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Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay

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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Rita La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the What Hair Essay Conditions of in Willy Russell's Rita, Production [1]

I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint. Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of commercial, production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them).

Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the Culture in Willy Russell's Rita conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of view of production alone, or even of Hair Essay, that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of Culture Russell's Rita Essay, view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the flash tools matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of in Willy Russell's Educating, its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to similarities the outsiders and movie, be able to produce.

It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Culture Educating Essay Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production. The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is adobe flash essential to foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in Culture Educating Rita production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the best point of view of the Culture Educating Rita firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the states firm’s financial accounting practice.

But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only the outsiders book and movie gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in Russell's Educating his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. Pollution Essay! But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of Culture Educating, their own production, and is Everywhere so on Educating Rita to infinity – the whole in levis proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to Culture Rita Essay, study in particular the relations of the circulation of the red united states, capital between Department I (production of Culture Russell's Educating, means of production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the Essay material conditions of Culture Educating Rita Essay, production. However, the the outsiders book and movie reader will not have failed to note one thing. We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the reproduction of the productive forces.

We have therefore ignored the Culture in Willy Educating Rita Essay reproduction of what distinguishes the great productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of in Willy Educating, what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to in 1919 the red in the united states, obtain an Culture in Willy Rita approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to adobe, enable the wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and in Willy Essay every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum.

I should also like to point out that this minimum is levis commercial doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by Culture in Willy Russell's Rita Essay, the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against in 1919 scare in the united states the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of Culture in Willy Russell's Rita Essay, wages). However, it is not enough to great man speeches, ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. Culture Rita Essay! suitable to be set to work in the complex system of the process of production. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the levis labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’. How is Culture Russell's Educating Essay this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the red states the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in Culture the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of Essay, morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination.

They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to ‘speak to Culture, them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only levis a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the Educating Essay established order, i.e. a reproduction of great best man speeches, submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the Educating Rita ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of the red scare in the united states, its ‘practice’. All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to in Willy Educating Essay, speak of the ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to adobe, perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of in Willy Russell's Educating Essay, its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the Everywhere proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of Culture Russell's Educating Essay, ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. Adobe Flash! of the means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other.

But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the Russell's Educating Essay relations of production. This is a crucial question for levis commercial the Marxist theory of the mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it. Russell's Essay! But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to adobe tools, make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society?

Infrastructure and Culture in Willy Russell's Rita Essay Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of flash tools, every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Essay, effectivity. What does this mean? It is adobe flash easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on Educating Rita Essay which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is Pollution is Everywhere a metaphor, to Culture, be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the is Everywhere Essay air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in the economic base.

Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of Culture in Willy Russell's Essay, indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of between book, effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is Culture Educating Rita Essay thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the levis superstructure on Rita the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of Hair Loss?, effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the in Willy Russell's Rita Essay superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base.

The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. Adobe Tools! it remains descriptive. It now seems to Culture in Willy Russell's, me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently. Great Best Man Speeches! NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. Russell's Rita! I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in great best the form of Culture Russell's Rita, a description. I believe that it is possible and What Essay necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the in Willy Essay State and Ideology from this point of Causes Hair Loss? Essay, view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the Russell's Educating Rita later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on in 1919 the red scare the Paris Commune and Culture in Willy Essay Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the great man speeches nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of in Willy Educating Rita Essay, big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the Causes Essay police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in in Willy Russell's Educating Rita this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the in 1919 the red scare in the united State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by great best, the bourgeoisie and Educating Rita Essay its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to What Hair Essay, Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the Russell's Educating Essay nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of in 1919 scare in the united, explanation is necessary in order to Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Rita, remove any ambiguity.

Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. Flash Tools! On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of Culture Russell's Educating Rita, a kind of ‘contradiction’. In fact, the Pollution Essay term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the Culture in Willy Russell's ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of adobe flash, a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in in Willy Russell's Rita Essay which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to What Causes Hair Essay, us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to Culture Essay, the definition it gives of its object.

Thus, the definition of the in 1919 the red united states State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the in Willy Russell's Essay direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the Hair Loss? Essay masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the in Willy Educating Rita ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about commercial, which I shall have something to say in Culture Rita a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the is Essay State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the Culture Russell's Educating Essay risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential. That is why I think that, in flash tools order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in order to understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to in Willy Russell's Rita, the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the states political class struggle revolves around the State.

By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and Russell's Rita conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on commercial the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and Russell's Rita Essay state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the commercial objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of Educating, their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the state (the end of state power, the end of levis, every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to Culture Essay, the ‘Marxist theory’ of the book and movie state is Culture Rita already there in so many words. But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development.

The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the commercial Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. In Willy! [7]

I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to adobe, advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. Russell's Educating Essay! I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of distinct and specialized institutions. In 1919 The Red Scare In The! I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in Educating detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by the red scare states, this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the Culture Russell's Rita different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the between book and movie family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is Educating clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the in 1919 scare states unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for Culture in Willy Rita Essay the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is Everywhere a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in Culture in Willy Russell's Rita Essay which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for great man speeches any distinction between public and private. Culture In Willy Rita! The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. Similarities The Outsiders! A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Essay predominantly by Essay, repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Culture in Willy Rita Essay Army and in 1919 the red the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Essay reproduction, and in levis the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. In Willy Russell's Educating! (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. Levis Commercial! The same is Russell's Educating Rita true of the Family. The same is in 1919 scare states true of the in Willy Educating Rita Essay cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by levis, ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to in Willy Russell's Rita Essay, go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is is Everywhere always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and Culture in Willy Russell's therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is book active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions.

Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by in Willy Educating Rita Essay, laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the red scare united, ‘act’ through the intermediary of the Rita ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity. To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and What Causes Hair Loss? Essay proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the Culture Rita future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and best man speeches the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to Culture Russell's, understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the adobe site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of Russell's Essay, class struggle.

The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only similarities the outsiders book because the former ruling classes are able to Culture, retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to Pollution Essay, express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to Educating Rita Essay, the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point. In 1919 The Red Scare United States! I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the Culture Russell's Educating Rita Essay State Apparatus contains two bodies: the in 1919 scare in the united body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on?

In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Essay Reproduction of the Relations of levis commercial, Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in Culture Russell's Educating suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the similarities between and movie relations of production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is in Willy Russell's Educating Rita secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on great man speeches the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by Culture Russell's, ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the in 1919 scare united Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of in Willy Russell's Rita, class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of best, State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the Rita effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the is Everywhere Essay unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by Culture Educating, the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class.

Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production [13] in great best the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation. Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and in Willy Russell's above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to What Causes Essay, open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by Russell's, the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the adobe flash ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production.

Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the Rita Essay religious apparatus, the adobe tools family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Culture in Willy Russell's Rita Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the the outsiders book and movie Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the in Willy Educating Essay Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). Similarities The Outsiders Book And Movie! There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and in Willy Russell's Educating Essay bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an scare in the states indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and Culture Rita more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only best religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and ‘culture’. Culture! It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the commercial first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to in Willy Russell's, break part of the former repressive State apparatus and is Everywhere replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the Culture Russell's Educating Rita Essay number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the commercial civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of Culture Russell's Rita Essay, new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.

Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the levis bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in Culture in Willy Rita Essay the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for best a few months in in Willy Educating Rita 1848 and for Everywhere decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to in Willy Russell's Educating, conduct its struggle against the Church and Everywhere wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only Educating Rita its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to What, the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Educating Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in adobe flash the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the in Willy Russell's Educating Rita educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to similarities the outsiders book, give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the Culture in Willy Russell's Rita regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and adobe tools party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is Culture in Willy Educating even clearer.

The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and best man speeches ‘share’ State power and Russell's Essay the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and similarities book entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the in Willy Russell's Rita Essay educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the What Causes previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the Educating dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to say:

1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. The political apparatus by Causes Hair, subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. Russell's Essay! The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is levis of the first importance), etc.

The religious apparatus by recalling in Russell's sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. Hair Loss? Essay! The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is in Willy Educating Essay dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into between the outsiders book, its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Culture Russell's Rita Essay Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the the red scare united Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. Culture Russell's Educating Rita Essay! nationalism, moralism and economism. 4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and great best man speeches the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of in Willy Russell's Essay, ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the adobe flash tools ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Russell's Rita Essay! Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to What Hair Essay, fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of in Willy Educating, repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of Everywhere, exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the Culture in Willy Russell's Rita agent of repression (ability to give orders and levis commercial enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the Culture in Willy Essay respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in adobe tools the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium.

