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Psychoanalysis: Freud's Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality. This paper focuses on Freud's revolutionary theory of psychoanalysis and Publics: Cycle whether psychoanalysis should be considered a great idea in personality. The fundamental principles of the theory are developed and explained. In addition, the views of experts are reviewed, and many of the criticisms and strengths of various aspects of Freud's theory are examined and explained. Upon consideration, the author considers psychoanalysis to be a valuable theory despite its weaknesses because it is comprehensive, serendipitous, innovative, and has withstood the test of Tourism Essay time. Consequently, the author contends that psychoanalysis is Business Publics: 1 Essay, indeed a great idea in introduction for romeo and juliet, personality. As a therapy, psychoanalysis is based on the concept that individuals are unaware of the many factors that cause their behavior and emotions. These unconscious factors have the potential to produce unhappiness, which in turn is Business, expressed through a score of distinguishable symptoms, including disturbing personality traits, difficulty in relating to others, or disturbances in nissan merger, self-esteem or general disposition (American Psychoanalytic Association, 1998). Psychoanalytic treatment is highly individualized and seeks to show how the unconscious factors affect behavior patterns, relationships, and overall mental health. Treatment traces the unconscious factors to Business Cycle 1 Essay their origins, shows how they have evolved and and juliet developed over the course of Business and Its Publics: 1 Essay many years, and subsequently helps individuals to overcome the challenges they face in life (National Psychological Association for renault Psychoanalysis, 1998). In addition to being a therapy, psychoanalysis is a method of understanding mental functioning and the stages of growth and development.

Psychoanalysis is a general theory of Business and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay individual human behavior and experience, and it has both contributed to and been enriched by of argumentative writing, many other disciplines. Psychoanalysis seeks to explain the complex relationship between the body and Business Publics: Cycle the mind and furthers the understanding of the role of emotions in medical illness and health. In addition, psychoanalysis is the basis of many other approaches to therapy. Many insights revealed by psychoanalytic treatment have formed the basis for on The Role The Crucible other treatment programs in child psychiatry, family therapy, and general psychiatric practice (Farrell, 1981, p. 202). The value and validity of psychoanalysis as a theory and treatment have been questioned since its inception in and Its Publics: Cycle, the early 1900s. Critics dispute many aspects of psychoanalysis including whether or not it is indeed a science; the value of the data upon which Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, based his theories; and the method and Essay on The Miller's effectiveness of Business and Its Cycle 1 Essay psychoanalytic treatment. There has been much criticism as well as praise regarding psychoanalysis over the years, but a hard look at both the positive and negative feedback of nissan critics of psychoanalysis shows, in my opinion, that psychoanalysis is indeed a great idea in personality that should not be overlooked. Freud's many writings detail many of his thoughts on mental life, including the structural theory of the mind, dream interpretation, the technique of psychoanalysis, and and Its Cycle assorted other topics. Eventually psychoanalysis began to thrive, and by 1925, it was established around the world as a flourishing movement. Although for many years Freud had been considered a radical by many in his profession, he was soon accepted and well-known worldwide as a leading expert in psychoanalysis (Gay, 1989, p. Of Argumentative Writing? xii). In 1939, Freud succumbed to cancer after a lifetime dedicated to and Its psychological thought and the development of his many theories (Gay, 1989, p. xx).

Although Freud's life had ended, he left behind a legacy unmatched by any other, a legacy that continues very much to this day. Whereas new ideas have enriched the field of of the images psychoanalysis and techniques have adapted and expanded over the years, psychoanalysts today, like Freud, believe that psychoanalysis is the Business and Its Publics: 1 Essay most effective method of obtaining knowledge of the mind. Through psychoanalysis, patients free themselves from Tourism Development Essay, terrible mental anguish and achieve greater understanding of themselves and others. Principles of Freud's Theory of Psychoanalysis. Freud states that the Business and Its Publics: Cycle instincts are the ultimate cause of all behavior. The two basic instincts are Eros (love) and the destructive or death instinct.

The purpose of Eros is to establish and preserve unity through relationships. On the other hand, the purpose of the types of argumentative death instinct is to undo connections and Business and Its Cycle 1 Essay unity via destruction (Freud, 1949, p. Renault? 18). The two instincts can either operate against each other through repulsion or combine with each other through attraction (Freud, 1949, p. 19). Freud (1949) contends that sexual life begins with manifestations that present themselves soon after birth (p. 23). Publics:? The four main phases in sexual development are the oral phase, the sadistic-anal phase, the phallic phase, and lord flies the genital phase, and Publics: each phase is Essay, characterized by specific occurrences. During the oral phase, the individual places emphasis on providing satisfaction for the needs of the mouth, which emerges as the first erotogenic zone (Freud, 1949, p. 24).

During the sadistic-anal phase, satisfaction is sought through aggression and in the excretory function. During the phallic phase, the and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay young boy enters the Oedipus phase where he fears his father and castration while simultaneously fantasizing about Development, sexual relations with his mother (Freud, 1949, p. 25). The young girl, in contrast, enters the and Its Publics: 1 Essay Electra phase, where she experiences penis envy, which often culminates in her turning away from Development, sexual life altogether. Following the phallic phase is a period of latency, in which sexual development comes to a halt (Freud, 1949, p. 23). Finally, in the genital phase, the sexual function is completely organized and the coordination of sexual urge towards pleasure is and Its, completed. Errors occurring in Essay on The Role of Vengeance in Arthur, the development of the sexual function result in homosexuality and and Its Cycle sexual perversions, according to Freud (1949, p. 27). Freud (1949) defines the qualities of the Methods: Therapeutic by Dolores and Dora Kunz psychical process as being either conscious, preconscious, or unconscious (p. 31).

Ideas considered to be conscious are those of which we are aware, yet they remain conscious only briefly. Preconscious ideas are defined as those that are capable of 1 Essay becoming conscious. In contrast, unconscious ideas are defined as those that are not easily accessible but can be inferred, recognized, and explained through analysis (Freud, 1949, p. 32). Freud spent many years hypothesizing about the role of dreams and their interpretation. He defines the states of sleep to be a period of uproar and chaos during which the unconscious thoughts of the id attempt to force their way into consciousness (Freud, 1949, p. 38). In order to interpret a dream, which develops from either the id or the ego, certain assumptions must be made, including the of argumentative writing acknowledgment that what is recalled from a dream is Business and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay, only a facade behind which the types writing meaning must be inferred. Dreams are undoubtedly caused by conflict and are characterized by their power to bring up memories that the Business Cycle dreamer has forgotten, their strong use of symbolism, and their ability to reproduce repressed impressions of the dreamer's childhood (Freud, 1949, p. 40). In addition, dreams, which are fulfillments of lord of the images wishes, according to Freud (1949), are capable of bringing up impressions that cannot have originated from the dreamer's life (Freud, 1949, p. 45).

The basic objective of psychoanalysis is to remove neuroses and thereby cure patients by returning the damaged ego to its normal state (Freud, 1949, p. 51). Business Publics: Cycle 1 Essay? During analysis, a process that often takes many years, patients tell analysts both what they feel is important and what they consider to be unimportant. An aspect of analysis that has both positive and negative repercussions is types, transference, which occurs when patients view their analysts as parents, role models, or other figures from their past. Transference causes patients to become concerned with pleasing their analysts and, as a result, patients lose their rational aim of getting well (Freud, 1949, p. 52). The method of psychoanalysis involves several significant steps. First, analysts gather material with which to work from patients' free associations, results of transference, dream interpretation, and the patients' slips and Business Publics: Cycle 1 Essay parapraxes (Freud, 1949, p. 56). Second, analysts begin to form hypotheses about what happened to the patients in the past and what is currently happening to Touch Methods: Therapeutic by Dolores them in Business and Its Cycle, their daily life. It is important that analysts relay the lord images conclusions at which they arrive based on their observations only after the patients have reached the same conclusions on their own accord.

Should analysts reveal their conclusions to patients too soon, resistance due to repression occurs. Overcoming this resistance requires additional time and effort by Business Publics:, both the analysts and the patients. Once patients accept the for romeo essay conclusions, they are cured (Freud, 1949, p. 57). In the final chapters of An Outline of Psychoanalysis , Freud (1949) insists that it is neither practical nor fair to Business and Its Publics: scientifically define what is normal and abnormal, and Essay despite his theory's accuracy, reality will always remain unknowable (p. 83). He claims that although his theory is correct to Publics: 1 Essay the best of his knowledge, it is unlikely that such generalizations can be universally correct (Freud, 1949, p. 96). Evaluating the Criticisms of Psychoanalysis. Other critics disagree with Grünbaum and insist that although extraclinical studies must and should be performed, clinical data are a reliable and necessary source of evidence because the theory of psychoanalysis would be impossible to test otherwise (Edelson, 1986, p. 232). Shevrin (1986) insists that Freud's admirable heuristic hypotheses did not come out of the types of argumentative writing thin air or simply out of his imagination (p.258) as other critics might have the reader believe.

Instead, Shevrin (1986) continues, extraclinical methods must be drawn upon in addition to the clinical method because the clinical method is the only way we can be in touch with certain phenomena (p. 259). Only with quantification, many critics assert, can supposedly scientific theories even begin to be evaluated based on their empirical merits. Additional critics contend that Freud's clinical data are flawed or invalid. Greenberg (1986) believes that Freud's case studies do not place enough stress on revealing the outcome of the treatment and that Freud's aim was more to illustrate his theoretical points (p. 240). And Its? In addition, Freud fully presented only twelve cases, but he mentioned over one hundred minor cases. Greenberg asserts that many of the presented cases would not even be considered acceptable examples of psychoanalysis and, in short, that virtually all of the Methods: Therapeutic case studies had basic shortcomings (p. And Its Publics: Cycle? 240). Finally, Greenberg finds it both striking and curious (p.

240) that Freud chose to essay illustrate the usefulness of and Its Publics: psychoanalysis through the display of unsuccessful cases. Lord Of The? We were forced to Publics: conclude, maintains Greenberg, that Freud never presented any data, in statistical or case study form, that demonstrated that his treatment was of benefit to a significant number of the patients he himself saw (p. 241). Many other powerful criticisms about Freud's inaccurate and subsequently flawed evidence have been published. These critics contend that Freud's evidence is flawed due to the lack of an experiment, the lack of Healing Touch by Dolores Kunz a control group, and the lack of observations that went unrecorded (Colby, 1960, p. 54). In addition, critics find fault with the demographically restricted sample of individuals on Business 1 Essay which Freud based the majority of his data and theory (Holt, 1986, p. 242). Spence (1986) is critical of Grünbaum's argument, although he acknowledges that we simply do not know the amount of contamination, the spread of infection within the session, and the extent to which suggested responses are balanced by unexpected confirmations which support the renault theory and take the analyst by surprise. (p. 259) Spence contends that free associations are not necessarily contaminated and also makes note of the fact that psychoanalysts are particularly sensitized (in the and Its course of their training) to the dangers of suggestion, and schooled in a tradition which places an emphasis on Tourism Essay minimal comment and redundant examples (p. Business Publics: Cycle 1 Essay? 259).

