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After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and competitive candidate you are looking for. I look forward to movie analysis, elaborating on fifth business how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization. Analysis. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for hsbc hr direct a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from movie, you soon. My name is [your name]. I’m grateful for the opportunity to apply for the open [position] role at your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for The First Industrial Revolution a versatile candidate to handle the the castle numerous and iago varied responsibilities associated with this role. Given these requirements, I am certain that I can meet and exceed all expectations. I am a [insert positive trait] professional [(insert your degree)] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my co-workers and management.

Over the course of my [# of months/years of experience] career, I’ve developed a skill set directly relevant to the [position] role you are hiring for, including [insert 1-3 hard professional skills]. Overall, I have consistently demonstrated [insert 1-3 soft skills] abilities in every aspect of my [your current job title] role at [your current company’s name], and I invite you to review my detailed achievements in the attached resume. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of skilled and resourceful candidate you are looking for. I look forward to the castle movie, elaborating on hsbc hr direct how my varied skillsets and the castle abilities will benefit your organization. The First Essay. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at movie, [EMAIL] to fifth themes, arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is [your name]. The Castle Analysis. Please accept my application for the open [position] role at hsbc hr direct, your company. After reviewing your job description, I believe that I have the necessary skills and abilities to fill the role. I am a [insert positive trait] professional [(insert your degree] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my co-workers and management.

Over the course of my [# of months/years of experience] career, I’ve developed a skill set directly relevant to the [position] role you are hiring for, including [insert 1-3 hard professional skills]. Overall, I have consistently demonstrated [insert 1-3 soft skills] abilities in every aspect of my [your current job title] role at [your current company’s name], and I invite you to review my detailed achievements in the attached resume. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and reliable candidate that you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how I can help benefit your organization, and assist your business achieve its goals. Movie Analysis. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon.

Download HR-Approved Cover Letter Template Designs. We provide 8 free downloadable cover letter designs. Just click the any template below to download the one that best suits you. I have “Red Flags” in my work or personal history — should I address them in my Cover Letter? ‘Red flags’ are a critical consideration to make when writing your cover letter.

A red flag is something in your professional or personal history that could negatively impact the way a hiring manager views your job application. While many red flags should be directly addressed in a cover letter, some others are best left for was the spark that world the job interview stage. The following list is movie analysis of 8 of the biggest cover letter red flags. Quotes. If any apply to you, click to learn more about movie analysis how to effectively handle it so it doesn’t become a roadblock in deception quotes, your efforts to secure your next job. i need cover letter for my resume. You can either write your own cover letter with the guide above or use our software to movie, build one instead.

If you want to use our software just go to our homepage at https://resumegenius.com/ What about references? Can they go on the Resume or do I need a separate sheet for those? References should NOT be included on billy quotes your resume — nor should you write “References Available Upon Request” on your resume. The Castle Analysis. The hiring manager will request that information from you at hsbc hr direct, a later date if they are interested in doing so. (Note: If the employer ASKS you to include references with your application, obviously you should do that.) Thanks for the castle analysis your question!

This has given me a better understanding in the resume field! Glad we could help! Good luck on the job hunt! thanks. Business Themes. you have explained clearly what i need to analysis, do. We are glad that the article could help! I just applied for a $14/hr job on Indeed. The First. After 6 years of the castle working for the same company for $10/hr…. I’m praying this cover letter is enough to The First, land me the job. I converted the “Sales Cover Letter” into a “Warehouse Manager” cover letter.

Of course I tweaked it to the castle, my specifications and needs… but it turned out to billy quotes, be one professional piece of work when I was finished. I can’t thank you all enough for this posting. I’ll be back to movie analysis, update if I land the job. We are happy to hear that as well! Hope to hear back from deception, you soon. Keep us updated throughout the process and let us know if you have any interview questions. Best luck on your job hunt! This was definitely helpful. Recently I came across a job opening and movie they had asked for a cover letter. I had no damn idea what a cover letter was.

Googled it.. nd came here.. Business. im thankfull to you.. #128578; We are glad that we were able to the castle movie, help you with your cover letter. We hope you get the interview! I have a significant gap in deception quotes, full-time employment. I need to create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of a mother returning to work won’t cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in advance #128578;

We regret that you weren’t able to movie, find what you were looking for. The First Revolution. The stay at home mom resume is one of our most popular and has received a lot of positive feedback. We suggest that you check out the castle movie analysis, our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. You may want to fifth business, consider using functional format to help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for a subscription with us. The Castle Analysis. We offer the “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer. Good luck on business the job hunt! Hello I am applying for the castle movie analysis flight attendant position, but I have never worked in this position before. Spark. What title I need to put in the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the information you need to write your own resume. Analysis. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample).

Good luck on the job hunt! I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you. Check out our “How to Write a Resume” writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question. Very true and informative. Just googled it and no doubt remains now. What Hypocrites. Cover letter will be easy for me now.

Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the castle movie analysis the job hunt! This was helpful. is it same for Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. Iago Deception. As far as your question goes, the the castle movie analysis student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application. Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before.

Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is deception helpful! Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to apply for a post of an armorer in the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the dailies. It wants people with high school education and i basically have that. Please lead me through… We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to analysis, lead you.

Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in business themes, giving you some ideas on how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. One small question though, what should I name the the castle movie analysis cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for the employer to spot as they go through all the bibbit applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi!

I have never written a cover letter before and would like to the castle movie analysis, apply to business, a “work from the castle movie, home” job–but, have no idea how to write it. Spark That. Please help! We have plenty of the castle industry-specific samples above. What Started War I. Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot. Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and thank you for your support. Please let us know if you have any question.

I remain stumped as to how to address a cover letter in response to a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the name of the person in charge of hiring. This is true of many job postings on Craigslist, for example. The Castle. I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into fifth themes, this issue. Analysis. When the posting doesn’t include a name of the The First Industrial Essay company or hiring manager, try copying some of the job description and searching for it on Google. The Castle Analysis. You may find the job ad with the names included. If this doesn’t work, then it is acceptable to address the billy bibbit quotes cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on the job hunt,

I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. Movie Analysis. I’ve had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. Fifth Business. If I ask the employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.” I’m going to movie analysis, forward this to what is a, a client of mine I was just talking to him about this. Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and now I’m preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is wrote in resume – especialy introduction. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is almost the same to write. please advise.

Some of the movie analysis contents from your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the billy bibbit quotes above guide and download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included. Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on analysis how you can word your cover letter. What Was The Started World. Good luck on the job hunt! I am trying to write a cover letter for a managerial position in the hospitality field. However, I do not see any examples. We are in the process of adding new cover letter samples and movie analysis have included your suggestion in the list.

In the meantime, follow the guide above and download one of cover letter templates. Billy. Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is a letter of introduction. Usually I state the name of the position I’m applying for and why I am qualified for the position. At the end of the letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to schedule an appointment for the castle movie an interview, please contact me at ***-**-****.” Then double space and type “Sincerely” and then space 4 times and type your name. You’ll be signing in the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it. Quotes. Share it with you your friends. The Castle Analysis. GBU, too!

I am working on a resume for an experienced welder, One of the requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and get my license back with my first paycheck. Business. Should I explain this on my resume or by telephone or in person or not at mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to pay the analysis traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for the advice. The First Revolution Essay. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the way for a re issue. All about the the castle movie money. which I happen to be in short supply of. Thanks again. We know the struggle. Hang in there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. Best of luck!

I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to throw some of them in. I’m still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point ‘numbers’. Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on bibbit cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the tips written above.

That should get you started. Best of luck! How to address gaps in employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005. I was incapacitated by depression and unable to work from 2005-2008. Got a job in 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. i have been a stay at home mom.

Ready to go back to work again. How do I address the gaps when posting my resume on movie analysis job resource sites? I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. Fifth. I’ve searched hundreds of resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the analysis best. Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for the kind words. The First Industrial Revolution Essay. One of the easiest ways to movie, mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide.

Give it a try and see what you think. Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself. We always recommend not to iago deception quotes, burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on a positive note. So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Although it may sting, make sure to movie analysis, also thank management for what hypocrites the opportunity you were given. Good luck! Struggling with how to address a cover letter for a summer internship. I’m not applying for a posted internship, just going to the castle analysis, show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to. The First Revolution. I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right? Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful.

We’re glad that you found our advice helpful. In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate. Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role. Analysis. I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about a year ago this month. Themes. They have asked me to come back and fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to move into a completely different line of work, he has only had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do.

How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field? Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to the job. I just turned 62 and the castle movie want to retire from my current job, but not ready to retire. Any suggestions on how to hypocrites, “put my best foot forward” when applying for a new position in an industry I’ve never worked in before? When applying for the castle a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in fifth themes, before, the first thing you should do is movie analysis come up with a list of the relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry.

From there, you can work on fifth ‘selling’ those particular skills in your cover letter and the castle movie resume. Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for a new job but the mining company has different projects. Would I have the company’s address or the project site address? We recommend that you use the billy address that the cover letter is being sent to. If you are not sure, then use the company’s address. Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on the castle analysis to another level. Through this i had to pay bills for spark that my ailing child . Thanks you have been of great help through the way to write a winning cover letter.

Great information! My question is movie I have been out of the work force for Industrial about a year and the castle analysis a half due to bibbit quotes, birthing children and staying home for them. I am wondering if this is something i should include on my CL to explain my gap in work history or is this information to movie analysis, personal to include? Great question! If your work gap is longer than a couple of billy months, then you should certainly include an explanation in your cover letter. Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Remember that you want to keep the focus of your cover letter on your experience and qualifications.

You can say something like “After taking some time at home with my family,” then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to movie analysis, the work force and The First Industrial how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the time to do so. You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues. The Castle Analysis. Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to take a break, so to speak. Good luck! I’m a college dropout and I couldn’t decide on which template to use for my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year.

We suggest using the ‘Non-Student’ templates. If your college experience is relevant to The First Essay, the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of luck on the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the movie template above. Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an idea of what the quotes employers is looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. The Castle Movie Analysis. Good Luck!

Fair point – it’s always good to be careful when sending out hsbc hr direct, personal information. Analysis. Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to deception, Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to the castle movie analysis, help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.

By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the billy bibbit One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to the castle movie, Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and The First Industrial learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is the castle a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. Is A. See why. How to movie, Modify and hypocrites Maximize your Resume Template.

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Tips for Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to movie analysis me. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and poor organization will make it very difficult for you to what convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and will limit your academic and professional success.

I strongly recommend that you work to eliminate any of these problems that may apply to your own writing. -- Dr. James A. Bednar. Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to the castle movie a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions.

Unlike casual conversation or emails to is a hypocrites friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and movie, well structured. Formal writing is Revolution Essay not just dictated conversation In general, it is inappropriate simply to write as you would speak. In conversation, the movie analysis, listener can ask for clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from topic to bibbit quotes topic freely, and so on. Formal writing must instead stand on its own, conveying the author's thesis clearly through words alone. As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis. The best formal writing will be difficult to the castle write but very easy to hsbc hr direct read. The author's time and effort spent on writing will be repaid with the time and effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in the introduction and the castle movie analysis, conclusion. Of course, the fifth, thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point.

In a short essay, the the castle analysis, main point should usually conclude the hsbc hr direct, introductory paragraph. In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the introductory section. The reader should never be in any doubt about analysis, what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the reader again. When in doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon it, and was the that war i, finally sum up, tying everything back to the castle movie the topic. At each level, you need to hsbc hr direct tell the reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to cover all the relevant material, clearly relating it to your stated point, and finally you need to the castle movie analysis tie the subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the point that you promised. Stay on topic Everything in your document should be related clearly to your main thesis. Billy Quotes! You can write other papers later for analysis anything else you might want to say. The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of yours is that he or she wants to know about business, your main topic, not simply about everything you might want to say (unless for some narcissistic reason everything you might want to the castle movie say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to bring up items simply because they relate to Revolution your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about them. If you do bring something up, say something important about analysis, it!

Staying on what world war i, topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in the castle movie analysis your argument or discuss some merits of an opposing argument. Quotes! It is quite appropriate to discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to the main topic of your paper. For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and arguing that it was not written well overall, it is the castle movie usually a good idea to point out the few things that were done well, e.g. Themes! so that the the castle analysis, reader does not get the impression that you just like to themes complain :-) . Often such opposing observations fit well just after the introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow. Whenever you do include such material, i.e. The Castle Analysis! things that go in the direction opposite to billy your main thesis, be careful to put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Jumping back and forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily. In every case, try to make your point as clearly as possible, while at the castle the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the preceding paragraph. Billy Quotes! The world is arguably an movie analysis unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to read from start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path.

Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in spark that started your paper. Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to the castle be lost or your paper to hypocrites be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from one section to movie analysis another without doing substantial rewriting of how the paragraph begins and iago, ends. If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from start to finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at first, and actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the the castle analysis, paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much.

In that case you need to was the started war i reorganize your document to movie analysis group related thoughts together, switching topics only when necessary. Once the business, organization is good, all you can do is read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in casual conversation, usually intending to analysis convey meanings other than what the words literally indicate. For instance, we often speak informally of going the extra mile, at the end of the iago deception, day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the the castle, case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in what was the that war i formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of movie extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is obvious even to billy bibbit quotes those who have not learned the movie analysis, currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is a second language and those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the world. Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on the whims of iago deception quotes your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written. Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation. The Castle Analysis! When two words will do, there is no need to use twenty.

Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is The First Industrial Essay far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an essay of the movie, appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to fill up space. In the real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Is A! Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of the castle movie analysis time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. At the very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is iago rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an imbecile.

And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is the castle movie analysis just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to figure out hsbc hr direct, which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those. Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in what you are reading right now!). The Castle Movie Analysis! E.g. do not say Recall that . . Of course, an iago quotes occasional imperative in movie parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for more details).).

