obviously, if you have any questions or problems, consult your librarian. Cultural Anthropology: A Guide to Reference and theraputic Information Sources . 1991. Dinosaur Behavior Essay? Guide to reference literature in cultural anthropology, as well as libraries, publishers and organizations. Introduction to Library Research in Anthropology . 1991. Guide to research tools, library services and the mechanics of term paper writing in anthropology. The Social Sciences: A Cross Disciplinary Guide to conversation Selected Sources. 1989. Consult the Anthropology chapter for an annotated list of recent reference sources in what did pierre trudeau accomplish anthropology.
Sources of conversation, Information in thank the Social Sciences . 3rd ed. 1986. The Anthropology chapter contains an exhaustive annotated bibliography of the literature of this field. Conversation? [probably] Available at the Reference Desk. International Bibliography of the Social Sciences--Anthropology . 1955-91+ This has an author-subject index at the back of Dinosaur, each volume. Theraputic Conversation? It breaks the discipline into sub-areas in did pierre trudeau accomplish a clasification scheme-- for example, General Studies, Materials and Methods, Ethnographic Studies (by area), Social Organization (by area and by institution and type of behavior, e.g., sexual relations, inter- racial and inter-ethnic relations). The IBSS also includes bibliographies in political science, economics, and sociology. The anthropology part covers archeology and physical anthropology as well as cultural and social anthropology.
DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS. Dictionary of Anthropology . 1986. Covers 1100 terms, theoretical concepts, and biographical profiles in social and cultural anthropology. Theraputic? Includes bibliography. Dictionary of Concepts in Cultural Anthropology . 1991.
Contains definitions, historical origins and developments, and bibliographic references for 80 key concepts in cultural anthropology. Dictionary of Concepts in of Strategic Management Physical Anthropology . 1991. Consists of brief definitions, historical origins and developments, and conversation sources of additional information for Romania Essay, concepts in physical anthropology. Encyclopedia of Anthropology , 1976 This is really a dictionary rather than an encyclopedia. Encyclopedia of Evolution: Humanity's Search for its Origins . 1990. Popular encyclopedia containing 600+ articles on evolution and its impact on society, from Bonzo to biogenetic law and theraputic conversation from Planet of the Apes to plate tectonics. Encyclopedia of Islam , New Edition. vol 1-4 Covers most major aspects of Islamic history and religion. Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory . 1988. Covers 1200+ topics in human evolution. Contains photographs, drawings and charts. Entries include bibliographies.
Encyclopedia of World Cultures . 10 vols.[in progress] 1991- . Ten-volume encyclopedia, arranged by Estimating Dinosaur Essay, geographic region, provides descriptive summaries on world cultures. International Dictionary of Anthropologists . 1991. Biographical dictionary of anthropologists born prior to conversation 1920. The scope is worldwide. International Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychoanalysis, and Neurology, 1977 Volume 12 is the index volume. The articles are signed and have reference lists. The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences would also be useful in doing research in psychological anthropology. Women Anthropologists: A Biographical Dictionary . 1988. Biographical profiles of gothic definition, women anthropologists born between 1836 and 1934. Profiles include a selected bibliography of works by or about each individual.
INDEXES AND ABSTRACTS. Abstracts in conversation Anthropology . Dinosaur Essay? 1970 - . Abstracts are brief summaries of the contents of a publication and index journal articles in a subject arrangement. Theraputic? Abstracts, unlike book reviews, are non-evaluative. Most social sciences have their own abstracts. Behavior Essay? You may also find Psychological Abstracts and Sociological Abstracts useful. Divided into conversation, four sections: archaeology, physical anthropology, linguistics, and cultural anthropology. Does not index book reviews. Africa Bibliography . 1984 - . Index to articles, books and essays. Arranged by region and country, following a general section.
Consult the social and cultural anthropology/sociology and anthropology/ archaeology/prehistory subject headings. Alternative Press Index . 1970 - . Index to alternative and radical publications. Consult this index for articles on Australian aborigines, native Americans and other groups. Index America: History and Life . 1964 - . Table This work indexes and Estimating Behavior Essay abstracts periodical articles in the field of North American history and culture. Theraputic Conversation? Includes articles on native American history, prehistory and culture. Includes book reviews.
Anthropological Index to noche analisis Current Periodicals in the Museum of Mankind Library . Theraputic Conversation? 1980 - . Romania Essay? Indexes more than 600 periodicals in a geographical arrangement, subdivided by theraputic conversation, general, physical anthropology, archaeology, cultural anthropology, ethnography, and linguistics. No subject index. Annual author index published separately. Does not index book reviews. Anthropological Literature: An Index to Periodical Articles and Essays . Concepts, Of Strategic Management Essay? 1979 - . Theraputic? Indexes over 1000 periodicals and 150 edited books from materials received at Harvard's Tozzer Library. Does not index book reviews. Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts . 1987 - . Index to journal articles in the applied social sciences. Includes social and cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and physical anthropology. Index Arts and Humanities Citation Index . 1975 - . Table Provides author, subject and citation access to the literature in Estimating Dinosaur Essay folklore, linguistics and theraputic archaeology.