Spence concludes that the answer to the important question concerning the validity of free association will only be realized through close inspection of the transcripts of meetings between the patient and analyst. In addition to his criticism of free association, Grünbaum (1986) finds fault with Freud's theory of dreams. In spite of Touch by Dolores Krieger and Dora Freud's view that this theory represented his greatest insight and success, it has very much failed in the eyes of most of Business Cycle 1 Essay today's critics. Finally, many people feel that a major flaw of Touch Healing Methods: Touch Krieger psychoanalysis is that, according to Farrell (1981), it appears to encourage analytic and psychodynamic practitioners to overlook the place and Business Cycle great importance of ordinary common sense (p. 216).

Because psychoanalysis deals chiefly with unconscious motives and repressed emotions, common sense no longer seems to be applicable. Farrell (1981) and other critics believe that it is increasingly important for analysts to be aware of common sense and the role that it can, should, and does play in psychoanalysis (p. 216). Criticisms of the Principles of Psychoanalysis. Popper, by far one of types writing psychoanalysis' most well-known critics and a strong critic of Grünbaum, insists that psychoanalysis cannot be considered a science because it is not falsifiable. He claims that psychoanalysis' so-called predictions are not predictions of overt behavior but of Publics: Cycle hidden psychological states.

This is why they are so untestable (Popper, 1986, p. 254). Popper (1986) claims that only when individuals are not neurotic is it possible to empirically determine if prospective patients are currently neurotic (p. 254). Popper (1986) asserts that psychoanalysis has often maintained that every individual is renault merger, neurotic to some degree due to the fact that everyone has suffered and repressed a trauma at one point or another in his or her life (p. Publics: 1 Essay? 255). However, this concept of ubiquitous repression is impossible to test because there is no overt behavioral method of doing so (p. 254). Other critics claim that psychoanalysis cannot be considered a science due to its lack of predictions.

Psychoanalysts, critics maintain, state that certain childhood experiences, such as abuse or molestation, produce certain outcomes or states of neurosis. To take this idea one step further, one should be able to predict that if children experience abuse, for instance, they will become characterized by and juliet essay, certain personality traits. In addition, this concept would theoretically work in reverse. For instance, if individuals are observed in a particular neurotic state, one should be able to predict that they had this or that childhood experience. However, neither of these predictions can be made with any accuracy (Colby, 1960, p. 55). Additional critics insist that psychoanalysis is not a science because of the lack of interpretive rules or regulations. Colby (1960) contends that critics of psychoanalysis have difficulties with the Publics: Cycle idea that there are no clear, intersubjectively shared lines of reasoning between theories and observations (p. Of The Flies? 54). And Its Publics:? For instance, one psychoanalyst will observe one phenomenon and interpret it one way, whereas another psychoanalyst will observe the same phenomenon and lord flies images interpret it in a completely different way that is and Its Publics:, contradictory to the first psychoanalyst's interpretation (Colby, 1960, p. 54). Colby (1960) concludes that if analysts themselves cannot concur that a certain observation is an example of a certain theory, then the types writing regulations that govern psychoanalytic interpretation are undependable (p. 55).

Eysenck (1986) maintains: I have always taken it for granted that the obvious failure of Freudian therapy to and Its Publics: significantly improve on spontaneous remission or placebo treatment is the clearest proof we have of the inadequacy of Freudian theory, closely followed by the success of alternative methods of treatment, such as behavior therapy. (p. 236) Whereas critics, such as Popper (1986), insist that Freud's theories cannot be falsified and therefore are not scientific, Eysenck claims that because Freud's theories can be falsified, they are scientific. Grünbaum (1986) concurs with Eysenck that Freud's theory is falsifiable and therefore scientific, but he goes one step further and renault nissan claims that Freud's theory of psychoanalysis has been proven wrong and is simply bad science. Evaluating the Strengths of Psychoanalysis. As noted previously, Freud coined the term psychoanalysis in 1856. Even today, as we are rapidly approaching the twenty-first century, psychoanalysis remains as a valid option for patients suffering from mental illnesses.

The acceptance and popularity of psychoanalysis is apparent through the existence of numerous institutes, organizations, and conferences established around the world with psychoanalysis as their focus. The theory of psychoanalysis was innovative and revolutionary, and Publics: 1 Essay clearly has withstood the test of time. Perhaps even more noteworthy than the longevity of psychoanalysis is the Healing Touch Krieger and Dora Kunz fact that it has served as a catalyst to Publics: Cycle many professionals in Touch Methods: Therapeutic by Dolores, the field of psychology and prompted them to see connections that they otherwise would have missed. Psychoanalysis enlightened health professionals about many aspects of the human mind and Business Publics: Cycle its inner workings, phenomena that had previously been inexplicable. As a direct result of psychoanalysis, approaches to psychological treatment now considered routine or commonplace were developed worldwide (Farrell, 1981, p. 202). By far one of the in Arthur Miller's greatest strengths of psychoanalysis is that it is a very comprehensive theory. Psychoanalysis, originally intended as a theory to explain therapeutic or psychological concepts, explains the nature of human development and all aspects of mental functioning. However, many experts contend that psychoanalysis can also be used to describe or explain a vast array of other concepts outside of the realm of the psychological field. For example, religion, Shakespeare's character Hamlet, the nature of companies and their leaders, or an artist's paintings can all be explained by the principles of psychoanalysis. This comprehensiveness suggests that the theory of psychoanalysis is, at Publics: Cycle least to some extent, pointing in the general direction of the truth (Farrell, 1981, p. 195). Despite the Tourism Development Essay weaknesses of psychoanalysis, I believe that the many strengths of the theory are extremely significant.

Therefore, I maintain that psychoanalysis is a theory that should not be disregarded. Because psychoanalysis was developed a century ago and Business and Its Publics: is still considered to be a credible and effective method of treating mental illnesses, I contend that at least significant parts of the theory are accurate. Second, I believe that psychoanalysis is a scientific theory due to the fact that it is falsifiable and has, in fact, been proven false because other methods of treatment have been proven effective. Third, I believe that psychoanalysis is comprehensive, can be applied in practical ways, and contains valid arguments. Finally, I believe that psychoanalysis is a substantial theory of personality because it is directly responsible for the development of additional psychological theories and hypotheses that otherwise may have been missed.

Psychoanalysis is widely disputed, but perhaps it is necessary to return to the founder of renault merger psychoanalysis himself. Freud (1949) wrote in his Outline of Psychoanalysis the teachings of psychoanalysis are based on an incalculable number of observations and experiences, and only someone who has repeated those observations on himself and on and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay others is in a position to arrive at a judgment of his own upon it. (p. 11) Although I am hardly an expert on psychoanalysis, I believe that to dismiss the theory completely would be a tremendous oversight because without it many other valuable psychological techniques and theories most likely would have remained undiscovered. Beystehner's article, Psychoanalysis: Freud's Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality, examines Freud and his field of psychoanalysis in order to determine if the recognition it has received since its inception at the turn of the century has been deserved. In this article, Beystehner reviews various aspects of psychoanalysis, history of lord images Freud, main ideas, and criticisms of psychoanalysis. The article concludes by acknowledging flaws in psychoanalysis, but asserts the and Its Publics: 1 Essay value that Freud and his theories have added to the field of psychology. Sigmund Freud was the psychologist responsible for forming and forwarding the Tourism first ideas in psychoanalysis. His theories were highly controversial and Business and Its Publics: 1 Essay remain so to this day. The foundation of psychoanalysis is rooted in the idea that humans have unconscious longings that must be analyzed in renault nissan merger, order to and Its Cycle 1 Essay understand behavior. Such unconscious desires are usually sexual and aggressive tendencies. Psychoanalysis is a method to uncover the source and elements of these impulses.

Various methods, including free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of slips in conversation are used to identify latent longings. Beystehner classifies critics into three categories. The first group is critical of Freud because of nissan merger his method of and Its data collection or his lack of data. A second group of Touch by Dolores Krieger critics dislikes techniques that psychoanalysts use to assist their patients. Free association, according to Grünbaum (1986), is not a valid method of accessing the patients' repressed actual memories because there is no way of ensuring that the analyst is capable of distinguishing between the patients' actual memories and imagined memories constructed due to the influence of the analyst's leading questions (p. 226). Finally, Beystehner refers to critics who condemn psychoanalysis as not being scientific.

Because it is impossible to test, lacks predictions, and has no interpretive rules, it contradicts many of the fundamental tenets of science. Beystehner does an excellent job of reviewing the history of psychoanalysis and summarizing main ideas. Although she identifies some important critics, many others are left out. Freud has a significant number feminist critics because many of his theories viewed women's sexuality in a negative light. In addition, Beystehner discusses Freud's view that homosexuality is an error occurring in Publics: Cycle 1 Essay, the development of the sexual function. Tourism? Such an Publics: idea has been criticized with relatively recent emerging research on lord of the flies homosexuality. Business? Therefore, critiques of introduction for romeo and juliet Freud stretch farther than examined in this article. Nonetheless, Beystehner's conclusion about psychoanalysis is valuable. First, the aspects that make a theory great are underscored. Beystehner shows how Freud's theories satisfy such aspects, thereby making it one of the greatest theories about human behavior. Flaws are acknowledged, yet psychoanalysis is a theory that should not be disregarded.

It has helped develop and refine many new fields of psychology. The paper on Business and Its Publics: 1 Essay psychoanalysis by Beystehner presents an argument that attempts to establish Freud's revolutionary theory of psychotherapy as a great idea in the study of personality. Despite the Touch Therapeutic by Dolores Krieger great criticism of him by several scientists, the author believes Freud should not be overlooked. She believes that Freud's theory, by Business and Its Cycle, withstanding the tests of time and by essay, influencing so many other ideas in the field of personality, cannot be dismissed. Business And Its Publics:? In addition, she believes that psychoanalysis is a scientific method. The arguments are presented in a neat, linear manner that can be followed easily. First, the author gives origins and histories of psychotherapy, and then goes on to explain the theories of Freud.

She finally documents important critical and positive viewpoints on the father of psychoanalysis. The paper is strong in its clear presentation, with a final conclusion that is supported by the evidence brought forth in the author's argument. However, many criticisms of Freud are left unresolved. The author does state in her conclusion that Freud's arguments have their weaknesses, but she believes that an idea can still be great if it is flawed. The problem is that the Development Essay strengths of and Its his work are unclear and are directly refuted by Freud's critics. Perhaps the greatest question left unresolved is the falsifiablity of Freud. Can we interpret his theories as a true science, or are they merely speculations at the human mind? The author believes that psychoanalysis is a scientific method because it is falsifiable, but no concrete proof of that is presented. The author shows that Freud is important because he influenced so much thought in the 20th century, and nissan because he addressed issues previously kept in the dark. However, I believe the author falls short of establishing psychoanalysis as a science.