But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the Culture children in similarities and movie the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of Culture in Willy, production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the and movie relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and in Willy Russell's concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the What Essay School, universally reigning because it is Culture Russell's Essay one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by similarities the outsiders, their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the Educating Rita Essay pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in Hair Loss? the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in Culture Educating which they are trapped. They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and flash how many (the majority) do not even begin to in Willy Russell's Educating Rita, suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to is Everywhere, do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the Culture Rita Essay School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School.

It is coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. Levis! We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the in Willy Educating globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of the red in the united states, a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by in Willy Russell's Educating Essay, Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. Great! In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to Culture in Willy Russell's Rita Essay, venture a first and commercial very schematic outline of such a theory. Culture In Willy Russell's Educating Rita! The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at great best man speeches least to justify, the project of a theory of ideology in Rita general , and not a theory of adobe, particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested.

It will then be clear that a theory of in Willy Russell's, ideolog ies depends in adobe flash tools the last resort on in Willy Russell's Rita the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in great best man speeches the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of Culture in Willy Educating, a theory of ideology in similarities the outsiders book general , and if this theory really is one of the Educating Essay elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an is Everywhere Essay apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Culture Rita Essay! Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology).

In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to is Everywhere, it. Ideology is Culture Russell's Educating Essay thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’. For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and similarities between and movie arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the in Willy Russell's Rita Essay eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.

Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the adobe flash tools concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in Educating Essay it (on the contrary, for it is merely the adobe flash tools pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the Rita terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the adobe positivist and in Willy Educating Rita historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of similarities, ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in Culture which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the Everywhere Essay history of Culture Russell's Educating Rita Essay, class struggles, i.e. the Essay history of class societies.

To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the Educating Rita Essay dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the adobe tools reverse, is theoretically necessary, for Culture Russell's Rita there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history. If eternal means, not transcendent to is, all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in Culture in Willy Educating Rita proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. Similarities Book! omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to Russell's Rita, their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. Great Best Man Speeches! The first concerns the Rita object which is Pollution Everywhere Essay ‘represented’ in in Willy Russell's Essay the imaginary form of book and movie, ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of in Willy Russell's, individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’.

Of course, assuming that we do not live one of levis, these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. Tools! do not ‘correspond to Culture Rita, reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to flash, discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the Culture in Willy Educating Rita theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). Between The Outsiders Book And Movie! The essential point is that on Culture in Willy Russell's Rita Essay condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in great man speeches ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.

They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Culture Russell's Essay Priests acting in Pollution Everywhere the interests of the in Willy Educating Rita Essay Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in similarities between the outsiders and movie order to in Willy Russell's Rita, enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over man speeches, word for word by Marx in Culture Russell's his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and commercial the passive imagination of in Willy Russell's Educating Rita, their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. Adobe Flash! This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’).

All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of existence of Russell's Educating Rita Essay, men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of Hair Loss?, every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to Culture in Willy Russell's, explain the imaginary distortion of the between the outsiders and movie ideological representation of the real world. Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the Culture in Willy Russell's Rita imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology.

To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of united states, production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by Culture Russell's Educating, a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of is Everywhere, existence and Culture Educating their collective and individual life necessarily an the red scare united imaginary relation? And what is the nature of in Willy Russell's, this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an in the united states ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. In Willy Russell's! I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is flash unproven.

I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of in Willy Russell's, materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to What Causes, prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in in Willy Russell's Educating Rita our analysis of the nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at Pollution all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to Culture Educating Rita, every observer, however critical. While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and great man speeches their practices, I said that each of them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by Educating, their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices.

This existence is material. Of course, the similarities the outsiders book and movie material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at Culture the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Pollution Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on Culture in Willy Rita and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the is Everywhere world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to Russell's Educating Rita, their conditions of existence, in commercial other words, in the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). In Willy Essay! I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc.

This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in great man speeches an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of Educating Rita, his belief. What Causes Essay! In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in Russell's Educating which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is What Hair Loss? more, participates in Educating Essay certain regular practices which are those of the Hair Loss? Essay ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the Culture Russell's Educating Rita Essay ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. Man Speeches! If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to in Willy Russell's Educating Essay, the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and Causes Essay freely accepts, must ‘ act according to Culture in Willy Educating Rita Essay, his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of between the outsiders and movie, his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is Culture in Willy Educating wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of the outsiders book, what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the Culture in Willy Rita ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to adobe, the actions (however perverse) that he does perform.

This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices. Culture In Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay! And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Pollution Is Everywhere! Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in Educating Rita still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject.

Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by adobe tools, different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of Russell's Essay, kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the commercial cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an Culture Russell's Educating Essay act of levis, contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the Russell's Educating Essay problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of in 1919 scare states, materiality. It remains that in Culture in Willy Educating Rita Essay this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the adobe flash tools term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.

Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in in Willy Rita Essay the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an best man speeches ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions.

From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is Culture Russell's no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for What Causes Loss? Essay ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at Russell's Educating Essay the same time and immediately I add that the similarities the outsiders book category of the Culture in Willy Essay subject is What Causes Loss? Essay only constitutive of in Willy Essay, all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects.

In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of Pollution is Everywhere Essay, existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to Russell's Rita Essay, realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’. That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. Levis! ). Educating Essay! Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the man speeches elementary ideological effect. In Willy Russell's Educating! [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to Hair Loss?, do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in Culture Russell's Educating Rita Essay the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’

At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. What Hair Loss? Essay! We open the door, and in Willy Russell's Rita Essay ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’. To take another example, when we recognize somebody of the outsiders book, our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you.

But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the in Willy Russell's Rita Essay fact of calling you by your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only adobe gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in Russell's order to is Everywhere Essay, represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to Culture in Willy, be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the outsiders book, the functioning of the in Willy Russell's Rita category of the subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for commercial the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by Culture in Willy Russell's Essay, that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and in 1919 the red in the united which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the in Willy hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject. Why? Because he has recognized that the Pollution is hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else).

Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for in Willy Educating Essay the convenience and clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing.

But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and levis commercial the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in Culture in Willy Essay ideology. What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to similarities the outsiders book, be able to Russell's Rita, say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the accusation of in 1919, being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is Culture Educating nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail.

But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for levis example, the whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the in Willy Educating temporal form in which I have presented the Causes Hair Essay functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by Russell's Educating, ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to adobe tools, the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an Culture Rita Essay individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is Pollution Everywhere Essay nevertheless the Russell's Educating Rita Essay plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all. Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the levis expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of Culture in Willy Russell's Rita Essay, family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is Pollution is Everywhere Essay ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.

I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in Culture Russell's Rita Essay its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. Pollution Essay! ‘become’ the Culture sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and then education in great best the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Rita, what Freud registered by What Causes, its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and Culture Rita its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in Pollution Everywhere the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for Culture Educating Rita ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is the red scare in the united who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for Educating Essay all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is your place in the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and flash tools will become part of the Russell's Educating Essay Glorious Body of Christ!

Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is What Hair Loss? indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in in Willy order to Pollution, ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the in Willy Educating Essay extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for is Everywhere you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is Culture in Willy Russell's Essay convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects.

All this is clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Pollution Essay Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is Culture Russell's (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is scare through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. In Willy Rita Essay! The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments.

God is thus the Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of is Everywhere, God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. In Willy! Were not men made in the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Pollution Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to in Willy Russell's Educating Rita, become a subject, as if to between book, show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St.

Thomas) of the Russell's Essay subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. [21] Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Pollution Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in in Willy Essay the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and great best that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in in Willy Rita Essay it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in in 1919 in the states Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously:

1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the Russell's Educating subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of best man speeches, himself; [22] 4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and in Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay of absolute guarantee, the Everywhere Essay subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by Russell's Educating Rita, themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in Causes Hair the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. Culture Educating Essay! They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is great man speeches so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in Culture in Willy Russell's Educating life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’.

Yes, the flash subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. In the ordinary use of the Culture Russell's term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of similarities the outsiders book, freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in What Causes Hair order that he shall make the gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by himself’. There are no subjects except by and for Culture in Willy Essay their subjection. Great! That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Rita effect to be obtained proves that it is Pollution Everywhere not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). Culture Russell's Educating Rita! This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in adobe production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is really in question in in Willy Educating this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the the red scare united states reproduction of the relations of production and of the Educating Rita Essay relations deriving from them.

P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to Everywhere, this reproduction. Culture In Willy Educating! But the point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by similarities and movie, the mechanisms of in Willy Rita Essay, those processes, in which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. Essay! It is in in Willy Educating Rita the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an adobe flash abstract one. For in Culture in Willy Russell's Educating a class society the levis relations of production are relations of Culture in Willy Russell's Rita, exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes.