Includes book reviews. A Current Bibliography on African Affairs . 1962 - . Quarterly index to books, articles, government documents and visual aids, arranged by general subject or geographical area. Geographical Abstracts: Human Geography . 1989 - . Index to 1000 geographical journals, books, proceedings, reports, theses and dissertations covering the literature of human geography. Classified subject arrangement. Handbook of Latin American Studies , 1935- Publishes separate volumes on Romania Essay humanities and theraputic conversation social sciences.
Annotated. Handbook of Middle American Indians . 16 vols. Best Man Speech Who To Thank? 1964-1976. Conversation? Contains essays on the ethnography, archaeology, physical anthropology and social anthropology of the Indians of Middle America. Updated by recent supplements. Handbook of North American Indians . And Schools Of Strategic Essay? 20 vols. [in progress] 1978 - . When completed, this work will be the standard source of information on the prehistory, history and conversation cultures of the best man speech who to thank, native peoples of North America north of Mexico. Each volume contains essays on specific aspects of theraputic conversation, Native American life with an extensive bibliography and elliott trudeau accomplish detailed index. Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology . Conversation? 1973. Surveys the trudeau, state of knowledge and reviews research in the various branches of anthropology. Handbook of South American Indians . 7 vols. Theraputic? 1946-1959.
Survey of tribes of South America, with emphasis on the European contact period. Medical Anthropology: A Handbook of Theory and Method . 1990. Presents the state of the art in medical anthropology, core theoretical issues, ethnomedicine, biomedicine, health issues in human populations, methodology and policy issues. Anthropological Bibliographies: A Selected Guide . 1981. Extensive list of bibliographies arranged geographically with a final section of topical bibliographies. Anthropological Fieldwork: An Annotated Bibliography . 1988. Contains 700 entries on novel definition anthropological fieldwork from the theraputic, early twentieth century to 1986. Includes geographical and subject indexes. A Bibliography of Contemporary North American Indians: Selected and Concepts, Models Management Essay Partially Annotated with Study Guide . 1976 Organized by topics--for example, the anthropology of development, culture and theraputic personality. Cumulative Bibliography of African Studies . 1973 This is a reproduction of the Romania Essay, author and subject catalog of the IAI. Subject headings are organized under geographical Folio areas.
It has a table of contents. Theraputic? The IAI has several other bibliographies which might be useful. Cumulative Bibliography of Asian Studies . 1941- These are two titles in the same continuous series. Gothic Novel? Broken down by topic and theraputic conversation country, they cover an extraordinarily large range of publications and therefore runs four or five years behind (i.e., volume covering 1986 was published in 1991). Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of Physical Anthropology . 1986.
Contains 2340 references from what did pierre elliott trudeau, ancient times to on the history of physical anthropology. Arranged chronologically. Ethnographic Bibliography of North America . Conversation? 4th edition, 1975 (supplement 1990) Organized by areas. It has 40,000 entries on Estimating Essay articles and books, and covers the field through 1972, supplement takes it through the 1980s. Ethnographic Bibliography of South America . 1963 Organized by area, then by tribe. Has tribal index. The History of conversation, Anthropology: A Research Bibliography . 1977. Contains more than 2400 entries on the development of anthropology as a science and Romania Essay profession. Index Islamicus: A Catalogue of Articles in theraputic Periodicals and novel Other Collective Publications . 1958-85. Organized by subject and by theraputic, area. Includes section on ethnology and anthropology (more current supplements issued periodically)
Modern Chinese Society: An Analytical Bibliography . Noche Boca Arriba? 1973 Good source for older work, but much new research has been conducted since it came out. Native American Basketry: An Annotated Bibliography . 1988. Comprehensive bibliography includes books, articles, theses, dissertations and newspaper articles. Organized by culture area. Theraputic? Contains author and subject indexes. Pacific Bibliography: Printed Materials Relating to the Native Peoples of Dinosaur Behavior, Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia . 1965. 2nd ed. This has author, subject, and theraputic conversation group indexes. The Social System and Culture of best who to, Modern India: A Research Bibliography . 1975 Organized by subjects--covers sociology and social and cultural anthropology, although all of the subject headings refer to sociology.
YEARBOOKS AND REVIEW LITERATURE. Annual Review of Anthropology . Theraputic? 1972- This gives critical reviews of recent research in selected areas of Estimating Behavior Essay, anthropology, such as political and economic anthropology, symbolic studies, culture change, and area studies. The biblio- graphies for theraputic conversation, each article are generally quite extensive. Reviews in Anthropology . Gothic? 1974 - . Quarterly journal which publishes long reviews on important new publications in anthropology. Atlas of Mankind . 1982. Contains general background information on peoples of the world, including issues such as migration, race, kinship, language, and environment. Atlas of theraputic, World Cultures: A Geographical Guide to Ethnographic Literature . Noche Arriba Analisis? 1989. Geographical guide to ethnographic books, articles, reports, archaeological materials, maps and atlases for 3500+ cultures. Cultural Atlas of China . 1983. Visual representation of the culture history of China, with maps, photographs, tables and text. There are similar volumes on Africa and Japan.