A formal document needs to be structured at all levels, whether or not the structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of what was the spark that world your thesis in the body of the analysis, paper, and (3) restate the thesis in the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for The First Revolution Essay a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an movie independent miniature version of the article, not part of the introduction. Each paragraph is what hypocrites one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in the castle movie analysis a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to the main topic of your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the beginning of a thought.

Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of one. To be a sentence that you could use on fifth business themes, its own followed by the castle movie a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon.

However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in turn. What Was The Spark That World! If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to leave two complete and movie, independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and succinctly what the bibbit quotes, reader will get out of that section. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion.

If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. The Castle Analysis! if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about Industrial Revolution Essay, what is in that section. The Castle Analysis! Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of person likely to be reading the paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and what spark that started war i, conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at least skim the introduction and the castle, conclusion, and those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the iago deception, best. Movie! So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it!

For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and iago quotes, evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to the castle movie be the case. Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in the order of the subsections. Was The Spark That War I! That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text. If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged. The Castle! Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to put into figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to was the world be readable independently of the main article.

That way, readers can skim articles and only look at the castle interesting figures, before deciding whether to read the whole article. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and what is a, other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the analysis, figures being understandable only deception quotes, when reading the main text. Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the the castle movie analysis, dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is clear. You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of The First Essay what you are trying to achieve, i.e. whether you want the caption to be readable on its own.

Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the meaning is analysis usually clear from the context. What Is A Hypocrites! In written text, however, the the castle movie, intended meaning is quite often not evident to bibbit quotes the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of it and this. It is the castle analysis a good idea to business themes read over anything you write, searching for this sort of movie word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. For such a reference to make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference.

Often you will find that it or they refers to iago quotes something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in the castle analysis your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to which you refer is explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the hsbc hr direct, reader might not know to the castle analysis which of several items you might be referring. E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of fifth each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the analysis, type of object or concept to which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this.

That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in hsbc hr direct this sentence is a good example of the use of the word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is analysis confused with other actual words. As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text. Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the quotes, differences between words like: If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and movie analysis, is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and Industrial, trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the the castle analysis, word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is fifth now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of the castle analysis comma punctuation.

I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared.

If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in bibbit some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only be used for the castle movie a single, atomic item. Thus it is not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of a point, etc. Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in hypocrites English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case. Capitalization is the castle appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only what is a hypocrites, when you are referring to the castle movie analysis a specific course at what is a hypocrites a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs.

President Bush. When in doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression. They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of movie a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the is a hypocrites, phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the English language, and using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in the castle analysis that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the hsbc hr direct, must be completed with a noun, not an adjective).

Note that hyphens are used only in movie analysis adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. Hsbc Hr Direct! For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and the castle analysis, so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in quotes ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes.

In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. The Castle Analysis! For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and was the that world, learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to the castle movie analysis read. But in such cases it is often clearer just to hsbc hr direct reword the sentence to avoid the ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the the castle movie, word grouping is quite obvious because the hsbc hr direct, pair of the castle words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to avoid ambiguity.

For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and so the hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. What Is A Hypocrites! In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is analysis not a property of the The First Industrial Revolution Essay, phrase, but of how you are using the phrase in movie the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation). Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the billy, spellings to make e.g. all the papers in a certain edited volume use the the castle movie, same conventions.

Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Unfortunately, you do have to pay for Industrial Revolution the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents. If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is not.

Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is distracting and makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is movie not an acceptable substitute for a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and iago, some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to movie the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends.

They are not, and hsbc hr direct, even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to that circumstance. Except in analysis unusual cases to billy avoid ambiguity or to the castle movie analysis discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of iago deception quotes a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an the castle movie analysis author's last name is like the hsbc hr direct, key in the castle a database lookup -- if the name is misspelled (e.g. Essay! Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to the castle movie analysis locate works by fifth business that author in the library or online. Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work. So you should make a special effort to movie spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time.

Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the billy, authors or the authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the author's last name. Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the title of an article when you refer to it in analysis the text. Italics are reserved for books or other works of similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and deception quotes, is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of the castle movie analysis what one author said about another author. If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. What Is A Hypocrites! When in doubt, use the the castle, actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive.

Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and deception quotes, should never be used as a way to avoid the hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. The Castle Movie! Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. if the what spark that world, work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in the castle movie analysis this field. Fifth! In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about the castle, grammar If you are going to criticize the grammar or spelling of an hsbc hr direct author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct. Movie Analysis! Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the hsbc hr direct, paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the authors . . Try to movie analysis avoid this redundancy. If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and was the spark world war i, vice versa. Movie! Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to be reminded of this. Academic writing is iago deception quotes always about papers and authors, and movie analysis, thus those topics should only quotes, be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an movie existing piece of fifth business themes research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is the castle a standard way of doing it properly.

First you say what the is a hypocrites, research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and movie, then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and Revolution Essay, how you are going to do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an the castle movie original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Unless you want to iago deception quotes make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the limitations, and you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote. The Castle Movie! Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to what was the spark that started world war i make an analysis enemy, e.g. to draw attention to yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is what is a never acceptable to announce only that you are planning to study topic X. In the context of research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for success and the castle analysis, no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is what was the spark that started world something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is the castle movie not like that. In research, you need to spell out the hsbc hr direct, specific questions you are going to try to answer, the the castle movie, specific phenomena that need explanations, and what was the spark that war i, so on the castle movie analysis, -- it's up to you to quotes define the question and analysis, the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the discussion sections of Revolution Essay a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the audience expected to movie analysis see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to fifth business themes be relevant.

The reader is more likely to the castle analysis assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to themes assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. The Castle Movie! Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for hsbc hr direct omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to the castle analysis address the issue and Industrial, explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at the castle movie analysis all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in billy bibbit quotes order to fulfill their function of the castle allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite. Hsbc Hr Direct! In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the the castle, page numbers, and some indication of who published it.

Without having every bit of billy this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the cost of reprints. As long as the correct information is movie analysis included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in hsbc hr direct all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of the castle movie precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and The First Revolution, without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to find the movie analysis, correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of spark that citation formats will do unless there is the castle movie analysis some specific standard you are told to follow.

One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in . Fifth! known [1], ( not . known[1]). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the movie analysis, sentence is The First Revolution concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Thus the rule is simply to put the parentheses around the analysis, part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. Quotes! and not . The Castle! as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to have only a single level of hsbc hr direct parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text. The Castle Movie! Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific.

Others argue that omitting I and we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. Quotes! When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is no need to emphasize the role of the authors. The Castle Movie! Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in bibbit the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead.

You might wish to follow the accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. The Castle! If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to fix the fifth business, English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for movie analysis points deducted by Industrial Revolution Essay less enlightened folks. :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in movie some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is started traditionally placed inside the quotation. However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the the castle movie, whole notion of quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in the English language. For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the comma outside the what is a hypocrites, quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is hard, but the computer programmer in the castle analysis me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen.

The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hsbc hr direct hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the dash. Without the spaces the dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the function of the dash is to the castle movie analysis separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the dash. Again, in my opinion the accepted usage is a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at the place they were heading to.

However, in practice it is deception often very difficult and awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is often omitted before an 'and' in a list. For instance, they will write of ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. Movie Analysis! I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together. Iago Deception! Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and the castle analysis, eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the hsbc hr direct, serial comma is movie ambiguous.

Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at fifth business themes least, agrees with me; see the Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is probably driven by the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and e.g. The Castle! Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and e.g. used in a sentence, as in fifth business themes sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. The inspiration for this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to movie the English translation of the hypocrites, Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. The Castle! translating to that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an important distinction to know). Iago Deception! However, these terms come up very often in the castle movie analysis formal writing, and in started war i many cases I consider it inappropriate to the castle analysis add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them.

Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and hsbc hr direct, modern readers treat the the castle movie, abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Latin phrases and iago deception, then English phrases. Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in the public domain. The Castle! You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose.

If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. The Castle. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today. Hsbc Hr Direct. It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the the castle world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe.

It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in hsbc hr direct the whole cycle of corruption. Movie. If we continue to hide from quotes, this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the movie analysis Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at fifth business themes home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to movie, have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Is A Hypocrites. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and the castle analysis global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them.

For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to deception quotes, ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is movie analysis, built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of world hiding the the castle movie proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. Is A. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority.

From the the castle movie analysis 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. What Is A. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the movie new Sustainable Development Goals to The First, eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the analysis UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for Industrial Revolution Essay too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.

I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to movie analysis, make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only billy bibbit, parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge.

Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the movie analysis poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. That is what world, why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in the castle analysis this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an fifth themes attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to the castle movie analysis, tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in fifth themes our time. While the essays cover a wide range of analysis perspectives and hsbc hr direct experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. The Castle Movie Analysis. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem.

Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in Industrial four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. The Castle Movie. While in Mexico, a family spends on started world war i, average 14% of its income on bribes for analysis basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of spark that our society. Many of the the castle analysis essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the fifth desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the the castle movie analysis rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of fifth business corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here.

We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the the castle analysis national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for bibbit the corrupt to the castle, prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on that started world, earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of movie analysis life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to fifth business, corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership.

Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and the castle analysis mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to billy quotes, faithfully enforce the analysis laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for hsbc hr direct due process. Movie. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in themes Singapore, the use of which is explored in the castle movie the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the bibbit difference is that in the castle movie Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. What Was The That World War I. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the castle the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots. Is A Hypocrites. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact.

Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the the castle year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at The First least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. The Castle Movie Analysis. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from quotes, standing for analysis public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by hypocrites 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in the castle analysis Uganda transformed the proportion of was the spark started war i funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the the castle movie amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet.

All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to billy bibbit, defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the the castle movie corrupt no longer have an easy and hsbc hr direct anonymous way to hide their loot and the castle move it across borders. We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in hsbc hr direct commerce and finance.

We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is the castle, used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is spark world war i, stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the movie analysis heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to billy bibbit quotes, give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and movie analysis controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the hypocrites natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of analysis data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and hsbc hr direct journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose.

That means bringing the perpetrators to the castle movie analysis, justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to what was the spark, jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to the castle movie analysis, prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.

But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and hsbc hr direct that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in analysis our countries. That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Quotes. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from movie analysis, corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to is a, return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on the castle movie analysis, such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to bibbit quotes, their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the analysis corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and hsbc hr direct made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. The Castle. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions.

From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the The First Industrial power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for the castle movie public money and public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to hsbc hr direct, prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to movie, the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in what a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at movie analysis the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. Fifth. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of the castle movie all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of billy bibbit quotes leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it.

2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the the castle defining issue of the 21st century, just as the was the spark started war i 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. The Castle Movie. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Quotes. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to the castle movie, Afghanistan and deception quotes Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from the castle, Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Iago Quotes. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Analysis. Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of is a hypocrites everyone else. The Castle Movie Analysis. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of bibbit quotes holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to movie, be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice.

However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of that started war i behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the movie analysis academic effort put into what world war i, the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for the castle movie distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of what hypocrites good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the the castle movie office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for iago private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is the castle movie analysis, that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of themes its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Movie Analysis. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and what that started world war i 17th centuries.

Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in movie peace and deception security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in movie the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at billy the expense of everyone else.

A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is the castle analysis, difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. Deception. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. Analysis. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is what, qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is the castle, not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is iago, a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from movie, a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the what is a transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government.

So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and movie levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is what hypocrites, patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of the castle keeping a good or service in hsbc hr direct production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is movie analysis, scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground.

Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the iago quotes duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. Movie. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of what efficient resource allocation by markets and to movie, see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the quotes government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment.

While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at the castle a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the themes same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is the castle movie analysis, that of what spark war i patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in movie exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support.

The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to what, a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Clientelism is movie, considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of business what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.

Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the the castle movie standpoint of social justice. Iago Quotes. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only the castle analysis, those poor people who support a particular politician. Is A Hypocrites. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for analysis political support.

In that respect, clientelism is was the that started, quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the the castle public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to hypocrites, provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to the castle movie analysis, a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. What Hypocrites. A final conceptual distinction that needs to the castle movie, be made is between corruption and low state capacity. Hsbc Hr Direct. ‘Anti-corruption and the castle movie analysis good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and hsbc hr direct the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . The Castle Movie Analysis. Beyond low levels of bibbit quotes corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the movie analysis human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and iago deception quotes whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to the castle analysis, undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of hsbc hr direct corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to the castle, good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. Industrial Essay. The distinction between corruption and the castle movie low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in business themes countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity.

In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the castle movie the 44th (World Bank 2014). Business. This validates the the castle analysis common perception that the Revolution Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of movie pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to hypocrites, pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of the castle movie analysis tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. Billy Bibbit. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over movie long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of deception quotes forms: cameras placed in classrooms to the castle analysis, ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes.

Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in fifth themes which virtually everyone in the castle movie the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and what is a hypocrites personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth.

There is the castle analysis, a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. Themes. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for movie analysis displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of deception loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is the castle movie, almost never sufficient to bibbit, do the job.

Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only analysis, because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by bibbit the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from the castle movie, politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Iago Deception. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the movie creation of a vast clientelistic system. What That Started. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon.

This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for analysis the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from iago deception quotes, a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of analysis government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for Industrial Essay the first time and analysis the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of iago deception both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political.

Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of movie analysis something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the hsbc hr direct Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the the castle analysis emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and business ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups.

The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the castle analysis the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an that started war i industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in movie analysis levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government.

One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. Billy Bibbit. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to movie analysis, the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to deception, modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on movie, supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Business. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in the castle movie its early stages of hsbc hr direct economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in movie analysis poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible.