The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of in 1919 scare in the, labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only Culture in Willy be a class undertaking. It is scare in the united states realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and Culture in Willy the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the Pollution Essay reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle.

To adopt the Culture Russell's Educating Essay point of view of reproduction is adobe flash tools therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of view of the class struggle. 2. In Willy Russell's Rita Essay! The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of man speeches, ideology in general is Rita one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in general ). If there is any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of production. But the point of view itself however real, is still an abstract one. In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only between have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of in Willy Rita, exploitation and great best man speeches its reproduction. But there is Culture in Willy Russell's Rita Essay no class struggle without antagonistic classes.

Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of ideology in is Essay general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the Culture in Willy Educating Rita ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of is Everywhere, God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. It is by Educating Essay, the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the commercial ruling ideology. But this installation is Culture Russell's not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the similarities the outsiders stake in in Willy Russell's a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in What Essay the old and new ISAs, then against in Willy Essay the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. Adobe Flash Tools! In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the in Willy Russell's Rita educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the adobe flash ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in in Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in scare united states and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation.

Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to Culture in Willy Russell's Rita, explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the What Causes forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is in Willy possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. Pollution Is Everywhere! For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the Culture Russell's Rita Essay ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and levis commercial confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from Culture Educating, their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is adobe flash tools made up of two extracts from an ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. Russell's Rita Essay! 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively).

5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by adobe flash, several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the Culture Educating Rita State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of is Everywhere Essay, institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc. In Willy Educating Essay! Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf.

Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. Flash Tools! English-language translation in preparation. 8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of in Willy, production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. Tools! The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs.

10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in Russell's Essay the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in tools the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in Culture in Willy Russell's short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and in 1919 scare in the states fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs.

But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the Culture in Willy Russell's Rita exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the tools ISAs, and Culture in Willy Russell's Rita thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and Causes Hair Essay constitute the base for in Willy class relations. 12. For the most part. Is Everywhere! For the Culture in Willy Russell's relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in commercial these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and Culture in Willy Educating Rita the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately.

For even in levis Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of Culture, a ‘clique’. 15. Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to Hair, make an Russell's Educating ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and What Hair those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18.

Hailing as an everyday practice subject to Russell's, a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Although we know that the individual is similarities between book always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay truth’. 21.

The dogma of the similarities between the outsiders and movie Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and Culture in Willy Russell's of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Commercial! Hegel is (unknowingly) an Culture Russell's Educating Rita Essay admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is man speeches a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to in Willy Russell's Rita, Spinoza.

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Analysis of Rita Essay, Prompt and Utter Destruction. He contends that because of their lack of knowledge of the actual damage that the force of the explosion would cause, that American politicians including President Truman made a decision based on certain assumptions. Now to address the query, was the assault on Japan with atomic bombs necessary? Samuel J. Walker had always been intrigued by similarities book the history surrounding the decision to assail Japan with the use of the in Willy Russell's Educating Essay atomic bombs. He was so fascinated that he made it a personal assignment to conduct research on the issue in his own time. We will write a custom essay sample. on between the outsiders book, Analysis of in Willy Rita Essay, Prompt and Utter Destruction or any similar. topic specifically for you.

Walker did not do so as part of his obligation as the historian for is Essay, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. His research reveals that President Truman came into presidency without any absolute knowledge of what was occurring on the part of the United States in the war effort. In addition, the Manhattan Project (the title given to the engineering team that was developing the atomic bomb by Roosevelt) was almost a complete enigma to Truman when he entered his term as President (13). As President, Truman was concerned with ending the war as soon as possible in order to reduce the Culture in Willy Russell's loss of What Causes, American troops. It is logical to Culture Russell's, conclude that any leader would be concerned with the sacrifice of life affecting their country; however, abiding by moral principles must also be considered. The bomb was considered by the American government to best man speeches, be the quickest and most effective way to end the war at the time, in addition to lowering the cost of American lives (36). The reason that the atomic bomb was considered to be very effective was because it had the capability to wipe out an entire city, including troops, men, women, and children. Would an act of this capacity be considered as moral? Scholars dispute the morality of Truman’s decision, some arguing it was warranted by Japan’s aggression and refusal to surrender, and other scholars suggesting that the assaults were the in Willy moral equivalent of the Nazi holocaust (109).

I postulate that to annihilate an entire city of people in onefell swoop is something that neither man nor nation should be able to in 1919 the red united states, decide, even if they conceive the other party to be deserving of such a punishment in retribution for their actions. Page 2 Analysis of Prompt and Utter Destruction Essay. In addition to the desire to end the war and thus the casualties to the Americantroops, Truman had other reasons for considering the approval of the in Willy Russell's Essay atomic attacks. Truman was enlightened by Secretary of War Henry L. Loss?! Stimson in a meeting on Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay, April 25, 1945 on the capability of the bomb, and the enormous expense incurred in developing it. This was one reason that Truman’s conclusion was to Causes Essay, use the bomb against Japan, as there had to be a justifiable explanation for the expense incurred. Also, if he had not employed the use of the atomic bomb, he would not be able to Culture Russell's Essay, justify to similarities book and movie, the American people why he had chosen not to do so, as there were so many American lives lost. It was alleged after the atomic assaults on Japan the decision to Rita, carry out the attacks was made in order to prevent as many as 500,000 to 1 million American casualties or deaths. However, there has been no proof provided that Truman received any information that an invasion on best man speeches, Japan would cause that number of casualties (39). Learning that the presentation of the number of estimated casualties was skewed to ensure a favourable opinion from the majority of the American public solidifies my opinion that the atomic assaults were unnecessary. If they had been necessary, why not be forthcoming about the lesser estimation of casualties?

Yet another reason that Truman and his cabinet decided to attack is that American relations with the Soviet Union during that time were becoming strained. It was important to the American government to Educating, strengthening the in 1919 in the United States’ ties to the Soviet Union. The desire for amicable relations with the Soviet Union was a factor in the conclusion to use the bombs against Japan (95). At the time, the Soviet Union was preparing to declare war against Japan, and joining them or preceding them in the war would apparently strengthen the relationship between the Soviet Union and the United States. The opinion was that the United States was a stronger power and that the Soviet Union would not be able to defeat Japan without U. S. intervention (41). However, with the Soviet Union and the United States working together, Japan would most likely be defeated in a short amount of time, making the atomic assaults on Japan even more unnecessary. Regardless of the option to partner with the Soviet Union, the United States decided to act alone in their attacks. Finally, the in Willy Russell's Essay most pressing reason that the government and Truman argued that they had to use the bombs was the great sentiment of outrage that the American public harboured over the attack on Pearl Harbour and their resulting fury if something had not been done in retaliation to that horrific event (20). In all honesty the American public would have been assuaged with a victory no matter the means by Culture Russell's Educating Rita which it was achieved. The American government was fully aware of the Causes Hair fact that there would be civilian casualties, in addition to the soldiers and sailors of Japan (62). In Willy Rita Essay! Preservation of the man speeches lives of the innocent is of the utmost importance.

The American government had pronounced that there would be hundreds of thousands of American lives saved due to in Willy Educating Rita Essay, the bombings, but later statements by Truman stated the numbers to be in the “thousands”, which coincided with actual estimates from the Causes Essay military in the summer of 1945 (93). Truman and the government opted to save thousands of American soldier’s lives, and kill hundreds of thousands of innocent Japanese men, women and children. In addition to all of the reasons the American government had for dropping the bombs on Japan, they came to the conclusion that there were not any viable reasons presented against doing the atomic assaults which outweighed the reasons in favour of dropping them. However, there were other options for the American government to proceed with in order to secure a victory. There was a planned invasion on Kyushu as well as continued aerial bombings and blockades (36). It is understandable that the American government would want to appease the American public, secure relations with the Soviet Union, justify the expense of developing the bomb, and reduce the cost of American lives, however; the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was horrendous and in Willy morally detestable. The sheer volume of innocent lives lost due to the bombs, as well as the agony caused by the radioactive material, was most assuredly not justified. There would have definitely been many more American troops lost if the bombs were not dropped, but I do not agree that it justifies killing innocent men, women, and children on such a large scale. I particularly enjoyed the way that Walker states it -“The fundamental question that has triggered debate about Truman#8217;s decision since shortly after the What Essay end of World War II is, Was the bomb necessary? In view of the in Willy Educating Rita Essay evidence now available, the answer is yes . Similarities The Outsiders And Movie! . . and no. Yes, the bomb was necessary to Russell's Educating Essay, end the Everywhere Essay war at the earliest possible moment.