AAA Guide . Current year. Describes anthropology departments in conversation 485 institutions, lists American Anthropological Association members, recent PhD dissertations in anthropology, and student statistics. Biographical Directory of Anthropologists Born Before 1920 . 1988 Entries include biographical data, major contributions, and published sources of biographical information. Return to contents Nowadays a fair amount of your library research can be done without ever entering the library (not all of it; after you identify sources using an online catalog, you still need to get them--with some nifty exceptions!). This brief section on electronic searching is NOT intended to cover the topic in as much detail as the rest of this document; it merely points out a couple of things I find many UCSD students are not aware of. ROGER seems to be where most students begin their online research; this is a great resource and man speech has an easy-to-use interface, but has a critical limitation : it only conversation, covers BOOKS. Now, at first you might think, well, duh--libraries house books, I'm looking for books, so like what's the limitation line all about? It's about periodicals . Using ROGER, you can locate which library subscribes to which journal, which is useful, but now what?
To find an article on a particular topic, what do you do? You bag ROGER, that's what. [Jan. 2001 update: The new millennium has brought changes to the system, and the rate of change is increasing. Much of the following is based on the old 1998 MELVYL interface (which is still available); resources today are vastly greater. Start your online library search for journals at the California Digital Library (http://www.dbs.cdlib.org/. The pull-down menu asks you to select a database. If you are looking for a book, choose MELVYL; for a bioanthro article my suggestion is start with Current Contents. Experiment! The Really Cool Thing is that if you are logging on from a campus computer, for Romania Essay, many journals you can read/download the entire article online! Save yourself that trip over to BioMed or SIO.
DO skim through the rest of conversation, this, though; the exact commands and interfaces change, but the search strategies do not. Instead, use MELVYL and get into what did pierre, one of the periodical databases: CC, MED, or MAGS (by typing CC, MED, or MAGS at the MELVYL prompt--not difficult!) The search syntax is a little different in each but each has a complete users guide--type help or e med [or e mags etc; e is for explain]--and it is theraputic conversation, worth learning because with these you can locate any article written by a particular author or that contains a given word (or words) in the title. For example, say you found an did pierre elliott, interesting article by Richard Wrangham that he wrote in 1980, and you want to see if he's written anything else since then. Tell CC (the Current Contents database) to f ind all articles by the p ersonal a uthor R. Wrangham: CC: f pa wrangham, r. and you'll get a list. Or, you need to theraputic write a paper about Australopithecus anamensis and best you've no idea where to find anything on it; if you search ROGER you can find plenty of books on hominids etc, but 99.9% of theraputic conversation, that will say nothing about anamensis , a recently-described species that won't even be in any older books. Best Thank? So -- ask CC to find all articles with anamensis in the t itle w ords: CC: f tw anamensis and you're away. Note that this will miss an article about theraputic anamensis that happens to be titled A new hominid from Kanapoi, Kenya; hey, no single system is perfect (once you know who discovered the fossil, you can do an what did pierre trudeau accomplish, author search to get everything else by that person. ). Now--what's the difference between CC, MED, and MAGS? CC covers a wide variety of scientific journals across many fields; MED is more specialized to journals that carry articles related in some fashion to medicine (this covers a surprising number of topics that might seem fairly peripheral to medical topics). Finally, MAGS covers--surprise--magazines (like Discover or Time ).
OK, what's the difference between scientific journals and magazines? PEER REVIEW . When an article is submitted to a peer-reviewed journal, the editor sends it to conversation from 2-8 (supposed) experts on noche boca arriba the topic, who tear it apart and let the conversation, editor know if there is any merit to the article. For a magazine article, the editor decides whether to accept it on the basis of . well, whatever -- for example, an best who to thank, editor might include an outrageous story knowing that sales will go up as people argue about it. Theraputic Conversation? (The same can apply for Concepts, Models of Strategic Management, books.) This doesn't mean everything in peer-reviewed journals is true and correct, but it's at least plausible, most of the time. Finally, a nifty feature of MED and MAGS is that for some articles you can access the abstract and (in MAGS), sometimes even the whole article online. In response to a search, output looks like:
3. Evans, Dylan. The arbitrary ape. (human intelligence and the ability to think randomly) New Scientist v159, n2148 (August 22, 1998):32 (3 pages). Type D 3 AB to see abstract. AT: UCSD S E Q 1 N5496 Current Journals Bound in Stacks. which is pretty self-explanatory (I've highlighted the theraputic conversation, relevant bit, the display won't be in color!).
This can be an immense timesaver. I'm not going to who to thank attempt to cover research on the web; just want to make two points: First, refer back to the difference between peer-reviewed journals and popular magazines, and remember: at theraputic least with those, at least one person other than the author read it before accepting it . Surprise: you can't trust everything you read on the web. Second, while the what did pierre trudeau accomplish, web has everything on it, you may not be able to find it. I recently wanted statistics on timber exports from Gabon, and figured it was a natural for a web search. Two frustrating hours later, nothing. On a whim, I tried MELVYL and within 3 minutes had the call number of a recent book on African timber trade, that had everything I could ask for and more on the subject. (A week later, an expert I'd contacted finally got around to emailing me with a couple of urls to websites with superb statistics on worldwide logging--like I said, it's there , just need to theraputic find it. ) No single search strategy will get everything, and failure to find information using one resource means try another one-- not but there's nothing on best man speech my topic! 1 Literature as used here refers to the body of published material on conversation some subject or topic--not to Romania Essay Russian novels. Conversation? For example, there is a literature on medical anthropology, on Afro-American religions, on the kinship systems of Australian Aborigines, on witchcraft and Dinosaur Behavior Essay magic and so forth. back. 2 Writing skills are also useful in conversation the world at large, of course.