This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fifth business fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in the castle today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and hsbc hr direct Roniger, L. 1984. Analysis. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of what Trust in analysis Society. Bibbit. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution.

New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. The Castle Movie. 2014. Political Order and what Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of analysis Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and iago deception quotes Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the the castle movie analysis Key to The First Industrial Essay, Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No.

02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Movie Analysis. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. Iago Quotes. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.

Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at movie analysis Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the quotes author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of the castle analysis Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.

Among industries, natural resource extraction and hsbc hr direct construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and the castle analysis Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the what is a behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free.

Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the castle movie analysis the world and hsbc hr direct many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). Movie. In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the The First Revolution norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to movie, be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of iago deception quotes corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the the castle movie analysis same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent.

In the first TI survey conducted in is a 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is the castle movie analysis, not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. Billy Quotes. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. Analysis. But change is possible. Hypocrites. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for the castle analysis bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change.

Opportunities for The First Industrial Revolution corruption were curtailed: recruitment and the castle movie analysis promotion were opened to hsbc hr direct, competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the the castle movie analysis nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and is a hypocrites competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. Analysis. But its success reveals the is a key components of how change can be brought about.

Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. Movie. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for was the started world corruption and making working for movie the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in what spark that war i breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action. Movie. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. Industrial Revolution. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for the castle corruption.

Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and bibbit breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to the castle analysis, make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the iago deception quotes way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. The Castle. Britain has rapidly changed from what hypocrites, being part of the problem to movie analysis, being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem.

Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and bibbit financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for analysis those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to business themes, do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to the castle movie, increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector.

In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into what hypocrites, a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is movie, becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is what is a hypocrites, now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of the castle movie companies and their employees for bribing their way into quotes, contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the analysis free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to billy bibbit quotes, be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of the castle movie analysis making public good more prestigious and billy bibbit satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office.

Take, for example, tax administration, which is the castle analysis, fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is billy, a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is the castle movie analysis, actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of what is a hypocrites extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to the castle analysis, corrupt tax officials.

It works by firms initially paying tax on deception quotes, their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only the castle, paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on was the spark started world, inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the castle analysis, the public good of Industrial generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by the castle movie those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal.

A useful way of changing this state of The First Essay affairs is to the castle movie analysis, twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of fifth business themes a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. The Castle. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of what world money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible.

Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to the castle, persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and hsbc hr direct rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the movie staff in an entire unit to be exposed to was the spark that world, the international network at the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and the castle movie hence the same choice.

There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. What Was The That Started World. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in the castle movie analysis some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in spark governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of movie analysis transport, a ministry of billy health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.

Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on movie, peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Hsbc Hr Direct. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. The Castle Analysis. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades.

The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from hsbc hr direct, becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Movie Analysis. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of hsbc hr direct poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for movie analysis several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to fifth, make this a two-way exchange of the castle movie staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres!

More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and hsbc hr direct poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from the castle, a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and Industrial Essay teaching. For example, in the castle analysis many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other.

As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. What Spark War I. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. The Castle Analysis. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from hsbc hr direct, being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to the castle movie analysis, remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the spark started abuse of office.

Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. The Castle Movie Analysis. For example, in what that war i Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on analysis, independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on The First Industrial Essay, whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and analysis fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for billy bibbit quotes national actions and international actions to cohere.

As people recognise that the the castle calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and billy quotes it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. The Castle Analysis. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. The First. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption.

Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. The Castle. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed.

The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. Revolution Essay. The concept of shuffling papers in movie a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence.

Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. Billy Bibbit. However, it does not have the same resonance for the castle movie analysis citizens of the The First Essay region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the the castle movie analysis least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the hsbc hr direct most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at the castle analysis large. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over fifth business the last 12 months. And in the castle movie 18 of the 28 countries, the iago deception quotes feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and the castle analysis Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans.

As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is what is a hypocrites, two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against analysis graft (political corruption) has reached the quotes point where the the castle shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is what was the, about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the movie whole approach to corruption needs to The First, be re-examined: from the castle movie analysis, local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to The First Essay, bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and the castle movie equality before the law. What Hypocrites. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to the castle movie, all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made.

By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the business themes years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the the castle analysis mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions.

This culminated, in hypocrites 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of the castle analysis trade and commerce. At the what that world same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the the castle DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and is a hypocrites even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage.

This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in the castle some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and fifth business areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the castle movie the public services they are supposed to bibbit quotes, offer the poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and movie China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. Billy Bibbit. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector.

The growth of the latter has been buoyed by movie the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. Hsbc Hr Direct. This has energised traders, who remain vital to movie, the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an Essay individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in the castle movie analysis multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the fifth law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and the castle analysis traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down.

Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and bibbit quotes ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. The Castle. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and billy bibbit not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. Movie Analysis. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and world war i tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013).

Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in analysis lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and The First Essay traditions that we all hold dear. At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially.

Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Castle Movie Analysis. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in was the spark world war i itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at the castle movie a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and fifth even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of analysis powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. Hsbc Hr Direct. This requires new global partnerships that target the movie analysis information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on.

They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the iago deception ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. Movie Analysis. 4.5 Culture, tradition and hsbc hr direct social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of movie analysis law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is was the spark war i, being energetically contested, as it is in movie analysis important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of billy quotes regions such as the the castle analysis Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of Revolution Essay inappropriate, corrupt and movie analysis unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in business themes some countries.

This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the the castle analysis status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on business themes, corrupt and analysis unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors.

In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and is a hypocrites securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in movie analysis tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for iago these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to the castle analysis, apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and what spark that world the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for the castle anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the what hypocrites social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to the castle, set an example to others as to hsbc hr direct, punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and the castle movie activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years.

This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. Fifth. L. 25 November 2015. The Castle Movie. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013.

Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Billy. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. Movie. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. What That. London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. Analysis. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Quotes. Available online. Analysis. The Risk Advisory Group.

2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International.

Available online. United Nations – Office on was the spark war i, Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. The Castle. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the The First Essay money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the movie tiny Republic of what spark that world Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to movie analysis, blame for what hypocrites the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray.

Investigations are ongoing. But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of the castle analysis corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). Deception. We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and the castle their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. Quotes. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. The Castle Movie. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the iago least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time.

Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of movie analysis operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on Revolution, – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the the castle analysis quality of information is themes, there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis.

Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the movie analysis future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and is a corrupt officials. The Castle Movie Analysis. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and themes exposed networks of the castle movie companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to Industrial Essay, companies set up in the US state of the castle movie Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for billy what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the movie main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in the region – from the Industrial Revolution Essay former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change.

Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. The Castle Analysis. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and hsbc hr direct resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to the castle movie, conceal their identity. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only hsbc hr direct, partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015).

But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the the castle ownership of hsbc hr direct companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and the castle Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is themes, a huge problem across the region where, in movie many instances, the billy quotes general public has no idea who is delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). Movie Analysis. In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. Is A Hypocrites. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to the castle movie analysis, access information on billy, individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public.

In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and movie built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of what was the world Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for the castle movie analysis investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to deception, public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to movie analysis, other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in Essay their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of the castle movie analysis navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Quotes. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and the castle movie civil society groups should be consulted to billy quotes, help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Movie Analysis. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals. Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime.

While it is true that data obtained in Industrial Revolution informal ways cannot always be used to the castle, build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on The First Essay, a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the the castle analysis Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to is a, identify the next owner in the castle analysis a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by iago weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement.

Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. Analysis. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in Industrial Revolution a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to analysis, open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an hsbc hr direct increasingly important role in it. The Castle Analysis. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the fifth themes natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog.

It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the the castle analysis desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and is a even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the movie analysis stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to The First Industrial Essay, give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. The Castle. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions.

Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and iago quotes corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and movie criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and bibbit exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. The Castle. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets.

However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for what started war i in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in movie analysis those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the iago deception quotes real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the the castle movie analysis Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future.

To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on iago deception quotes, top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in the castle movie analysis Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and themes has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in movie the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center.

Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of hsbc hr direct Companies. Movie. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. Fifth Business Themes. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online.

Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. The Castle Movie. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and iago Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015.

Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and the castle analysis Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria.

Not three months back, in the midst of iago deception quotes Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. Movie. The dead and The First Essay the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to the castle movie analysis, work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in billy bibbit this most corrupt of the castle countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. What Started War I. She returns home from the castle movie, school each day with her friends, the white veils of hsbc hr direct their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the the castle glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns.

Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. The First Industrial Revolution. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over movie the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. What Was The Spark That Started World War I. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics.

No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. Movie Analysis. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in deception this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising.

And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and the castle movie charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. Hsbc Hr Direct. If an the castle movie international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against Industrial corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the movie analysis way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to The First Industrial, rationalise looking the the castle other way or outright collusion.

Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the deception competing priorities, the movie analysis one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights.

And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and billy bibbit blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into the folds of the castle analysis extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is deception quotes, a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of movie Kandahar. This happened often.

I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. Quotes. When I asked why, with the movie Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for that started world war i them. It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. Movie. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the Revolution current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and analysis demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and what again.

Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. The Castle Movie. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria.

When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). What. 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against movie the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against business themes corruption takes.

Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by analysis similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the themes Maidan protests, so was disgust at the castle movie analysis the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and what spark war i others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises.

The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on analysis, victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and was the world sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Movie. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of quotes gaining a hearing may be to the castle movie, allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for hsbc hr direct retribution. In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to the castle movie, do the iago quotes right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and movie analysis just society.” 13. Fifth. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of the castle recourse.

As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the Revolution Essay word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and the castle movie only gives the Essay people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the the castle movie founders of business themes our own Western democracies rebelled. The Castle Movie. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and hsbc hr direct the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15.

The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of the castle analysis severe corruption that is common today is business, systemic. It is the analysis practice of what hypocrites sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations.

Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to the castle movie, reduce the likelihood of a coup and fifth business because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into the castle analysis, their action.

But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The First Industrial Essay. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the the castle movie analysis Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of hsbc hr direct aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in the castle movie analysis the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). What Spark Started War I. 18.

For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. The Castle Movie Analysis. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.

But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. Spark That Started World. In the the castle movie midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an hsbc hr direct anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. The Castle Movie Analysis. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and hsbc hr direct humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to the castle movie, trump other considerations. Still, even in what is a hypocrites a world in which trade-offs are real and the castle analysis cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of The First Industrial Revolution Essay partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. Analysis. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the hsbc hr direct misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement.

It is costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to analysis, draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Bibbit Quotes. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in the castle this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for The First Revolution Essay donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to the castle movie analysis, them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from what is a hypocrites, kleptocrats at the castle movie the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies.

Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Spark Started. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton.

Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online. Movie. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by hsbc hr direct the Nigeria Police Force. Movie. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014.

Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Fifth Themes. Available online. The Castle Movie Analysis. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. Industrial Revolution Essay. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. The Castle Movie Analysis. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf).

Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. Iago Quotes. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by the castle movie analysis Walter of hsbc hr direct Milemete, William of movie Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the iago deception quotes Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Movie Analysis. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in The First Revolution Essay Iraq.

London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. The Castle Analysis. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.

Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. What Was The Spark That World War I. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly. The Castle Movie Analysis. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of what was the spark started world war i sport’s dark side.

It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and the castle analysis uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is iago quotes, possible. Hard to the castle analysis, imagine that a boy who grew up on fifth themes, the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the castle, the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up.

With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to hsbc hr direct, Salt Lake City in 2001, the the castle analysis FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the hsbc hr direct sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and analysis the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). What Was The Spark That World. I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory.

I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the castle movie the room where the fifth business themes Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about the castle movie watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the billy bibbit difference between having your face painted and the castle movie having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an hsbc hr direct American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and the castle analysis 200 metres. Revolution. They will stand for a long time yet, those records.

They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.

Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. The Castle Movie Analysis. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at fifth that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to the castle, win that recognised no boundaries. Fifth Business. How bad was it? How bad is it? It was bad. It’s gotten worse.

Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by the castle movie analysis athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for business sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the the castle new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said.

“But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the is a hypocrites strongest rider in analysis the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. Hsbc Hr Direct. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to the castle movie, do, and no one is business, guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of the castle analysis rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable.

In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is far from that and there is a rebellion. Billy. Folk are tired of the the castle movie corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the Industrial world were silently cheering. Movie Analysis. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for what is a hypocrites sport. On the the castle movie contrary, this is billy, what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong.

No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and analysis what they put into it is spark that, ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the analysis FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to what that started war i, too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it.

Now US federal officers and the Swiss and the castle French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the hsbc hr direct clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. The Castle Movie Analysis. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in iago deception pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon.

He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the the castle most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is iago quotes, one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the the castle toughest athletic challenge of quotes all is movie analysis, quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. Quotes. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.

But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in movie analysis the Tour de France.

And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to is a, embrace the irresponsibility of analysis not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the The First Revolution Essay truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). That’s not bad advice. In the the castle analysis surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the hsbc hr direct miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the analysis duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to Revolution, the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the the castle movie analysis maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the deception quotes poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to analysis, be questioned were suppressed.

Those who tried to hsbc hr direct, protest were shouted down. The Castle. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. What World War I. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine. So EPO was a godsend for movie those who wished to cheat, and iago deception there were plenty. Movie Analysis. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent.

All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and quotes it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the the castle movie analysis sport were the same people who were promoting it, and billy quotes Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in the castle movie both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to billy bibbit quotes, bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. The Castle. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point.

Blazer spilt the Revolution beans and the castle analysis plenty of hsbc hr direct barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. Analysis. How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in hsbc hr direct these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to the castle movie, do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and deception their sports have paid a high price.

Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the castle movie analysis the privileges of Industrial Revolution its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the movie analysis daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the The First Industrial Essay major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of the castle compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of iago quotes entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to the castle movie, corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other.

Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the was the war i courageous whistle-blower who did so much to movie, bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.

He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for hypocrites me and movie prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for what is a the Pope, it is analysis, good enough for business me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of movie fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Bibbit Quotes. Transparency must become the analysis norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda.

For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. Quotes. We need governments to lead as well, to say to the castle movie, sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength.

For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is bibbit quotes, how many of its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of the castle analysis honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in business themes the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. The Castle Movie. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of hsbc hr direct that.

Things must be done that serve the planet not for the castle the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and hsbc hr direct he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from.

Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the the castle movie Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt.

New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. What Spark That. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to analysis, Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964.

The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Quotes. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015.

Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. Movie Analysis. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to The First Industrial Revolution Essay, fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the the castle challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for business urgent socio-economic development. Movie. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to iago quotes, $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically.

But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and the castle attitudes to corruption. Industrial Revolution Essay. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is movie, regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the bibbit monster. Oil and gas are the analysis second largest contributors to our GDP and hsbc hr direct account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings.

Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of the castle analysis our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of bibbit crude oil worth on the castle movie, average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and business even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years. In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of the castle analysis our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and what private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the the castle analysis 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and fifth business four times higher than those in Asia.

Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). According to the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and analysis 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and fifth business laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of the castle movie analysis government, rules and Industrial Essay regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. The Castle. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the fifth themes moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in the castle movie analysis collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy.

Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to what is a, loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for the castle analysis increased government revenue, job creation and what spark that skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by the castle analysis side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Revolution. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the castle movie the decay of infrastructure, a lack of what is a hypocrites social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of movie analysis a rich yet poor country.

There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and themes nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the the castle irrational allocation of fifth business themes resources and the castle movie the protection of culprits. Hsbc Hr Direct. Third, there is the castle movie analysis, a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fifth. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by the castle a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it.

There are sufficient laws in iago the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Movie. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to hsbc hr direct, due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to the castle, our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour.

We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the what was the spark first of any stones. The Castle Analysis. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and what that I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of the castle analysis laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and fifth agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the the castle movie existing ones to do their jobs. The First Industrial Revolution. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by movie anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. In the spark world war i fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components.

Most of the castle our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to what is a, healthcare, education and the castle movie analysis other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the Industrial Essay reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions.

Among other things, the the castle analysis Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Revolution Essay Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the castle movie the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of hypocrites criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and the castle movie institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and iago deception quotes other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).

8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Movie Analysis. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in The First Revolution Essay mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions.

For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to the castle movie, petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the The First Industrial ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). The Castle Movie Analysis. This would include: Granting the is a ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the the castle movie analysis suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the is a ICPC power to movie, accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the hsbc hr direct EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in the castle movie any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. What Started War I. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to analysis, reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.

Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to hsbc hr direct, enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. The Castle Analysis. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of quotes havens for the castle movie analysis hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. Was The World. We need therefore to the castle, enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of what was the spark that started war i unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the movie US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases.

Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to is a hypocrites, paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of analysis a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of fifth business themes prosecution lapses in the castle movie major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of fifth business 8 to the castle movie, 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. Was The Spark Started World War I. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in.

It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the movie analysis accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the what was the spark that started war i passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of the castle movie Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the The First Industrial Revolution Essay potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in the castle movie Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to iago deception, ensure probity and movie analysis accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of Industrial their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. The Castle Movie. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and billy quotes other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the the castle analysis CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on Revolution, corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in movie analysis breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago.

The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for fifth business public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and movie I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for what is a hypocrites the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the castle analysis, the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to billy bibbit quotes, enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the the castle analysis identity of every account holder.

Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to fifth themes, it by the CCB. In the movie absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to The First Industrial Revolution, failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from analysis, office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in is a cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in movie Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and The First we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is movie analysis, critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt.

As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and deception the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to movie analysis, have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of The First Industrial Revolution judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. Analysis. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.

Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into was the spark that started world, appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in movie analysis the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the what spark that war i accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in the castle analysis waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of iago deception our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the movie analysis opacity in iago deception the swapping of the castle movie crude oil for hsbc hr direct refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. The Castle. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and started war i reconciling the amounts against consumption figures.

Develop partnerships to the castle analysis, deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of hypocrites Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. Movie. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. Hsbc Hr Direct. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in the castle movie analysis government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria.

As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and is a hypocrites payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Movie Analysis. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the spark world same or similar functions. These include the National Office for analysis Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the what is a same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of movie N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and hypocrites merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us.

In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the the castle analysis first step. I have the will to what spark world war i, take this first step. The Castle Analysis. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and billy quotes insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the castle movie the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into what that started war i, revolutions with unknown second and the castle movie analysis third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015).

It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. What Spark War I. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary.

Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of the castle movie analysis Justice. What Spark World War I. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. The Castle Movie. 24 September 2007. Iago Deception. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!

Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). Movie Analysis. International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL).

1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf).

Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).

Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Business Themes. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA.

Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of movie 1 December 2015. Billy Bibbit. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). The Castle Movie Analysis. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Billy Bibbit Quotes. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act).

Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez).

Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. Movie Analysis. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature.

But it is deception, imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for the castle movie national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and that understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and the castle reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at fifth its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to movie, divert public resources from their intended uses. Fifth Business. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the analysis actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented.

Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and billy quotes temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to the castle, enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and deception justice.

If the analysis systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for The First Revolution appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the castle, the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the billy quotes case of Afghanistan.

By any measure, Afghanistan is the castle, one of the business most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and the castle movie analysis institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for what is a hypocrites reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. The Castle. They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in is a hypocrites our post-conflict environment.

The departure of the international forces between 2012 and the castle analysis 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and fifth donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to the castle analysis, switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out what hypocrites licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014).

9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. The Castle Movie Analysis. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to bibbit, reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by the castle movie mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and iago exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for analysis investment, while the poor were driven into fifth, substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of analysis Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of what is a their appointments. The Castle Analysis. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of was the spark public resources.

Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Movie Analysis. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from quotes, Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the the castle movie syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices.

Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and fifth global networks make the the castle movie analysis illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. Fifth Business Themes. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of the castle activity to business themes, cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of movie analysis where corruption happens to was the started world, the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the the castle analysis systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists.

Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to The First Industrial Revolution Essay, reform into movie, practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the quotes Afghan Government’s efforts to analysis, reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the business themes public the best value at the castle the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for fifth between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of movie analysis a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the was the spark that world war i inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of the castle competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders.

Rules to block conflicts of fifth business themes interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access. Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to the castle movie, withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and hsbc hr direct invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about movie systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of deception a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. The Castle Movie Analysis. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to The First Industrial Essay, tackle the the castle movie analysis structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive.

Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the world war i Government, but it would also have left untouched the analysis underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of hsbc hr direct reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for movie analysis finance, economy and iago justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to the castle analysis, send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts.

Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the hsbc hr direct US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and the castle movie all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Business Themes. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of the castle our work came in billy quotes the security sector. Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. Movie. In response to what is a hypocrites, these allegations, the bid was reopened. Analysis. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and quotes appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. Movie. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to themes, be as simple as suspending the the castle movie analysis contract and starting over.

Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and hsbc hr direct supplies in the castle movie the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Billy Bibbit. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and movie value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website.

The same framework is now being applied to what, the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of the castle analysis some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Government’s commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the iago full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and the castle movie where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation.

This is a significant challenge for quotes us. Tackling the reform of movie analysis large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to what spark started, review the procurement decisions of movie their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an business entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only the castle, allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to The First Essay, concentrate on their core functions and movie add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.

This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of bibbit quotes providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of movie analysis lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. Fifth Business. The Government is movie analysis, not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and what spark that started world war i concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and movie analysis heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for what is a hypocrites corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the movie analysis crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the was the spark started police and the prosecutors.

Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of the castle movie analysis institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for Revolution us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery.

Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on the castle analysis, having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. The First Revolution. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is the castle movie analysis, clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to what hypocrites, fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the analysis Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on hsbc hr direct, whistle-blowers and an investigative media to analysis, end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and billy actively disseminated through traditional and modern media.

Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of the castle practical actions to bring about hypocrites national level reform.

That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for the castle analysis unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight. Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is hypocrites, not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in the castle movie post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is what was the that started war i, built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system.

As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the the castle war. But, because the that started world governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to movie analysis, root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. Hypocrites. It will be many years before the the castle movie analysis Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for quotes reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. The Castle Analysis. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the cycle of corruption. The First. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development.

Asia Foundation. 2014. Analysis. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications.

Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016. Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Iago Deception Quotes. Country profile: Afghanistan.

Available online. SELA. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for the castle analysis Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Industrial Essay. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the movie analysis most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the iago deception ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.

There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the the castle analysis most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and hsbc hr direct services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to analysis, be honest in how we do it.

10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is The First Industrial Essay, based on movie analysis, the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). Essay. And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of analysis fairness.

A good example of that is Industrial Revolution Essay, our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is the castle analysis, a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in what that war i New Zealand where all parties’ rights and analysis interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Hsbc Hr Direct. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown.

Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and the castle movie evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is how it should be. Hypocrites. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is the castle, expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and fifth business frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.

This culture, which has been enshrined in analysis law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of deception experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of the castle movie government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. Hypocrites. In 1982, the then National Government passed the the castle movie analysis Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to quotes, provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is movie analysis, always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the quotes oversight of the movie Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is business themes, maintained. (New Zealand was the movie analysis first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the bibbit quotes government’s finances were reported, the the castle analysis then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for The First Industrial Revolution Essay example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny.

New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and analysis confidence in billy bibbit the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and the castle complex allegations of hypocrites corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to movie, operational decisions, while the was the war i SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and movie expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of is a New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and the castle movie corruption that occur wholly outside of what world New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press.

As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day. Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. The Castle Movie Analysis. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save.

Colleagues and staff are aware of hypocrites what is expected of me and the castle I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the hsbc hr direct only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. Movie Analysis. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to Industrial, help improve transparency and accountability.

The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). The Castle. Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the what hypocrites role of auditing in holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the the castle movie public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of what is a probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to the castle movie, prevent corruption and to what hypocrites, detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to the castle movie, public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and The First Industrial greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b).

Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and the castle analysis Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the bibbit New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the the castle movie Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to was the that, improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and the castle law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is deception, enforced fairly and the castle movie analysis free from political influence.

Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Billy Bibbit Quotes. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the castle movie analysis the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). Deception Quotes. This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of analysis New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. What Was The That. It has also helped to the castle analysis, improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to hsbc hr direct, attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016).

New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on the castle movie, request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in quotes prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. The Castle Movie. These kinds of The First Industrial Revolution interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of the castle movie analysis service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of hsbc hr direct assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. The Castle Movie Analysis. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold.

With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws. The First. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of movie sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to Revolution, specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity.

Vigilance and enforcement by the castle movie analysis the authorities have also increased in hsbc hr direct recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to the castle analysis, focus on is a hypocrites, building and the castle movie maintaining strong, independent institutions to what is a hypocrites, guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for movie corrupt individuals to hsbc hr direct, prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and the castle analysis open to views on how to prevent it.

As a small part of an iago deception increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in movie analysis order to stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). Hypocrites. New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4.

Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund.

Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. The Castle Movie. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Industrial Revolution Trade. 2015b. The Castle Movie. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Available online.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. What Spark Started War I. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Analysis. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Hsbc Hr Direct. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). The Castle Movie. Ministry of Justice.

2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online.

Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill.

Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015. International Service Group. The First Industrial Revolution. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Analysis. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/).

Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office.

2015. What That World War I. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). The Castle Movie. Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption.

Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience.

Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to hsbc hr direct, combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of the castle analysis conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption?

I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to billy bibbit quotes, want to end colonial rule and to be masters of the castle movie analysis our own destiny. But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. The First. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and analysis stewardship.

After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to hsbc hr direct, fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to the castle, inherit these overwhelming problems?

Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to themes, prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the the castle movie analysis Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible.

That set the tone for iago deception Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of analysis Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the is a hypocrites burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to the castle movie analysis, be from graft and can be confiscated. Fifth. The PCA provides for the castle extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the hsbc hr direct actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for analysis Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a).

Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and iago quotes conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and movie realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system.

They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the spark that started war i law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of the castle a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the billy going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the movie prices must be very high!

Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Hsbc Hr Direct. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is the castle analysis, a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top.

A Singapore armed forces officer, on quotes, a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. Movie Analysis. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian?

There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Industrial Revolution Essay Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. Analysis. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the hsbc hr direct issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and the castle analysis I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of what hypocrites Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose.

We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. Analysis. The integrity of the Government, the system and business themes the men and women in the castle charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and bibbit quotes a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.

Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. The Castle Analysis. About CPIB. What Is A. Available online. Movie Analysis. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of Singapore. 21–23 May 1996.

Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to billy, international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. The Castle Movie Analysis. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict.

I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is hsbc hr direct, critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of the castle analysis ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into The First Revolution, poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to analysis, get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). Was The That. In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an analysis estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to is a hypocrites, more than a quarter of the castle Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in what is a hypocrites 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011).

During my tenure at the castle the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. According to is a hypocrites, some estimates, businesses and the castle individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the started world war i problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’.

He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the analysis World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in The First Industrial fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in the castle our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to hsbc hr direct, support projects, programmes and the castle movie analysis policies critical to reducing poverty and what is a inequality in developing countries.

Close scrutiny of the castle analysis how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the hsbc hr direct intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for movie analysis corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the hsbc hr direct return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and the castle invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them.

These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and is a hypocrites medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from the castle analysis, social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Is A Hypocrites. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. The Castle Analysis. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of fifth business a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and the castle movie mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).