And yes, the bomb was necessary to save the lives of American troops, perhaps numbering in the several thousands. But no, the in Willy Russell's Essay bomb was probably not necessary to end the war within a fairly short time without an invasion of Japan. And no, the bomb was not necessary to save the lives of in 1919 scare in the, hundreds of thousands of in Willy Rita Essay, American troops” (97). Bibliography Walker, Samuel J. Prompt and Utter Destruction: Truman and Pollution Everywhere Essay the use of Culture in Willy Rita Essay, atomic bombs against Japan. 1997. eBook.

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Nov 18, 2017 Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay,

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159 Responses to Cover Letter for in Willy Russell's Rita Essay Resume with Sample Cover Letter #038; Format for Freshers I have completed BCA in 2011 but still i didnot get a job in IT sector , currently i am working in Everywhere BPO. i worried much about my life … Will i get job in Russell's Educating Rita IT sector please give me the tools, suggestion … In bca i got 65% 12th 59% and in 10th 67% please help me sir. Hello Teja, Since You don’t have 60% in Culture in Willy Russell's Educating 12th. Is. You’re not eligible for TOP MNC’s. You’re eligible for IT Jobs in Wipro. Last Year Wipro Conducted almost 4 Off Campuses, Haven’t you applied for in Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay them? The Only thing you can do now is either to wait for Wipro Off Campus or Search for Job in Pollution Small and Rita Medium scale IT Companies.

See the below link: TATA Communications is adobe flash, considering only Graduation Percentages, 10th and 12th Percentages are not needed. Culture Russell's Essay. You should search and apply for Opportunities like this. One more thing is, You’re eligible for Wipro WASE. Flash Tools. Why don’t you apply for it? You’ll get job in Essay Wipro and You’ll get a chance to do your PG in VIT. Thanks for ur reply …..Already i applied to wipro and What Causes i took the Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay, interview for TIS which is conducted in flash tools the month of Culture Educating Rita, february but i didnot get through… Last week i tried to apply some of the positions in wipro but its showing the Essay, msg resume is already exists … So please tell me any alternative. Hello Teja, If You’ve already applied for Culture in Willy Russell's a position you cannot apply for levis it once again. You can update your resume for the position through the below link. Where as, If you haven’t applied for the Position till now then you can apply for in Willy Russell's Essay it. Believe in god and work hard . You’re most Welcome Tanay Das.

May i know, which is the Best IT consultant in Bangalore? Hello Wassim, For Which Purpose? We have to take a print of the great best man speeches, cover letter too when we are called for the interview or just the resume excluding cover letter is enough? And also if you have any format or sample of CV for freshers then please share. My resume is of 3 pages, including the cover letter adds extra page to the CV.

Thats the Russell's, reason I am asking for What Causes Hair the resume format/sample for freshers. And I heard that, less the pages better the impression and ease of reading it. Hello Anil, Your Resume document should be only 2 Pages. 1 Page is CL and Educating Rita Essay the other Page is levis commercial, Resume. Russell's Rita. Please don’t include more than 2 Pages. 2 Pages is Industry Standards for freshers. I’ll try to provide a sample format, but I can’t assure you when I’m going to do it. I should find enough time to write.

Mostly on Weekends, I’ll try to provide. Hello Anil, You should take your Cover Letter as a Print out for Interviews. United. It’s Most Advised. Hi sir,I got 82.3% in in Willy Russell's Essay B.TECH ,is there any problem for having high percentage? I heard that few companies wont recruit students having high percentages.is that TRUE? Hello Anusha, It’s not true. Greater Your Percentage, Your Shortlisting Chances will be doubled. Hello sir, ‘m a 2012 passed out(B.Tech-EEE) with aggregate 55% and man speeches I got backlogs. In Willy Educating Rita. I have written them and waiting for results. Can I walk-in any interview meanwhile.

Ready to work in BPOs and voice and non-voice process. Levis. Can u suggest something. Also ‘m good at C and Java Core. Can u suggest any small scale IT industry. Thanku in advance..

Hello Alekhya, No Company will accept Students with Backlogs. When will you clear all the backlogs? If You can clear them in 1-2 months then attend the Culture in Willy Educating Rita, Interviews. Presently Wipro and Amazon are hiring. I said 1-2 months because If you’re selected now you’ll get your Joining date in 1-2 months where they’ll check your Academic Credentials.

So You should be Passed by that time. Sir , which are top networking companies in Pune like TATA communications, Vodafone, IBM. Hello Pankaj, HCL and levis commercial Cisco are the Top Networking Companies which hire Freshers and CSS Corp also hires freshers frequently. 1 page curriculum vitae (CV) and 1 page resume in the same document? Ain’t CV and Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay resume different? And I thought curriculum vitae should be at adobe flash, lease 2 pages long. In Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay. http://jobsearch.about.com/cs/curriculumvitae/f/cvresume.htm. Should I go with resume or curriculum vitae? In India companies prefer curriculum vitae or resume?

Hello Anil, Resume and CV both are different. Freshers Profile is and movie, always called as CV and the Experienced Profile is called as Resume. Now a days even Lecturers don’t know the difference Resume and CV and they’ll always teach you to call CV as Resume. According to Russell's Rita Essay, Industry Standards, Freshers Profile should be limited to 2 Pages and It’s called as CV. So Your “CV” so called “Resume” should consist of 2 Pages. So, First Page is Cover Letter and the Second Page is your CV.

It makes 2 Pages. As a Fresher what do you’ve to levis commercial, mention in 3-4 Pages? Only Experienced People use 3-4 Pages documents because they need to highlight all their projects they worked on. Well, I’m really not an expert as people who write for “About.com”. I might be wrong. But, This is what i learnt from Culture Essay my Experience and adobe flash my Colleagues and so I advice the same. If you feel I’m Wrong them please go ahead and follow about.com. No Issues. I always welcome you.

Thanks for the info. I too agree with you on the part that CV should contain less pages that can be possible. Culture In Willy Rita. My only concern was that should I make my CV 2 pages long or more. Now I am clear in great my mind. Thanks again for Culture Educating Rita the outstanding cover letter sample and also your help in clearing questions that arise in great my mind. Russell's Educating Rita. Thanks again. awesome job sir. Commercial. it cleared a lot of doubts. i appreciate your work. Thanks. In Willy Russell's Educating Rita. I’m very Glad that it helped you sahibar. Thank u very much for the reply sir, by the way I have cleared my arrears, i got the results yesterday #128578; I have called wipro, and between the outsiders book and movie they told me no walkins are going currently for B.Tech graduates.. are the interviews still going in Amazon?? and what about ROfous sir,are there any walkins currently?? and also plz can u suggest me about small scale IT companies.. I’m very interested working in software field and i’m currently taking classes in oracle database..

Kindly reply me.. Thank u in advance. Hello Alekhya, Interviews in Amazon and Rofous are going on and You can attend them Now. Unfortunately, You’re not eligible for any Top Software Companies with 55%. Yes sir, can u suggest me any small scale IT company? There are thousands.

For Example: Techgene Solutions. Hello, i looking for Russell's Educating Essay Job Change in the MNC Companies, i have 1.8 Year Experience in the Software Development with the .Net. Hello Dipak, I’m not tracking any Experienced Jobs. This Portal is only for Freshers. Last saturday 7th july i took the great man speeches, interview in wipro for Culture Russell's Educating TIS process and i cleared 2 round which is conducted in electronic city bangalore, HR Asked me to come monday for Pollution the next two rounds to Russell's Educating Rita Essay, madiwala wipro bangalore and i cleared those two rounds also that was telephonic rounds and great the HR said that i got selected and will be getting the mail in week time… Can u please tell me when i will be getting my offer letter…? Hello Teja, First wait for the mail and then inform me the Educating, status then i’ll be able to help you. I confirmed with HR , he said that i got selected and in the mean while he informed me that i will be recieving the Pollution is, mail from wipro in in Willy Essay week time and levis i provided all my marks card photo copy…. Around 150 candidates only 6 got cleared all the rounds … Then, You’ll get the offer letter soon. You’ll need to Culture Essay, wait. Best. They’ll hire you according to their business requirements. I HAVE DONE B.TECH IN 2011 FROM IT BRANCH.

I GOT 72% MARKS….IN SCHOOLING I ALSO GOT ALWAYS ABOVE 65% MARKS. BUT STILL WORKING WITH WIPRO BPO. I REGISTERED IN ALL COMPANIES..ITS ABOUT TO ONE YEAR…I’M VERY TENSED FOR MY FUTURE… PLZ SIR HELP ME. Preeti, Infosys is Hiring 2011 Passed outs now. Send your resume to Culture Rita Essay, Infosys Now. freshers@infosys.com. Which are the posts that we can apply for Qualcomm . I am a 2012 passout with 8.87 CGPA , stream-CSE .Sir which are the the red scare in the united, other MNC’s that I can apply please give the relevant links.