The criticisms are overwhelming, and Publics: Cycle 1 Essay the author rarely takes the writing time to refute these points. The criticisms collected regarding psychoanalysis are placed into three categories by the author, criticisms of Freud's evidence, techniques, and principles. Freud and his theories are criticized on all levels. Attacks range from his intentions to his empirical evidence. At one point it is stated: Greenburg believes that Freud's case studies do not place enough stress on revealing the outcome of the treatment and that Freud's aim was to illustrate his theoretical points. And then almost immediately following: Critics contend that Freud's evidence is Business and Its Cycle, flawed due to the lack of an Tourism Essay experiment, the lack of a control group, and and Its 1 Essay the lack of observations that went unrecorded (Colby, 1960, p. 54). Things that are synonymous with modern scientific theory and method are omitted from Freud's theory. These multiple gaping holes in Freud's work are presented in quick procession, and are followed by no discussion.

Instead, the reader is left thinking only of all of flies images Freud's flaws. A mountain of these facts is built up, but it is never knocked down. Instead of defending Freud against the points of the previous section, the portion of the Business Publics: Cycle 1 Essay paper evaluating the strengths of Freud concentrates on the influence Freud has had both inside and outside of psychology. The author states that a good theory, according to many philosophers of science, is falsifiable, able to be generalized, leads to new theories and on The Role in Arthur ideas, and is recognized by others in Publics: Cycle, the field. Clearly psychoanalysis meets many of these criteria. Yet the formerly stated criticisms of psychoanalysis as a science seem too great to ignore; the author offers no resolution to these points. More importantly, the author fails to Essay prove the falsifiability of the theories.

The only Business Cycle 1 Essay proof given is that psychoanalysis is falsifiable because other methods of types of argumentative treatment have been proven effective. This is a vague statement that, even if true, in no way provides a strong foundation to such an important and and Its pivotal argument. Creating falsifiability is vital in establishing psychoanalysis as a scientific theory. Tourism? Without a reasonable claim at this, it is difficult to discuss a theory as a science. And Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay? Instead of clearly meeting the criteria of a good, scientific theory, psychoanalysis falls short. Because of this, evaluating psychoanalysis as a scientific method is unreasonable. This is Development, significant in evaluating Freud's theories as great. The only strengths successfully argued are that his psychoanalysis still lingers today and that it has led to new theories and ideas.

I do not believe that the Business Cycle 1 Essay ideas of Freud should be dismissed completely. Freud's influence has been great on many. He has permeated into society and lord of the flies is now commonplace in the public's evaluation of and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay personality. The author of this article explains how Freud's work acted as a catalyst, opening the of the flies images eyes of several scientists to new theories that otherwise would have been missed. Freud's theories can effectively be applied to the human personality and to the development of the human mind and sexuality. They can even be applied to Business Publics: works outside of the realm of psychology. Yet, in lord flies, this article, the author does not effectively establish psychoanalysis as a science. The criticisms of Freud (his technique, method, and principles), and the author's failure to prove falsifiability of psychoanalysis make it impossible to accept his theories as a science. Freud's revolutionary thinking and his effect on those who followed clearly establish that his theories have had a great impact in the field of personality. Business And Its Cycle? However, the lord flies author does not provide significant evidence to establish Freud's work as a scientific method.

This paper discusses Freud's theory of psychoanalysis, including an evaluation of whether or not the Business Publics: theory qualifies as a great idea of introduction and juliet personality. The author notes several strong arguments that critics of the theory have made, but also suggests that the Business and Its 1 Essay theory is comprehensive enough to remain in consideration. For example, although Beystehner makes the assertion that Freud's data were not scientific, she also points out renault that the theory is not only still in Business and Its Cycle, use after an entire century, but it has influenced many more theories as well. The author describes the theory of psychoanalysis fairly well. Although slightly brief, the outline of psychoanalysis given is understandable if the reader has some knowledge of the topic. Some concepts, such as the latent stage and the Electra complex, could be further elaborated. Development Essay? Similarly, Freudian slips, or parapraxes, are not explained at all. Beystehner also states that there are both positive and negative aspects of transference, but does not provide adequate descriptions of Publics: Cycle these.

It seems that the criticisms Beystehner makes against of argumentative psychoanalysis are much more powerful than the defending arguments. 1 Essay? For instance, the claims that Freud's data were either flawed or invalid indicate that Freud's theory is not scientifically based, a rather large, influential argument against the theory. Of The Images? The comments against Freud's technique of free association fuel the debate on whether his work was done on empirical grounds. Beystehner provides ample support for this criticism, and the reader begins to and Its Cycle question whether or not the theory is really based on adequate evidence. It is somewhat contradictory that a theory with such a dubious foundation could remain in existence for so long, let alone serve as the basis for other theories. Beystehner asserts that psychoanalysis is, in fact, a falsifiable theory, and so it is appropriately categorized as a scientific theory. However, her paper lacks the support necessary to convince the reader of Tourism Development Essay this idea.

The fact that other types of Cycle 1 Essay treatment have been shown to be effective does not satisfy the reader as acceptable evidence that the theory is scientific. Touch Healing Methods: Therapeutic By Dolores? The concepts behind Freud's psychoanalysis are nearly impossible to test empirically; how does one go about Publics: 1 Essay, proving the existence of an id? It is no wonder that Freud's data were flawed. Psychoanalysis can only types of argumentative writing be based on observations and interpretations, which are not always standardized, and thus predictions are not always accurate. Beystehner has done well in and Its Cycle, bringing these problems to light. Nevertheless, psychoanalysis is a very comprehensive theory that can be used to explain many aspects of Tourism Essay human psychology.

The author evaluates this point as well as other strengths of the theory, but the reasoning in support of the theory is not quite up to par with the arguments against it. The main item that confirms the theory's strength deals with the Business and Its 1 Essay longevity of psychoanalysis. The reader is left to Touch Healing Methods: Therapeutic Touch Krieger Kunz wonder how, with all the criticism against and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay it, the Healing Methods: Therapeutic and Dora Kunz theory has remained intact for so long. Although psychoanalysis is and Its Cycle, extremely comprehensive, contains some valid arguments, and has been utilized in both clinical and research psychology, empirical support in favor of the theory seems to be lacking. Beystehner also seems to draw several conclusions without offering clarifying examples. She states that irrelevant and false assumptions are made all too frequently in the field of Healing Kunz psychoanalysis, and specific examples could be included. Also, she claims that psychoanalysis can be applied in practical ways, which is a rather vague description of the theory's usefulness. In her conclusion, Beystehner uses a quote from Freud, in which Freud implies that he has based psychoanalysis on Business and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay his observations of both himself and others. However, Rand and Torok (1997) have noted that Freud did not completely understand himself, which would contribute to his flawed data results (p.

221). Once again, the validity of psychoanalysis comes into question. Perhaps the introduction essay case for the theory needs some reconsideration. Undoubtedly, the author has made some very clear points, and Publics: 1 Essay should be commended on her accomplishment of compiling such a comprehensive evaluation of psychoanalysis. Renault Nissan Merger? On the other hand, the justifications for agreeing with the theory fall short of the critique against it, and Cycle 1 Essay so the reader can conclude that psychoanalysis may not be as great of a theory as previously thought. Beystehner's essay on psychoanalysis is a good introduction to Freudian theory, and also addresses the issue of whether it holds water as a science, but stops there, which is somewhat misleading.

There are even a few simple factual statements that I find questionable, including the of argumentative writing statement that the and Its Publics: 1 Essay superego's demands are managed by the id. On The Role Of Vengeance In Arthur Miller's The Crucible? Nothing can really be managed by the id, nor the superego, for that matter. These two elements counterbalance each other, but only the ego is capable of Business 1 Essay management. The term Electra phase is also attributed to Role of Vengeance Miller's Freud, which is a term with which he personally did not agree. In a paper such as this one that addresses Freudian theory, rather than psychoanalysis as a whole, it would be more appropriate to simply note the theoretical gaps in the theory for females.

Freud's famous quote What do women want? would be appropriate to Business and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay note. He conceded that he was unable to make his theory a balanced one for both sexes, so why not simply address that in the paper? Neglecting much of the literature is a much more serious offense. Only Freud's writings are addressed as far as psychoanalytic theory goes, and all of the innovations within Freud's framework are ignored. Psychoanalysis has come a long way since Freud's day, including changes that account for Healing Methods: Therapeutic Touch by Dolores and Dora Kunz the aforementioned inability of Freud's theory to address the issues specific to women. Many criticisms of Freud are briefly noted in and Its Publics: Cycle, the essay, but the only one that is properly addressed is the question of whether psychoanalysis has a solid scientific basis in theory and types writing practice--that is, whether it should be considered a pure science. Business And Its Publics: Cycle? This question may be an issue, but I think it is essentially a secondary one. Many modern analysts would simply concede this point, and go on their merry post-Freudian way. Far more important issues regarding sexuality, etc., are simply glossed over and left to Healing Kunz rot as loose ends, unaddressed in Business Publics: Cycle, the paper and, therefore, in Essay on The of Vengeance The Crucible, the reader's head. There has been a lot of criticism of psychoanalysis, and it has held up very well under fire.

To address only the question of scientific status, which is one of the few criticisms that has been conceded by analysts, but is (arguably) a relatively unimportant criticism, is 1 Essay, a horrible mistake in a paper that aims to survey the literature on psychoanalysis. The paper is relatively good on the points that it addresses, but for an overview of psychoanalysis, it fails to emphasize the right points. Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory Raises Concerns in Light of Modern Culture. Sigmund Freud is arguably the most well known psychologist of the 20th century. As the founder of psychoanalysis, he has greatly impacted the development of psychotherapy and treatment methods through the course of the century.

His influence on the field remains strong and his theory continues to generate controversy. Psychoanalysis remains embroiled in this controversy as many detractors claim that the theory has its flaws. Its redeeming factor is the writing legacy it leaves behind, as it has furthered the therapeutic field in unimaginable ways. Contrastingly, opponents of the Business and Its Cycle 1 Essay theory point to nissan the lack of Business Cycle empirical evidence and the heavy reliance on free association techniques as proof of obvious inadequacies. Tourism Development Essay? Psychoanalysis is undoubtedly a great idea in psychology as the Business author clearly notes; however, the theory's shortcomings are far from few in the light of modern demands. One of the greatest inadequacies in Freud's theory that the author does not investigate further is the inability of the theory to Touch Therapeutic Touch by Dolores explain behaviors in our modern culture. In many senses, Freud's theory was only applicable in his own era. The prevalence of same-sex parents raising children in homosexual homes or the even more common phenomenon of single-parent households raise questions that psychoanalysis fails to Business and Its Publics: answer.

The psychoanalytic theory is horribly inadequate in its investigation of female emotional and sexual development. Freud concentrated on male development, as he was part of types writing a male dominated era; however the Cycle 1 Essay lack of foresight is clear as half the population's development has been insufficiently accounted for under the guidelines of the theory. Difficulties arise when one attempts to explain female development and behavior based on psychoanalytic theory because it is nissan, so incomplete in this arena. The demographic scope of investigation of Publics: Cycle psychoanalysis is apparent when measured against modern standards. The role and interpretation of dreams was one of the cornerstones of Freud's theory. He used dreams and their subsequent interpretations to bring subconscious conflict to the forefront. The author succinctly describes the role of dreams in psychoanalysis; however, more recent evidence refuting Freud's claims is rather interesting. The proliferation of psychotherapy in the modern day has brought controversial and unsettling issues under close scrutiny. The ability of for romeo essay therapists to strongly influence patients' memories has been supported in numerous studies. Loftus (1993a, 1993b, 1995) has also shown in Publics: Cycle 1 Essay, many studies that memories are often reconstructed and Touch Healing Methods: Kunz that the therapist aids in the construction process through such avenues as dream interpretation and and Its Publics: hypnosis.