One of the practical aspects of anthropology courses is best who to thank, their frequent emphasis on writing. You will find the writing and research skills as taught in theraputic conversation anthropology useful in the REAL WORLD--more useful than an ability to ace multiple choice exams. And research and writing are not really so hard, once you've had enough practice. Best Man Speech Who To? back. 3 Data are pieces of information that can be used in analysis. Technically, data is the plural of datum, that is, of one of the pieces of conversation, information. But, so many people use data as a singular form that you probably won't get into best thank, too much trouble if you find yourself using it in the singular. Conversation? Other common singular/plural confusions: criteria (pl.)/criterion (sing.); phenomena (pl.)/phenomenon (sing.) -- if you mix these up someone may accuse you of Management, illiteracy.
So when in doubt, consult a dictionary or a writing handbook on theraputic conversation word usage and words commonly misused. back. 4 That may sound trite, but it is significant, and worth working on. A professor once remarked that he found some kind of wrongheadedness in the first sentence of almost every paper. If that's true--and who am I to argue with a professor? [Steve wrote this while still a grad student, now he can argue]--then there is probably an gothic novel, awful lot of poor word choice going on. If you are careful to pick the best words for the ideas you want to express, you will probably be one of the few who do--that doesn't guarantee an A, but it comes closer to guaranteeing it than any other writing habit I can think of.back. 5 If you are not belligerent and unreasonable, most professors have no objections to a little disagreement. (A lot of them are flattered anyone was paying attention!) You probably have a reason for disagreeing, after all, and if it is theraputic conversation, a good reason it might work into the basis of a good term paper.back. 6 That's an on porpoise typo.back. 7 You can still use content footnotes, if you like. Content footnotes discuss ideas, issues, or details that are pertinent (or, occasionally, important) but not a necessary or direct part of the Dinosaur Essay, exposition or argument of the paper. This type of footnote is for discussion and elaboration. Unlike reference footnotes, content footnotes do not (usually) provide bibliographic information.back.
8 However, if you suspect that your audience will not be familiar with an idea or some body of information, then even if you have thought or known it for years, it is advisable to use a citation.back. 9 You can get pretty dummy-like after reading 100 term papers in a row.back. 10 The best advice on taking notes--library notes or field notes--is to include everything necessary for someone else to be able to use them. Figure that by the time you actually use them you'll be older and wiser (or will have forgotten enough) that for all practical purposes you will be someone else. Making notes self explanatory is never a bad policy. Conversation? back. 11 The reference librarians are always going to know more about the library than anyone else, so if you can't find what you need, don't assume the library does not have it until you have asked a librarian. back. 12 Retrospective means covering older publications; looking back on Dinosaur Behavior Essay past work.back. 13 I think I already told you that TAs have funny ideas about how to spend their time.back. One of the big buzzwords (OK, concept more than words) in primatology/cognitive science these days is theraputic conversation, theory of mind (TOM). There are folks who are devoting major research energy, if not careers, to establishing whether apes (or monkeys, or dolphins, or beagles. ) have TOM -- i.e., are they capable of thinking about noche boca arriba analisis other individuals as separate social actors with their own separate knowledge, motives, desires, or do they simply respond to conversation stimuli without being able to take account of another's viewpoint? The classic experiment is what Christine Johnson calls the Sally - Anne test.
Experimenter puts a big treat inside a box while Sally is gothic definition, watching, then Sally leaves the theraputic conversation, room (the experimental subject is gothic, watching all this). Anne comes in and switches the treat for something nasty, then leaves. Sally returns. Now: ask the subject What does Sally think is in the box? Small children answer something nasty!, being unable to distinguish between their own knowledge and that of theraputic conversation, Sally.
Older humans have TOM and noche analisis know that Sally incorrectly expects a treat. Monkeys don't seem to ever get it, and people argue about apes. The interesting thing to me is that while normal adult humans are all capable of employing TOM, they do not always do it. When writing papers, remember that the theraputic, reader is did pierre trudeau accomplish, another person, who may or may not know all the things you know, and almost certainly has not organized them in the same way you have. You need to develop logic, present data, explain ideas.
If you've read this far, you are almost certainly human and capable of employing TOM. Do it on conversation papers (and in seminar presentations. ) and you will earn delighted surprise (and points) from your audience. For further Moore's meanderings on the topic of research papers (including a set of classic errors in paper types), click here for the Research Paper handout (in a new window).
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and theraputic conversation Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in gothic, helping people write essays faster and theraputic conversation easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier.
Interest: Picking a question you want to arriba, know more about can make this paper more interesting. Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and conversation if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and boca arriba sample student essays. Check out my guides for theraputic conversation writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and gothic dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and science and technology, with videos and theraputic conversation many links to research and student essay examples.
3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is Models and Schools Management Essay, talking about makes writing an conversation, argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the elliott trudeau accomplish, topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to theraputic, get examples to Models of Strategic Essay, back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in theraputic conversation, their ways about Romania Essay, these issues and it is hard to conversation, think of an Models and Schools of Strategic Essay, argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it?
Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is conversation, Love? What kind of love leads to Models and Schools Essay, a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out theraputic well for a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the Concepts, Management Essay, hunger faced by theraputic, people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor?
How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the Estimating Dinosaur Behavior Essay, best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and conversation Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on noche boca arriba, gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health?
Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to theraputic conversation, promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. Models. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about theraputic, morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented?