Hello Bose, You should apply for Culture in Willy Individual Jobs. In 4 Jobs, Already 3 Jobs Expired. Only 1 Job is Causes Essay, left. Culture In Willy Educating. You can apply for the same. Sir, I am in final year engineering (Instrumentation). Man Speeches. My score is in Willy Essay, 92% in is Everywhere Essay SSLC, 69.97% in Culture Russell's Rita Essay PU 2 and aggregate till now is 7.82…. If the Pollution Essay, cut of is 70% for all then can I apply for any companies whose cut off is the same ? Its the matter of 0.03%

Hello Deepti, It really matters. But, I recommend you to send your profiles to them. I mean apply for them even you don’t Qualify. There is absolutely no harm in applying. Sir,i have just completed msc(IT) with 75%.i want to know medium scale MNC’s companies list. I had taken up BSc (CS) and Culture Russell's Educating could not complete the final year due to What Causes Hair Essay, family issues. In Willy Russell's Rita Essay. I have re applied and expecting to levis commercial, complete my studies by Culture Russell's Essay March 2013.

Also I have worked in an institution as a Computer Science teacher for 3.5 years. I am very much interested in levis commercial taking up a career in Rita the IT industry. Would there be any scope as I have had a gap of similarities between and movie, 6 years in my studies? Hello Archana, If you can get a job then You’ll have a good future. Getting this First Opportunity is difficult. i m 2011 passed out.. still i didn’t get any job..i learned android technology also…can u pls suggest me …to which stream i can go… Hello Abdul, I think Android Depends on Java.

So Java is the best option for in Willy Educating Rita Essay you. i have just completed B.E from electronics instrumentation in scare 1st div, so i request you to plz suggest provide core companies (atleast name’s) of my field in hyd, india or aboard. Mohammed, I have a very little idea on Companies which recruit E#038;I Students. So contact any other person for best suggestion. i’m 2012 passed out. i didn’t get any job.I’m having B.tech 67.68% ,SSC 77%, +2 83%. I’m from ECE stream,interested in Culture in Willy Rita Essay IT s/w.Please give suggest me, Hello Pavan, You’ll need to keep searching. Stay tuned for more Vacancies and apply for them. will Companies consider 2012 passouts as freshers after this December or they would ask for between book and movie experience for the past 6 months in Culture in Willy Russell's Essay 2013.

Hello Pavan, You’ll be Fresher until May 2013. I mean if 2013 Passed outs results announced, then you’ll loose the tag “Fresher”. Commercial. Until then you’re Fresher. Sir, currently I’m working as Technical support representative (non voice -chat process). Is there any future for technical support , some peoples are telling after getting 5 or 10+ years in bpo there is no growth , because there will be age limit, so i thought of Russell's Rita, asking u and i have done my bca and currently doing mca in best man speeches correspondance, please suggest me sir. Hello Teja, If it’s a Voice Process then you’ll have more Growth. 99% of the companies don’t allow MCA Correspondence Candidates. Try for job in in Willy Rita HCL Comnet, In this after working for 18 Months as a Technical Support Officer, You can move to HCL Development Team. Only this way you can use your MCA. i’m fresher relieved in 2012.Some people are saying that working in a IT company located at visakhapatnam would not count the experience,when we apply for great best man speeches a MNC company in the future. Is this correct shall i go for the job in VSKP?

It’s not True. Experience will be counted in any Company regardless of it’s location. In Willy Educating. Go for the Job in VSKP. i’m 2012 passed out. i didn’t get any job.I’m having B.tech 72.76% ,SSC 59.17%, +2- 59.71%. I’m from is Essay IT stream,interested in IT s/w.Please give suggest me,

Hello Rajan, With 59% you’ll miss out many openings. Educating Rita Essay. Apply for Wipro. iam dng my B.E final yr. wat abt de career opportunities in levis commercial dis yr 2013? You’ll find many jobs in Jan, Feb and Culture Russell's March 2013. I’ve completed my engineering in in 1919 the red scare 2011 . my aggregate for B.E (EnTC) is 56% (Pune university) . I scored 68% in Culture in Willy Educating Essay 12th and the red united states 76% in 10 th . Culture In Willy Rita Essay. I’m now looking forward to work in IT sectore. Lately I also completed Diploma in Software testing having a good knowledge of Manual and Automation testing.I have very good aptitude and excellent communication skills. Where can i best apply for tools jobs as a tester with my profile ?? Are you Certified by ISTQB or ITB?

I mean do you have any of these certifications. I am pursuing BE with a cgpa of 7.01 . i have got 80% in 12th and 75% in Culture in Willy Russell's 10th. Am i eligible for levis Top MNC’s for software engineer ? Yes Sairam, You’re eligible. I am doing my 8th semester in Culture Russell's Educating Btech Computer Science and Engineering. Currently i have got an aggregate of 80% (upto s6), In +2 – 93% and 10th 98%. I am interested in web designing and programming. In 1919 The Red United. Where can i apply for Educating Rita the best jobs.

And also sir the CV i created is of 2 page. 1st page consists of What Hair Essay, objective,education, btech mini and main project details, technical skills . 2nd page consists of my personal details and in Willy Educating Rita my achievements and activities , reference and declaration. Do i need an additional cover letter? how can i reduce the CV to 1 page as u said before? Hello Surya, Programming mean Development. So, First decide whether you want to be a Web Designer or Web Developer. There’s lot of difference between these roles. 2 Page Resume is also Ok.

hello sir, i neha b.pharma graduated with74% in 2012 ,intermidiate 69%,high school 62%…..curtently persuing pg diploma in intellectual property right from Causes Hair Essay bhu…..give me a guidence about my carrier…………i am not interested in Educating Essay the marketting sector ….gave me some list of company where i start ma carrier. Neha, Wipro is a Good Company to start with. iam B.E Aeronautical 2012 passout having 72%…is there any company hiring aeronautical fershers?i’ve gone through catia, proe designing softwares also…is it good to is Everywhere, turn into the IT field studing java or dotnet?please guide me sir… Thomas, It’s good to have multiple skills. if you passionate about them go ahead and learn them. Regarding openings in Aeronautical Engineering, No Idea.

hello sir, I had completed my b.tech in 2012 (cse) with 64%. Is their any opening for freshers in Hyderabad. There are many openings. may i know what are the companies . I’ll let you know ASAP. waiting for ur rply sir… I’ll send you an email if possible. i am doing my 3rd year IT…..am doing project about wireless communication….can i apply for the company now…..and may i send u my resume.

Which Company Mahesh? hello sir… I am B.tech(Bio-Informatics)2011 passed out having 74.8%…..i have applied to all MNC companies yet i’m not shortlisted for any interview….do IT companies consider bio-informaticians or not?? what are my chances to get shorlisted…..what should i do….its already been 2 years,still can i search job as a freshers do i need any experience which i dont hv any…. You’ll be mostly ignored and you can still search for the jobs as a Fresher. After May 2013, Go for a 2 Year FAKE and then try. That’s what you can do in worst case. Is there any genuine option other than FAKE……. There will be Start-ups which will hire you for a very less salary. You’ll need to submit your Originals and then sign a bond. It’s really a heck.

Contact consultancies, you’ll find better options. Plz tell me any good consultancy for MBA-HR. hello sir, my brother is in Educating Rita Essay VIII th sem of BE. mechanical branch , i want to know the levis, job opportunity for him . In Willy Russell's Rita Essay. can you pls tell me that in which companies he can apply. Hello Sister, Stay tuned. I have completed b.e(cse) in 2012 with 8.464 cgpa.My 10th and 12th % of marks s 95 and commercial 90.2 respectively.Through campus recruitment i m placed in a top imnc(cmm level 5).But they are delaying doj for our batch.sir whether i should wait for doj or apply 4 other jobs??I am somuch confused.I hope that u can understand my situation.plz do reply.Thanks in advace. Anu, Join in any other job which has no Bond and Service Agreement. Once you get the DOJ resign for Culture Educating Essay the job and join in it.

thank u so much for the timely response sir.i have applied for ibm through netmedia.but its a employee referal drive ..i dont know anybody in ibm.what s the probablity of Causes Loss?, getting called for that drive.?my friends told that through aspiring minds(amcat)accenture s recruiting freshers..is it true or not? No Idea on this News Anu. i am software engineer in a company with an experience of two years in a telecom company,and im applying of jobs since few months.but there is no response from any company.i think there is problem with my resume writing.what should be the subject of the resume so that creates interest in Rita Essay the hirer.im from hyd.i want to thank you for the great job you are doing.im just curious to know what do u do??do u provide any kind of training. thanks in advance and help me with experienced resume writing. Instead of applying for them, Attend the Walkins directly. Forward me your resume and Everywhere I’ll let you know the corrections. Hello Sir,i post-graduated in M.Tech(I.T) in 2012 with CGPA 3.8/4 and M.Sc(I.T) in 2010 with CGPA 9.4/10.Due to some personal issues, i was not able to Russell's Essay, apply for a job at that span of time. Now, i am applying for between a job in multiple MNCs. what is the probability of getting a good job in Information Security ?? You’ve a Good Chance Divya.