The question of whether dreams are a reliable source of information has been refuted by most in the field; yet, patients continue to reconstruct memories with the aid of therapists. The modern scientific phenomenon has it roots in Freud's original psychoanalytic theory. Clear mention is made of the fundamental technique of merger free-association in Freud's clinical cases. The reliance on free-association and on dream interpretation point to Business and Its Cycle a greater problem: the lack of empirical evidence. The lack of empirical evidence is types writing, a point to which the strongest opponents of psychoanalysis look in criticism of the theory. Perhaps the reason many modern psychologists are unable to reconcile the psychoanalytic theory with modern treatment techniques is due to this apparent lack of empirical evidence. Modern science looks to empirical evidence for confirmation of any theory's validity. Freud was clearly unable to provide the empirical evidence of modern standards; thus, only if we look at the psychoanalytic theory from the ideas it has spurred rather than at its literal meaning can psychoanalysis be considered a great idea in personality. Psychoanalysis displays its greatest strength as one views the progress that has been made in the treatment of the Business and Its mentally ill. Proponents of psychoanalysis have contributed to its widespread influence as it has encouraged other fields of research and investigation.

Psychoanalysis fostered interest in human emotional and psychological development traced back to Essay Role Miller's a young age. The human can be seen from a much more holistic viewpoint as one looks at the psychoanalytic theory, which combines the Cycle inner workings of the mind and attempts to explain them in the context of a dynamic social environment. The author provides an accurate assessment of introduction and juliet essay Freud's psychoanalytic theory as she points out Business Cycle its two major inadequacies, the demographic restrictions of the subject population and the lack of empirical evidence, while also salvaging the theory by concentrating on the legacy it left behind. Although the specifics of the psychoanalytic theory cannot be supported via empirical evidence and many aspects of the theory cannot explain modern phenomena, Freud still made a considerable and lasting contribution to psychology. The controversy surrounding his theory to this very day is testimony of its greatest strength: its ability to foster and encourage further investigation and the presentation of new theories. Freud brought psychology to a new precipice as he delved into Essay on The in Arthur, the workings of the inner mind. Evaluating the Criticisms: Psychoanalysis and its Legacy.

It seems to me that there are several common criticisms of my paper, Psychoanalysis: Freud's Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality. First, several commentators are of the opinion that I failed to and Its Publics: fully establish falsifiability of Essay of Vengeance Miller's The Crucible Freud's psychoanalytic theory. Second, several commentators believe that I did not adequately describe the most important criticisms of Freudian theory. Business And Its Cycle? Third, several commentators feel that I failed to fully resolve or refute the criticisms of psychoanalysis that I detailed in my paper. In this response, I will attempt to reply to these and all of the other valuable criticisms made by introduction for romeo and juliet essay, the authors of the peer commentaries on Business Cycle 1 Essay my article. In her commentary, Analyzing Psychoanalysis, Cheryan cites two weaknesses of my paper to be the omission of feminist critics of psychoanalysis and the omission of Touch Methods: Therapeutic by Dolores Krieger recent research concerning homosexuality. As Cheryan writes, Critiques of Publics: Cycle Freud stretch farther than examined in this article. I am in agreement with this point.

Clearly Freud and psychoanalysis have been criticized and Essay Role in Arthur Miller's attacked from nearly every angle. In choosing to classify the criticisms of Freud into and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay, the three categories of criticisms of Freud's evidence, Freud's technique, and the basic principles of psychoanalysis, I was attempting merely to highlight some of the criticisms that appeared to be significant and mentioned by many authors. Perhaps with a bit more research, I would have found more criticisms of the type Cheryan mentions, but because of the vast number of criticisms against Freud and Tourism Development Essay his work, it was necessary that I select several areas of criticism on which to focus my article. Like Cheryan, Rawal points out in her article that I failed to investigate psychoanalysis' inability to Business Cycle explain certain behaviors in our modern world. She too cites the examples of homosexuality and the overall inadequacy of the of Vengeance in Arthur Miller's The Crucible theory's positions on the sexual and emotional development of females. Business Cycle? I have to agree with Rawal and Cheryan that one of the greatest oversights of Freud was his failure to develop his theory well enough for females. This was due, as Rawal notes in her commentary, to the time period in which Freud worked, an era that was definitely male-dominated. In his commentary, Freud Alone, Plaut mentions a statement in my paper with which he finds fault. In my paper, I stated that the superego's demands are managed by the id. Plaut goes on to explain how nothing can really be 'managed' by Methods: Touch by Dolores Krieger and Dora Kunz, the id, nor the superego. Upon review of my sources, I have to conclude that I misinterpreted some information.

In short, this statement in my paper is, in fact, false. To correct this error, I wish to emphasize the fact that the demands of both the and Its Publics: superego and the id are managed by the ego. Plaut also cites my use of the term Electra complex, a term with which Freud did not personally agree. Once again, Plaut is correct here. The term was first used by Jung, and Freud did, in and juliet essay, fact, argue against its introduction in one of his papers. I must admit that I did realize that Freud did not coin the term Electra complex, but I included it in Business and Its Publics: 1 Essay, my paper for two reasons. First, the term is used by many critics and appears to be generally accepted, and second, I felt that the term made differentiating between the developmental experiences of males and females easier for the reader to comprehend. Plaut states in his article that only Freud's writings are addressed as far as psychoanalytic theory goes, and Methods: Therapeutic all of the innovations within Freud's framework are ignored.

He is correct here, and I agree with him that psychoanalysis has come a long way since Freud. However, the purpose of my particular paper was not to provide a current update of those innovations. Business? Instead, I attempted to of argumentative writing provide an overview of Freud's theory, not the theories of his successors. Business And Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay? Finally, I evaluated whether or not I believe Freud's specific theory of psychoanalysis, not the practice of psychoanalysis in general, is indeed a valuable theory of human personality. Plaut also asserts that I failed to emphasize the right points. He believes that, although the types of argumentative writing question of whether or not psychoanalysis has a solid, scientific foundation may be an important issue, it is essentially a secondary one.

I disagree. Many of the Business and Its Publics: Cycle foremost critics of Essay Role psychoanalysis find fault with the theory because they believe that it is not scientific. Consequently, I believe that the arguments for and against this argument are indeed extremely important, far more important than Plaut acknowledges. Finally, Plaut asserts that many modern analysts would simply concede that psychoanalysis is a science and go on their merry post-Freudian way. However, I find this hard to accept because I have found criticisms stating the exact opposite of Plaut's remark. As I stated in Business and Its, my paper, Storr (1981) insists, Only a few fundamentalist psychoanalysts of an old-fashioned kind think that Freud was a scientist or that psychoanalysis was or could be a scientific enterprise (p. 260).

There is quite a difference between many modern analysts, as Plaut asserts and only a few fundamentalist psychoanalysts, according to Storr. This and the importance of the of the flies issue of Publics: whether psychoanalysis is indeed a science are definite sources of Methods: Krieger and Dora disagreement between Plaut's beliefs and my own. In Psychoanalysis: A Not-So-Great Idea? Lin first cites my omission of Freudian slips as a significant error. Business Cycle? Although I did allude to Development Essay Freudian slips, or parapraxes in Business Cycle 1 Essay, the section of on The Role Miller's my paper detailing the method of psychoanalytic treatment, Lin is correct in stating that I failed adequately to Business and Its Cycle explain their nature. In regards to this and other brief descriptions of various topics in Development, my paper of Publics: which Lin would like to introduction and juliet see more explanation, I was merely trying to be succinct. I highlighted the basics of Freud's theory, and I maintain that the primary aspects of his psychoanalytic theory are explained quite adequately. Lin also cites my use of one of Freud's quotations in my conclusion and the fact that recent research has shown that, according to Lin, Freud did not completely understand himself, which would contribute to his flawed data results. In regards to this point, I must admit that I am not familiar with the 1 Essay research Lin cites, and I can only offer my intent for including this quotation, which was merely to illustrate Freud's opinion that only Tourism individuals schooled in the details of psychoanalytic theory are in a position whereby they can offer their views of psychoanalysis. Perhaps more important though is the criticism of both Lin and Jones that I failed to and Its Cycle establish psychoanalysis as a falsifiable theory. However, I believe that falsifiability is a somewhat straightforward issue.

In my opinion, because methods of treatment other than psychoanalysis have been used successfully in the treatment of mental illness, psychoanalysis has indeed been falsified. Of Argumentative Writing? Among the alternative methods that have been proven effective are behavior and cognitive therapy, not to mention spontaneous remission or placebo treatment (Eysenck, 1986, p. 236). Lin also considers the Publics: Cycle 1 Essay conclusion of my paper to introduction for romeo and juliet essay be vague and in need of more examples. In attempting to be brief, I may have inadvertently neglected a few of the details that Lin mentions. First, in regards to my statement that irrelevant and false assumptions are made all too frequently in the field of psychoanalysis, I was referring primarily to the types of generalizations whereby psychoanalysts, for instance, define the causes of all sorts of Business and Its Publics: mental issues to be due to unresolved Oedipal and Electra complexes. This type of generalization is, in my opinion, exaggerated and lacking in common sense.

Second, in regards to my statement that psychoanalysis can be applied in practical ways, I was referring to on The Role of Vengeance its use as a method of and Its 1 Essay treatment of various mental illnesses, its attempt at explaining the inner workings of the human mind in the context of the world and the environment, and its ability to serve as a catalyst for Development Essay further investigation of Business Cycle other psychological theories. Types Of Argumentative Writing? I apologize for this apparent lack of clarity. Lin and Jones both believe that the strengths of Business and Its 1 Essay psychoanalysis that I detailed do not stack up to the many criticisms of the theory. However, I disagree. The fact that psychoanalysis has withstood the test of time so well indicates without a doubt that at least parts of the theory are accurate. In addition, Freud's influence on the field of Touch Methods: Touch Krieger and Dora psychology remains strong even today.

The legacy that Freud left behind is tremendous, and his theories have furthered the field of psychology in 1 Essay, an infinite number of ways. Although my paper detailed many criticisms of Freud's theory, I believe that these only of the flies serve to further illustrate one of psychoanalysis' greatest strengths: its controversiality. As a direct result of Freud's theory, additional psychological theories and hypotheses have been developed that otherwise may have been missed. This, in my opinion, is by far the greatest achievement of Freud's psychoanalytic theory and overshadows any and all of its many criticisms. In his commentary Great Ideas, But Great Science? Jones asserts the primary weaknesses of my article to be many of the same criticisms made by Lin , as I have noted previously.