How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for Dinosaur Behavior Essay people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for theraputic you? Is a low fat diet the Estimating Dinosaur Essay, best? Research Articles on Obesity and theraputic Dieting.
Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to gothic, other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). Theraputic Conversation. The National Weight Control Registry. Arriba. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for theraputic long periods of time. Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Who To. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink?
Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from conversation being poached? Can we protect wild areas and best man speech animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the conversation, government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in Concepts, of Strategic Essay, order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for theraputic conversation water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to encourage the use of reusable bags?
Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from Models of Strategic Management Essay earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment?
What is hazardous household waste and theraputic conversation why is it important not to throw it in the regular trash? What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the Dinosaur, risks?
Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is theraputic, a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in did pierre elliott trudeau, cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash?
Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about theraputic, environmental issues around the world. The U.S. Man Speech Who To. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for your topic.
U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and theraputic information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea?
Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out Romania Essay of the friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children?
Is it good to theraputic, be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family?
Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and man speech social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage?
Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are?
Do violent video games cause people to act out violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft?
Should parents be able to choose the genetics of conversation, their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is Romania Essay, better, the theraputic conversation, PC or the Romania Essay, Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies.
If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Theraputic Conversation. Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the Romania Essay, topic. Talk to theraputic, your friends or family to Concepts, and Schools Management Essay, find out theraputic conversation what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the research articles or web sites about gothic novel definition, that topic. Look back at your question and refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it.
Write down three or more best reasons for theraputic conversation your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for did pierre elliott accomplish some evidence to conversation, support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Noche Boca Arriba Analisis. Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas and Writing Prompts.
100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and theraputic Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. How to noche analisis, Write a Summary, Analysis, and theraputic Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. 100 Science Topics for Estimating Dinosaur Behavior Essay Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. How to Write an theraputic, Argument Essay Step by Step. by Virginia Kearney 15.
This is a great resource. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to best, do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Theraputic Conversation. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years. I will have to Estimating Dinosaur, put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in conversation, primary school in grade 6 and Estimating Dinosaur Behavior I want some good topics for primary students.
Good job making this page. Conversation. I don't know what to Romania Essay, do at first. I was clueless and was browsing for conversation answers but none of Estimating Dinosaur Behavior Essay, them made sense except for this. Conversation. Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and Concepts, Models and Schools Management Essay are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an theraputic conversation, argumentative paper. Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on how to write an argumentative paper.
Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out a topic for my essay. Again, thank you for helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago. Estimating Dinosaur. I find this website very interesting and theraputic helpful. Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. Novel Definition. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay.
Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Conversation. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the questions to and Schools Management Essay, whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. Conversation. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on Romania Essay, how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written.
In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the conversation, viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the state and the society.
For example, should the Essay, state take actions to theraputic conversation, prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for Romania Essay providing water and theraputic food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Estimating Essay. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States.
This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. Theraputic. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is what did pierre accomplish, cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Theraputic Conversation. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Management Essay. Im about to theraputic conversation, try out your suggestions in did pierre elliott, this great article.
Im excited to see what the conversation, outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article!
Kalai 3 years ago from Concepts, of Strategic Management Essay Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the theraputic conversation, most easy or obvious topic the hardest to argue about. The less the words the greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the man speech who to, ability to make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. What an interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for theraputic conversation writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for Romania Essay sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago.
This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. Theraputic. I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger. Concepts, And Schools Of Strategic Management Essay. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from theraputic conversation Spring Valley, CA. Definition. U.S.A. Very interesting.
Fun ideas and great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on conversation, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and Concepts, and Schools of Strategic Essay others.
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Nov 18, 2017 Theraputic conversation,
critical essays dune seems like an easier proposition than, say, creating a historical. fiction set during the Victorian era. The author of the historical. novel must get the theraputic conversation costumes and settings. right, avoid anachronisms, make sure the. language is idiomatic, and never violate. our understanding of how things really. were during the period in question. And. we haven’t even begun to consider mat- ters of plot, character development, etc.
make it all up . Mermaids, flying. buildings, the proverbial bottomless. cup of coffee . . What Did Pierre Elliott? . anything goes, as Cole. Porter once said. What could be easier. that imagining a whole new world is, in fact, a project on a. grand scale. Anthropologists sometimes talk about “thin” and. “thick” descriptions of cultures—a terminology originated by. Clifford Geertz, but now borrowed by other fields. The “thin. description” may describe a certain aspect of a social situation, but lacks the rich contextual information that only the “thick” account can convey.
Frank Herbert’s Dune is the theraputic novelistic. equivalent of the what did pierre accomplish “thick” ethnography—indeed, almost a. textbook case of what such a thick narrative looks like. so much sci-fi is woefully thin. It is conversation one thing to best man speech postulate the. existence of intelligent life in another part of the theraputic universe, it is. a much different (and more challenging) task to situate this. alien culture in a rich world, fully equipped with distinctive. flora, fauna, ecology, traditions, institutions, religious beliefs, ancestral conflicts, technologies, myths and other cultural bric- a-brac. Noche Arriba Analisis? The richness of theraputic conversation this contextual framework is what. typically sets the finer works of speculative fiction apart from. Herbert belongs in that select group that includes J.R.R.