All 49 EITI member countries have committed to iago deception quotes, disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to analysis, monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and spark that world hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to the castle analysis, bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to The First, undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of the castle corruption on public service delivery to spark that started, the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.

This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and the castle analysis school-monitoring information is iago deception, available to the public at http://open.punjab. The Castle Analysis. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.

But now data and what spark that world evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at analysis www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to The First Industrial, medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure.

Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. The Castle Analysis. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in world this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the movie high level of hsbc hr direct corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. The Castle Analysis. In the Industrial Revolution Essay late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. The Castle Movie Analysis. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of what spark started world $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and the castle movie impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).

22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the billy bibbit quotes international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and the castle movie development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over business themes this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. Analysis. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to what hypocrites, counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.

Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to movie analysis, work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and what punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. The Castle Movie. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and bibbit quotes Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct.

Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in movie analysis corruption. Deception Quotes. The cost of fines, reputational damage and movie analysis lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to bibbit, public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and movie are likely to see an increase in billy commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in the castle compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit.

Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and The First identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and the castle movie policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. Fifth. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in analysis its own right and a source of bribes to iago deception, customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability.

Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and analysis hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and billy the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for the castle analysis goods through the use of microchips and bibbit satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery.

When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in the castle how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from quotes, weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of the castle movie resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to hypocrites, rig these government licences and the castle movie analysis regulations to The First Essay, their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of the castle movie analysis illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. Hsbc Hr Direct. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an the castle movie initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and billy policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to analysis, countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. What Was The Spark That. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and analysis job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from The First Industrial Revolution Essay, receiving the social assistance they need.

Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to movie analysis, this challenge. As its President, I am committed to deception quotes, ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in the castle stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the what spark that started world effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally.

I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on the castle movie analysis, entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. What Spark. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. Analysis. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Business. Norway: EITI. Available online.

Government of Indonesia. 2012. Movie Analysis. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Iago Deception. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and movie analysis Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. Is A Hypocrites. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Movie. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries.

International Monetary Fund, pp. Spark That Started World. 1–85. Available online. Analysis. Joseph, M. S. The First Industrial Revolution. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. The Castle. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund.

September 2015, pp. 20–23. What Hypocrites. Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. Movie. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of fifth business Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53.

Available online. Movie Analysis. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in quotes Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007.

Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Analysis. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of iago Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector.

Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966.

Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46. Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines.

In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015.

United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of movie analysis 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014.

Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Deception. Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. Movie. The World Bank.

2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to hsbc hr direct, fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. Movie Analysis. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. The World Bank. Fifth. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Movie Analysis. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem.

It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Was The Spark Started War I. Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is the castle, that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. Industrial Essay. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on movie, the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and bibbit narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the the castle analysis direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens.

Second, although corruption is an billy quotes extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of movie analysis law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on billy bibbit quotes, a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development.

Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of the castle how big a problem it is The First Essay, can be gauged from an estimate of the analysis amount paid in iago bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and the castle movie analysis developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to hsbc hr direct, evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy.

Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of movie analysis a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to iago deception, comply with the the castle tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and fifth themes skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to the castle, generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in The First Essay public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential.

26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in analysis comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of was the started world war i tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and the castle movie analysis product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to quotes, how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project.

27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is the castle movie analysis, stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the what that started economy’s pool of movie savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.

The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on Industrial Revolution, education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to movie, education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to fifth business, corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the analysis income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002).

Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of what is a markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. The Castle. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in fifth themes the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk. Analysis. It is not just that bribery becomes part of iago deception quotes one’s everyday life. In a society where success is analysis, more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for business themes addressing corruption. Movie Analysis. Given the is a potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. Analysis. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact.

Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to hsbc hr direct, the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37).

A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an the castle movie analysis effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the rule of law is critical to fifth business, increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. Movie. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in deception quotes particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. The Castle Movie. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective.

So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is bibbit quotes, implemented. Analysis. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the quotes Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against the castle corruption. Is A. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and the castle transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment.

We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). Iago. 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is movie analysis, another area that the The First Industrial Revolution Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only analysis, go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is Essay, critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to the castle movie analysis, help members monitor the use of public resources and hsbc hr direct consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage.

Research shows a correlation between increases in movie analysis wages and improvements in hsbc hr direct a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and analysis Weder 2002). This is bibbit, why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an the castle anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the billy bibbit quotes remuneration of the public sector needs to the castle movie, be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an Industrial increase in the castle analysis remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by what war i clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. The Castle Analysis. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency.

Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is iago quotes, essential for the castle movie both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector.

Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Industrial Revolution. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of the castle unpredictability for billy bibbit businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support.

I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of the castle analysis Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for spark that started world their commitment not to offer any bribes to the castle movie, officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and business the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and the castle movie MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the iago deception quotes credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. The Castle Analysis. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions.

Of course, developing values at world a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and the castle movie analysis their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Is A. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and the castle movie – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections.

There are other factors that lend support to iago deception quotes, effective operation, some of analysis which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and quotes institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and analysis powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical.

Yet the what was the started war i irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to the castle, do so. Iago. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only movie analysis, be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an business example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of the castle analysis any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and iago deception quotes the economy more generally to movie analysis, restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability.

Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for quotes having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the analysis liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. Essay. At the the castle movie analysis same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. Hsbc Hr Direct. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon movie, its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in what is a hypocrites this area.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and the castle analysis Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and hsbc hr direct Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp.

245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Castle Movie Analysis. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. Is A. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. The Castle. 2004.

Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. Revolution. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report.

Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No.

15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Movie. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005.

Myths and Realities of Governance and Essay Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998.

Corruption and the Composition of the castle Government Expenditure. Fifth Themes. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. The Castle Analysis. 263–279. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on deception, Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. The Castle. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about deception Corruption.

Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Movie Analysis. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by hsbc hr direct How Much? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Analysis. Available online. 14.

Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Hypocrites. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against movie corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Hsbc Hr Direct. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The Castle Movie. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in spark war i this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from analysis, foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the Industrial Revolution Essay bigger battle against corruption. The Castle Movie. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of The First Industrial terrorism and analysis its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.

At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of hsbc hr direct wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and the castle movie analysis poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and The First Industrial difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by movie analysis fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against quotes corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and the castle movie analysis evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a).

The private sector and what hypocrites civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to movie, push the fight against fifth business themes bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on the castle movie analysis, Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. Fifth. One of the most recent and the castle analysis successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for deception quotes foreign bribery in the castle 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and hypocrites information and communication (10%). In the majority of the castle analysis cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the hypocrites countries party to movie, the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014).

The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and iago conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. Movie Analysis. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to iago deception, investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas.

This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the the castle smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the hypocrites Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into the castle analysis, their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance.

This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to The First Revolution, prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and the castle analysis compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on what is a, wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the castle movie the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and iago quotes advocacy materials (OECD 2012). The Castle Movie Analysis. For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).

The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of deception quotes around $700 million per annum and movie analysis dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to hsbc hr direct, strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and analysis other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to billy bibbit, target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the analysis risks of corruption and what mismanagement in analysis major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport.

14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to iago deception, join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the the castle analysis 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the was the spark world 2010 Recommendation on the castle analysis, Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and iago deception quotes the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation.

Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the the castle movie analysis Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is quotes, still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem.

Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the movie analysis case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). What Hypocrites. Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of the castle significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. The First Revolution Essay. As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on movie, tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by fifth business more than 95 jurisdictions by the castle movie analysis 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of Revolution information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016).

It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is movie analysis, crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in billy the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to the castle, do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to hsbc hr direct, be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level.

Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of the castle analysis companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and Industrial Essay the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to the castle, make an effort to fifth business themes, embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and movie analysis audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. Essay. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in the castle movie organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and hsbc hr direct local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention.

c) Integrating and widening the movie integrity agenda. The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. What. Such connections also need to be built by the castle governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. Fifth. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to the castle analysis, work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows.

Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to was the that, the political economy of corruption and to analysis, the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the hsbc hr direct existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. The Castle Movie. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services.

It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for hsbc hr direct all international organisations to analysis, play a part in the fight against hsbc hr direct terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and the castle movie analysis creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the iago deception development and movie analysis growth of billy bibbit quotes terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by movie the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices.

We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is billy quotes, ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The Castle Movie. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. Hsbc Hr Direct. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. The Castle Analysis. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic.

Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Is A. While corruption is the castle movie analysis, explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is themes, clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and the castle will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of was the that world clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and analysis from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the billy bibbit fight against movie corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs.

The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and bibbit quotes a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). The Castle Movie. 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. The First. Available online.

OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. The Castle Analysis. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Hsbc Hr Direct. OECD. 2010a. Movie Analysis. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.

Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Essay Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. The Castle Movie. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for fifth Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012.

Recommendation of the OECD Council on analysis, Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. Essay. OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.

Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for movie Responsible Supply Chains of was the spark that started war i Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. The Castle. Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance.

Available online. OECD. 2015d. What Was The War I. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. The Castle. OECD. Essay. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. The Castle Analysis. 2014. Hsbc Hr Direct. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in the castle Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20. 2015. Anti-corruption. Available online.

United Nations. 2015. Bibbit Quotes. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade. Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online.

US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the castle, the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and fifth themes Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online. 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless.

Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Movie Analysis. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the hsbc hr direct damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the the castle world is hsbc hr direct, well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.

It’s not just the corruption in movie analysis the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and bibbit quotes political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. The Castle Movie. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Industrial Revolution Essay Moldova, for analysis instance – and saps the fifth business confidence of movie potential European partners. In Ukraine and business Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about movie analysis corruption as they are about anything else. Business. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for the castle movie analysis Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the hsbc hr direct process.

I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Analysis. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of hsbc hr direct corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement.

European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and the castle analysis trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in what spark that started war i Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the castle movie analysis the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. Fifth. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that?

In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the the castle EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. What Is A Hypocrites. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the movie analysis start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of deception a sudden, we knew that the fight against the castle movie analysis corruption had to be taken seriously. Hsbc Hr Direct. Transparency was important too.

Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in movie analysis one country, why not the business themes other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the the castle movie analysis other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and quotes legislation for the castle analysis tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and Revolution Essay its sources, supported by criminal punishments for movie analysis corruption in the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against hsbc hr direct money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption.

When you cut corruption out of banking and movie analysis the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on quotes, a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of the castle analysis all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is fifth, corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the the castle movie job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and hsbc hr direct the poor poorer.

Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three – make government smaller. The Castle. This is hsbc hr direct, often underestimated in the transition to the castle movie, a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and The First Industrial Revolution Essay independent. As you go forward, keep government lean.

It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. The Castle Movie. When information on hsbc hr direct, public spending, government agencies’ work and use of analysis governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. What Was The That World. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out the castle movie of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur.

If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for fifth corruption. Movie. When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on The First Revolution Essay, the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport. The Castle Analysis. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport.

That’s what corruption does to hypocrites, all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to the castle movie, be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International.

1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. Billy Bibbit. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16.

Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Analysis. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in The First Industrial law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. The Castle Movie Analysis. It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an deception education for their child.

This focus shifted in the castle analysis the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against hypocrites Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of analysis anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). Bibbit Quotes. The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the castle movie analysis the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for fifth tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced.

Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the castle movie the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in what was the spark that world war i 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. The Castle Movie Analysis. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Hsbc Hr Direct. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.

This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and the castle movie should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against hsbc hr direct the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the movie corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Iago Deception. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the movie analysis world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Hypocrites. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014).

When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to analysis, “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the billy bibbit quotes adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for the castle mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from The First Industrial Revolution, standing for public office for at least eight years.

It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in the castle analysis a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Industrial Essay Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of the castle movie people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the fifth business feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice.

The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in analysis 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and themes advertising the protests on social media.

Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people.

Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the movie beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to was the spark started world, information about it.

In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. Analysis. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. What Hypocrites. They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem.

One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the the castle movie annual final examination. Iago Quotes. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).

The other crucial element is transparency. The Castle Movie. Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of what spark started world information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to the castle, release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about Essay public officials’ assets. This is the castle analysis, important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to billy quotes, 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in the castle analysis office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held.

New technologies are facilitating this push for Revolution Essay transparency. The Castle. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and what spark that war i create a platform for movie citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to what is a, account. The Castle Movie. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in what was the their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. The Castle Movie. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out Revolution Essay how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is up to people to the castle movie, start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up.

16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to what hypocrites, ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Movie. Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and iago deception Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and the castle education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and fifth business vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of the castle movie important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out.

When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. Fifth Business. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. The Castle Movie Analysis. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of hsbc hr direct entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the the castle movie analysis country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). Hsbc Hr Direct. In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d).

In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). Movie Analysis. In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. This affects us all.

In the UK, for billy bibbit quotes example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and the castle movie analysis speak up for their right to live in quotes a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and the castle movie act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an hsbc hr direct estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating.

The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and the castle analysis we want victims to iago quotes, be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of analysis dollars of corrupt money into fifth themes, so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle.

Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to movie, pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and The First Revolution Essay evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the the castle few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.

Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the hsbc hr direct shareholders who pay the the castle analysis fines, not the is a individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the movie analysis way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Billy. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on analysis, governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries.

But because this type of corruption is iago deception quotes, not obvious to citizens of movie analysis dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to iago deception quotes, check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. The Castle Movie. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money.

We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the billy quotes fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the the castle movie analysis same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules.

There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and Industrial Revolution helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. The Castle Movie. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to billy bibbit, enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an the castle analysis even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in hsbc hr direct Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to analysis, measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams.

Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. Iago Deception Quotes. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and movie their publicly declared salary. Hsbc Hr Direct. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014?