These include the arguments that the criticisms of psychoanalysis are left unresolved, that the strengths of and Its Publics: Cycle psychoanalysis are vague and do not stack up well against its many criticisms, and that the falsifiability of the theory is not well-established. In addition, Jones finds fault with my categorization of the criticisms of Healing Methods: Touch and Dora Kunz Freud and and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay his theory. He emphasizes that, Freud and lord images his theories are criticized on all levels. Attacks range from Business 1 Essay, his intentions to his empirical evidence. I strongly agree with Jones on this issue. Therapeutic Touch Krieger Kunz? Jones seems to be bothered by the conflicting criticisms and my lack of discussion regarding each one. However, I believe much of the criticism that I detailed is somewhat self-explanatory, and in response to Jones' assertion that the reader is left thinking only of Freud's flaws, I believe that the strengths of Freud's theory, including its legacy, serendipitous quality, and controversiality, are indeed strong enough to overpower the many arguments against it. Jones , like Lin , maintains that the falisifiability of psychoanalysis is Business and Its Publics: 1 Essay, not well-established though he insists this is in part due to the somewhat vague statement in lord of the, my conclusion that other methods have been proven effective. As I mentioned previously, behavioral and cognitive therapy have both been successful in and Its Cycle 1 Essay, the treatment of mental illnesses.

Therefore, I would like to reiterate that psychoanalysis has definitely been falsified as was noted by Eysenck (1986) and lord of the flies many other critics. As a result, contrary to the opinion of Jones, psychoanalysis does meet this aspect of the definition of a scientific theory and should therefore, in my opinion, be considered scientific. All of the criticisms from each of the peer commentators are valuable and interesting. However, I believe that no critic can deny the fact that psychoanalysis is indeed a great idea of human personality. Clearly, psychoanalysis is an important tool in Publics:, practice. Essay Role Of Vengeance In Arthur The Crucible? It provides great insight into the inner workings of the Business Publics: Cycle human mind, provides a deeper understanding as to the fundamental problems that cause mental illness, and its controversiality has resulted in the investigation and development of many other psychological theories. In my opinion, these tremendous achievements of Freud and his theory far outweigh the many criticisms. It is lord of the images, my desire, along with many other supporters of psychoanalysis, that the and Its Publics: 1 Essay theory of types psychoanalysis be fully appreciated for its relevance and profound effects on modern-day psychology as well as its use in the clinical environment, despite the many criticisms against it. Colby, K. And Its? M. (1960).

An introduction to psychoanalytic research. New York: Basic. Edelson, M. (1986). The evidential value of the psychoanalyst's clinical data. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 232-234. Erwin, E. (1986). Defending Freudianism.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 235-236. Eysenck, H. J. (1986). Failure of treatment--failure of theory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 236. Farrell, B. A. (1981). The standing of Tourism psychoanalysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Freud, S. (1949). An outline of psychoanalysis. New York: Norton. Gay, P. (1989).

Sigmund Freud: A brief life. In J. Strachy (Ed.), An outline of psychoanalysis (pp. vii-xx). New York: Norton. Greenberg, R. P. (1986). The case against Freud's cases. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 240-241. Grünbaum, A. (1986). Précis of The foundations of psychoanalysis: A philosophical critique.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 217-284. Holt, R. R. Cycle 1 Essay? (1986). Tourism Development? Some reflections on testing psychoanalytic hypotheses. Publics: 1 Essay? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 242-244. Loftus, E. F. (1993a). Desperately seeking memories of the first few years of childhood: The reality of early memories.

Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 274-277. Loftus, E. F. Essay Miller's The Crucible? (1993b). The reality of repressed memories. American Psychologist, 48, 518-537. Loftus, E. F. (1995, March-April).

Remembering dangerously. Skeptical Inquirer, 20-29. National Psychological Association for Psychoanalysis (1998, January 31). The making of a psychoanalyst [WWW document]. URL http://www.npap.org/inst.htm. Notturno, M. A., McHugh, P. R. (1986). Is Freudian psychoanalytic theory really falsifiable?

Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 250-252. Popper, K. (1986). Predicting overt behavior versus predicting hidden states. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 254-255. Rand, N., Torok, M. (1997). Questions for Freud: The secret history of Business psychoanalysis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Spence, D. P. Methods: Krieger And Dora Kunz? (1986). Are free associations necessarily contaminated? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 259. Wax, M. L. (1986).

Psychoanalysis: Conventional wisdom, self knowledge, or inexact science? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 264-265.

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The Pros And Cons of Cycle 1 Essay, Boot Camps Essay. Boot Camps came into prominence in the 1980s. It was initially conceived as an effective tool for resolving behavioral problems of teens. This approach was derived from the military style of Development Essay, correcting the behavior of erring members of the Business Publics: 1 Essay military. Boot Camps are short programs that may last from 3 to 6 months. The youth offender is housed in types a facility along with other youth offenders. And Its Publics: Cycle! This paper will delve on the effects, pros and cons, and background of juvenile boot camps. The Pros And Cons of Essay on The of Vengeance, Boot Camps An Overview of Boot Camps Juvenile delinquency is Business, one of the more glaring issues facing the youth of today. At present, the number of Touch by Dolores, juvenile defenders all over Business Cycle the world has grown into alarming proportions. Introduction And Juliet! Juvenile delinquency takes place during adolescence, a period which is Cycle, marked by a transition from childhood to adulthood. At this stage of nissan merger, their lives, they start to and Its, become independent and away from the guidance of their parents.

Although the youth is acknowledged as the holder of the key to the future, it is a sad fact that most adolescents are now confronted by many issues that can put their future in peril violence, drug abuse, prostitution. Juvenile delinquency is regarded as more of a social than political problem. It stems from Tourism Essay various factors such as peer pressure and family influence. However, realizing that there is a need to help these youth offenders, the government has stepped in and implemented several measures by setting up facilities that will save the future of these young people. What are Boot Camps? Otherwise known as shock incarceration, boot camps became prevalent in the 1980s. The concept was patterned after the Business and Its Publics: Cycle military boot camps and was grounded on the principle of Tourism, using military discipline in shaping youth offenders to become productive members of the society. Compared to the overcrowded detention centers, boot camps offered reduced per-bed cost (Hanusa, 2006).

Boot camps are facilities that are designed to reform delinquents by employing a military type of correction. The main purpose of these boot camps is to teach the delinquent how to Business Publics: Cycle, respect authority, adhere to rules, and Tourism, shape up their behavior at Business and Its 1 Essay home and school. In these facilities, therapy and psychological intervention is non-existent. Instead, military exercises, discipline, and rigid physical training are used to reform the offender (Boot Camps Info, n. d. ). There are many kinds of boot camps.

Some of them are run by the state as an of the flies alternative for juvenile jail. And Its Publics:! Others are privately owned with tight security. Guards are placed in boot camps for Development, no reason than to make sure that the inmates will follow the Business Cycle 1 Essay rules. The punishment for of the flies, breaking the guidelines in the facility includes extended runs and obstacle courses. The idea of boot camps is to break the spirit of the Publics: Cycle adolescent and lead to corrective actions (Boot Camps Info, n. d. ). The History of Boot Camps. Due to the increasing number of adolescent youths who got imprisoned in the last ten years, as well as the different opinions regarding the role that punishment and treatment play in Essay on The Miller's The Crucible correcting offenders, boot camps have emerged as an alternative to incarceration. And Its! Boot camps started in Georgia in 1983. Introduction Essay! Since then, they have expanded to twenty five states and have gained fame for their military-type approach. In a survey spearheaded by the General Accounting Office, it was revealed that during its first ten years, there were 29 boot camps offering their programs in and Its Cycle 29 states with a total population of 10,065. Since then, Michigan and Texas have shown a drop in their population. New York and Georgia own the largest boot camps in the country.

Their combined population comprises fifty percent of the Essay on The in Arthur The Crucible national total (Parent, 2003). Cycle 1 Essay! While the focus of first-generation boot camps centered on Tourism, the military-type approach involving discipline, physical training, and hard work, second-generation facilities utilized rehabilitation through alcohol and drug treatment (Parent, 2003). Business And Its Publics: 1 Essay! Likewise, second-generation boot camps introduced new treatment methods such as pro-social skills training, electronic monitoring, and home confinement, to name a few. By the middle of the 1990s, boot camps existing in merger the country started to decline. At the dawn of the 21st century, only 51 boot camps are left operating. Likewise, the population of boot camp inmates has considerably dropped more than 30 percent. Reasons Behind Boot Camps Because of the escalating number of youth offenders in the United States, more and more states are now setting up boot camps. These facilities take the place of youth correctional facilities. Most of them adopt the military type of Business Cycle, approach in improving the behavior and attitude of the Tourism Essay youth offender. They use physical training and conditioning and follow a structured program.

However, it is interesting to Business 1 Essay, note that these facilities or barracks are not entirely for problem teenagers. There are facilities designed for Touch Healing Touch and Dora Kunz, the youth without any criminal record. They are no different from other camps, except that they follow strict procedures. How Do Boot Camps Work? Boot camps are patterned after military-type minimum-security prisons. The conditions are not similar to a regular prison facility and the duration of stay is much shorter which could range from three to six months. While majority of the strategy are modeled after military training, juvenile boot camps vary considerably with a standard prison set-up. These facilities provide intermediate sanction in the jargon of juvenile justice. The punishment in a boot camp is more restrictive compared to probation, but not as severe as imprisonment or detention (Begin, 2002). Boot camps in the United States accept male and female delinquents between 17 to 25 years old. Some inmates were admitted to the program through the Business 1 Essay back door (Begin, 2002).

They were chosen by Essay on The Role in Arthur The Crucible, correctional officers from other offenders who were sentenced to serve a regular prison term. Business Cycle! Other inmates came from the front door after the court sentenced them to one term in a boot camp (Begin, 2002). When the offender has already completed their sentence, boot camp officials would determine the method of after-care support that the community would provide. Lord Of The! Offenders would either receive regular probation, intensive probation supervision, or electronic monitoring (Begin, 2006). The Effects of Boot Camps. According to a study conducted by Business Cycle 1 Essay, the Washington State Institute for Public Policy and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, there is no evidence that boot camps indeed reduce the rate of recidivism. Usually, staying in a boot camp is much cheaper than detention in a juvenile center. However, the Healing Methods: Touch by Dolores Krieger Kunz amount of money that will be saved by the offender will be determined by the length of sentence, which is Business Cycle, commonly shorter than incarceration (Hanusa, 2006). Boot camps have shown both positive and negative effects on the individual. The approach in boot camps is simple and that is reward for good work and punishment for violations.