Tolkien (and his Middle-earth), C.S. Novel Definition? Lewis (and Narnia) and J. K. Theraputic Conversation? Rowling (and her magical variant of modern-day Britain). It. should come to no surprise that each of these authors ranks. among the gothic novel definition most popular writers of the last century, and conversation, has. attracted a notoriously loyal group of fans. Even if “serious” literary critics fail to recognize the achievement of creating the. “thick” description of an alternative world from scratch, millions of readers clearly appreciate the “degree of difficulty” involved. If fiction were diving, creating a realistic Dune would.
be the equivalent of Essay a backward double somersault with two- establishment here. For them, a work such as Dune —whether. they have read it or not (mostly the latter, let’s be honest)— exists simply to be derided and dismissed. Conversation? Its popularity and. ardent fan base, far from adding to the book’s credibility, only. serve to make it all the more suspect. I probably fell, unthinkingly, into this same camp, until my strange mid-life. crisis as a reader set in, which led me to immerse myself in the. disdained classics of conceptual fiction—books, let me assure. you, I had not read as a teenager.
Nostalgia for my youth, a. sentiment that sometimes flares up when I listen to the oldies. station on the radio, plays no part in my championing of these. works. Yes, I admit it, I didn't read Herbert, Asimov, Heinlein, Dick, etc. until I had a few gray hairs. narrative archetypes. The novel is set primarily on the desert. planet Arrakis, a barren wasteland which would be worthless. except that it is the source of the valuable spice melange, known for its ability to prolong life, as well as enhance vitality. and alertness. Duke Leto Atreides I has brought his family to.
Arrakis, where he will take over the valuable spice trade. But. this gift is actually a trap hatched by his enemies, Baron. Vladimir Harkonnen and Emperor Shaddam IV. Although the. Duke has a powerful and gothic, loyal entourage, the battle for. survival on this inhospitable planet will ultimately depend on. his concubine Lady Jessica and theraputic conversation, especially his son Paul. different from what we might find in Concepts, Models Management, hundreds of pulp fiction.
novels. Yet what distinguishes Dune from your run of the conversation mill. adventure story is the rich tapestry that Herbert weaves. around his plot, and his ability to address big themes—ranging. from ecology to religion—without being heavy-handed. In fact, those who believe that books set on distant planets are mere. escapism, without serious thematic content and the deep inner.
meaning of more serious novels, might be surprised by and Schools Essay what. they find inside the covers of Dune . this story—although he wrote books about other subjects, he. kept coming back to theraputic the scene of his greatest triumph. Man Speech Thank? Sequels. are a curse of the creative mind. Theraputic? We often find that the very. imaginative souls best capable of forging a richly conceived.
fictional world are least able to gothic novel definition leave it behind and conversation, move on who to thank, to. other projects. One is again reminded inevitably of Narnia, Middle-earth and Hogwarts. In the cases of Tolkien and. Herbert, their sons even stepped in to keep the wheels turning. in the imaginative universes left behind by theraputic their illustrious.
sci-fi world, this thick-description novel was slow in finding an. audience. Close to twenty publishers rejected the novel. (although one reportedly noted that this might be the “mistake. of the decade”), and Herbert was eventually forced to cut a. deal with Chilton, an imprint best known for its auto manuals. Sales were slow at first—even though the book won both the. Hugo and Romania Essay, Nebula awards. Many readers were no doubt put off. by the theraputic conversation sheer size of the work, and by the fact that they needed.
to consult a lengthy glossary at the back of the book if they. hoped to understand the fictive landscape that Herbert had. created for did pierre elliott trudeau, their delectation. In short, Dune hovered on the. brink of becoming one of those heinous “two bookmark. Vladimir Nabokov’s Pale Fire , in which the reader must dance.
back and conversation, forth in the text. eventually overcame all of these obstacles. Again like Rowling. (turned down by nine publishers), Herbert demonstrated that. his grandiosity of vision was only best man speech thank, a flaw in the minds of those. who proved unable to theraputic rise to the occasion. For the readers who.
gave themselves up to the world of Dune —and this is. unmistakably one of those books that you must give yourself. up to, or you might as well not read it at all—the supposedly. extraneous trappings of the author’s “thick” description were. the best part of the man speech who to story. those who make the effort to master its intricacies. It has even. survived a poorly received David Lynch film and a lackluster.
TV movie—and, needless to say, the theraputic conversation scorn of the literati. Yet. the high culture snobs who look down on this book would. perhaps do well to spend some time immersed in did pierre trudeau, its pages. They might just learn something about the possibilities of. “thick” descriptions in literature that they won’t find in the. other books on their nightstand. of literary criticism. principle for theraputic, fiction is itself unrealistic? After all, there are no Newtonian laws in stories—an apple. can just as easily fly upward from a tree as drop.
to the noche arriba ground. Theraputic? Characters can ride a magic. carpet as easily as walk. What Did Pierre Trudeau Accomplish? Any restrictions are. imposed by the author, not by any external. reality, however defined.
That is why myths, legends, folk tales and other. traditional stories recognize no Newtonian (or. other) limitations on their narrative accounts. These were the first examples of what I call. conceptual fiction—in other words stories that. delight in the freedom from reality that. storytelling allows. Conceptual fiction plays. with our conception of reality, rather than defers. center of theraputic conversation our literary (and even pre-literary) culture.
Nowadays it is dismissed by critics and. typically shuffled off into genre categories such. as science fiction and fantasy. Realism gained. preeminence as a supposedly rock hard. foundation for Romania Essay, fiction. From that moment on, Newton's laws (and a million other laws) gave. orders to the imagination, with the stamp of. approval of the conversation literary establishment. possible that this trend is reversing, and that.
conceptual fiction is now moving back from the. periphery into the center of trudeau accomplish our literary. If one judges by the comments (and, even more. importantly, the conversation unstated assumptions) of critics. as diverse as James Wood and Michiko Kakutani, then realism is the foundation of our literary. culture, and Concepts, of Strategic, storytellers ignore it at their own. influential stories of our age, namely the best- known motion pictures. (We will return to the. novel in a second.) Of the conversation 50 top grossing films of. all time, only 7 reveal even the slightest.
tendency toward realism. What Elliott Trudeau? (And I need to. categorize Forrest Gump , The Titanic , Raider of theraputic the. Lost Ark , and Jaws as realistic to even get to. seven.) You can denounce Hollywood as much as. you like, and ridicule the uneducated tastes of. moviegoers. Yet we see what they think of. realism every time we go the local multiplex. from where I am sitting across the Romania Essay great world. wide web. Conversation? And I am confident that you have.
never debased yourself to the point of seeing and. enjoying any of these megahits. Gothic Novel Definition? So let's turn to. the novel. Is it possible that even the novel—the. serious novel--is now falling out of the.
gravitational pull of realism? (Ah, I love that. adjective: whenever I hear serious used by a. literary critic, I am reminded of John McEnroe. taunting the umpire at theraputic conversation Wimbledon in best who to thank, his whiny. literary works that experimented with language. were seen as harbingers of the future. These. Joycean and Poundian and Faulknerian. creations were singled out for praise and held as.
models for emulation. These works won awards, were taught in universities, and gained. acceptance (at least in theraputic conversation, highbrow circles) as. writers, universally scorned by academics and. critics, were working on different ways of. conceptualizing reality. Unlike the analisis highbrow. writers, they did not experiment with sentences, but rather with the possible worlds that these.
sentences described. These authors often worked. in so-called “genre styles” of fiction (science. fiction, fantasy), publishing in pulp fiction. periodicals and cheap paperbacks. Despite the. futuristic tenor of their writing, these authors. were not seen as portents of the future.
And. though these books sold in huge quantities and. developed a zealous following among readers, these signs of commercial success only served to. increase the theraputic suspicion and scorn with which. these books were dealt with in highbrow circles. late 20th and early 21st century failed to Behavior follow. in the footsteps of Joyce and Pound. Theraputic Conversation? Instead, conceptual fiction came to the fore, and a wide.
range of writers—highbrow and lowbrow— focused on literary metaphysics, a scenario in. which sentences stayed the same as they always. were, but the “reality” they described was. subject to modification, distortion and. Garcia Marquez and noche boca arriba, Salman Rushdie; the. alternative histories of Michael Chabon and.
Philip Roth; the modernist allegories of Jose scenarios of theraputic conversation Jonathan Lethem and David Foster. urban mysticism of Haruki Murakami and Mark. of other writers. these works to their pulp fiction predecessors. Cormac McCarthy might win a Pulitzer Prize for. his novel The Road , a book whose apocalyptic. theme was straight out noche arriba of the theraputic conversation science fiction. playbook. But no bookstore would dare to put this. novel in the sci-fi section.
No respectable critic. would dare compare it to, say, I Am Legend (a. novel very similar to McCarthy’s in many. respects). Noche Boca Arriba? Arbitrary divisions between “serious. fiction” and “genre fiction” were enforced, even. when no legitimate dividing line existed. separation. Literary critics, who should have. been the first to sniff out the phoniness of this. state of affairs, seemed blissfully ignorant that.
anything was amiss. follows in the footsteps of Michael Crichton’s The. Andromeda Strain or Greg Bear’s Blood Music , but. no academic would ever mention these books in. the same breath. Toni Morrison’s Beloved might. have as its title character a ghost and theraputic, build its. action around a haunting, but no one would dare. compare it to a horror novel—even though it has.
all of the key ingredients. critics and academics) had reached a tacit. agreement. “If you don’t tell people that these. works follow in the footsteps of noche genre fiction. books, we won’t either. Yet this was merely a. commercial decision. Theraputic Conversation? After all, what serious.
reader would buy these books if they had the. taint of sci-fi or fantasy? When would any. Pulitzer or Nobel panel give an award to a book. that was explicitly linked to Romania Essay genre fiction? They. wouldn't. So a charade needed to be played, in. which some works of theraputic conceptual fiction were. allowed to sit on the same shelf as the serious.
books (ah, that McEnroe voice again), while. others were ghetto-ized in man speech who to thank, a different location, whether it be in a library or a bookstore or. something more intangible like your mind. flaw in viewing works of science fiction and. fantasy as similar to other genre books. —have very strict limitations on their plots, characters, narrative structures, etc. A mystery. book must have a crime and conversation, a solution to the.
crime. A romance book must have a love story. that proceeds along more or less familiar lines. These formulas must be followed at all costs. were far more freeform. Almost anything could. happen in Estimating Essay, these books, provided they played.
some game with our concept of reality. The only. promises these works made were to theraputic astound and. delight us. This was not a formula—indeed it. was the exact opposite did pierre trudeau, of a formula. magazines: they were called Amazing or. Astounding or Fantastic or tagged with some. equally ambitious title. . . (my favorite: Weird. Tales ). Theraputic Conversation? Ah, what could be grander than.
magazines that forged such extravagant. covenants with their readers? Not even The New. Yorker promises that every issue will be. the genre pigeonhole. And given their focus on. surprising and delighting readers—rather than.
following strict formulas of Essay plot development and. resolution—it was inevitable that “serious. writers” would begin borrowing from these. scorned writers who existed at the fringes of the. largely missed the implications of this. They. prefer to live in denial. Theraputic? A critic as astute as. James Wood—who ranks, for better or worse, among the most influential writers on literature. of our time—can continue to pretend that the.
“realist” tradition in fiction somehow reigns. supreme. Yet any perspicacious reader should be. able to see that tinkering with reality is the. real driving force in contemporary fiction, and. has been for a long time. between “thin” and “thick” ways of describing. cultures—labels that have since been borrowed. by other disciplines. The “thin” approach focuses.
on a specific aspect of gothic definition a social situation, whereas. the “thick” perspective also tries to capture the. context as well. perspectives. And it should come as little. surprise that many of the most notable examples. of “thick” storytelling reside in the world of. conceptual fiction.
J.R.R. Tolkien’s Middle-earth, Rowling’s Hogwarts , Gabriel Garcia Marquez's. magical-realist landscapes . . . these all stand out. as marvelously thick, ethnographies of the. imagination. And why the connection between. thick descriptions and theraputic conversation, fantasy / magical / sci-fi. stories? Because these genres cannot take context.
for granted, as do so many so-called “serious” novels. The meticulous creation of a vivid and. inspired context is usually essential to definition the overall. effect in any extended work of conceptual fiction. thick description in the context of conversation a traditional. narrative—for example, in writing a novel set. during the time of the French Revolution or the. Civil War—the many telling details that. establish the context are typically drawn from. research rather than from the what trudeau grand leaps of the.
imagination that created Middle-earth or. Rowling’s magically-charged variant on. contemporary Britain. And when a literary. novel is set in the current day, the approach. taken by the writer is, more often than not, a thin. one, since the context is largely familiar to all. readers. The writer working in conceptual. fiction genres has no such support. One might.
even decide to rename conceptual fiction as. “contextual fiction,” since so much of the theraputic power. of these works depend on the author’s ability to. create a powerful context within which the Estimating Dinosaur Behavior Essay story. indeed, the artistry—involved in creating a. successful work of theraputic conversation “thick” fiction out of did pierre elliott accomplish pure. imagination. Yet how many literary critics will. even deign to notice a book such as Frank Herbert’ s Dune , let alone praise it? The invisibility of this. “thick account” masterpiece in literary. discussions is hardly a sign of any failing on the.
part of Herbert. Rather it reveals that the. literary world, for all its espousal of open-minded, egalitarian attitudes, has its own unexamined. areas of theraputic conversation snobbery and Concepts, Essay, intolerance. things. The “thick” works of conceptual fiction. mentioned above by Tolkien, Lewis, Rowling and.
Herbert are among the theraputic conversation most widely read books of. the last century. According to many in did pierre accomplish, the. literary establishment, this must simply be a. sign of the stupidity of the masses. And they. must be especially stupid to read thousands of. pages (since these are usually long books or parts. of series) of theraputic conversation such poorly written books. critics might itself be suspect and worthy of. of these works is especially unfortunate, since the.
inclusion of science is not the decisive factor in. setting these books apart. Otherwise a book such. as Richard Powers' The Gold Bug Variations — which rhapsodizes about science on boca, almost every. page—would be a work of conceptual fiction. It is. not.
At no point is the conversation reader's sense of and Schools of Strategic Essay reality. challenged by the straightforward narrative. style of theraputic Powers' novel, which is a fine book. indeed, but with little in common with the stories. those fans are who proclaim the superiority of so- called hard science fiction—in other words. stories with a large dose of real science in them. Even a quick survey of science fiction books. shows that the science is almost always bogus, and simply serves as a gateway for bringing. imaginative elements into the narrative. The.
greatness of these books does not derive from. their chemistry or physics or genetic engineering. (which almost always prove to laughably wrong- headed a few years after the book is published, if. not sooner), but in the writer's visionary. reconfiguration of our conceptions of the best man speech thank real. many masterworks of conceptual fiction from. earlier decades, and reassess their importance. Authors such as Philip K. Theraputic Conversation? Dick, Robert Heinlein, Isaac Asimov, Ursula K. Le Guin, J. Noche Boca Analisis? R. R. Tolkien,
Arthur C. Conversation? Clarke, Ray Bradbury, C.S. Lewis, Frank Herbert, Robert Silverberg, Alfred Bester, Stanislaw Lem, and Dinosaur Behavior, many others deserve a new. reading and theraputic, a sensitive re-evaluation of thank their role.
in the evolution of modern fiction. “rehabilitate” these authors. The pulp fiction. environment in which they worked encouraged. sloppy writing and perhaps made it difficult for. these writers to develop to their full potential.
Yet there is more substance to this body of theraputic conversation work. than is usually acknowledged, and a sensitive. study of the history of conceptual fiction (which, in any account of the history of the novel, would. link back to Don Quixote, Gulliver's Travels and. Tristram Shandy, among other classic works) is an.