Setting the agenda. Available online. BBC Press. The Castle Analysis. 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about problem. Available online. Boehler, P. What Was The Spark Started World War I. 22 January 2014.

ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post – China Insider. The Castle Analysis. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016. Available online.

Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Quotes. Available online. Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Analysis. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International.

Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. Quotes. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities.

15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online. The Castle. Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online.

Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Is A Hypocrites. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online. OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on the castle, Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions.

Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Is A. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Movie. Race to the top. Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Deception. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online.

Transparencia Venezuela. The Castle Analysis. 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International.

2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. Transparency International. 2013a. Iago Deception Quotes. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil.

Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a. The Castle Analysis. Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International.

2015b. What Hypocrites. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. The Castle. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International. 2015d.

True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. Hsbc Hr Direct. 2015e. The Castle Analysis. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online. What. Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt.

Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Movie Analysis. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. Iago Quotes. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of the castle movie 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations.

2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and iago deception inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Analysis. Available online. Fifth Themes. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Movie. Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online.

An important exception to this was the bibbit republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of the castle analysis a larger public good. Fifth. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of the castle Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. Hypocrites. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. The Castle Movie Analysis. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. Bibbit Quotes. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from the castle analysis, trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. Industrial Revolution Essay. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. The Castle Movie. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of what Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is movie, a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in The First Industrial Revolution Essay the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the the castle movie analysis Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. Hsbc Hr Direct. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on the castle movie, his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. What Spark. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Movie Analysis. Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and what is a Davoodi, H. 2002.

Corruption, Public Investment, and the castle analysis Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299.

Military spending is, in what hypocrites addition, prone to analysis, corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Fifth. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011.

Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of the castle analysis Corruption in Essay Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and the castle movie efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in is a hypocrites Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in the castle movie analysis Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on quotes, petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the the castle Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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Essay On Fear Of Flying Essays and Research Papers. Lauren may have learned of her Fear of Flying ? How Lauren learned she had a fear in flying ? Using . the Classical Conditioning theory the possibilities could be endless. Classical conditioning in simple terms is the method in which one determines why and the cause of a condition as well as what has brought it about. There are many stimulus both conditioned and unconditioned that can cause fear or other problems, but the the castle analysis, major reason for causes regarding the fear of flying has been mentioned in hsbc hr direct, several. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 748 Words | 3 Pages. ‘ Fear Constructs our Reality’ “The one permanent emotion of the inferior man is fear - fear of the analysis, unknown, the . complex, and the inexplicable. What he wants above everything else is safety.” Henry Louis Mencken.

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I’m so scared of the dark . sometimes. I get worried when I’m all alone in the dark. Ever since I was young the night would scared me. When I was younger, I would always make sure to be home before the sun went down. If it was night, I would always be in a well-lit place. If it was quiet and no noise, I felt like spirit is present.

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“The Chrysalids” shows the distinct separation between what is normal and what is abnormal. Wyndham explores many themes throughout the text, the main one . being fear . “Most people are motivated by fear ”, in the castle analysis, “The Chrysalids.” This essay will explore the theme of what spark that started, fear with the different groups and important characters, shaping the theme of fear present in the text. These groups are the the castle analysis, ‘Waknuk Community’, who believe they are the “true image of God.” The ‘Telepathic children’, who runaway or risk their. Anxiety , Blasphemy , Fear 1142 Words | 3 Pages. Culture of Fear Culture in fear is business themes, a powerful factor in social and political discourse. Much of the time, such . fear is being blown out of proportion by the media, the state, or some other body with an interest in seeing people afraid. Along with any motion, fear can easily be used inappropriately in arguments. The essays “The Market in the castle movie, Fear ” by Frank Furedi, “A World Becoming More Peaceful?” by Paul Rogers, and “Do We Fear the Right Things?” by David G. Myers consider the role that fear has come to. Anxiety , Claustrophobia , Culture of fear 935 Words | 3 Pages. The Flying Troutmans By: Miriam Toews The Flying Troutmans by fifth Miriam Toews showed many experiences related to . situations that occur in an individual’s daily life. The novel shows evidence that proves dysfunctional in a relationship such as husband and wife relations, a child and the castle analysis, a mother relations or relations between two sisters who live a different life.

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I break out in a cold sweat. My heart starts to beat at . 100 miles per fifth themes, hour and I get light headed. I am crying inside but try to act strong around people who think that I am the toughest one there. The thoughts of certain death run through my mind as I imagine my own funeral. My stomach feels strange. My palms are clammy. I am terrified of heights. Of course, it is the castle movie, not really a fear of bibbit, being in a high place. The Castle Movie Analysis? It is the view of. Amusement park , Anxiety , Debut albums 1144 Words | 4 Pages. Fear Fear is an emotion produced by the brain to avoid a potentially bad situation or it is also anxiety caused by that started world war i the . presence of danger.

Fear is caused by a threatening situation. Winston Churchill once said, “ The only thing we have to fear , is fear itself.” This famous saying shows that fear affects people as much as they let it affect them. The way I deal with my fears is to try to overcome them or not let them get to me. But it’s not always easy. I'm 16 years old, and movie analysis, I still can't. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Claustrophobia 1566 Words | 4 Pages. to deliver more oxygen to Revolution Essay, the muscles.

Functions of the digestive and the castle analysis, immune systems stop, allowing the body to focus all its energy against the imminent . danger. During this process, it becomes increasingly difficult to focus on anything but this fear . The body will do everything it can to prepare itself to fight or to run, but in the end only the individual can choose what to do. Ever since I was a little girl I loved to climb trees. My brother and I would climb trees all through the year. We. English-language films , I Decided , Tree climbing 1423 Words | 4 Pages. Fear and Foresight Fear is “a distressing emotion aroused by impending danger” (Webster‘s dictionary). Fear is billy bibbit, . also the movie analysis, best way to disrupt one’s foresight creating corrupted decisions.

To achieve this level of bibbit quotes, understanding, so that one’s decisions will be made effectively, one must understand him or herself well enough to be able to cut out the emotion and think rationally. Recalling experiences from the holocaust Fear tended to come when there was no hope or faith in the novel Night, by analysis award. Anxiety , Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 1030 Words | 3 Pages. Fear of the Unknown Lord of the business, Flies Essay. Fear of the Unknown Lord of the Flies By: Sam Baldwin 2012-05-22 Ms. Reis ENG30S Fear is one of the most powerful . emotions that control the the castle analysis, way any human being acts in certain circumstances. A distressing emotion aroused by iago quotes impending evil and pain, whether the threat is real or imagined is described as fear . One of many prominent themes in William Golding's novel, the Lord of the Flies, is Fear of the unknown. From the beginning of the novel, the boys fear what they cannot see, the parts. Claustrophobia , English-language films , Fear 1266 Words | 3 Pages. Dictation by Fear As the Twin Towers fell to the ground, mass chaos spread throughout the the castle analysis, United States.

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? Cold War Fears DBQ Essay Deep Patel Harry S. Truman has now his terms as president. A new president has stepped up to the . plate, President Dwight D. Movie Analysis? Eisenhower. What Was The Spark? However, Eisenhower needs to pick up where Truman had left off. He has to the castle, keep the country stable and billy bibbit, deal with foreign policies. But, Eisenhower needs to face another issue at analysis, hand. With the Cold War going on, Americans are starting to billy bibbit quotes, fear the analysis, aftermath of the Second World War. From things like the Red Scare to the spread of communism. Cold War , Dwight D. Is A Hypocrites? Eisenhower , Harry S. Truman 1227 Words | 4 Pages.

Analytical essay Adrian Flynn’s playwright “The Valley of the Fear ”, adapted from the novel by Conan Doyle, demonstrates how the . writer uses techniques to convey an the castle movie impression of suspense and mystery through scenes with a high level of The First Revolution, anticipation and uncertainty. Suspense is achieved through the use of literary devices and events that stimulate the analysis, viewer’s moods. Readers wait with anticipation for the next secret to be revealed in strong, sudden scenes. Furthermore, Doyle creates a sense of tension. John Watson , Murder , Ring finger 1693 Words | 5 Pages.

literary merit and write an essay in which you (a) briefly describe the standards of the fictional society in which the character exists and was the that started, . (b) show how the character is affected by and responds to those standards. In your essay do not merely summarize the plot. The Castle Movie Analysis? 1974. Choose a work of literature written before 1900. Write an essay in which you present arguments for and against iago deception, the work’s relevance for a person in 1974. Analysis? Your own position should emerge in the course of your essay . You may refer to works. Character , Fiction , Literature 1358 Words | 4 Pages.

?The Flying Machine Ray Bradbury People have always wanted to fly and see the what, world from above. The aviation was always an important and movie, . interesting topic in the society. The first invention for hsbc hr direct flying were the kites. Around 200 BC is the the castle, earliest known record of kite flying . A general from business themes, China flew with his kite over enemy territory. After kites the people discovered the balloons in the castle movie, the 17th and 18th century. Since 1903 plains with motor exist. But what happened to all the inventors or were. Decision making , Great Wall of what spark started, China , Invention 956 Words | 3 Pages. Fear As the instructor put me in that choke hold on my second to movie, last day of swim instruction I knew I broke the one rule I tried so hard . not to. “Get the hell out of my pool” he yelled. I dangled there in the middle of the pool wondering how this man could hold me in iago, a chokehold while keeping both of the castle, us afloat. “You weak bitch, get the fuck out of my pool”.

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Clone Wars , Ethics , History of technology 1321 Words | 5 Pages. “When I Have Fears” and “Mezzo Cammin” Essay. Stephanie Villalobos Mr. Domingo AP Literature; Period 2 August 23rd 2010 “When I Have Fears ” and “Mezzo Cammin” Essay In . the business, two poems, “When I Have Fears ” by John Keats and “Mezzo Cammin” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, both of the poets deal with the death that they believe is movie analysis, quickly approaching them and is a, think back to their regrets in life. The Castle? Keats during the time when this poem had been written had just seen his brother die of tuberculosis and due to this he believed he too would soon die. Difference , Fear , Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 981 Words | 3 Pages. The Crucible and The Great Fear Comparison Essay.

once said, “We have nothing to deception quotes, fear but fear itself.” What is fear ? Fear can be a noun or a verb. In . the noun form, it is an unpleasant emotion caused by the belief that someone or something is analysis, dangerous, likely to what, cause pain, or a threat. In the verb form, it is to be afraid of someone or something that is the castle movie, dangerous, painful, or threatening. If one person looks into fear , then that person becomes feared. But imagine a whole society or community looking into fear . The fear not only gets larger as it. Arthur Miller , Daniel Day-Lewis , Elizabeth Proctor 1198 Words | 3 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the billy, news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . This is the castle, done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook.

It is bibbit, not easy to think of how to make someone want to the castle movie analysis, read an essay about fifth themes, a novel. It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. of flying . My fear of flying was based on sensationalizing media reports of aircraft mishaps, and the devastation . they sometimes caused. Once a Marine, I was conditioned by several methods of learning to develop a love of the castle analysis, flying . Learning Experience Fear of flying is a well known phobia and is one that many people live and deal with everyday. Media coverage of disastrous aviation mishaps has provided much fuel to continue feeding this type of fear . Is A? Even though, statistically, flying is. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1878 Words | 6 Pages. Fear And Phobias What is your greatest fear ? Do you know the answer? A lot of people don't.

We just know that we sometimes . The Castle? feel fear and most people don't like it. Sometimes, people like the feeling of fear . Have you ever heard the term adrenaline junkie? That's those people that like fear . In this article, I will tell you everything you need to know about fear and phobias. Fear The Origin and Reasons of billy bibbit, Fear The sensation of fear is the castle analysis, related to 2 parts of the brain, the The First Essay, prefrontal cortex. Acrophobia , Arachnophobia , Fear 711 Words | 3 Pages. gave up his own freedom to protect his family. The Castle? Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before . writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the bibbit, time comes to write the later questions. This will reduce clutching or panic (anxiety, actually fear which disrupts thoughts). The Castle Analysis? Set up a time schedule to answer each question and to.

African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. The concept of fear is one which is hard to grasp. Fear is a emotion, and parallel to other . Was The? emotions, fear is the castle movie analysis, non physical. However, the perplex aspect of fear is although it is non physical it is triggered by mental and fifth themes, physical things. Other emotions such as love,happiness, sadness and anger are usually triggered by movie analysis other people and The First Revolution Essay, are taken away by other people. Fear on the other hand begins with us and ends with us. Analysis? Through out my life I believed I had many fears , I thought I was s. Anxiety , Claustrophobia , Emotion 1295 Words | 4 Pages. THE ARRIVAL OF A FLYING SAUCCER It was 9:30 pm. As it was a cold winter night not many people could be found on the streets of Florida. . Besides it was a Friday night when everyone used to rest after 5 weekdays. However I was late again to return from my office.

I was freezing along in the lonely field four miles away from my home. Suddenly my car halted without any explanation. Quickly I got out of my car to check what was wrong. Hsbc Hr Direct? After opening the bonnet I was pleased to find every part was. Coming out , Eye color , Police 1245 Words | 3 Pages. Classical conditioning/ systematic desensitization essay. ?“Use classical conditioning principles to explain the development of the castle movie, phobias, and describe how systematic desensitization can be used to overcome . fears and phobias. Illustrate with examples.” This essay explores the practices of classical conditioning and systematic desensitization in relation to billy quotes, phobias and fears . John Watson proposed that the process of classical conditioning was able to ‘’explain all aspects of human psychology’’.

Classical conditioning is the form of learning in which one stimulus. Anxiety , Behavior therapy , Classical conditioning 1130 Words | 4 Pages. Phoenix Many individuals suffer from a phobia or a natural fear of something or a current situation that they may have been in or are in the castle movie analysis, . currently. One of the most common phobias is having a fear of hsbc hr direct, heights, also called Acrophobia. Acrophobia is often mislabeled as vertigo. Researchers have said that “those with an extreme fear of heights, that the stronger their fear is, the bigger the error could be (Callaway, 2009).

The fear of heights in different learning perspectives Someone that is. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear 755 Words | 3 Pages. To Kill A Mockingbird Essay: Maycomb County had nothing to analysis, fear but fear itself. the book, To Kill A Mockingbird, we are told by the narrator that Maycomb County had nothing to fear but fear itself. The First Industrial Revolution Essay? We are told . this because fear is an analysis important aspect of the novel, it is the fifth business themes, cause of many actions of the people of the town. This particular quote also expresses that the only thing that the analysis, people of deception, Maycomb County had to fear was their own ridiculous fears , which was mainly the fear of the black community. Ultimately, Harper Lee is trying to convey through this quote that the town’s. Black people , Negro , Pardo 1076 Words | 3 Pages. Analytical Essay of Donald Halls’ “A Hundred Thousand Straightened Nails” Donald Halls’ “A Hundred Thousand Straightened Nails” is a . symbolic presentation of the decay of New Hampshire the author uses the the castle movie analysis, life of Washington Woodward to fifth, show the the castle, pointless existence that is experienced in a place as lifeless as New Hampshire. He uses the contrast of his own opinion and the beliefs of Woodward to show how after a while it is impossible to escape a pointless mindset.

Washington finds joy in discarded. Death , Family , New England 1234 Words | 3 Pages. especially in the south, much of the fifth business, popularity of the Klan was due to the perception that conservative Anglo­Saxon Protestantism needed to the castle, . defend itself against Catholics, Jews, immigrants, woman suffrage, resistance to prohibition, and evolution. Blacks lived in fear of physical punishment, just as in Revolution Essay, the days of the first Klan. Catholics were targeted with cross burnings, economic boycotts, and assaults. The Castle Movie? One group convinced themselves that they were actually going to what that started, lynch the Pope. Little community of Nor. Democratic Party , Fear , Ku Klux Klan 1763 Words | 7 Pages.

Essay Drafting Although they both can relate to each other, there is a major difference between fear and anxiety. The Castle Movie Analysis? Both . actions can happen to adults and adolescents at anytime. Iago Deception? Either or can cause harm to one because of catching an movie analysis anxiety attack from being highly afraid of something. They may also be very rewarding, do to knowing right from wrong. There are five different types of was the that started war i, anxiety which include, panic disorder, Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder.

Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Anxiety disorders 758 Words | 3 Pages. ? Why do we Fear Death? Why do we Fear Death? Many of us fear death . to some degree at some point of movie analysis, our lives. What Hypocrites? To some it’s as early as teenage years, and to others, it’s later in their mid 30’s. We as individuals see fear and death at different levels. Before I get in detail, lets first define death and fear , then we can see how they are correlated. According to Merriam-Webster, fear is an unpleasant emotion caused by the belief that someone or something.

Afterlife , Death , Faith 735 Words | 5 Pages. ‘A fear of democracy runs throughout liberalism’ Discuss. 45 Marks (Jan 2011) Some political thinkers have argued that Liberalism can be . The Castle Analysis? defined by its fear of democracy. Democracy is ‘rule by the people’, this term suggests that there is popular participation and quotes, also public interest within government. The Castle Movie? While liberals fear democracy they know and see it as the best possible way. As there is a clear fear of it lying underneath the liberal ideology, there are obvious arguments for and against bibbit quotes, this. Classical liberalism , Conservatism , Democracy 1260 Words | 3 Pages.

Argument Analysis Essay ENG 215 October 18, 2010 4.5 points I enjoyed reading this paper very much. It made excellent points about . The Castle Movie Analysis? opinion and fear . However, it experienced some problems as noted in the text. Also, it did not use any outside research to support the position presented in the essay and depended solely on personal opinion and quotes taken directly from the essays . Nice job! Argument Analysis Essay Expressing your opinion is the foundation of an billy quotes excellent essay . Movie Analysis? Your opinion. Anxiety , Audience , Belief 835 Words | 3 Pages.

Introduction Fear of Crime in members of our society today has been widely researched. For the purpose of this essay , . fear of crime is is a, used in the context of an individual’s perceived risk of analysis, becoming a victim of crime. In this essay it is argued that the elderly and the youngest members of our society are the most fearful of crime and that, of hsbc hr direct, these age groups the movie analysis, elderly have the lowest risk of becoming victims of crime. Firstly, research shows that fear of crime is what was the that started war i, wide spread and movie analysis, that certain. Ageing , Crime , Criminal justice 1936 Words | 5 Pages. Kite Flying and Management Lessons.

This essay is about how kite flying teaches us lessons about business and management. . Business and management lessons from kite flying are a perfect guide to carry out business. Business/management and kite flying cannot be learned with a text book in front of started world war i, you, they are to the castle movie, be learned practically and the person carrying out the same should have the particular skills and ability. From each stage of kite flying a business/management aspect is to be learned. Aircraft , Aviation history , Entrepreneurship 1022 Words | 3 Pages. NOTES Paper one: Change paper - Reading section 3-4 different texts - Creative writing, short story - Change essay on looking for hypocrites Alibrandi . and another related text Paper two: Black rock - Essay ; black rock - Poetry essay , two poems we’ve done in class and one prescribed - Ideas, how they’re portrayed and the castle movie, how the audience is positioned. Fifth Business Themes? Year 11 Yearly Exam – Poetry Essay Poetry is powerful because it conveys issues that engage a modern audience. Movie Analysis? Discuss this statement with reference.

Adam and Eve , Audience , Contemporary history 911 Words | 3 Pages. EN 102 Essay #2 Macbeth June 2, 2011 The question is whether the witches cause the billy quotes, crimes or just merely predict the moral choices . of Macbeth. All of us have to make choices that involve right and wrong or good and bad. Our moral choices are a set of values that are influenced by our up bringing. This play seems to indicate that Macbeth struggles within between his ambitions and the castle movie, his sense of right and wrong.

I believe the witches predicted the crimes which may have influenced his actions. Banquo , Choice , Ethics 832 Words | 3 Pages. Acrophobia is an irrational fear of heights or high places. Many people dislike heights, but someone with a clinical case of acrophobia can . have intense emotional and iago quotes, physical responses at just the thought of movie analysis, being in a high place. Acrophobia is simply a severe fear of heights. Now being afraid of heights is a common and what that, sometimes appropriate feeling. But the phobia part kicks in when you feel afraid in a safe environment such as inside a skyscraper. The Castle Movie Analysis? Acrophobia is hsbc hr direct, treated with graded exposure therapy. Acrophobia , Ear , Fear 2103 Words | 5 Pages. Machiavelli Interpretive Essay on Fear Vs Love.

five-hundred years ago in “The Prince” by Niccolo Machiavelli. He makes this comment at movie, the beginning of his infamous political treatise because he . recognized that men are stubborn creatures of habit; hence, any ideological innovation is hindered by billy bibbit the fear of change. Nevertheless, Machiavelli ventured boldly into uncharted waters with the intention to repudiate the ideals of his predecessors. He calls into question all previously conceived notions of morality and the castle movie, societal norms regarding the hsbc hr direct, means by. Cesare Borgia , Fear , Florence 2273 Words | 9 Pages. Joseph Lewis History Essay - Mrs Wadsworth 5 November 2014 How far do you agree that the Personal popularity of analysis, Hitler was the main . reason for the increased electoral support for the Nazi party in 1928-32?

It can be argued that the personal popularity of Hitler was the main reason for fifth the Nazi party's electoral success, due to his powerful speaking skills and charismatic attitude. However, it is evident that the Economic crisis was the main reason for the increased electoral support. Adolf Hitler , Germany , Great Depression 1353 Words | 4 Pages. Have you ever had to the castle movie, overcome your fears to what was the started, learn a subject you thought you would never understand? “Me Talk Pretty One Day,” an the castle movie analysis . essay written by David Sedaris, reflects on Sedaris’ experience to learn something he thought would be impossible to understand; he was learning to speak French. He wrote about iago deception, his ambitions and achievements in speaking the movie analysis, French language, which he thought he would never overcome. Like Sedaris, I overcame my fear of learning a subject that I never thought I would have. Diacritic , Essay , Essays 1075 Words | 3 Pages. ?Nick Cramer Mr. Quotes? Cramer Honors English III 29 August 2013 Compare and Contrast Essay Loved or Feared, but Not Despised Two leaders by the . Movie Analysis? names of Lao Tzu and Niccolo Machiavelli had two opinions on how one should lead their people.

To be a leader, one must guide in the way they think is the best way to what spark started world war i, live. As humans, love and fear is something that surrounds us in our day to day life. Movie Analysis? Some, like Lao Tzu prefer to show love and to be loved, while some, like Niccolo Machiavelli, have the Revolution, preference. Laozi , Leadership , Management 920 Words | 3 Pages. Business Law “ Flying Cheap” In February of 2009, a company named Colgan operated commuter flight 3407 with Continental Airlines. . Flight 3407 crashed in Buffalo, New York, killing forty-nine people on the aircraft and the castle, one person on the ground. The crash involved errors by the pilot and the first officer that worked for Colgan. The reason for the crash was due to the lack of fifth themes, training by the castle movie analysis the pilot and the first officer. A number of pilots working for Colgan would not qualify for a major airline. Air safety , Aircraft , Airline 792 Words | 3 Pages. To Conquer Fear - an Essay on iago deception, the Short Story First Confession

To Conquer Fear In the short story, “First Confession,” by the castle movie Frank O’Connor, a young boy named Jackie finds himself having to conquer his . fear of was the spark that, giving his first confession. Movie? He realizes by the end that he really had nothing to billy quotes, be afraid of and it was a silly fear . Jackie, scared to death of confession, tries to fake an illness to the castle movie, avoid it, ends up surprising the priest when he does go, and learns that ultimately, perception is scarier than reality. Although it doesn’t seem like it at first, the. Anxiety , Claustrophobia , Confession 938 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on the Crucible: how fear and ignorance lead to chaos.

villain from the latest slasher movie? From your ignorance, fear is themes, born. The next thing you know, you and the castle movie, your friend are sprinting through . the crisp grass, into the safety of your kitchen, and billy bibbit, the prior plans of movie analysis, camping out The First Industrial Revolution, are thwarted. If you had only known there was just a cricket outside your tent, or understood the sounds that fill the the castle, night, your problems would have floated away in the misty night air. It is human nature to hsbc hr direct, fear what one does not understand. The Castle? When people do not understand.

Arthur Miller , Puritan , Puritanism 1231 Words | 4 Pages. Write an essay and bibbit, explain how Kate Woods helped you understand something about the the castle, main character in what was the that started, Looking for Alibrandi. In the movie analysis, movie . Looking for Alibrandi, director Kate Woods uses many techniques to help you understand the started, main character, Josie. Some of analysis, these techniques are internal dialogue and voice-over narration, day-dream sequences and colour enhancement. All these techniques help viewers to have a better understanding of Josie's character. The first technique that Woods uses that. Character , Film , Ketchup 803 Words | 3 Pages. Precis Essay on “ Fear ” In his short story, “ Fear ”, Chicano author Gary Soto conveys that people can sympathize . with what they fear and feel shamed for their actions and thoughts against it. He illustrates this by using his own experience in deception quotes, school as a prisoner to Frankie, an emotionally disturbed bully to the castle movie, show that he can somewhat understand why Frankie acts the way he does.

Soto uses imagery and juxtaposition in order to reveal that things are not always what they seem and to convey the complexity. Abuse , Audience , Bullying 468 Words | 2 Pages. ? Don’t do this, please!! Polished Piece 4. Critical/Analytical Response to Literary Texts.

Translation: an deception English 30-1 Diploma Style . The Castle Movie Analysis? Essay …a chance to write, and rewrite/rework an fifth business essay – based on a text we’ve studied in class – to the best degree possible…all in preparation for movie analysis the “Big Show” on January 14th. Content and Craft are essential! You will annotate your final draft, with the goal of demonstrating your skill in incorporating as many “reasonable-to-include” stylistic. Choice , Face , Individual 1373 Words | 5 Pages. THE FEAR OF MATHEMATICS Mathematics is often called the queen of the The First Essay, sciences. The Castle Analysis? It is a crucially important tool in billy quotes, the study of other . scientific disciplines, in addition to being a science in its own right. Its value to scientific accomplishment is as innumerable as it is invaluable. Regarded as the nucleus of the science world itself, most celebrated scientific achievements could hardly have had a jumpstart without the guiding precepts of the basic modules of arithmetic. Most careers in Universities. College , Curriculum , Education 1404 Words | 4 Pages.

FLYING SHUTTLE ` Many of us will have studied the Industrial Revolution at schools and heard of the ‘ Flying Shuttle’. Well what . is the castle, it and why was it such an important invention? * A single person operating a loom from home, could only produce a piece of cloth that was as wide as their outstretched arms because they had to be able to throw the shuttle, carrying the business, weft, the horizontal yarn, through the waft, the vertical yarn and catch it. * If wider cloth was needed it took two or. Cotton , History of the textile industry , Industrial Revolution 1332 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of movie analysis, view, but the The First, definition is the castle movie analysis, vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of is a, a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in the castle movie, any class.

An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. Was The Spark Started World War I? It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and movie, a conclusion (summary of what is a hypocrites, statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on the castle, a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . Themes? trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. Movie Analysis? verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. Fifth Business Themes? attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages.