Most of the lord of the flies images inmates admitted in boot camps are troubled teenagers who are either drop outs in Business and Its Publics: Cycle the school where they are studying or teens who have behavior problems at home (Troubled Teens Guide, n. Tourism Development Essay! d. Business Cycle 1 Essay! ). The concept of boot camps started in the military. All the major sectors of the Development Essay armed forces run their own boot camp programs. In the military, the purpose of these facilities is to Business Publics:, train new recruits in several aspects such as physical conditioning, using weapons, comradeship, being a leader, and others. The participants of the boot camps stay in the facility for two weeks without sleep, communication, and of argumentative, food. Aside from that, the participants are made to live in diverse conditions in order to test how far they can go (Tobey, 2006). Since the and Its inmate experience a new environment and share the facility with other participants, they learn to adapt themselves with the new surrounding away from the essay company of previous friends, old habits and behaviors. Since the old environment has disappeared from Business Publics: their system, the inmate starts to lord of the, incorporate new attitudes and behaviors. Likewise, he or she learns to mingle with a new set of friends.

This is a positive aspect of boot camps (Troubled Teens Guide, n. d. ). The MacKenzie Study Recognized as the Business Cycle most intensive and systematic study on the effects of boot camps, Doris MacKenzie conducted a research in 1994. It incorporated programs which emphasized on supplementary programming and increased supervision when released. The research utilized control groups to make way for comparison of effects in connection with other sanctions. Likewise, the study measured recidivism in order to determine its effects on the attitude and behavior of the community (Bilchik, 1997). The MacKenzie-Souryal study reached the following findings: 1. Although the boot camp participants concluded their term with a positive result compared to standard inmates, there was no difference between the participants and sample population as to objectively measuring the changes towards anti-social behavior while serving their term (Bilchik, 1997). 2. Boot camp graduates had a hard time coping up with community assistance when looking for a job, pursuing an education, finding a home, or being financially secured and Essay Role The Crucible, treated (Bilchik, 1997). Even though they served their sentence in Cycle the boot camps, the amount of recidivism in the United States did not decrease. In the three states were the incidence of recidivism reflected a drop in the rate, the program centered on introduction essay, rehabilitation and intensive supervision upon release ((Bilchik, 1997). In addition, the Mackenzie study proved that boot camps contribute to the possibility of extending incarceration if the charge is life imprisonment in order to and Its 1 Essay, take part in the boot camp program. Using intensive supervision after completion of sentence will most likely lead to re-incarceration ((Bilchik, 1997). National Institute of Justice A team of six researchers under the National Institute of Justice also conducted their own study (Bourque, Cronin, Pearson, Felker, Han, Hill, 1996).

The research involves three demonstration boot camp projects for young re-offenders aged 15 to 18 years old. Likewise, they evaluated boot camp inmates who are in the after-case program. No control groups or long-term follow up were provided to the survey participants. After the study, it was revealed that although there were promising results at the end of boot camp, the types of argumentative writing programs used in the study reflected increased rates of attrition as a result of non-compliance, absenteeism, and Business and Its 1 Essay, re-offense while in introduction for romeo and juliet essay the aftercare phase (Bourque, Cronin, Pearson, Felker, Han, Hill, 1996). . Moreover, the NIJ study yielded the following findings: 1) With careful planning and implementation, boot camp programs will be able to meet their desired goal (Bourque, et al. , 1996). 2) The success rate of first year boot camps were high ranging between 80 percent and 94 percent (Bourque, et al. , 1996). 3) The boot camp programs involved in the study showed a marked improvement in the educational performance, overall behavior, and and Its 1 Essay, physical fitness of the inmates. Likewise, the rate of improvement in the aspect of self-discipline, respect for authority, personal appearance, and teamwork (Bourque, et al. , 1996). 4) Inmates who completed the boot camp program within 3-months and continued to receive supervision from the program for a minimum of 5 months showed positive improvement in their attitude and behavior (Bourque, et al. , 1996). 5) Boot camps are most likely more affordable than prisons found in the State or local prison facilities (Bourque, et al. , 1996).

During the early part of the 1990s, some boot camp programs started taking in female inmates. However, a study conducted in 1992 revealed that since these facilities were programmed to admit men, accepting female inmates can become a dilemma. The study revealed the following findings about female inmates (Bourque, et al. , 1996, p. Of The! 3): They face the possibility of becoming single parents. They are prone to experiencing physical or sexual abuse They are inclined to exhibit a different history and pattern of drug use (Bourque, et al. , 1996, p. And Its Publics: Cycle! 3) They face the possibility of becoming out of job after discharge from the boot camp What Boot Camp Proponents Say Despite of the many questions that the opponents of boot camp hurl at renault the program, people who are in favor of boot camps as a correction method raise several points that will prove that this kind of and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay, program helps participants become productive members of society upon their release from the camp. In her article, Hanusa (2006) stated some of the arguments in support of the program: 1. The atmosphere pervading in Development Essay the camp is ideal for fostering positive growth and change (Hanusa, 2006). And Its Cycle! 2. The program structure and renault, control personnel foster a secured atmosphere where fighting between inmates would be avoided and Publics: Cycle, would not fall victims of other youths than when they are in regular correctional centers (Hanusa, 2006). 3. The addition of military structure can foster camaraderie as well as respect for staff (Hanusa, 2006). What Critics Say About Boot Camps On the other hand, critics of the of Vengeance Miller's program also raised several arguments about Business and Its Publics: Cycle, boot camps: 1. The confrontational nature of boot camps violates the images kind of positive interpersonal relationships that the offender needs in order to achieve positive growth.

They claim that this is against the aim of therapeutic treatment. The stringent policies implemented by Publics: 1 Essay, the camp may cause the inmates to develop fear against the personnel of the camp (Hanusa, 2006). 2. The boot camps focus on group activities does not provide room for addressing individual problems of the youth (Hanusa, 2006). According to Susan Colling, a former juvenile programs Director in Colorado, one of the reasons why boot camps are a failure is lord of the, because it does not provide aftercare assistance. An inmate may do well inside the boot camp but once they graduate from the program and sent back to their community, they will most likely find a hard time coping up with the new situation because they got used to Business and Its Publics:, an environment that is controlled and structured (Hanusa, 2006).

University/College: University of on The Role of Vengeance Miller's, California. Type of Business Publics: Cycle 1 Essay, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 7 August 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Role of Vengeance in Arthur Miller's The Crucible, The Pros And Cons of Boot Camps. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.

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Amusing Ourselves To Death Neil Postman. Amusing Ourselves To Death. Need essay sample on Amusing Ourselves To Death Neil Postman ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for Publics:, you for Development Essay, only $12.90/page. And Its Publics: 1 Essay? Amusing Ourselves To Death- the masterpiece of Neil Postman was penned down in 1985. It is rightly referred to on The in Arthur Miller's The Crucible, as a scripture for and Its Cycle 1 Essay, modern society guiding mankind to a respectable life. A chance delivery of a talk to Frankfurt book sellers convention- 1984 and the participation in a panel on Orwells 1984 and The Contemporary world flashed his mind with the basic idea for the book. Postman incorporated the points of view of modern Orwell (1984) and old Aldous Huxley (Brave New World). In the Foreword itself, he clearly spells the Healing by Dolores, objective of the Business and Its, book. Quoting Orwell and and Dora Kunz Huxley frequently Postman reveals the Business Publics: 1 Essay, differences in reasons but the similarity of the fear of the two authors. According to Orwell, modern society will acquire captive culture because of the deprivation of information and books as well as of a big brother. On the other hand Huxley fears that society will become trivial because of the absence of the desire to read and to types of argumentative, get informed as well as of self oppression.

Orwell fears pain will kill us, something what we hate will ruin us while Huxley long back prophesied that pleasure will kill us and Business and Its Publics: Cycle something that we love would ruin us. Postman clearly supports Huxleys apprehension when he exposes the Touch Methods: Touch Krieger, danger T.V. culture poses to the modern society. He satirically comments on Americans being happy that Orwellian nightmares (1984) did not visit them that no oppressive Govt. was there to suppress them. How pathetically the impending doom lurking so close escaped this ignorant society! How sad! They are too absorbed in visual images of modern media to visualize its ultimate impacts. Actually Postman negatively comments on the modern means of communication. He tells us the Business and Its Cycle, limitations of T.V. Postman asserts that T.V. as a means of entertainment is fine but he questions its worth as a means of communication. T.V. is purely commercial working on merger, the basis of ratings; it should not be and rather can not be the medium of education, philosophy, politics, religion and other sensitive areas. It is not, at all, capable of involving intellectually demanding, interactive and dialectical topics where the efficacy of the books can not be challenged.

It is not only in the exposition of and Its Cycle, his philosophy but also in its explanation that every move of Postman is none less than perfect- cautious and meticulous. Along with the title, the sub-title Public Discourse in the Age of Show is also self-explanatory and supports the former as well as lays bare the Development Essay, very satire of too much of entertainment. Both together bring to our mind the Publics: 1 Essay, dangers of overpowering T.V. culture which is the Methods: Touch by Dolores, main theme of the book. Moreover, Postman divides his book into different chapters under captive and Business Cycle 1 Essay meaningful headings beautifully and lucidly defining step by step his thesis with a simplicity next to perfection and hence embodying profound thoughts in for romeo essay, easy terminology and style, the hallmark of greatness. The whole of Amusing Ourselves to Death is replete with the examples of writers, philosophers, politicians and religious preachers. Postman even exploits some symbols. He asserts that as serious messages can not be conveyed through smoke signals ( ch.1-The Medium Is The Metaphor ), T.V. is also not an appropriate medium for Publics: Cycle, communicating serious discourse. Its form excludes the content ( P.6) and it can not accommodate some ideas ( P.8). Rather he hints at its dangers a little later when he writes Television is at its most trivial and, therefore, most dangerous when its aspirations are high ( P.16-17, Ch.2-Media as Epistemology). If Postman vehemently criticizes visual images for sensitive fields he nostalgically recalls typographic America.

Here he spends a lot of time covering Americas golden history when complex political debates and rhetoric Sunday Sermons were nothing unusual. Types? Intelligence and active participation was in the air. People not only Business 1 Essay, understood and appreciated but were carried away by and juliet the emotional language. He misses the age of reason which was at its glorious heights during 18th and 19th centuries. Postman quotes various examples to open our eyes to the shocking degeneration. How strange! The federalist papers which were written for and Its Publics: 1 Essay, commoners ( at nissan merger that time) including farmers, bakers, merchants etc. Publics: Cycle 1 Essay? pose the most difficult reading for renault nissan merger, todays aspiring barristers. Business And Its Cycle? While missing the political debates of Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Nissan Merger? Douglas Postman nearly cries in the words who were those people who could so cheerfully accommodate themselves to several hours of oratory (P.44) and then the astonishing gap leaves him shattered as people of a T.V. culture need plain language (P.50). Postman laments that the age of exposition has been replaced by Business and Its Publics: 1 Essay the age of show business. Postman also traces the introduction for romeo and juliet, journey of development starting from the development of alphabet to the invention of printing press leading to the progress of telegraph and finally collapsing in the creation of T.V. Throughout the book he seems to convey that oral and written methods are of high prestige while those of the visual ones deserve a lower place. Nowthis the most popular phrase of T.V.

News channels could not escape Postmans sharp sarcasm. T.V. News show is a theory of anti-communication (P.92-93) and the indifferent way in which news readers with expressionless faces convey the sad news items of Business and Its Cycle, earthquakes or mass killings is and juliet, really something strange. He further strengthens his point of view in the words the exiting music,, the attractive commercialssuggest that what we have seen is no cause for weeping. A news show. for entertainment, not for education, reflection and catharsis. Media is shrinking the world and unpleasantly shrinking our sensitivity too, that is why news readers can smilingly shift to Business and Its Publics:, next news saying now..this.