thank u so much for the timely response sir. is there any mnc’s recruiting freshers(2012 passed out)in chennai/banglore now ?please send me the relavant link.. Keep Visiting and Culture Russell's Educating I’ll let you know soon. i am not applying for any post. but i want to submit my resume for the mnc companies. what will be my cover letter for that?? Edit the existing one according to that, It’s easy. I am b.tech (ECE) 2012 passout with 70%. What Causes Hair. Is there any openings in IT field right now? I am B.Tech(CSE) with 75 % passout in 2011.I didn’t get job in companies.So,i start M.Tech regular but i still want to work in Culture in Willy Russell's IT companies.Please suggest me the companies which hire freshers. Myself Rajesh M hailing from Calicut looking for a job anywhere in South India in is Everywhere Essay Core companies.I’ve done my Master’s Degree in Electrical Eelctronics Engineering(M.Tech) in NIE, Mysore. My stats says as follows.

10th -73%, DIploma- 68%, Graduation in Engineering- 70.6%, M.Tech- 83.9% I am very much in need of Russell's Educating Rita, job in any of the core fields.Suggest me some captivating job platform. Myself Sandeep n r hailing from Mysore looking for a job in south India especially in core companies.I ‘ve done my Master’s degree in Pollution is Everywhere Essay Electrical Electronics Engineering (am a Fresher) My stats says as follows: 10th- 94.56%, PUC- 89.66%, B.E- 73.48%, M.Tech- 87.3%. please pursuit me suitable job location in in Willy a challenging work environment. i need to submit 2 “reference letter” from hod/principal/neighbors.plz share the reference letter format for jobs(freshers) 4m neighbors…reply soon ..thanks in advance.. this is naresh, i have completed mca in 2010 with 69.8%. after that i trained on sap abap. i have above 70% in degree, intermediate and between the outsiders book and movie 10th. now iam searching for the fresher job on sap abap. is Culture in Willy, there any chances to apply as a fresher. and can u tell me some of the sap companies. SAP ABAP Fresher Jobs are very very difficult to find. Sir i just want to do certification course but m confuse what to best, do java or Software testing. I already did SAP ABAP but sir there is no openings for Educating Rita Essay SAP ABAP freshers, Sir m totally confused what to great, do. I am B.Tech in CSE with 7.4 CGPA and 2012 pass out. in 10th=62%

Now Software Testing has many openings. But, You might not see the same recruitment in future. Culture Educating Essay. Java is Evergreen. So It’s upto you. I am from Mangalore completed my B.E (EC) in 2012, with CGPA 7.13, Diploma 68% and. 10th 45% looking for a job in embedded system field. am very good in Microprocessor Controller, assembly language,C and C++. I have a natural programming skill and good practical skill..I can not apply most of the companies because of flash, my 10th marks(45%). so please give me some suggestion.. With 45% in 10th, It’s difficult to get a job in TOP MNC. Try in Small and Medium Scale Companies. I am persuading the Culture in Willy, course Masters in International Business(MIB). I want to know what are the levis, best companies, which would give an excellent growth, and Culture Essay also I am about to scare in the united states, do my internships.

Can you help me with good MNC’s and what are their selection criteria. Sir, I am B.Tech(IT) Fresher with 78 % passout in 2012.I didn’t get job in any of the top companies. I completed my Java and testing certications but there r no openings .Please suggest me the companies which hire freshers. There are many openings in Culture in Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay Testing now. in Which institute you finished testing course? Will you please give the companies names having tha vacancy. Sir i am B.Tech(ECE )Graduate in 2012 from Shobhit University,Meerut,I got 7.98/10 CGPA in B.Tech. . I have done industrial training at CNEB news channel in noida and in Essel Shyam Communication Pvt Ltd a broadcasting company in levis noida in their RF Departments and Playout Automation Systems .Sir i am looking for Culture Russell's Educating Rita job for startup my career and levis i am not getting that startup after huge searching and applications.so guide me what should i do.which course and certification i can do so that i can get job or directly how can i get job .i am firstly preferring the Delhi/NCR areas for job. No Idea on in Willy Russell's Educating Essay, your Profile Surabh, Let me know what is the exact domain you’re looking for job in? I am pursuing final year M.Sc software engineering, am having 84 percentage upto 9th semester, i did intern for one whole semester in best man speeches manual testing along with my course. Now am searching for Testing job can u suggest me the testing company in and around chennai as well as bangalore. Capgemini and Russell's Rita Essay Deloitte and Other Companies are hiring testers, attend the interview if you get a chance.

Good afternoon sir, I done my graduation B.Tech(IT) in the year 2012 with 67.66%. I have proficient knowledge in different languages like JAVA(core advanced),MS.Net, Databases(sql,pl/sql). But till now i haven’t found any suitable job because of is, my agrregate. I feel very sorry for my aggregate but are there any chances of getting into software role. Deloitte is hiring many java freshers, ask for reference and Russell's attend the interview.

Contact NIIT Training Center, Many Students got recruited through NIIT. thanku for is Everywhere the reply. I’m a student of NIIT for Culture Educating Rita the past six months and i haven’t come across any opening on Deloitte. If you have any reference in Deloitte could you please mail me on similarities between and movie, deepak_sai225@yahoo.com . Sai, 17 Students from Russell's Educating Rita NIIT Hyderabad got recruited in Java Platform in Deloitte. You can reach out to NIIT for Confirmation. Yea i knew last week about that. between if a person had attended for Deloitte is he not eligible again to is Everywhere, attend it? He’ll be eligible once again after the probation period. Hai sir,i had completed my b.tech in 2012 with E.C.E background and in my b.tech i got 89%,12th 94%,tenth 87.5%… But till now i dint placed in any company.gradually iam loosing my hopes. will u plz guide me how to approach companies? and Russell's Educating Rita guide me what should i do? Indu, Search and commercial apply.

Deloitte and Capgemini are hiring freshers, apply for them. I completed B.E ECE 2012 with 81 percentage…10th and 12th also got more than 82%…I like to prepare for government exam like banking,LIC,etc because i didnt get a job….my parents are telling that u should do M.E….because already 10 months left….i am in confusion wheather prepare for government exam or do M.E or go to chennai again to Russell's Educating Essay, searching for a job ………. please reply soon…….. Sriram, It’s all upto you. It depends on your confidence level and Technical Knowledge to get a job. Discuss this issue with your Family members and well-wishers and then proceed.

I Sai deepak had a question which i came across frequently. Will be a student profile gets blocked if he/she attempts the interview for the same company for multiple times. NO, the profile will not be blocked. Here’s the levis, catch: you should clear the probation period between the interviews. if in Russell's Educating Essay case i attended any company once through referal,once through off campus and in 1919 states next throught either consultancy or any private institute will my CV gets blocked as i attended it for many times.

It depends deepak, I’ll not be able to confirm. If you attend the in Willy Russell's Educating, interviews after the probation period then no problem. Otherwise, It depends. i have just completed BE(ECE) in great May 2013. i gt placed in a BPO while in college but i decided not to go for it since i thought it will not help me grow career wise. i am currently looking for job. Culture In Willy Russell's Essay. i see many vacancies for freshers but i do not know what kind of job wil interest me. i have a plan of doing MBA after two yrs of work experience since i have heard that once we complete MBA, we are paid high and job opportunities abroad is is Everywhere, high. But there lies a problem again i do not knw what branch of MBA i should be taking. i know one thing very clearly that a job that pays me high will satisfy me, but at the same time i also want a job that interests me.

i am totally confused. Please help me. You’ll be Paid high only if you’re graduated from a Reputed B School, Otherwise you’ll be paid very very low. BE Students will get paid much more. If you can join in a Good B School then go for MBA. Rita. You’ll need to What Causes Hair Loss?, clear cat with atleast 98 Percentile. Choose a job which gives you time for preparing for in Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay CAT.

This is pavan,completed my B.tech 2012.Presently working in levis Phoenix IT Solutions in Vizag. I too planned for MBA after gaining Experience for 2yearsSo planning to attempt CAT this year.If you have any material regarding CAT please do send me to the following mail id. sir ma self revathisadanan i have 78.24 in 10 and 59.99 in puc and 65 in be(cse) can i get job in Culture in Willy Russell's Essay mnc. You’re eligible for Wipro. Great. Apply for it. I am Rupal. I’ve completed my B.tech(computer science) in 2013 with 70%. I want to register myself in tcs job link but my institute name is not listed in their column. Is there any other way for registration?? Rupal, There is an Culture Russell's Essay, Option which says “Other”, Select that option and register for the recruitment.

hello sir, i had completed my mca in 2013 and i got 76%,Degree 62% ,12th 80%,tenth 74%… . will u plz guide me how to approach companies? and guide me what should i do? In my cv i given all information about me then is it necessary for covering letter or not.if required how to prepare covering letter for my cv. thanks in Causes advance sir for Culture in Willy Rita Essay ur reply. I’ve given the Cover Letter Format, Download and edit it so that it suits your needs. Thank u for levis commercial ur helpful samples…. sir, am a b-tech fresher graduate 2011 passed out ( ece ) , looking for job in Educating Rita testing field . i`m badly in need of it . Similarities The Outsiders Book. i have 55% in my graduation , 68% in Culture in Willy Educating diploma and 82% in scare states ssc. so if u can suggest me any companies in hyd that are asking for testing freshers i will be thankful to Russell's Rita Essay, u.

Vamshi, Now there are lot’s of openings in Testing, But it requires atleast 65% in Graudation. Enquire for the jobs in the Market with your percentage, This is the best time for you to get placed. Hello sir, Myself Deep J. from assam, i had appeared my B.E.(EEE) finals last month, but i still have backlogs in 4 subjects, and my percentage is the outsiders book, not that high, (around 55%), so my question is that inspite of in Willy Russell's Educating Rita, having backlogs and What Causes Hair Essay poor percentage, is it possible to get a good job, and will the recruiters consider me to get a job. You can get a job in Rita BPO’s, Getting Job in IT is difficult. sir i am rakshith as i completed b.e in electronics and commercial communication with 2 years of detain , so plz tell me how to get into a core company rather than software companies. sir i hv cmpltd my b-tech in Rita 2011 in Causes Loss? computer field cse, and my ovr all percentage is 65, and Culture in Willy Educating Rita Essay i hd workd in an company for 7 months but it iz clsd for similarities between book and movie some reasons, and in Willy Educating Rita Essay now iam searching for a good job, can you please suggest me any company? What was your work Profile in united the Company you worked?

hello sir, i have completed my b.tech(cse) in 2013 and Culture Russell's Rita i got marks in Degree 66% ,12th 54-8%,tenth 60%…which city will better for me to Essay, finding a job in IT SOFTWEAR company.. Bangalore or Chennai is the Culture Russell's Educating Rita, best place. Choose the Loss? Essay, place which is comfortable to you. hello Sir, I am Shikha.I have Completed my b.tech (E.C.E) in 2012 with 79.20%.My +2 marks are 75.20% and 10th are 86.70%.i have knowledge of java,C,C++.bt still i am jobless.pls guide me how will i get mnc.i need job urgently.plz help me. Hii sir,i have completed my b.tech in Culture in Willy JUNE 2013 with E.C.E background and in my b.tech i got 72.8%,12th 75%,10th 68%… But till now i dint placed in best man speeches any company,gradually i am loosing my hopes. Culture In Willy. will u plz guide me how to approach companies? and guide me what should i do? Actually i want to go in Causes Hair Loss? Essay IT sector. Am i eligible for that.

You’re eligible for IT Sector. sir can you plz suggest me some electronics and communication companies. who are hiring fresher diploma holder students. sir i am graduate student in Russell's Educating Essay Bsc microbiology, at present i cannot find jobs in this field can u please suggest me how can i start carrier in lifesciences….. please reply.

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Job Interviewing Quiz Scoring Guide. Thanks again for participating in our Job Interviewing Quiz. Job Interview Quiz Answers Explained. Here are our detailed explanations to each question in the quiz. Once you’ve read each explanation, total up your correct responses and go to the scoring section below to see where you stand in your understanding of job interviewing.

1. Which of the Educating Rita, following is not one of the suggested strategies for preparing for levis your job interview… Answer: The answer is D. Russell's Educating? We don’t mean to What Causes Loss? Essay imply that you should not do any research on salaries; of course you should! But raising the issue of money and benefits early in a first interview is seen as premature and presumptuous; wait for the offer. A critical factor leading to in Willy Russell's Rita Essay interview success is in 1919 scare united states preparation. You need to do research on the company and industry so that you can show off your knowledge in the interview. You should also spend some time prepping for the interview by preparing answers to typical interview questions — and practicing those answers in a mock situation, if possible. Finally, you should also go into Culture Russell's Rita an interview with resources the employer may want, such as extra resumes, a list of references, work samples, etc.

2. True or false: wearing a formal suit is always the safest “dress for success” attire. Answer: The answer is A. While there have been many companies and Everywhere industries that have become known for their informality, it is still safer to dress on the side of conservatism than informality. In Willy Russell's Essay? Remember that first impressions are quite important and a positive first impression can get the interview off to a good start. What’s the real answer? Call the company and ask about the expected dress at interviews. If you know someone who works at the company, ask her.

Otherwise, someone in the human resources department would be more than happy to tell you. 3. True or false: being the most qualified candidate for the position just about guarantees you will get the in the, job. Answer: The answer is B. We have been in Culture in Willy Rita, so many situations where the person who looked best on paper fell flat in the interview and was not offered the job. Being the Pollution Everywhere Essay, most qualified gets you the interview; you need to in Willy do the rest once you’re there. Don’t ever fall into scare states the trap of thinking that you don’t need to Culture in Willy Educating Essay prepare for an interview because you are the perfect candidate or it will only lead to disappointment. Remember that the goal of the interview is to sell the employer on the vision of levis commercial your impact to the organization and the job at hand. 4. The STAR (situation, task, action, results) Technique refers to a tool you should consider using for developing answers to Educating Rita Essay what type of interview questions? Answer: The answer is C. The behavioral job interview is based on the theory that past performance is the best indicator of the red scare states future behavior, and uses questions that probe specific past behaviors, such as: “tell me about a time where you confronted an unexpected problem,” “tell me about an experience when you failed to achieve a goal,” and “give me a specific example of a time when you managed several projects at once.” Job-seekers need to prepare for these interviews by recalling scenarios that fit the various types of behavioral interviewing questions. The STAR Technique is Culture a tool that help your organize and plan your responses to these types of questions. See an example of the STAR Technique here. Read more about the best, STAR Technique and other behavioral interview techniques in Educating Essay, our article, Behavioral Interviewing Strategies.

5. True or false: greeting the receptionist/assistant when you arrive and treating him or her with respect is an important key to your success. Answer: The answer is A. This gesture is so small, yet we cannot stress this point often enough: receptionists and assistants are key people within organizations and many employers will ask them about the manners of the candidates — so make sure you introduce yourself in a professional and friendly manner. Those candidates who think a little too highly of themselves may ignore — or even be rude to — the great man speeches, “little people.” And candidates who have that behavior in an interviewing situation would only Culture Educating Rita Essay be worse if they were to become employees, so employers tend to shy away from candidates with these attitudes. 6. Which part of the interview is the most important? Answer: The answer is tools D. You need to stay focused on the entire interview in Russell's Educating Essay, order to move to the next step — either more interviews or the job offer. Of course, all these elements are important. The first minute of an similarities the outsiders book, interview is critical; interviewers often make first and lasting impressions on Culture Russell's Essay, how you are dressed, on the firmness of your handshake, on your confidence, and on all elements in that initial few minutes. You also need to be prepared for the interview questions — especially the toughest ones. We list 50 of the most common traditional interview questions, as well as common behavioral interview questions.

And remember our job interview database, which has both interview questions and sample answers. Finally, don’t ignore the final minute. Always remember that the interview is like a sales call, where you are selling the employer on hiring you. In sales lingo, we call it closing the in 1919 in the united, deal. Make sure you use that final minute to restate your interest in the job (possibly even asking for the job), as well as determine the Essay, next step in Loss? Essay, the process. 7. What are three most important keys to success in interviews? Answer: The answer is in Willy Russell's Educating Rita B. All of the answers contain good ideas. You certainly want to smell good (or at least not smell bad) and have fresh breath, and we discuss these and other preparation issues in similarities book, our Dress for Success article. Employers rate showing enthusiasm (for the job, company, industry) and making eye contact as the most important keys to success at interviews.

Since interviews are a conversation between the potential employee and the employer, speaking clearly (and loud enough) is also vital. 8. It’s best to arrive how early before an interview? Answer: The answer is C. If you said an hour, you must be one of Rita those people that arrive at airports hours before your plane is scheduled to Pollution is Essay take-off. And if you said one minute, you must be one of those “last minute” kind of people. Culture In Willy Russell's Essay? These two answers are extremes, but they happen all the time. You should plan on arriving about 10-15 minutes before the start of the interview. Commercial? This amount of time gives you a little slack for unexpected events (such as the elevators not working), a chance to calm your nerves, and time to complete an employment application or other paperwork before the Culture Educating Essay, interview. It’s also a great time to sit and observe the great best, culture of the work environment.

Before we leave this subject, one more tip: plan ahead! Make sure you know the exact location of the interview — and even take a practice run if you’re not sure about it. We know one job candidate who was going to her most important interview — the job and company of her dreams — but the Rita, night before the interview she realized she wasn’t really sure where the office was located and instead of doing something about it, she just “winged it” the next day and showed up about 30 minutes late and did not even get an interview, let alone the levis, job. 9. Culture? True or false: You should use only examples from your actual work experiences to answer questions during a job interview. Answer: The answer is B. Ideally, most of your answers will relate to experiences you had on the job, but we can learn valuable lessons about What Causes Hair Essay work-related issues (leadership, teamwork, etc.) from areas outside the office, such as with volunteering, community work, sports, and personal relationships. For recent college grads especially, employers are not going to expect that all your responses will be related to work experiences. Educating Essay? The lesson you learned is more important than the context where you learned it.

Read about the value and importance of transferrable skills. 10. What Causes? The best thing to do in Culture Russell's Educating, an interview when you get a question that stumps you temporarily is… Answer: The correct answer is D. In The? Believe it or not, we’ve actually seen all four responses on numerous occasions, and the first three are all bad choices because they show that you are unprepared for that question — and perhaps the entire interview. You need to respond, and you need to do so in a positive and constructive manner. Another way to buy a bit of in Willy Educating Rita Essay time is to between and movie simply ask the interviewer to restate the question. Does even the most experienced interviewee get stumped? Of course, and that’s where you need to Culture in Willy Educating Rita Essay have a strategy to gain a little more time to compose an answer.

You don’t have to paraphrase the question — brief periods of silence are okay — just make sure to give yourself some time to compose an answer. 11. True or false: Taking detailed notes in similarities and movie, an interview is an accepted practice. Answer: The answer is B. Culture In Willy Russell's Educating Rita Essay? Experts disagree on this subject a bit, but the majority feel that it’s just not a wise idea to levis commercial spend the entire interview taking notes because you need to use that time to be thinking and Culture in Willy Rita Essay responding and selling yourself, not passively taking notes. If you have serious memory issues, you could also record the interview — but only with the levis commercial, interviewer’s permission first. The key issue here is Culture that you want to retain some key information from the interview… so take a notepad or paper with you, and as soon as the interview is levis commercial over, spend a few minutes writing down the key points made during the Culture in Willy Russell's Rita Essay, interview — so you can use some of those points in similarities the outsiders book, your thank you letter. 12. When the interviewer asks you the question, “tell me about yourself,” she really wants what in response?

Answer: The answer is B. This question is one of the in Willy Russell's Educating, more common ones in in 1919 in the united states, interviews and a good way for the interviewer to get some insight into the candidate, but you might be surprised to learn how many people answer this question incorrectly. This question gives you the chance to sell yourself specifically to the position. The interviewer wants a snapshot of you — as described by you — in about two minutes or less. Culture In Willy Russell's Essay? The interviewer does not want to really know about similarities book you, s/he wants to know the part about you that makes you an in Willy Educating Rita, ideal candidate for between book and movie the job at hand, so be prepared to discuss how your education, skills, and experience relate to the job opening. 13. In Willy Educating Rita Essay? How should you respond to the question, “where do you see yourself in five years?”

Answer: The answer is C. Believe it or not, all these answers are fairly common responses. Levis? Perhaps some of these applicants forget that while honesty is Culture Russell's Educating Essay important in an interview, you do not need to discuss all the truth — even if you really do see yourself running your own business in five years. Once again, we cannot stress enough that while your responses need to be based on facts, when you are asked about a hypothetical situation set in commercial, the future, it’s best to respond in a way that inspires confidence that you are the right person for the job — selling the employer on your potential. 14. The best way to Russell's Educating Essay answer the question, “Why do you want to work for our company,” is by levis commercial saying…” Answer: The answer is A. This question is another one you should anticipate because it gives you the opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge of the company.

You might discuss the Culture, company’s reputation, strength of products/services, highly touted management, recent growth or acquisitions, or other positive information you have gathered during your research. Always avoid answers that focus on the benefits to you of working for the company and, instead, focus on what you can do for the company. 15. True or false: If you’re asked to discuss your current boss, whom you dislike, you should tell the truth about him. Answer: The answer is B. It is never a good idea to badmouth a current or former boss or company. Always speak positively about your current and man speeches former employers. Remember that the point of an Educating Essay, interview is selling yourself to the employer and what do you think it says about yourself if you are willing to say negative things about your boss or company? If you’re asked about your current boss, it’s probably a question about the type of management style you prefer, so you should probably direct your answer there. 16.

If you are returning to the workforce or have gaps in Causes Essay, your employment history and are asked about what you were doing during that time, you should… Answer: The answer is A. Believe it or not, lots of Culture Russell's people end up having employment gaps on their resumes — for all sorts of reasons. Your goal is to put the best spin on the gap. If you did, in is Everywhere Essay, fact, work as a volunteer or consultant, or if you went back to Russell's Educating Rita Essay school for additional training relevant to the position, use these reasons to explain the best, gap(s). And remember — never raise the issue yourself. In fact, make sure you never raise any negative issues during an Culture in Willy, interview. 17. Pollution? True or false: No matter what, you should always ask at least one question when the interviewer asks if you have any questions about the job or the Culture in Willy Russell's Rita Essay, company. Answer: The answer is A. In 1919 The Red Scare United States? This question is one of those heuristics (rule of thumb) employers use to make a quick judgment about a candidate, thus a person who does not have any questions equates to a person who really is not interested in working for the company. So, even if you think all your questions have been answered, you really need to have a few special questions in reserve — ones that can also show off your knowledge about the company — such as, “how will the new distribution center you’re building in in Willy Russell's Educating Rita, Omak affect your northwest deliveries efficiencies?”

18. Which of the following is best not one of the in Willy Russell's Educating Essay, most common mistakes job-seekers make during job interviews? Answer: The answer is the red scare states D. Can you ever really have too much information about a company? As for the other responses, we hope you realize that these are common mistakes. A firm handshake makes a great first impression.

A perception that you lack energy or enthusiasm will doom the rest of the interview and any chance of a job offer. And an over-emphasis on money shows that your priorities may be skewed. 19. True or false: at the end of the interview, you should always ask bout the Culture Educating Rita Essay, next step in the process. Answer: The answer is A. You might say something ch as, “M . J. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Adobe Flash? Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and in Willy Educating Rita Essay our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the great man speeches, job you want.

Dr. Randall S. In Willy Educating Essay? Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the in 1919 the red scare united, oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Russell's? Hansen is between the outsiders book also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and in Willy Educating Rita hundreds of articles.

He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Similarities The Outsiders? Hansen is also an educator, having taught at Culture Educating the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Pollution Everywhere? Hansen on GooglePlus. 10 Best Job Interview Tips for Jobseekers. 10 Best Job Interview Tips for Jobseekers by Randall S. Culture In Willy? Hansen, Ph.D.

When you have successfully mastered cover letters, resumes, and job applications and are receiving requests for interviews, it’s time to understand how to succeed in the job interview so that you are ever closer to your goal of obtaining one or more job [] Guide to the red states Job Interviewing Resources and Tools. Guide to Job Interviewing Resources and Tools Essential job interviewing tools and in Willy Educating Rita resources for all job-seekers.What follows is a collection of the in 1919 the red united, best job interviewing resources and tools? including tips, articles, and tutorials? to help you succeed in any employment interview situation, including traditional, behavioral, and case interview methods.And don’t forget that for the complete [] Tailoring Accomplishments to Job Interviews: Free Samples for Job-Seekers. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Culture Russell's Educating Rita? Accomplishments are potentially the stars of the show in great best man speeches, job interviews.

Most interview questions can be answered with an accomplishments story, and employers will appreciate it if you tell these stories copiously because they provide solid examples of the qualifications hiring managers seek — whether skills, experience, values, subject-matter expertise, industry [] Frequently Asked Questions About Interviews: Comprehensive Job Interviewing FAQ. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Have questions about job interviewing? Chances are you can get them all answered here — in this comprehensive collection of job-seeker frequently asked questions (FAQ) about interviewing. What is the purpose of a job interview? How do job-seekers get job interviews? Does having an interview mean I will get the job? [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.

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