How Learning Theory Can Be Used in Overcoming, Cynophobia, a Fear of Dogs. Hakim has come to the castle movie analysis, a therapist in order to help overcoming his Cynophobia, a fear of dogs. Deception Quotes? Explain and critically evaluate how learning theory . can be used to explain Hakim's phobia and also, potentially, to treat it. This essay will explain and critically evaluate how, Cynophobia, a fear of dogs can be overcome. The two main points that will be looked at is learning theory in an effort to try and analysis, explain how this phobia has developed in hsbc hr direct, Hakim and the castle, possible ways of treating it. What Spark That World? Classical conditioning.

Classical conditioning , Fear , Fear conditioning 1543 Words | 5 Pages.

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Essay topics for Romeo and Juliet. There have always been questions related to the accelerated time scheme of the castle movie Romeo and deception quotes, Juliet and scholars have questioned whether a love story of such magnitude can unfold within such a short span of time. This is one of the most critical Romeo and Juliet essay topic that has been picked by students of literature. Many claim that it is the intensity of the bonding between Romeo and Juliet followed by a complex set of events during the course of the play which makes it evident that the time span of the story is relatively longer compared to the actual time span if we see it from a practical point of view. If each and movie, every event in the play is compressed into a span of a few days, ample weight can be emphasized on hypocrites, every moment which somewhat makes critics feel that the events are happening within a very short span of the castle time leaving barely any time for the characters to give an adequate reaction. Gradually, this rush ends up heightening the pressure in the atmosphere during the course of the play. Maybe it does not make sense for a story like Romeo and Juliet to occur within a span of 4 days practically. While choosing a thesis theme? for Romeo and Juliet, people usually compare the contrasting characters of Romeo and Juliet and emphasize on the reasons why they fell in love. Romeo happens to be an intelligent, excitable, passionate, well-liked and moody young man who is admired throughout the city of spark world war i Verona. His loyalty is his charm and his behavior towards people is somewhat unpredictable. Writing an essay introduction for an engineering paper on Romeo and Juliet should always start with a description of the characters of both the the castle analysis, subjects followed by is a hypocrites an insight of how Romeo laments over his unrequited love for Rosaline.

But eventually, Romeo grows more passionate about Juliet and his unyielding love for her grips him with a sense of belonging. On the analysis, other hand, Juliet was an innocent girl who is astonished by the sudden love that she develops for Romeo. Eventually, she turns into a capable, determined, loyal and mature woman who displeasures her undying love for Romeo with sober-mindedness. The level of attraction that brews up between Romeo and Juliet is overwhelming and immediate, but none of them seem to comprehend the cause behind that. The dissertation methodologyrevolves around the two of them complimenting each other and billy, embracing their destiny in movie such a way that their undying love does not need an explanation. Was The World. There are certain essay topics Romeo and Juliet on which the movie analysis, research is tremendous and one can interpret it in multiple ways in order to justify the plot of the story.

Tybalt and Mercutio as Romeo and Juliet essay topics. There have been lots of debates as to why there was hatred between Mercutio and Tybalt. Mercutio tells Benvolio that he despises Tybalt owing to his fetish for vanity and fashion. He is immensely insistent to what that world, make the reader accept the description of Tybalt as definitive and indeed, the words of Mercutio turn out to be true as Tybalt’s character is prone to violence, vain and wit. He is easily insulted, fashionable and defensive in nature which makes the audience despise him, but envy him at the same time for his self-righteousness. Mercutio considers Tybalt as a caricature and on the other hand, Tybalt considers Mercutio as unconventional and incomprehensible. The rumble between the two characters has been the talking point of many dissertations and hence, can be considered as the perfect topic for an essay. There are many more Romeo and Juliet essay topics which can be picked such as: The suicidal impulse exhibited by Romeo and Juliet and its interrelation with the theme of the castle movie analysis romance has been one of the most widely chosen topics for dissertations. People question Shakespeare’s perception of considering the tendency of self-destruction to be connected to love and many believe that he considered both to be separate issues. Analysis of the bibbit, bonding between the children and parents in the castle analysis Romeo and Juliet can be a viable topic chosen for a dissertation.

Questions have been raised regarding the way in which Romeo and Juliet used to interact with their parents, whether they were rebellious in nature and how their parents felt about them. This topic is open to multiple interpretations depending on how the story has portrayed the quotes, relationship between the movie, characters. What is the role played by Mercutio apart from clashing with Tybalt? Can we consider Mercutio as a supporting character and what hypocrites, a source of comical relief or is there something more to his character than what meets the eye? There can be multiple interpretations regarding the analysis, characters portrayed by Mercutio and Tybalt apart from the rivalry which has been shown between them. What is the perception of death that has been portrayed in Romeo and Juliet? Are they the same as Shakespeare’s actual perceptions about death or is there a difference according to hsbc hr direct, the story line?

Topics like these require the author to frame their answers keeping the moral, legal and personal perceptions in mind and relating them to the plot of the story. Keeping these issues in mind, the deaths of Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio and Romeo, and Tybalt can be compared. There are a plethora of the castle movie quotations that you can use from hsbc hr direct Romeo and the castle movie, Juliet which will add more substance to your essay. The quotations from the play tend to fifth business, correspond to the topics of the essays which are chosen and offer great ideas by emphasizing on symbols, themes, imagery and the motifs that have been highlighted in analysis the play. Hence, there are surfeit of topics to choose from, depending upon your understanding of the plot Romeo and Juliet. There have always been questions related to the accelerated time scheme of Romeo and Juliet and scholars have questioned whether a love story of such magnitude can unfold within such a short span of time. This is one of the most critical Romeo and Juliet essay topic that has been picked by students of literature.

Many claim that it is the intensity of the bonding between Romeo and Juliet followed by The First Revolution a complex set of movie events during the course of the play which makes it evident that the time span of the story is relatively longer compared to the actual time span if we see it from a practical point of view. If each and every event in iago the play is compressed into the castle movie a span of a few days, ample weight can be emphasized on every moment which somewhat makes critics feel that the events are happening within a very short span of time leaving barely any time for the characters to give an adequate reaction. Gradually, this rush ends up heightening the pressure in the atmosphere during the course of the play. Maybe it does not make sense for a story like Romeo and Juliet to occur within a span of hsbc hr direct 4 days practically. While choosing a thesis theme? for Romeo and Juliet, people usually compare the contrasting characters of analysis Romeo and quotes, Juliet and emphasize on the reasons why they fell in love.

Romeo happens to be an intelligent, excitable, passionate, well-liked and moody young man who is admired throughout the city of Verona. His loyalty is his charm and his behavior towards people is the castle movie analysis somewhat unpredictable. Writing an essay introduction for an engineering paper on Romeo and Juliet should always start with a description of the characters of both the subjects followed by an insight of is a hypocrites how Romeo laments over his unrequited love for Rosaline. But eventually, Romeo grows more passionate about Juliet and his unyielding love for her grips him with a sense of belonging. On the other hand, Juliet was an the castle analysis innocent girl who is astonished by the sudden love that she develops for Romeo. Eventually, she turns into fifth business a capable, determined, loyal and mature woman who displeasures her undying love for Romeo with sober-mindedness. The level of attraction that brews up between Romeo and Juliet is overwhelming and immediate, but none of them seem to movie, comprehend the cause behind that. The dissertation methodologyrevolves around the two of them complimenting each other and embracing their destiny in such a way that their undying love does not need an hsbc hr direct explanation. There are certain essay topics Romeo and Juliet on which the research is tremendous and one can interpret it in multiple ways in order to movie analysis, justify the deception, plot of the story. Tybalt and Mercutio as Romeo and Juliet essay topics. There have been lots of debates as to movie, why there was hatred between Mercutio and Tybalt.

Mercutio tells Benvolio that he despises Tybalt owing to his fetish for vanity and fashion. He is immensely insistent to make the reader accept the description of Tybalt as definitive and indeed, the words of Mercutio turn out to be true as Tybalt’s character is quotes prone to violence, vain and the castle analysis, wit. He is easily insulted, fashionable and defensive in nature which makes the audience despise him, but envy him at hsbc hr direct the same time for his self-righteousness. Mercutio considers Tybalt as a caricature and on the other hand, Tybalt considers Mercutio as unconventional and incomprehensible. The rumble between the two characters has been the talking point of many dissertations and hence, can be considered as the perfect topic for an essay. There are many more Romeo and the castle analysis, Juliet essay topics which can be picked such as: The suicidal impulse exhibited by Romeo and Juliet and its interrelation with the theme of romance has been one of the is a, most widely chosen topics for dissertations. People question Shakespeare’s perception of considering the tendency of self-destruction to be connected to love and the castle movie, many believe that he considered both to hsbc hr direct, be separate issues. Analysis of the bonding between the children and parents in Romeo and Juliet can be a viable topic chosen for a dissertation. The Castle. Questions have been raised regarding the way in iago deception quotes which Romeo and movie analysis, Juliet used to interact with their parents, whether they were rebellious in nature and how their parents felt about them.

This topic is open to multiple interpretations depending on how the story has portrayed the hsbc hr direct, relationship between the characters. What is the role played by Mercutio apart from the castle movie clashing with Tybalt? Can we consider Mercutio as a supporting character and a source of comical relief or is there something more to his character than what meets the eye? There can be multiple interpretations regarding the characters portrayed by Mercutio and Tybalt apart from the rivalry which has been shown between them. What is the perception of death that has been portrayed in Romeo and Juliet? Are they the same as Shakespeare’s actual perceptions about death or is there a difference according to the story line? Topics like these require the author to frame their answers keeping the moral, legal and personal perceptions in mind and was the spark that world, relating them to the plot of the story.

Keeping these issues in mind, the analysis, deaths of Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio and Romeo, and Tybalt can be compared. There are a plethora of quotations that you can use from Romeo and Juliet which will add more substance to what is a hypocrites, your essay. The quotations from the play tend to the castle movie, correspond to the topics of the essays which are chosen and offer great ideas by emphasizing on symbols, themes, imagery and the motifs that have been highlighted in the play. Hence, there are surfeit of topics to choose from, depending upon fifth business themes, your understanding of the plot Romeo and Juliet. There have always been questions related to the accelerated time scheme of Romeo and Juliet and scholars have questioned whether a love story of such magnitude can unfold within such a short span of time. This is one of the most critical Romeo and Juliet essay topic that has been picked by students of literature. Many claim that it is the intensity of the movie analysis, bonding between Romeo and Juliet followed by a complex set of events during the course of the play which makes it evident that the time span of the story is relatively longer compared to the actual time span if we see it from a practical point of view. If each and billy quotes, every event in the play is compressed into a span of a few days, ample weight can be emphasized on every moment which somewhat makes critics feel that the events are happening within a very short span of time leaving barely any time for the characters to give an the castle movie analysis adequate reaction. What Is A Hypocrites. Gradually, this rush ends up heightening the pressure in the atmosphere during the course of the the castle, play.

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On the movie, other hand, Juliet was an innocent girl who is astonished by the sudden love that she develops for Romeo. Eventually, she turns into a capable, determined, loyal and mature woman who displeasures her undying love for Romeo with sober-mindedness. The level of attraction that brews up between Romeo and hsbc hr direct, Juliet is overwhelming and immediate, but none of them seem to comprehend the cause behind that. The dissertation methodologyrevolves around the the castle movie analysis, two of was the them complimenting each other and embracing their destiny in such a way that their undying love does not need an explanation. There are certain essay topics Romeo and Juliet on which the the castle, research is tremendous and one can interpret it in multiple ways in order to justify the plot of the story. Tybalt and Mercutio as Romeo and Juliet essay topics. There have been lots of debates as to why there was hatred between Mercutio and hsbc hr direct, Tybalt.

Mercutio tells Benvolio that he despises Tybalt owing to his fetish for vanity and fashion. He is immensely insistent to make the reader accept the description of the castle Tybalt as definitive and indeed, the words of Mercutio turn out to be true as Tybalt’s character is prone to violence, vain and wit. Hsbc Hr Direct. He is easily insulted, fashionable and defensive in nature which makes the audience despise him, but envy him at the same time for his self-righteousness. Mercutio considers Tybalt as a caricature and on the other hand, Tybalt considers Mercutio as unconventional and incomprehensible. The rumble between the two characters has been the talking point of many dissertations and hence, can be considered as the perfect topic for an essay.

There are many more Romeo and Juliet essay topics which can be picked such as: The suicidal impulse exhibited by Romeo and Juliet and its interrelation with the the castle, theme of romance has been one of the most widely chosen topics for dissertations. Themes. People question Shakespeare’s perception of considering the tendency of self-destruction to be connected to love and many believe that he considered both to be separate issues. Analysis of the bonding between the children and the castle movie analysis, parents in Romeo and Juliet can be a viable topic chosen for a dissertation. Questions have been raised regarding the way in which Romeo and Juliet used to interact with their parents, whether they were rebellious in nature and hsbc hr direct, how their parents felt about them.

This topic is open to multiple interpretations depending on how the story has portrayed the relationship between the characters. What is the role played by Mercutio apart from clashing with Tybalt? Can we consider Mercutio as a supporting character and a source of comical relief or is there something more to his character than what meets the eye? There can be multiple interpretations regarding the characters portrayed by Mercutio and Tybalt apart from the rivalry which has been shown between them. What is the perception of death that has been portrayed in Romeo and Juliet? Are they the same as Shakespeare’s actual perceptions about death or is there a difference according to the story line? Topics like these require the author to frame their answers keeping the moral, legal and personal perceptions in mind and relating them to the plot of the story. Keeping these issues in mind, the deaths of Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio and Romeo, and Tybalt can be compared. There are a plethora of quotations that you can use from Romeo and the castle movie analysis, Juliet which will add more substance to your essay. The quotations from the play tend to correspond to fifth, the topics of the movie analysis, essays which are chosen and offer great ideas by emphasizing on symbols, themes, imagery and Revolution, the motifs that have been highlighted in the play.

Hence, there are surfeit of topics to choose from, depending upon your understanding of the plot Romeo and Juliet.