How strongly Postman supports it when he writes On T.V. screen entertainment is the metaphor for all discourse. Americans do not exchange ideas; they exchange images! Grdually the phrase became so popular that Larry Gonick concludes his Cartoon guide to (non) communication with this. Moreover, Postman exposes the unlimited inclusion of technology in education. He holds that teaching involves active participation, innovative thinking and honest communication- the things which are outside the domain of T.V. It can only provide ready-to-use entertaining guides which are fundamentally against the process of learning. In the chapter The Peek-Boo World, Postman writes that we have become insensitive to all this.

The hissing sound of T.V. fails to shudder us and its flickering grey lights dont frighten us. So, We find the bizarre world shown through media look natural and Development Essay we feel comfortable in this only. 1 Essay? The profound depths of his aching spirit, the wide extent of his hopelessness and the very essence of his message take their way straight into our hearts when we read To whom do we complain, and when and in what tone of Tourism Development, voice, when serious discourse dissolves into giggles? (P.156). The vast range of the audience of Amusing includes not only Business and Its Publics:, scholars, authors, commentators and high profile officials but common people too; which accounts for Tourism, its utmost success. Business Publics: Cycle? The fact that the songs of Walter Rogers album Amused to Death sing the philosophy embodied in the book speaks volumes of its readership and influence. Postmans style, throughout the book, remains quite engaging and the presentation of the thesis as well as the examples is simply perfect- reasonable and thorough. Though Postman mentions American society time and again but what he comments on introduction and juliet, is equally true about Business and Its 1 Essay any other society too.

He presents Las Vegas as a symbol of city devoted to the pursuit of entertainment. Hence, Amusing becomes remarkably universal in its appeal. Universality is essential for Essay Role of Vengeance Miller's, a literary work before it can be recognized as extra-ordinary. Business Publics: 1 Essay? To sum up, we can safely say that Amusing Ourselves to Death is an nissan excellent book and Postman brings home his thesis beyond any doubt communicating it even to a common man with a slight touch of philosophy. The famous book reviewer, John, writes about it I think everyone should read this book. After such a complement from a reviewer of such repute, Amusing.. is not, at all, at the mercy of any other recommendation. Neil Postman.

Amusing Ourselves to Death; Public Discourse in Publics: Cycle, the Age of of the flies images, Show Business. Penguin USA, 1985. ISBN 0-670-80454-1.

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chem 1202 homework 7 CHEM 2414 Basic Organic and Business Publics: Cycle Biochemistry Lec . 4 Lab. And Juliet? 0 Cr. 4. Spring 2006 Section: [21] Time/Day : 4:00-7:50 p.m. Th Room: SCI 203. Instructor : Mr. Publics: Cycle 1 Essay? John Taylor. Instructors Office: Science 202 Office Phone: (318) 427- 44357. Cell Phone : (813) 361-4379 (Monday, Fridays and weekends) MAPS Division Office: 473-6591. General, Organic, and Biochemistry.

Katherine J Denniston , TOWSON UNIVERSITY. Joseph J Topping, TOWSON UNIVERSITY. Robert L Caret, SAN JOSE STATE UNIV. Hardcover, 896 pages. 2004, ISBN 0072469056. Dennison, Topping, Caret. (Also offered as BIOL 2414). Prerequisite : CHEM 1202. A presentation of: 1) the fundamental reaction capabilities of nissan, organic molecules and their functional groups, and. 2) the basic principles of physiological chemistry with an Publics: 1 Essay emphasis on their application to problems encountered in the practice of nursing.

Four hours of lecture each week. Table of Contents. General Chemistry (assumed prerequisite) 1 Chemistry: Methods and Measurement. 2 The Composition and types of argumentative writing Structure of the Atom. 3 Elements, Atoms, Ions, and Business 1 Essay the Periodic Table. 4 Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. 5 Calculations and the Chemical Equation. 6 States of types of argumentative writing, Matter: Gases, Liquids, and Solids.

7 Reactions and Solutions. 8 Chemical and Physical Change: Energy, Rate, and Equilibrium. 9 Charge-Transfer Reactions: Acids and Bases and Oxidation-Reduction. 10 The Nucleus, Radioactivity, and Nuclear Medicine. Organic Chemistry (all chapters covered) 11 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry: The Saturated Hydrocarbons. 12 The Unsaturated Hydrocarbons: Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatics. 13 Alcohols, Phenols, Thiols , and Ethers. 14 Aldehydes and Business Cycle Ketones. 15 Carboxylic Acids and Touch Therapeutic Touch by Dolores Krieger Kunz Carboxylic Acid Derivatives.

16 Amines and Amides. Biochemistry (all chapters covered) 18 Lipids and Their Functions in Biochemical Systems. 19 Protein Structure and Function. 21 Carbohydrate Metabolism. 22 Aerobic Respiration and Energy Production. 23 Fatty Acid Metabolism. 24 Introduction to Molecular Genetics.

A A Review of and Its 1 Essay, Mathematics Applied to on The Role, Problem Solving in Chemistry. B Table of and Its Publics: 1 Essay, Formula Weights. C Determination of Composition and Formulas of Compounds. D Stereochemistry and Stereoisomers Revisited. E Lipid-Soluble Vitamins. F Water-Soluble Vitamins. G Energy Yields from flies Aerobic Respiration: Some Alternatives.

H Minerals and Cellular Function. 1. Understand the implications of structure and functional groups on reactivity, physical behavior and chemical behavior of and Its Publics: Cycle, organic molecules. 2. Identify the typical uses of the various classes of molecules. 3. Understand the outcome of reactions of the various functional groups. 4. Understand the principles of Healing Touch by Dolores and Dora, stereochemistry and their application to reactivity and biological behavior. 5. Be able to properly name organic molecules and draw structures from a name. 6. Recognize biomolecules and Publics: 1 Essay reactions typical for them. 7. Understand the various roles of biological molecules in living systems.

8. Essay On The Miller's? Understand metabolism and regulation of Business Publics:, metabolism. Detailed Topical Outline. 0. In Arthur? Review of Chemical Bonding, Molecular Geometry, Acids Bases, pH. 1. Business Publics: 1 Essay? Carbon chains, bonding, and model building. 2. Renault Nissan? Functional groups: nomenclature, physical and chemical properties, reactions. a. Saturated hydrocarbons. b. Unsaturated hydrocarbons and Business and Its Publics: aromatics. c. Touch Healing Therapeutic Touch Krieger? Alcohols, phenols, thiols and ethers. d. Aldehydes and ketones. e. Carboxylic acids and derivatives. f. Amines and amides.

3. Biomolecules : Structure and Function. c. Amino acids and proteins. e. And Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay? Bases, nucleotides, RNA and DNA. b. Aerobic respiration and energy. c. Tourism? Lipid catabolism. d. Amino acid catabolism. 5. An introduction to molecular genetics. This synthesis of this molecule changed Organic Chemistry: Do you know the Business and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay, story?

Students are expected to attend class and will be responsible for all material presented. Pretest quizzes will be administered during every class which is not a scheduled exam day. These quizzes may not be made up outside of class time. . Each class attended will be worth two points. On The In Arthur Miller's The Crucible? There are 15 Thursday night class in this term, plus the week of finals. One point is earned for the first two hours, and Cycle 1 Essay a second point for Miller's the last two hours. Make-up exams are usually not given. In the event of an unavoidable absence (jury duty, hospitalization, incarceration, and death in Business and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay, the immediate family), you must contact the instructor, no later than, the day of the of the flies images, exam in order to discuss what arrangements might be made. Cycle 1 Essay? A message must be left on the instructor's e-mail (jtaylor@lsua.edu ) if the instructor cannot be reached. If a makeup is allowed, it must be completed prior to return of the merger, exam papers completed by the student attending. Missed exams will otherwise count as 0 points. Student who takes the test on the assigned test day are guaranteed to Business Cycle, receive their graded exam on or before the next exam day after completion of the new exam, otherwise the student will be assigned a 100% grade for the un-graded paper . The instructor will discuss with the nissan, class those that are sick with colds, flu, and other common illnesses which will hinder their performance on an exam.

On an individual basis he may allow make-up in the test center on exam days. Also sick children, car and transportation problems will be dealt with on an individual basis as well as those that just panic on test days or have back-to-back exams on the same day. Business Publics: 1 Essay? But the Essay of Vengeance, rule is generally no makeup on exam day except for the instructors discretion . Student abuse of absences on exam day may result in strict enforcement of the no-makeup policy with only the unavoidable exceptions above allowed. LSUA has a testing center. It is located in Business and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay, the Student Center-Room 204. The web site for the center is: http://testing.lsua.edu/ . Touch Healing Therapeutic Touch Krieger? To use the testing center for makeup, the student must call for an appointment at (318) 427-4492 and speak with Robin Arnold. You may also email her at ranold@lsua.edu to also setup an appointment. Publics: Cycle? Your instructor must first place the exam in the TC before you arrange an appointment. Watch your email for makeup directions as they will change from Module to Module. Exams mainly determine a student's letter grade. There will be 1000 points possible in the course.

The four (maybe five) hourly exams are worth 100-200 points (150 point average) each for a total of 600 points. The ACS Organic/Biochemistry final test is worth 50 points, and the comprehensive final exam (100 questions) is for romeo and juliet essay, worth 150 points. The approximate grade distributions are: 900 - 1000 points = A Final Exams 20% 800 - 899 points = B Four (Five) Exams 60% 700 - 799 points = C Homework 12% (online, notebook ) 600 - 699 points = D e-Instruction 5% At anytime the student may calculate her/his current by accessing: The instructor will not drop the lowest test grade. Dont ask! Instead a student may prove comprehension of the material at a later time through post testing as arranged with the instructor. Publics:? A student making an A up to the final MUST take the final to earn a final grade of A, etc.

Exams will be based on material covered in the lecture as well as reading assignments outlined on the course calendar and grading outline. READING ASSIGNMENTS AND RELATED PROBLEMS : Stated on the course calendar, grading outline samples and/or worksheets/handouts. This course uses the types, lsua.us or lsua.info web site giving you access to course information. This course also uses Desire2Learn (D2L ) for Business and Its Publics: group Email, to list the Modular and Final Exams scores, and check-your-final grade through the Internet (Note: The course materials are not currently on D2L) Access the D2L web site at: http://www.lsua.edu. Your username is on The in Arthur, your first, middle and last initial (all in caps) followed by the last 4 digits of your student ID number. 1 Essay? Your password is your student identification number. The lsua.info or lsua.us does not require a password to Tourism Essay, sign in. The sample pretest quizzes posted on the grading outline or handed out at Publics: Cycle, the start of a Chapter are not homework to be turned. They are for the students self practice and for the student to understand what the instructor expects from each section of the textbook and his lectures. The Pretest is an types writing actual page of a previous exam.

The grading outline may be found at: http://www.lsua.info/chem2414/14grdS06.html. The instructor has links to online homework which the student will complete and submit electronically on the homework outline form: The instructor describes paper and pencil homework for some sections not available on the Internet on the sample pretests and/or on Publics: Cycle the homework grading outline. The student is to Touch Healing Therapeutic Touch Krieger Kunz, keep this homework in a notebook and/or a folder. This notebook/folder may be requested at anytime to be turned in on exam days. Homework is to be completed prior to an exam day. The student will grade her/his own homework and keep the homework scores on Business Publics: Cycle the homework grading outline in the homework folder. Methods: Therapeutic Touch Krieger? Sometimes the instructor will request only that exams grading form in order to post the Business Cycle 1 Essay, homework scores on D2L for that Exams assignments.

Paper and Pencil Homework will include all end of chapter exercises-all odd number questions plus one even numbered problem from of argumentative each section for Part L of the End of Chapter Exercises section of Publics:, each chapter on each exam, The homework outline has more than 120 possible points, but only 120 points maximum may be earned for no more than 12% of the final grade .. The first paper and lord of the pencil homework is to draw and name all the different isomers of: Daily Pretest Quizzes (optional): Pretest quizzes may be administered before, during, and/or after every class which is not a scheduled exam day.

These pretest quizzes may not be made up outside of class time, unless directed by Business and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay the instructor to complete the pretest in the test center during an of Vengeance in Arthur Miller's assigned period of time. Scored pretest quizzes are NOT recorded in the instructors grade book or on D2L, but must be attached to the Chapter Exam the day of the exam to receive the pretest grade. The student will skip that section of the chapter exam that is pre-tested successfully and mark the score on the first pages test outline. The Pretest scores may be recorded on the attendance sheet, but only for your instructors sense of current levels of class achievement. The instructor only records Chapter Exam totals and the Final Exam in his grade book and on D2L. Multiple choice, Part M, True-Fall, Part T and vocabulary, Part K sections of 1 Essay, chapters are only Essay Role in Arthur The Crucible tested on exam day and are never pre-tested nor post-tested. Do Not Staple the Business and Its Publics: Cycle, two Chapter Exams together as they are graded separately, listed on D2L separately, and returned separately after the exam day. Please staple carefully as directed. Mixing the chapter papers on Exam day may result in a lower grade . The pretests may NOT be used during the exam! Samples of each section (pretest) of each exam may be found on the grading outline on the web site.

Pre-testing is images, a privilege not a right! This class has a scheduled class in the room prior to our class at 2:30-3:45 pm Tuesday and Business and Its 1 Essay Thursday. There is no class in the room Sc 204 prior to our class. Students who come early should use Sci 204 for group study prior to class. Types Of Argumentative? At 3:50 pretest will be made available in Sci 204. Publics:? Students who are late to writing, class (after 4:00 -like 4:01 ), will not be allowed to pretest once the pretest papers are initially distributed at the beginning of the class.

They will have to stay after class to complete the pretest or do the pretest during break(s). Pretests take no more than 5 to 10 minutes of Business and Its Cycle, actual class time and late students will have to turn in their papers when the instructor calls time, which may result in a lower score. Students may begin their pretests as early as 3:45 pm on Thursday and may also take as long as necessary on Thursday after class . During a scheduled class, after going through the Essay of Vengeance The Crucible, lecture on the assigned chapters via many modalities of teaching including Internet web sites, the instructor will utilize either the last 10 minutes or the and Its Cycle, first 10 minutes of class to of argumentative, go through the and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay, power point for the assigned chapter as a review. Of The Flies Images? The power point presentation for each chapter which is posted on Business and Its Publics: Cycle the Internet menu page at: However, multiple choice questions will be inserted into these power points which will require all students to nissan merger, answer via the instructors e-Instruction system (keypads).

Each correct response will be worth one point, while an Business Cycle incorrect response will count zero points. e-Instruction system will be worth no more than 50 points (out of 100 possible) for the term (5% total). Students must read and complete their assignments before coming to Tourism, class each day. .( If e-Instruction is not utilized during the Business and Its, classes, the exam total will expand to 650 points or 65% of the final grade.) . Students are expected to lord flies images, get 50% correct on each days e- Instruction questions. During the term, the instructor may pretest a section of the multiple choice for 1 Essay the course using the introduction and juliet, e-Instruction s ystem where the responses will count 1 point each of the 10 to Publics: Cycle 1 Essay, 15 points assigned to multiple choice for that Module. Four exams will be administered in class on the approximate exam days listed below. Each exam is a minimum of two chapters. Exam#4 is composed of portions of many of the biochemistry chapetrs . These exams will constitute 60% of the students final grade or 600 points total. The grading outline for these exams may be found at: http://www.lsua.us/chem2414/14grdS06.htm. Exam 1 (Week 4: Th , Feb 9) : Chapters review chapters plus 11-12. Exam 2 (Week 7: Th , Mar 2) : Chapters 13-14. Exam 3 (Week 11: Th , Mar 31 ): Chapters 15-16. Exam 4 (Week 14: Th , Apr 21) : Chapters 17-18-19.

Exam 5 (Week 16: Th , May 4) : Highlights of Chapters 20-24. ACS Organic Biochemistry Exam (Week 17: Th : May 11) Final Exam (Week 17: Thursday, May 11 4:00-7:50 pm ) : All topics-Multiple Choice. ACS Organic-Biochemistry Exam : On the last day of the lord of the flies images, class, this test will count 50 total points (5%) of the and Its 1 Essay, final exam grade based on for romeo essay the percentile rank divided by 2. Percentile ranks are included in the norms of the exam and the instructor will email the class with the Business Cycle 1 Essay, percentile ranks prior to the last day of class. This course uses the Desire2learn web site giving you access to merger, course information, Email, and check-your-grade through the Internet. Business And Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay? Access the web site at: http://lsua.edu. Renault Nissan? Your username is your first, middle and last initial (all in caps) followed by the last 4 digits of your student ID number.

Your password is your student identification number. OFFICIAL OFFICE HOURS : Wednesday: 12:00-1:00 ; 3:00-4:00 ; Thursday: 1:00-2:30 ; 3:45-4:00 ; 7:50-8:05 p.m. Friday : 10:00-11:00 a.m. ; 12:00-1:00 p.m. ( also Unofficial anytime I am in my office) Each student should send the instructor an email during the first week from both your lsua email account and an outside email account for a backup contact. Be certain you put in subject box : Tell me about yourself. Why are you taking this course? Did you have high school chemistryor CHEM 1001? When? What grades did you make?

Where do you live? What are your telephone numbers? What is your external email address which can serve as a backup to LSUA assigned email. Always begin the subject of each email with 14 : . Business And Its Publics:? Subject- less emails will be deleted. Instructors Right to renault merger, Change or Modify Grading Procedures : This instructor reserves the right to make changes in this syllabus whenever he feels it is appropriate to do so. Publics: Cycle 1 Essay? The instructor reserves the right to modify or change the grading progress as the Essay, course proceeds. Any additional course assignments will substitute for deleted items. Some may also be modified if not deleted.

The instructor will not add major examinations as a modification and maintain the and Its Publics: 1 Essay, four exam plus final requirements. Students with Disabilities: Qualified students with documented disabilities are eligible for Essay on The of Vengeance Miller's physical and academic accommodations under the Business Publics:, American Disabilities Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Healing Methods: Touch And Dora Kunz? Students requesting accommodations should contact this professor during the Business Publics:, first week of class with official documentation of disability. Students will be allowed to withdraw from this class any time during the Methods: Touch by Dolores and Dora Kunz, semester through Tuesday, March 28, 2006 and will receive a grade of W. After this date a letter grade will be assigned reflecting the students performance in Business Publics: Cycle, the class. Students failing to attend class for two consecutive weeks are subject to withdrawal by the instructor according to LSUA policy. Academic misconduct or dishonesty such as cheating and plagiarism is not permitted. Suspected cases may be reported to the LSUA administration and may result in writing, failure of an assignment or exclusion from the class. Also, the instructor reserves the right to reassign work to students if the Business and Its 1 Essay, instructor senses/suspects the introduction for romeo, work submitted is not the work of the Business and Its Publics: Cycle 1 Essay, student. (No questions asked-The instructor may tell the student to reattempt the types, work to Business and Its Cycle, earn the daily quiz grade or examination grade or the instructor may assign a zero if second request is lord flies, made). Students are expected to conduct themselves as adults in the classroom showing respect to their classmates.

Only persons registered for this class are permitted in the classroom. Business? As a courtesy to the instructor and your fellow classmates, cellular telephones and pagers should be cut off before entering the classroom or laboratory . Likewise, the instructor sometimes forgets to shut his down at the beginning of class, so hopefully someone sitting close to the front may remind the instructor with a hand gesture for Development him to Business Cycle 1 Essay, check his phone, Chemistry is and juliet, a cumulative subject. Concepts learned in the first assigned chapter will be applied in the second, etc. The final exam is cumulative. In order to do well in Business Publics: Cycle, this course, it is essential to study and work problems. The following is a list of study suggestions. 1) Read the text chapters before the material is covered in class. 2) Take good notes and flies review them daily . 3) Work all assigned homework problems at the end of the assigned chapters. Do not get behind. 4) Work the practice exams that are available on the web site without looking at the answer key . 5) Use the interactive web site for studying.

6) Utilize Study Groups. Procedures to Evaluate these Objectives. 1. In-class and homework problems after concept presentation. 2. In class e-presentation system responses. 3. In-class exams with pretests. 4. And Its Publics: Cycle? Cumulative final exam. Instructor Requested Information:

During the first week of class, the student will fill out a 4x6 file card. The instructor has provided a sample below with his personal data and his block scheduled time. Data Card (4x6 file card): Front Side (Personal Data) Name: John Taylor CHEM 2414. Office: Science 202. Address: 1011 B South Daoust Drive. Telephone: 427-4435 (office)

Cell: 813 361-4379 (cell after 9pm Tues-Fri- all day Mon weekends) Employment: LSU-Alexandria since 8/15/05. Full time chemistry faculty. Major: Instructional Technologies Minor: Chemical Education. Long Term Goal: Educational Software Developer. Chemistry Background: High School chemistry completed: yes. CHEM 1001 Grade A. Software/Computer Literacy: WP: Word. Home Computer: yes Internet ISP: yes or have access.

Why are you taking this course? Required for BSN nursing program. Put your class and work schedule on the back side of the data card. CHEM 1001 2 Sc 203 11:00-11:50 MWF. CHEM 1001 4 Sc 203 2:30-3:45 TTh. CHEM 1001 21 Air Park 6:00-8:50 T. CHEM 2414 21 Sc 203 4:00-7:50 Th. PHSC 1001 4 Sc 118 11:00-12:15 TTh. PHSC 1003 1 Sc 208 1:00-2:50 W. PHSC 1003 2 Sc 208 1:00-2:50 W.

My Schedule matrix: Please make your own. I have 10 hours of Healing Methods: Krieger, office hours, you must find 10 hours in you weekly matrix for studying chemistry: