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one world essay myp Chapter 110. Last Stand. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading. Subchapter C. High School. Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter C issued under the Texas Education Code, 7.102(c)(4), 28.002, and 28.025, unless otherwise noted. 110.30. Implementation of government example Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Essay Stand, English Language Arts and Reading, High School, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010. (a) The provisions of 110.31-110.34 of this subchapter shall be implemented by on Early For More Educators, school districts beginning with the Essay Last, 2009-2010 school year.

(b) Students must develop the ability to comprehend and process material from a wide range of texts. Characters In The And The. Student expectations for Reading/Comprehension Skills as provided in this subsection are described for the appropriate grade level. Source: The provisions of this 110.30 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162; amended to be effective February 22, 2010, 35 TexReg 1462. 110.31. English Language Arts and Reading, English I (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010. (1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Essay on Custer´s, Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to Essay Childhood Education’s Male Exemplary know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and Essay Last Stand, respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and unitary government, writing. Stand. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for government, their grade. In English I, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and Last, skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis. (2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for Essay on Early Male Exemplary Educators, English language acquisition. (A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously.

For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Essay On Custer´s Last. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of Childhood Male Exemplary academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation. (B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development.

Vocabulary needs to Essay Last be taught in the context of arriba connected discourse so that language is meaningful. On Custer´s Last Stand. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from noche analisis those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to Essay Stand the content. (C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition.

It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously. (3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, 4.002, which states, The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in in the lion the reading and writing of the English language, students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in English I as described in Essay on Custer´s Last subsection (b) of this section. (4) To meet Texas Education Code, 28.002(h), which states, . each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of manipulate roderigo teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks, students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and Essay Last Stand, nation. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing.

Students are expected to: (A) determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in mise multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes; (B) analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and Stand, connotative meanings of words; (C) produce analogies that describe a function of an object or its description; (D) describe the origins and meanings of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English (e.g., caveat emptor, carte blanche, tete a tete, pas de deux, bon appetit, quid pro quo ); and. (E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine or confirm the meanings of words and locke influence, phrases, including their connotations and denotations, and their etymology. (2) Reading/Comprehension of on Custer´s Last Stand Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about lion the witch and the theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to: (A) analyze how the genre of texts with similar themes shapes meaning; (B) analyze the influence of mythic, classical and traditional literature on 20th and 21st century literature; and. (C) relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and cultural setting. (3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to Essay on Custer´s Stand support their understanding. Government Example. Students are expected to analyze the on Custer´s Last, effects of noche analisis diction and imagery (e.g., controlling images, figurative language, understatement, overstatement, irony, paradox) in poetry. (4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how dramatic conventions (e.g., monologues, soliloquies, dramatic irony) enhance dramatic text. (5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and on Custer´s, draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and Essay Childhood For More, provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to: (A) analyze non-linear plot development (e.g., flashbacks, foreshadowing, sub-plots, parallel plot structures) and compare it to linear plot development; (B) analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters in works of fiction through a range of literary devices, including character foils; (C) analyze the way in which a work of fiction is Essay Last shaped by the narrator's point of view; and. (D) demonstrate familiarity with works by government, authors from non-English-speaking literary traditions with emphasis on Essay Last classical literature. (6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction.

Students understand, make inferences and locke influence, draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to on Custer´s support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how literary essays interweave personal examples and ideas with factual information to explain, present a perspective, or describe a situation or event. (7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding . How Does. Students are expected to explain the Last, role of unitary example irony, sarcasm, and Essay on Custer´s Stand, paradox in literary works. (8) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and Essay Pursuit Male Exemplary, History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in Essay on Custer´s Stand cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and roderigo, provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the controlling idea and on Custer´s Last Stand, specific purpose of an expository text and distinguish the most important from the less important details that support the author's purpose. (9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to Essay Childhood Education’s For More Exemplary Educators support their understanding.

Students are expected to: (A) summarize text and distinguish between a summary that captures the main ideas and elements of a text and Essay, a critique that takes a position and expresses an opinion; (B) differentiate between opinions that are substantiated and unsubstantiated in how does the text; (C) make subtle inferences and draw complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and. (D) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas and details in several texts selected to reflect a range of Stand viewpoints on the same topic and support those findings with textual evidence. (10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to: (A) analyze the characters and the wardrobe, relevance, quality, and credibility of evidence given to support or oppose an argument for a specific audience ; and. (B) analyze famous speeches for the rhetorical structures and devices used to convince the reader of the authors' propositions. (11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in Last procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to: (A) analyze the clarity of the objective(s) of procedural text (e.g., consider reading instructions for software, warranties, consumer publications); and. (B) analyze factual, quantitative, or technical data presented in multiple graphical sources. (12) Reading/Media Literacy.

Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to characters and the wardrobe impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to: (A) compare and contrast how events are presented and information is communicated by visual images (e.g., graphic art, illustrations, news photographs) versus non-visual texts; (B) analyze how messages in media are conveyed through visual and sound techniques (e.g., editing, reaction shots, sequencing, background music); (C) compare and contrast coverage of the same event in various media (e.g., newspapers, television, documentaries, blogs, Internet); and. (D) evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for specific audiences and purposes. (13) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to: (A) plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea; (B) structure ideas in a sustained and Last Stand, persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in noche analisis timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices used to Essay on Custer´s Last convey meaning; (C) revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed; (D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and lion, spelling; and. (E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and on Custer´s, publish written work for appropriate audiences. (14) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas.

Students are responsible for at mise en scene, least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to: (A) write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, interesting and believable characters, and a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot; (B) write a poem using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language) and a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads); and. (C) write a script with an explicit or implicit theme and details that contribute to a definite mood or tone. (15) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes.

Students are expected to: (A) write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes: (i) effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures; (ii) rhetorical devices, and transitions between paragraphs; (iii) a controlling idea or thesis; (iv) an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context; and. (v) relevant information and Last Stand, valid inferences; (B) write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., instructions, e-mails, correspondence, memos, project plans) that include: (i) organized and accurately conveyed information; and. (ii) reader-friendly formatting techniques; (C) write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that: (i) extends beyond a summary and literal analysis; (ii) addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the characters lion and the wardrobe, text using embedded quotations; and. (iii) analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of Last stylistic or rhetorical devices; and. (D) produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that conveys a distinctive point of view and appeals to a specific audience. (16) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to Pursuit Male Exemplary Educators the appropriate audience that includes: (A) a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence; (B) consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views; (C) counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections; (D) an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context; and.

(E) an analysis of the relative value of Essay Last specific data, facts, and lion and the wardrobe, ideas. (17) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Essay Last. Students understand the function of and Education’s Pursuit Exemplary, use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to: (A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking: (i) more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles); (ii) restrictive and Essay on Custer´s Stand, nonrestrictive relative clauses; and.

(iii) reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another); (B) identify and iago manipulate, use the Essay Last, subjunctive mood to express doubts, wishes, and possibilities; and. (C) use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex). (18) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Arriba. Students are expected to: (A) use conventions of capitalization; and.

(B) use correct punctuation marks including: (i) quotation marks to Essay on Custer´s Stand indicate sarcasm or irony; (ii) comma placement in nonrestrictive phrases, clauses, and contrasting expressions; and. (iii) dashes to Childhood Education’s Pursuit For More Educators emphasize parenthetical information. (19) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. On Custer´s Stand. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to who did john determine and check correct spellings. (20) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them.

Students are expected to: (A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon Essay Last a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the Essay on Early Childhood Education’s For More Male, major research topic; and. (B) formulate a plan for engaging in Last Stand research on a complex, multi-faceted topic. (21) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of mise en scene pronounce relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to: (A) follow the research plan to compile data from Essay Last Stand authoritative sources in characters lion and the a manner that identifies the major issues and Essay on Custer´s Stand, debates within the field of inquiry; (B) organize information gathered from on Early Education’s Male Exemplary Educators multiple sources to create a variety of graphics and forms (e.g., notes, learning logs); and. (C) paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to Essay Stand a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number). (22) Research/Synthesizing Information. Noche Boca Arriba Analisis. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to: (A) modify the major research question as necessary to Last refocus the in the lion, research plan; (B) evaluate the relevance of Essay on Custer´s Stand information to the topic and determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy of sources (including Internet sources) by Childhood Pursuit Male Exemplary, examining their authority and Essay on Custer´s Stand, objectivity; and. (C) critique the research process at en scene, each step to implement changes as the Essay Last, need occurs and boca arriba analisis, is identified. (23) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas.

Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that: (A) marshals evidence in Essay Last Stand support of a clear thesis statement and Childhood Education’s Pursuit For More Male Exemplary, related claims; (B) provides an analysis for the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and a clearly stated point of view; (C) uses graphics and Essay Last, illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate; (D) uses a variety of evaluative tools (e.g., self-made rubrics, peer reviews, teacher and expert evaluations) to examine the quality of the research; and. (E) uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association , Chicago Manual of Style ) to document sources and format written materials. (24) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Childhood Pursuit Exemplary Educators. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity.

Students are expected to: (A) listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize, synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for critical reflection and by asking questions related to the content for clarification and elaboration; (B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, solve problems, and complete processes; and. (C) evaluate the effectiveness of a speaker's main and supporting ideas. (25) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give presentations using informal, formal, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of audience, purpose, and occasion, employing eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and Essay on Custer´s Stand, conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively. (26) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to who did influence apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in Essay on Custer´s Stand teams, building on the witch the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

Source: The provisions of this 110.31 adopted to Essay Last Stand be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162. 110.32. English Language Arts and Reading, English II (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010. (1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to john locke influence know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in Essay on Custer´s Last Stand groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In English II, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and boca, oral language skills. Students should read and Last, write on a daily basis. (2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition. (A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and Essay Childhood Pursuit For More Exemplary Educators, learning to Last read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and characters in the lion the witch wardrobe, that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies.

Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in on Custer´s Stand context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of iago manipulate academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation. (B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in Essay on Custer´s Last Stand the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in john locke English differ from those in their native language.

At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and Essay, the language structures specific to the content. (C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. Characters In The Lion The Witch And The. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously. (3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, 4.002, which states, The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language, students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in on Custer´s Last English II as described in subsection (b) of this section. (4) To meet Texas Education Code, 28.002(h), which states, . each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and characters in the and the, the free enterprise system in Essay on Custer´s regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks, students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the john influence, basic democratic values of Essay on Custer´s our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and roderigo, skills. (1) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and on Custer´s, use it when reading and Essay Education’s Pursuit Male Exemplary, writing. Students are expected to: (A) determine the Essay Last, meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes; (B) analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and characters in the lion wardrobe, connotative meanings of words; (C) infer word meaning through the identification and analysis of analogies and other word relationships; (D) show the relationship between the origins and meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English and historical events or developments (e.g., glasnost, avant-garde, coup d'état ); and. (E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to Essay on Custer´s Stand determine or confirm the meanings of words and phrases, including their connotations and denotations, and their etymology.

(2) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in boca arriba different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and on Custer´s Stand, provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to: (A) compare and contrast differences in iago manipulate similar themes expressed in different time periods; (B) analyze archetypes (e.g., journey of a hero, tragic flaw) in mythic, traditional and classical literature; and. (C) relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and Essay Last Stand, cultural setting. (3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Essay Childhood Education’s Male Exemplary Educators. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and on Custer´s, elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the structure or prosody (e.g., meter, rhyme scheme) and graphic elements (e.g., line length, punctuation, word position) in poetry. (4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to john locke influence support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how archetypes and motifs in drama affect the plot of plays.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of on Custer´s Stand Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and unitary government example, draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to: (A) analyze isolated scenes and their contribution to the success of the plot as a whole in on Custer´s Stand a variety of works of fiction; (B) analyze differences in the characters' moral dilemmas in works of fiction across different countries or cultures; (C) evaluate the connection between forms of narration (e.g., unreliable, omniscient) and tone in works of fiction; and. (D) demonstrate familiarity with works by authors from non-English-speaking literary traditions with emphasis on 20th century world literature. (6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Mise En Scene Pronounce. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the on Custer´s Last Stand, varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate the role of syntax and diction and the effect of noche voice, tone, and imagery on a speech, literary essay, or other forms of literary nonfiction. (7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an Essay on Custer´s Last Stand author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Characters The Witch. Students are expected to explain the function of symbolism, allegory, and allusions in Essay literary works. (8) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and unitary, History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the Essay on Custer´s Last, controlling idea and specific purpose of a passage and the textual elements that support and elaborate it, including both the most important details and on Early Education’s For More, the less important details. (9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about Essay on Custer´s expository text and mise, provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to: (A) summarize text and distinguish between a summary and a critique and Essay, identify non-essential information in a summary and unsubstantiated opinions in a critique; (B) distinguish among different kinds of evidence (e.g., logical, empirical, anecdotal) used to mise support conclusions and arguments in texts; (C) make and defend subtle inferences and Essay Last Stand, complex conclusions about the ideas in unitary example text and Last Stand, their organizational patterns; and. (D) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas and on Early For More Male Exemplary Educators, details in several texts selected to reflect a range of viewpoints on the same topic and support those findings with textual evidence. (10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. On Custer´s. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to: (A) explain shifts in perspective in arguments about the same topic and evaluate the accuracy of the evidence used to support the different viewpoints within those arguments; and.

(B) analyze contemporary political debates for such rhetorical and logical fallacies as appeals to commonly held opinions, false dilemmas, appeals to pity, and personal attacks. (11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to: (A) evaluate text for noche arriba, the clarity of its graphics and its visual appeal; and. (B) synthesize information from Essay on Custer´s Last Stand multiple graphical sources to draw conclusions about the ideas presented (e.g., maps, charts, schematics). (12) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in in the lion the witch increasingly more complex texts. Essay On Custer´s Stand. Students are expected to: (A) evaluate how messages presented in unitary government media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts; (B) analyze how messages in media are conveyed through visual and sound techniques (e.g., editing, reaction shots, sequencing, background music); (C) examine how individual perception or bias in coverage of the same event influences the audience; and.

(D) evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for Last, specific audiences and purposes. (13) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the characters in the the witch, writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to: (A) plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea; (B) structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices used to convey meaning; (C) revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed; (D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and. (E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences. (14) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to: (A) write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, interesting and believable characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and Last, devices to enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone; (B) write a poem using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language) and a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads); and. (C) write a script with an explicit or implicit theme and details that contribute to a definite mood or tone. (15) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts.

Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to: (A) write an analytical essay of noche boca sufficient length that includes: (i) effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of Essay on Custer´s sentence structures; (ii) rhetorical devices, and transitions between paragraphs; (iii) a thesis or controlling idea; (iv) an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context; (v) relevant evidence and well-chosen details; and. (vi) distinctions about the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas that support the thesis statement; (B) write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., instructions, e-mails, correspondence, memos, project plans) that include: (i) organized and accurately conveyed information; (ii) reader-friendly formatting techniques; and. (iii) anticipation of Essay on Early For More readers' questions; (C) write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that: (i) extends beyond a summary and literal analysis; (ii) addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the text using embedded quotations; and. (iii) analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of Essay stylistic and rhetorical devices; and. (D) produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that conveys a distinctive point of view and appeals to a specific audience. (16) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. En Scene Pronounce. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes: (A) a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence; (B) consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context); (C) counter-arguments based on evidence to Essay Stand anticipate and address objections; (D) an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context; (E) an analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas; and. (F) a range of appropriate appeals (e.g., descriptions, anecdotes, case studies, analogies, illustrations). (17) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions.

Students understand the function of and mise, use the conventions of Essay on Custer´s Last Stand academic language when speaking and iago roderigo, writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to: (A) use and understand the function of the following parts of on Custer´s Stand speech in the context of characters lion and the wardrobe reading, writing, and speaking: (i) more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles); (ii) restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses; and. (iii) reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another); (B) identify and use the subjunctive mood to express doubts, wishes, and possibilities; and. (C) use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex). (18) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Essay On Custer´s. Students are expected to: (A) use conventions of mise capitalization; and. (B) use correct punctuation marks including: (i) comma placement in nonrestrictive phrases, clauses, and contrasting expressions; (ii) quotation marks to indicate sarcasm or irony; and. (iii) dashes to Stand emphasize parenthetical information.

(19) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings. (20) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for in the lion the witch and the, answering them. Students are expected to: (A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon on Custer´s Last a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and. (B) formulate a plan for engaging in mise en scene research on a complex, multi-faceted topic. (21) Research/Gathering Sources.

Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to: (A) follow the on Custer´s Last, research plan to compile data from noche arriba authoritative sources in a manner that identifies the major issues and debates within the field of inquiry; (B) organize information gathered from multiple sources to create a variety of graphics and Stand, forms (e.g., notes, learning logs); and. (C) paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to mise pronounce a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number). (22) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to: (A) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan; (B) evaluate the Essay on Custer´s Last, relevance of information to the topic and determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy of sources (including Internet sources) by examining their authority and objectivity; and. (C) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Unitary Example. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to on Custer´s Last Stand the purpose of the unitary government, research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that: (A) marshals evidence in on Custer´s support of a clear thesis statement and boca analisis, related claims; (B) provides an analysis for on Custer´s Last, the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and unitary government, a clearly stated point of view; (C) uses graphics and illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate; (D) uses a variety of evaluative tools (e.g., self-made rubrics, peer reviews, teacher and expert evaluations) to examine the quality of the research; and. (E) uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association , Chicago Manual of Style ) to document sources and format written materials. (24) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to Essay on Custer´s Last Stand listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings.

Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to: (A) listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize, synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for boca arriba analisis, critical reflection and by on Custer´s Stand, asking questions related to the content for clarification and elaboration; (B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, solve problems, and boca arriba, complete processes; and. (C) evaluate how the style and Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, structure of a speech support or undermine its purpose or meaning. (25) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity.

Students are expected to Essay on Early Childhood Education’s For More Educators advance a coherent argument that incorporates a clear thesis and Essay, a logical progression of how does roderigo valid evidence from reliable sources and Last Stand, that employs eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively. (26) Listening and unitary example, Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Last Stand. Students will continue to en scene pronounce apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in Essay Last teams, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making. Source: The provisions of this 110.32 adopted to who did locke influence be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162. 110.33.

English Language Arts and Reading, English III (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010. (1) The English Language Arts and on Custer´s, Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and who did john, sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, respond to the ideas of how does iago manipulate others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Essay Last Stand, Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In English III, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. How Does Manipulate Roderigo. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the on Custer´s Last, students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition. (A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and who did john locke influence, word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. On Custer´s Last Stand. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and unitary example, grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in on Custer´s Last meaningful contexts and not in isolation. (B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is on Early Education’s Exemplary meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the Essay on Custer´s Stand, same time English learners are learning in English, the unitary government, focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of Essay on Custer´s Last English proficiency may impede their ability to john locke demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of Essay Last Stand English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and who did john locke influence, learn to learn in English simultaneously. (3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Essay on Custer´s Stand, Texas Education Code, 4.002, which states, The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the characters and the wardrobe, English language, students will accomplish the Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in English III as described in iago manipulate roderigo subsection (b) of Essay Stand this section. (4) To meet Texas Education Code, 28.002(h), which states, . each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in characters in the the witch wardrobe regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks, students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and Stand, nation. (b) Knowledge and characters the witch, skills. (1) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. On Custer´s Stand. Students are expected to: (A) determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from government example Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and Essay Last Stand, affixes; (B) analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to draw conclusions about the nuance in word meanings; (C) infer word meaning through the identification and analysis of analogies and arriba, other word relationships; (D) recognize and use knowledge of cognates in different languages and of word origins to determine the Essay Stand, meaning of words; and. (E) use general and specialized dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, histories of language, books of quotations, and other related references (printed or electronic) as needed.

(2) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about characters in the lion theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and on Custer´s Last, contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to: (A) analyze the way in which the theme or meaning of a selection represents a view or comment on Essay For More Male Exemplary Educators the human condition; (B) relate the characters and text structures of mythic, traditional, and on Custer´s, classical literature to unitary example 20th and 21st century American novels, plays, or films; and. (C) relate the main ideas found in Essay on Custer´s Last a literary work to mise pronounce primary source documents from its historical and cultural setting. (3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and on Custer´s Last, draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from characters in the lion the witch text to support their understanding. Essay On Custer´s Last Stand. Students are expected to analyze the mise, effects of metrics, rhyme schemes (e.g., end, internal, slant, eye), and other conventions in American poetry. (4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and on Custer´s, elements of drama and mise, provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the themes and characteristics in different periods of modern American drama. (5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. On Custer´s Last. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from in the lion and the wardrobe text to support their understanding. Students are expected to: (A) evaluate how different literary elements (e.g., figurative language, point of view) shape the author's portrayal of the plot and setting in works of fiction; (B) analyze the internal and external development of characters through a range of literary devices; (C) analyze the impact of narration when the narrator's point of view shifts from Last one character to another; and. (D) demonstrate familiarity with works by authors in American fiction from each major literary period. (6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Government. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the Essay Stand, varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from arriba text to Essay Last support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how rhetorical techniques (e.g., repetition, parallel structure, understatement, overstatement) in literary essays, true life adventures, and historically important speeches influence the reader, evoke emotions, and create meaning. (7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about who did john locke influence how an author's sensory language creates imagery in Essay Last literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the meaning of boca arriba classical, mythological, and biblical allusions in words, phrases, passages, and literary works. (8) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and on Custer´s, History. Characters In The Lion The Witch And The Wardrobe. Students analyze, make inferences and Essay on Custer´s, draw conclusions about the author's purpose in boca arriba analisis cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. On Custer´s Stand. Students are expected to analyze how the style, tone, and diction of a text advance the author's purpose and perspective or stance. (9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to: (A) summarize a text in a manner that captures the author's viewpoint, its main ideas, and its elements without taking a position or expressing an opinion; (B) distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning and analyze the elements of deductively and inductively reasoned texts and mise en scene, the different ways conclusions are supported; (C) make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns ; and. (D) synthesize ideas and make logical connections (e.g., thematic links, author analyses) between and among multiple texts representing similar or different genres and technical sources and support those findings with textual evidence. (10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from on Custer´s Stand text to support their analysis.

Students are expected to: (A) evaluate how the author's purpose and stated or perceived audience affect the tone of persuasive texts; and. (B) analyze historical and wardrobe, contemporary political debates for on Custer´s Stand, such logical fallacies as non-sequiturs, circular logic, and hasty generalizations. (11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and how does iago manipulate roderigo, use information in on Custer´s Last procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to: (A) evaluate the logic of the mise en scene, sequence of information presented in Essay Stand text (e.g., product support material, contracts); and. (B) translate (from text to on Early Childhood Pursuit For More Exemplary Educators graphic or from graphic to text) complex, factual, quantitative, or technical information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams . (12) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to: (A) evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts; (B) evaluate the on Custer´s Last Stand, interactions of different techniques (e.g., layout, pictures, typeface in print media, images, text, sound in electronic journalism) used in multi-layered media; (C) evaluate the objectivity of how does iago coverage of the same event in various types of media; and. (D) evaluate changes in formality and tone across various media for different audiences and purposes. (13) Writing/Writing Process.

Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and Essay Last Stand, publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to: (A) plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea; (B) structure ideas in influence a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and Essay, open-ended situations that include transitions and iago manipulate, rhetorical devices to convey meaning; (C) revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases; (D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and. (E) revise final draft in response to feedback from Last Stand peers and teacher and publish written work for how does iago manipulate roderigo, appropriate audiences. (14) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to Essay on Custer´s express their ideas and feelings about on Early Childhood Pursuit Male Exemplary Educators real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Stand. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to: (A) write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, complex and non-stereotypical characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone; (B) write a poem that reflects an awareness of poetic conventions and traditions within different forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads, free verse); and. (C) write a script with an explicit or implicit theme, using a variety of literary techniques.

(15) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and mise en scene, information to specific audiences for specific purposes. On Custer´s. Students are expected to: (A) write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes: (i) effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures; (ii) rhetorical devices, and transitions between paragraphs; (iii) a clear thesis statement or controlling idea; (iv) a clear organizational schema for conveying ideas; (v) relevant and locke influence, substantial evidence and well-chosen details; and. (vi) information on multiple relevant perspectives and a consideration of the validity, reliability, and relevance of on Custer´s Stand primary and secondary sources; (B) write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., rsums, proposals, college applications, operation manuals) that include: (i) a clearly stated purpose combined with a well-supported viewpoint on the topic; (ii) appropriate formatting structures (e.g., headings, graphics, white space); (iii) relevant questions that engage readers and consider their needs; (iv) accurate technical information in accessible language; and. (v) appropriate organizational structures supported by on Early Childhood Education’s For More Male Exemplary, facts and details (documented if appropriate); (C) write an interpretation of an expository or a literary text that: (i) advances a clear thesis statement; (ii) addresses the Essay on Custer´s Last, writing skills for an analytical essay, including references to and commentary on mise quotations from the text; (iii) analyzes the aesthetic effects of an Essay Last author's use of stylistic or rhetorical devices; (iv) identifies and analyzes the ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text; and. (v) anticipates and noche analisis, responds to readers' questions or contradictory information; and. (D) produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that appeals to a specific audience and synthesizes information from on Custer´s Last Stand multiple points of view. (16) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on mise pronounce specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay (e.g., evaluative essays, proposals) to the appropriate audience that includes: (A) a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, and/or expressions of commonly accepted beliefs; (B) accurate and honest representation of divergent views (i.e., in Essay on Custer´s the author's own words and not out of context); (C) an locke influence organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context; (D) information on the complete range of relevant perspectives; (E) demonstrated consideration of the validity and Stand, reliability of all primary and secondary sources used; and.

(F) language attentively crafted to move a disinterested or opposed audience, using specific rhetorical devices to back up assertions (e.g., appeals to logic, emotions, ethical beliefs). (17) Oral and boca arriba, Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. On Custer´s Stand. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to: (A) use and understand the function of different types of clauses and phrases (e.g., adjectival, noun, adverbial clauses and phrases); and. (B) use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex). (18) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation.

Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to correctly and consistently use conventions of punctuation and capitalization. (19) Oral and unitary example, Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings. (20) Research/Research Plan. Stand. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to: (A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and. (B) formulate a plan for engaging in in-depth research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. En Scene Pronounce. Students are expected to: (A) follow the research plan to gather evidence from experts on the topic and texts written for informed audiences in the field, distinguishing between reliable and unreliable sources and avoiding over-reliance on one source; (B) systematically organize relevant and accurate information to support central ideas, concepts, and on Custer´s Stand, themes, outline ideas into conceptual maps/timelines, and separate factual data from complex inferences; and. (C) paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number), differentiating among primary, secondary, and other sources. (22) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to: (A) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan; (B) differentiate between theories and the evidence that supports them and determine whether the evidence found is weak or strong and mise, how that evidence helps create a cogent argument; and. (C) critique the research process at each step to Essay Stand implement changes as the need occurs and is identified. (23) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas.

Students organize and present their ideas and government, information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Essay Last. Students are expected to en scene synthesize the research into an extended written or oral presentation that: (A) provides an analysis that supports and develops personal opinions, as opposed to simply restating existing information; (B) uses a variety of formats and rhetorical strategies to argue for the thesis; (C) develops an argument that incorporates the complexities of and discrepancies in Last information from multiple sources and perspectives while anticipating and refuting counter-arguments; (D) uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association , Chicago Manual of Style ) to document sources and format written materials; and. (E) is of sufficient length and complexity to address the topic. (24) Listening and example, Speaking/Listening. Essay Last Stand. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. John Locke Influence. Students are expected to: (A) listen responsively to a speaker by framing inquiries that reflect an understanding of the content and by identifying the positions taken and the evidence in support of those positions; and.

(B) evaluate the clarity and coherence of a speaker's message and critique the impact of a speaker's diction and syntax on an audience. (25) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of Essay on Custer´s Last Stand language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give a formal presentation that exhibits a logical structure, smooth transitions, accurate evidence, well-chosen details, and rhetorical devices, and that employs eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively. (26) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, offering ideas or judgments that are purposeful in en scene moving the team towards goals, asking relevant and Last Stand, insightful questions, tolerating a range of positions and ambiguity in decision-making, and evaluating the who did locke, work of the group based on agreed-upon criteria.

Source: The provisions of this 110.33 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162. 110.34. English Language Arts and Reading, English IV (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010. (1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to on Custer´s Last Stand locate a range of relevant sources and on Early Education’s Male Educators, evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of on Custer´s Last Stand others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in on Early Education’s For More Educators groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in Essay on Custer´s Stand speaking and who did john, writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In English IV, students will engage in activities that build on Essay Last Stand their prior knowledge and skills in in the the witch order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for on Custer´s Last Stand, English language acquisition. (A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and how does roderigo, that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in Essay on Custer´s Last their native language. At the john locke influence, same time English learners are learning in English, the on Custer´s, focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to Essay Childhood Education’s For More Educators the content. (C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and Essay on Custer´s, evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. Mise. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously. (3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, 4.002, which states, The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the on Custer´s Last, English language, students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in English IV as described in boca analisis subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, 28.002(h), which states, . each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in Essay Stand the adoption of textbooks, students will be provided oral and how does manipulate, written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation. (b) Knowledge and Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, skills. (1) Reading/Vocabulary Development. And The Wardrobe. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to: (A) determine the Essay Stand, meaning of noche analisis technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes; (B) analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of Essay Stand text) to draw conclusions about the nuance in word meanings; (C) use the Essay Childhood Education’s For More Exemplary, relationship between words encountered in analogies to Stand determine their meanings (e.g., synonyms/antonyms, connotation/denotation); (D) analyze and explain how the English language has developed and been influenced by other languages; and. (E) use general and specialized dictionaries, thesauri, histories of language, books of quotations, and other related references (printed or electronic) as needed. (2) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Arriba. Students are expected to: (A) compare and contrast works of literature that express a universal theme; (B) compare and contrast the similarities and differences in classical plays with their modern day novel, play, or film versions; and. (C) relate the characters, setting, and theme of Last Stand a literary work to the historical, social, and economic ideas of its time. (3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate the changes in sound, form, figurative language, graphics, and dramatic structure in poetry across literary time periods. (4) Reading/Comprehension of Essay on Early Education’s Male Educators Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to Essay Stand support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate how the structure and elements of drama change in the works of British dramatists across literary periods.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and noche boca analisis, elements of Essay on Custer´s Last fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to: (A) analyze how complex plot structures (e.g., subplots) and devices (e.g., foreshadowing, flashbacks, suspense) function and advance the action in a work of fiction; (B) analyze the moral dilemmas and quandaries presented in works of fiction as revealed by the underlying motivations and characters in the the witch wardrobe, behaviors of the characters; (C) compare and contrast the effects of different forms of narration across various genres of fiction; and. (D) demonstrate familiarity with works of fiction by British authors from each major literary period. (6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the effect of ambiguity, contradiction, subtlety, paradox, irony, sarcasm, and overstatement in Essay on Custer´s Last Stand literary essays, speeches, and other forms of literary nonfiction. (7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Unitary Government. Students are expected to analyze how the author's patterns of imagery, literary allusions, and conceits reveal theme, set tone, and create meaning in metaphors, passages, and literary works.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to Essay on Custer´s Last support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the consistency and clarity of the expression of the how does iago manipulate, controlling idea and the ways in which the Last Stand, organizational and rhetorical patterns of text support or confound the author's meaning or purpose. (9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and john, draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Essay On Custer´s. Students are expected to: (A) summarize a text in a manner that captures the author's viewpoint, its main ideas, and its elements without taking a position or expressing an opinion; (B) explain how authors writing on on Early Exemplary Educators the same issue reached different conclusions because of Essay on Custer´s Last Stand differences in assumptions, evidence, reasoning, and viewpoints; (C) make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about the ideas in unitary government text and Essay on Custer´s, their organizational patterns; and. (D) synthesize ideas and make logical connections (e.g., thematic links, author analysis) among multiple texts representing similar or different genres and technical sources and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from mise text to Essay Last support their analysis. Students are expected to: (A) evaluate the mise, merits of an argument, action, or policy by analyzing the Essay Stand, relationships (e.g., implication, necessity, sufficiency) among evidence, inferences, assumptions, and claims in text; and. (B) draw conclusions about the credibility of mise en scene pronounce persuasive text by examining its implicit and stated assumptions about an issue as conveyed by the specific use of language. (11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to: (A) draw conclusions about Last Stand how the en scene pronounce, patterns of organization and hierarchic structures support the understandability of text; and. (B) evaluate the structures of text (e.g., format, headers) for their clarity and organizational coherence and for the effectiveness of their graphic representations. (12) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to Essay Stand analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts.

Students are expected to: (A) evaluate how messages presented in locke influence media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts; (B) evaluate the interactions of different techniques (e.g., layout, pictures, typeface in print media, images, text, sound in Essay on Custer´s electronic journalism) used in multi-layered media; (C) evaluate how one issue or event is represented across various media to understand the notions of bias, audience, and purpose; and. (D) evaluate changes in john locke influence formality and tone across various media for different audiences and purposes. (13) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to: (A) plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea; (B) structure ideas in on Custer´s Last a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and boca, develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices to convey meaning; (C) revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases; (D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and. (E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and Essay on Custer´s, publish written work for appropriate audiences. (14) Writing/Literary Texts.

Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and on Early Pursuit For More Male Exemplary, ideas. Essay Stand. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to: (A) write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and noche boca arriba, resolution, a clear theme, complex and non-stereotypical characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense), devices to Essay on Custer´s Last Stand enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone; (B) write a poem that reflects an awareness of poetic conventions and traditions within different forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads, free verse); and. (C) write a script with an characters lion the witch wardrobe explicit or implicit theme, using a variety of literary techniques. (15) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts.

Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for on Custer´s, specific purposes. Students are expected to: (A) write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes: (i) effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures; (ii) rhetorical devices, and Essay Education’s Exemplary Educators, transitions between paragraphs; (iii) a clear thesis statement or controlling idea; (iv) a clear organizational schema for conveying ideas; (v) relevant and substantial evidence and Essay Last, well-chosen details; (vi) information on unitary example all relevant perspectives and consideration of the validity, reliability, and relevance of Last primary and secondary sources; and. (vii) an analysis of views and information that contradict the thesis statement and the evidence presented for it; (B) write procedural and work-related documents (e.g., rsums, proposals, college applications, operation manuals) that include: (i) a clearly stated purpose combined with a well-supported viewpoint on the topic; (ii) appropriate formatting structures (e.g., headings, graphics, white space); (iii) relevant questions that engage readers and noche arriba analisis, address their potential problems and misunderstandings; (iv) accurate technical information in accessible language; and. (v) appropriate organizational structures supported by facts and details (documented if appropriate); (C) write an interpretation of an expository or a literary text that: (i) advances a clear thesis statement; (ii) addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay including references to and commentary on quotations from the Essay, text; (iii) analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic or rhetorical devices; (iv) identifies and analyzes ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text; and. (v) anticipates and and the, responds to readers' questions and contradictory information; and. (D) produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that appeals to on Custer´s Stand a specific audience and synthesizes information from multiple points of mise en scene view. (16) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an Essay on Custer´s Last Stand argumentative essay (e.g., evaluative essays, proposals) to the appropriate audience that includes: (A) a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons with various forms of support (e.g., hard evidence, reason, common sense, cultural assumptions); (B) accurate and honest representation of divergent views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of example context); (C) an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context; (D) information on the complete range of relevant perspectives; (E) demonstrated consideration of the Essay on Custer´s Stand, validity and reliability of all primary and characters wardrobe, secondary sources used; (F) language attentively crafted to move a disinterested or opposed audience, using specific rhetorical devices to back up assertions (e.g., appeals to logic, emotions, ethical beliefs); and. (G) an awareness and anticipation of audience response that is reflected in different levels of formality, style, and tone. (17) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions.

Students understand the function of and use the conventions of Essay academic language when speaking and john, writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to: (A) use and understand the on Custer´s Stand, function of different types of clauses and phrases (e.g., adjectival, noun, adverbial clauses and phrases); and. (B) use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex). (18) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to correctly and consistently use conventions of punctuation and capitalization. (19) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly.

Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings. (20) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to: (A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to john influence address the major research topic; and. (B) formulate a plan for engaging in in-depth research on Essay a complex, multi-faceted topic. (21) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to: (A) follow the research plan to gather evidence from experts on the topic and texts written for informed audiences in government the field, distinguishing between reliable and unreliable sources and avoiding over-reliance on one source; (B) systematically organize relevant and accurate information to support central ideas, concepts, and Last, themes, outline ideas into conceptual maps/timelines, and Childhood Education’s Exemplary Educators, separate factual data from complex inferences; and. (C) paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to on Custer´s Stand a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number), differentiating among primary, secondary, and other sources.

(22) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Education’s Pursuit Male Educators. Students are expected to: (A) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan; (B) differentiate between theories and the evidence that supports them and determine whether the evidence found is weak or strong and how that evidence helps create a cogent argument; and. (C) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified. (23) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into an extended written or oral presentation that: (A) provides an on Custer´s Last analysis that supports and develops personal opinions, as opposed to simply restating existing information; (B) uses a variety of formats and rhetorical strategies to argue for the thesis; (C) develops an argument that incorporates the complexities of and Essay Childhood, discrepancies in information from multiple sources and perspectives while anticipating and refuting counter-arguments; (D) uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association , Chicago Manual of Style ) to document sources and format written materials; and.

(E) is of sufficient length and complexity to address the topic. (24) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Essay On Custer´s Last. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Iago Manipulate. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to: (A) listen responsively to Essay on Custer´s Stand a speaker by framing inquiries that reflect an understanding of the content and by identifying the Essay on Early Education’s For More Male Educators, positions taken and the evidence in support of those positions; and. (B) assess the persuasiveness of a presentation based on content, diction, rhetorical strategies, and delivery. (25) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to formulate sound arguments by on Custer´s Last Stand, using elements of classical speeches (e.g., introduction, first and second transitions, body, and conclusion), the art of persuasion, rhetorical devices, eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for wardrobe, effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of Stand language to communicate ideas effectively. (26) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork.

Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, offering ideas or judgments that are purposeful in moving the team towards goals, asking relevant and noche, insightful questions, tolerating a range of positions and ambiguity in decision-making, and evaluating the work of the group based on agreed-upon criteria. Source: The provisions of this 110.34 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162. (1) Students enrolled in Independent Study in English will focus on a specialized area of study such as the Essay on Custer´s, work of a particular author or genre. Manipulate Roderigo. Students will read and write in Last Stand multiple forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis and carefully examine their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English. (2) If this course is being used to satisfy requirements for the Distinguished Achievement Program, a student research/product must be presented before a panel of wardrobe professionals or approved by the student's mentor. (3) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning. (4) Statements that contain the Essay Last, word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (5) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Independent Study in English are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Knowledge and pronounce, skills. (1) The student inquires through reading literature and researching self-selected and assigned topics. Essay On Custer´s Last. The student is expected to: (A) read widely for Childhood Education’s Male, further study; (B) generate relevant, interesting, and researchable questions with instructor guidance and Essay Last, approval; and. (C) draw relevant questions for further study from the research findings or conclusions. (2) The student uses writing as a tool for learning and Essay Education’s Pursuit Male Exemplary Educators, research. The student produces visual representations that communicate with others. The student is expected to: (A) produce research projects and reports in on Custer´s Stand multiple forms for a variety of audiences from primary and secondary sources using available technology; (B) conduct a research project(s), producing an original work in print or another medium with a demonstration of advanced skill; (C) use writing to organize and support what is known and needs to be learned about a topic, including discovering, recording, reviewing, and learning; (D) compile written ideas and characters lion the witch and the wardrobe, representations; interpret information into Essay on Custer´s Last, reports, summaries, or other formats; and draw conclusions; and. (E) use writing as a tool such as to reflect, explore, or problem solve. Source: The provisions of this 110.46 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to who did locke be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) Reading I, II, III offers students reading instruction to successfully navigate academic demands as well as attain life-long literacy skills.

Specific instruction in word recognition, vocabulary, comprehension strategies, and fluency provides students an opportunity to read with competence, confidence, and understanding. On Custer´s Last. Students learn how traditional and electronic texts are organized and how authors choose language for effect. All of these strategies are applied in instructional-level and independent-level texts that cross the content areas. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for how does, English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Reading I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) The student uses a variety of word recognition strategies. The student is expected to: (A) apply knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, language structure, and context to recognize words; and. (B) use reference guides such as dictionaries, glossaries, and Essay on Custer´s Stand, available technology to determine pronunciations of unfamiliar words.

(2) The student acquires an how does manipulate roderigo extensive vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is Last Stand expected to: (A) expand vocabulary by reading, viewing, listening, and discussing; (B) determine word meanings through the study of their relationships to other words and concepts such as content, synonyms, antonyms, and analogies; (C) recognize the who did john locke influence, implied meanings of words such as idiomatic expressions, homonyms, puns, and connotations; (D) apply the Essay Last, knowledge of roots, affixes, and word origins to noche boca arriba analisis infer meanings; and. (E) use available reference guides such as dictionary, glossary, thesaurus, and available technology to determine or confirm the meanings of new words and phrases. (3) The student reads for a variety of purposes with multiple sources, both narrative and expository. Essay. The student is expected to: (A) read functional texts to complete real-world tasks such as job applications, recipes, and product assembly instructions; (B) read to complete academic tasks; (C) read using test-taking skills such as highlighting, annotating, previewing questions, noticing key words, employing process of elimination, allotting time, and following directions; (D) read to gain content/background knowledge as well as insight about unitary government oneself, others, or the world; and. (E) read for enjoyment. (4) The student comprehends texts using effective strategies. Essay On Custer´s Last Stand. The student is expected to: (A) use prior knowledge and experience to comprehend; (B) determine and adjust purpose for who did locke, reading; (C) self-monitor reading and adjust when confusion occurs by using appropriate strategies; (D) summarize texts by identifying main ideas and Essay on Custer´s Stand, relevant details; (E) construct visual images based on text descriptions; (F) use study skills such as previewing, highlighting, annotating, note taking, and outlining; and.

(G) use questioning to example enhance comprehension before, during, and after reading. (5) The student draws complex inferences and Essay on Custer´s Last, analyzes and evaluates information within and the witch, across texts of on Custer´s Last Stand varying lengths. The student is locke influence expected to: (A) find similarities and differences across texts such as explanations, points of view, or themes; (B) identify explicit and implicit meanings of texts; (C) support inferences with text evidence and on Custer´s Last Stand, experience; (D) analyze text to draw conclusions, state generalizations, and make predictions supported by text evidence; and. (E) distinguish facts from simple assertions and on Early Pursuit For More Male, opinions. (6) The student reads critically to evaluate texts in Essay Stand order to determine the credibility of the sources. On Early For More Exemplary. The student is expected to: (A) identify and analyze the audience, purpose, and message of the text; (B) evaluate the credibility and relevance of informational sources; (C) analyze the presentation of information and the strength of on Custer´s Stand quality of the evidence used by the author; and. (D) evaluate the author's motivation, stance, or position and its effect on the validity of the text. (7) The student reads with fluency and pronounce, understanding in increasingly demanding and Essay Last Stand, varied texts. The student is expected to: (A) read silently or orally such as paired reading or literature circles for sustained periods of time; and.

(B) adjust reading rate based on iago manipulate purposes for reading. (8) The student formulates and supports responses to a wide variety of texts. The student is expected to: (A) respond actively to texts in both aesthetic and critical ways; (B) respond to text in multiple ways such as discussion, journal writing, performance, and visual/symbolic representation; (C) support responses with prior knowledge and experience; and. (D) support responses with explicit textual information. (9) The student reads and responds to informational texts. On Custer´s Last Stand. The student is john locke influence expected to: (A) generate relevant and interesting questions; (B) use text features and Essay on Custer´s, graphics to form an overview to determine where to locate information; (C) analyze the unitary example, use of common expository text structures such as sequence, description, compare/contrast, cause/effect, and problem/solution; (D) organize and record new information in systematic ways such as outlines, charts, and graphic organizers; and. (E) communicate information gained from reading.

(10) The student reads to increase knowledge of one's own culture, the culture of others, and on Custer´s Last Stand, the common elements of cultures. The student is expected to: (A) compare text events with personal and other readers' experiences; and. (B) recognize literary themes and For More Male Educators, connections that cross cultures. Source: The provisions of this 110.47 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) High school students that require or request additional honing of the study skills, especially as the students prepare for the demands of college, may enroll in the one semester course College Readiness and Study Skills. In this course, students acquire techniques for learning from texts, including studying word meanings, identifying and relating key ideas, drawing and supporting inferences, and reviewing study strategies. In all cases, interpretations and understandings will be presented through varying forms, including through use of Essay on Custer´s Last available technology. Students accomplish many of the objectives through wide reading as well as use of content texts in preparation for boca arriba, post-secondary schooling. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for College Readiness and Study Skills, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) The student reads widely for on Custer´s Last, a variety of purposes from en scene numerous sources and cultures. The student is expected to: (A) read self-selected and assigned texts from varied sources such as literature, literary non-fiction, expository, electronic texts, and Essay Last, other media; and. (B) read for noche boca, various purposes such as to be entertained, to appreciate a writer's craft, to be informed, to take action, and to discover models for writing. (2) The student builds an extensive vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to: (A) expand vocabulary through wide reading, viewing, listening, and Last Stand, discussion; (B) apply knowledge of affixes and roots to comprehend; (C) investigate word origins to who did influence understand meanings, derivations, and Essay Last, spellings; (D) distinguish between the connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotative power of words; (E) use reference material to roderigo determine precise meaning and Essay Last Stand, usage such as glossary, dictionary, thesaurus, and john locke, available technology; and.

(F) use context to determine meanings of words and phrases such as figurative language, idiomatic expressions, homonyms, and technical vocabulary. (3) The student comprehends texts using a variety of strategies. The student is expected to: (A) use self-monitoring reading strategies to make modifications when understanding breaks down; (B) activate and draw upon prior knowledge and experience; (C) establish purposes for reading such as to discover, to understand, to interpret, to enjoy, and to solve problems; (D) construct images based on text descriptions; and. (E) create graphic organizers to represent textual information. (4) The student reads critically to evaluate texts and the authority of sources.

The student is expected to: (A) analyze audience, purpose, and message of text; (B) evaluate the credibility and relevance of Stand information sources; (C) evaluate the author's motivation, stance, or position and its effect on the validity of the text; (D) analyze aspects of texts such as organizational patterns, diction, format, and tone for their effect on audiences; (E) identify explicit and implicit textual information in who did john influence text; (F) support complex inferences with text evidence and experience; and. (G) recognize persuasive techniques in texts such as bandwagon, glittering generalities, and testimonials. (5) The student uses study strategies to on Custer´s Last learn from a variety of characters in the lion texts. The student is Essay on Custer´s expected to: (A) use effective reading strategies to recall material from in the lion and the text such as previewing, skimming, scanning, rereading, and on Custer´s, asking relevant questions; (B) summarize information from text such as outlines, study guides, annotating, and two-columned note taking; (C) use text features and graphics such as headings, tables, sidebars, photographs, and captions to form an mise pronounce overview of informational texts and to determine where to Essay on Custer´s Last locate information; and. (D) use effective test-taking strategies for different types of tests. (6) The student expresses and supports responses to various types of texts. The student is expected to: (A) respond to literary and informational texts through various modes of communication such as discussions, further reading, presentations, journals, written responses, or visual arts; (B) formulate and defend a position with support synthesized from multiple texts; and.

(C) evaluate personal responses to reading for boca arriba, evidence of growth. Source: The provisions of this 110.48 adopted to Essay on Custer´s Stand be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) High school students enrolled in Visual Media Analysis and Production will interpret various media forms for a variety of purposes. In addition, students will critique and analyze the significance of visual representations and learn to produce media messages that communicate with others. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the who did john locke influence, student expectations for Visual Media Analysis and Production, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of Essay this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) The student recognizes/interprets visual representations as they apply to visual media.

The student is expected to: (A) identify the historical development of visual media; (B) distinguish the purposes of various media forms such as information, entertainment, and persuasion; and. (C) recognize strategies used by media to mise en scene inform, persuade, entertain, and transform culture such as advertising, perpetuation of stereotypes, use of visual representations, special effects, and language. (2) The student analyzes and critiques the on Custer´s Last Stand, significance of visual representations. The student is expected to: (A) evaluate the persuasive techniques of lion the witch media messages such as glittering generalities, associations with personalities, logical fallacies, and use of symbols; (B) compare and contrast media with other art forms; (C) analyze techniques used in visual media; (D) explore the emotional and intellectual effects of visual media on viewers; and. (E) recognize how visual and Essay on Custer´s, sound techniques convey messages in unitary government media such as special effects, editing, camera angles, reaction shots, sequencing, and music.

(3) The student produces visual representations that communicate with others. The student is expected to: (A) use a variety of forms and technologies to communicate specific messages; (B) use a range of techniques to create a media text and reflect critically on the work produced; and. (C) study the relationship between subject matter and choice of on Custer´s Last media for presenting that subject. Source: The provisions of this 110.49 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) Students enrolled in Contemporary Media will understand how media influence tastes, behavior, purchasing, and voting decisions. Students who are media literate understand television, radio, film, and other visual images and who did john influence, auditory messages.

(2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and Essay Last Stand, skills as well as the student expectations for Contemporary Media, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) The student identifies the john, history and evolution of media used for mass communication. The student is expected to: (A) examine the development of the technologies that influence each medium; and. (B) analyze the historical contributions made by Last Stand, various media personnel. (2) The student recognizes the types and functions of mass media.

The student is expected to: (A) identify the types of mass media such as television, radio, Internet, podcast, YouTube, newspaper, periodicals, blogs, social networking, emailing, texting, search engines, and music; and. (B) analyze the roles of media as sources of unitary example information, entertainment, persuasion, and on Custer´s Stand, education. (3) The student identifies and analyzes regulations that govern media. The student is expected to: (A) identify the appropriate government agencies that regulate media; and. (B) analyze government regulatory issues regarding censorship, political campaigns, news, ethics, and responsibilities. (4) The student analyzes the influence of media. The student is expected to: (A) analyze the who did, influence of on Custer´s Last viewing and listening habits on individuals; (B) analyze the influence of media in shaping governmental decisions, social choices, and cultural norms; (C) evaluate standards for quality programming; and.

(D) analyze possible ways to noche boca analisis improve mass media. (5) The student analyzes, creates, and evaluates visual and Essay on Custer´s Last, auditory messages. Who Did John Locke Influence. The student is expected to: (A) develop skills for organizing, writing, and designing media messages for specific purposes and effects; (B) develop technical and Last Stand, communication skills needed by various media personnel; and. (C) plan, organize, produce, and Essay Childhood Pursuit For More, present media messages. Source: The provisions of this 110.50 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to Last be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) Students enrolled in Literary Genres will spend time analyzing the fictional and how does manipulate, poetic elements of on Custer´s Last literary texts and read to appreciate the writer's craft. How Does Manipulate. High school students will discover how well written literary text can serve as models for their own writing. High school students respond to oral, written, and on Custer´s Stand, electronic text to connect their knowledge of the world.

(2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for in the the witch, English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Literary Genres, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) The student builds an extensive vocabulary through reading and systematic word study.

The student is expected to: (A) expand vocabulary through wide reading, listening, and discussion; (B) investigate word origins as an aid to understanding meanings, derivations, and spellings as well as influences on the English language; and. (C) discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and Essay on Custer´s, interpret the connotative power of words. (2) The student analyzes fictional and poetic elements focusing on iago roderigo how they combine to contribute meaning in literary texts. The student is expected to: (A) compare and contrast varying aspects of Essay Last texts such as themes, conflicts, and allusions; (B) propose and provide examples of boca themes that cross texts; (C) connect literature to historical context, current events, and his/her own experiences; (D) analyze relevance of setting and time frame to text's meaning; (E) identify basic conflicts; (F) describe the development of plot and how conflicts are addressed and resolved; (G) analyze characters' traits, motivations, changes, and stereotypical features; (H) describe how irony, tone, mood, style, and sound of language contribute to the effect of the text; (I) determine and explain purposes and effects of Essay on Custer´s Stand figurative language, particularly symbolic and metaphoric; (J) identify and who did john locke, analyze text structures; (K) recognize archetypes, motifs, and symbols across texts; (L) analyze distinctive features of text genre such as biography, historical fiction, science fiction, political writing, fantasy fiction, short story, dramatic literature, or poetry; (M) identify how authors create suspense; and. (N) tell how points of view affect tone, characterization, and credibility. (3) The student reads critically to evaluate texts and the authority of sources. The student is expected to: (A) analyze the characteristics of Essay on Custer´s well-constructed texts; (B) describe how a writer's point of view may affect text credibility, structure, or tone; (C) analyze aspects of texts such as patterns of organization and choice of language for their effect on who did locke audiences; and. (D) examine strategies that writers in different fields use to compose. (4) The student reads to increase knowledge of his/her own culture, the culture of on Custer´s Stand others, and on Early Childhood For More Male Exemplary Educators, the common elements of cultures. The student is expected to: (A) compare text events with personal and other readers' experiences; (B) recognize and discuss themes and connections that cross cultures; and.

(C) recognize how writers represent and reveal their cultures and traditions in texts. (5) The student uses writing as a tool for learning and researching literary genres. The student is expected to: (A) use writing to discover, record, review, and learn; and. (B) link related information and ideas from a variety of sources. Source: The provisions of this 110.51 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) The study of Essay on Custer´s creative writing allows high school students to earn one-half to in the the witch and the wardrobe one credit while developing versatility as a writer. Creative Writing, a rigorous composition course, asks high school students to demonstrate their skill in such forms of writing as fictional writing, short stories, poetry, and drama. All students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of the Essay on Custer´s Stand, recursive nature of the writing process, effectively applying the conventions of usage and the mechanics of written English. The students' evaluation of boca their own writing as well as the Last Stand, writing of on Early Childhood Education’s Pursuit Male Exemplary Educators others ensures that students completing this course are able to analyze and discuss published and unpublished pieces of writing, develop peer and self-assessments for effective writing, and set their own goals as writers. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the Essay on Custer´s, students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and government example, skills as well as the student expectations for Creative Writing, an elective course, are described in on Custer´s Last subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) The student writes for a variety of audiences and purposes to develop versatility as a writer. The student is expected to: (A) write expressive, informative, and persuasive literary texts effectively; (B) demonstrate the distinguishing characteristics of various written forms such as fictional writing, short stories, poetry, and drama in his/her own writing; (C) elaborate writing when appropriate such as using concrete images, figurative language, sensory observation, dialogue, and other rhetorical devices to enhance meaning; (D) employ various points of view to communicate effectively; (E) choose topics and forms to develop fluency and voice; (F) use word choice, sentence structure, and repetition to who did create tone; and. (G) organize ideas in writing to ensure coherence, logical progression, and Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, support for ideas.

(2) The student selects and uses recursive writing processes for self-initiated and assigned writing. The student is expected to: (A) select and apply prewriting strategies to generate ideas, develop voice, and plan; (B) develop drafts by organizing ideas such as paragraphing, outlining, adding, and deleting; (C) use vocabulary, sentence structure, organization, and manipulate roderigo, rhetorical devices appropriate to audience and purpose; (D) use effective sequence and transitions to achieve coherence and meaning; (E) revise drafts by rethinking content, organization, and style; (F) frequently refine selected pieces to publish for general and specific audiences; and. (G) write both independently and collaboratively. (3) The student applies the conventions of usage and the mechanics of Essay on Custer´s Last Stand written English to noche arriba analisis communicate clearly and effectively. The student is expected to: (A) use correct capitalization and punctuation; (B) spell with accuracy in the final draft; and. (C) demonstrate control over Essay Last grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, and verb forms in the final draft. (4) The student evaluates his/her own writing and the writings of others. The student is expected to: (A) analyze and discuss published pieces as writing models such as use of suspense, repetition for Essay on Early Childhood Education’s For More Exemplary, emphasis, various points of view, literary devices, and figurative language; (B) generate and apply peer and self-assessment; and. (C) accumulate, review, and evaluate his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer.

Source: The provisions of this 110.52 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to on Custer´s Last be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) The study of technical writing allows high school students to earn one-half to mise pronounce one credit while developing skills necessary for writing persuasive and informative texts. Stand. This rigorous composition course asks high school students to skillfully research a topic or a variety of boca analisis topics and Stand, present that information through a variety of media. Unitary. All students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of the recursive nature of the writing process, effectively applying the conventions of usage and the mechanics of written English. The students' evaluation of their own writing as well as the writing of others ensures that students completing this course are able to Essay on Custer´s analyze and on Early For More, discuss published and unpublished pieces of writing, develop and apply criteria for effective writing, and set their own goals as writers. (2) For high school students whose first language is Essay Last not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and characters lion the witch and the wardrobe, language learning.

(3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Research and Technical Writing, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) The student writes for a variety of purposes and audiences. The student is expected to: (A) write informative and persuasive texts, including essays, reports, and proposals; (B) use the distinguishing characteristics of Stand various written forms, including essays, scientific reports, speeches, and john, memoranda; (C) write in voice and style appropriate to audience and purpose; and. (D) organize ideas in writing to ensure coherence, logical progression, and Essay on Custer´s Last, support for characters and the wardrobe, ideas. (2) The student selects and uses recursive writing processes for on Custer´s Last, self-initiated and assigned writing.

The student is expected to: (A) apply prewriting strategies to generate ideas and plan; (B) employ precise language and technical vocabulary to Childhood Education’s For More Male Exemplary communicate ideas clearly and concisely; (C) use sentence structure, organization, and rhetorical devices appropriate to audience and purpose; (D) use effective sequence and transitions to achieve coherence and meaning; (E) revise drafts by rethinking content, organization, and style to better accomplish the task; (F) edit as appropriate for the conventions of Essay Last standard written English; (G) use resources such as texts and other people for editing; (H) use available technology for aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts; and. (I) write both independently and collaboratively. (3) The student writes to investigate self-selected and assigned topics. Characters And The Wardrobe. The student is expected to: (A) use writing to formulate questions, refine topics, and clarify ideas; and. (B) organize all types of information from multiple sources, including primary and secondary resources, using available technology such as audio, video, print, non-print, graphics, maps, and Essay on Custer´s, charts.

(4) The student applies the conventions of usage and mechanics of written English. How Does Manipulate Roderigo. The student is expected to: (A) use correct capitalization and punctuation; (B) use correct spelling in the final draft; (C) demonstrate control over grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, and Essay Last Stand, verb forms in final drafts; (D) use appropriate technical vocabulary; and. (E) consistently use a documentation manual or form consistent with the example, student's field of study such as Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), and The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) . (5) The student evaluates his/her own writing and the writing of others. Essay On Custer´s Stand. The student is mise pronounce expected to: (A) analyze and discuss published pieces as writing models; (B) apply criteria to Last Stand evaluate writing; and. (C) accumulate, review, and evaluate his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer.

Source: The provisions of this 110.53 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) The study of writing allows high school students to earn one-half to characters and the one credit while developing skills necessary for practical writing. This course emphasizes skill in Stand the use of conventions and mechanics of written English, the appropriate and effective application of English grammar, the Education’s For More Male Educators, reading comprehension of informational text, and the effective use of Last vocabulary. Unitary Government Example. Students are expected to understand the recursive nature of reading and writing. Evaluation of students' own writing as well as the writing of others ensures that students completing this course are able to analyze and Essay Stand, evaluate their writing. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the unitary government example, students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the on Custer´s Last Stand, phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the manipulate roderigo, student expectations for Practical Writing Skills, an elective course, are described in Stand subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) The student uses the conventions and mechanics of written English to on Early Childhood Pursuit For More Exemplary communicate clearly. The student is expected to: (A) employ written conventions appropriately such as capitalizing and punctuating for various forms; (B) use correct spelling; (C) produce error-free writing by demonstrating control over grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, and appropriate verb forms; (D) use varied sentence structures to express meanings and Essay Last Stand, achieve desired effect; and. (E) use appropriate vocabulary. (2) The student uses recursive writing processes as appropriate for self-initiated and assigned writing. The student is expected to: (A) apply prewriting strategies to generate ideas and plan; (B) develop drafts by organizing ideas such as paragraphing, outlining, adding, and deleting; (C) use vocabulary, sentence structure, organization, and rhetorical devices appropriate to audience and purpose; (D) use effective sequence and transitions to noche analisis achieve coherency; (E) revise drafts by rethinking content, organization, and style to better accomplish the task; (F) edit as appropriate for the conventions of standard written English such as grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and sentence structure in the final draft; (G) use resources such as texts and other people as needed for proofreading, editing, and revising; and. (H) use available technology for creating, revising, editing, and Essay Stand, publishing texts. (3) The student reads and writes for a variety of audiences and government example, purposes.

The student is expected to: (A) read a variety of informational text; (B) write informational text; and. (C) practice effective, efficient note taking. (4) The student evaluates his/her own writing and the writing of on Custer´s Last Stand others. The student is expected to: (A) evaluate how well writing achieves its purposes; (B) analyze and discuss published pieces as writing models; and. (C) review written work to determine its strengths and in the and the wardrobe, weaknesses and to set goals as a writer. (5) The student analyzes informational text. The student is expected to: (A) use effective reading strategies to determine a written work's purpose and intended audience; (B) identify explicit and implicit textual information, including main ideas and Essay, author's purpose; (C) draw and boca arriba analisis, support complex inferences from text to distinguish facts from opinions; (D) analyze the author's quality of evidence for Essay on Custer´s Stand, an argument; (E) evaluate the use of roderigo both literal and figurative language; (F) analyze the on Custer´s Stand, audience and purpose of informational and persuasive text; (G) analyze how an mise en scene author's use of language creates imagery and on Custer´s Last, mood; and. (H) analyze insights gained from text to text, text to self, and text to world. (6) The student understands new vocabulary and concepts and uses them accurately in reading, speaking, and writing.

The student is expected to: (A) apply knowledge of roots and affixes to infer the meanings of new words; and. (B) use reference guides to confirm the meanings of new words and concepts. Source: The provisions of this 110.54 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) Humanities is an interdisciplinary course in which students recognize writing as an art form. Students read widely to understand how various authors craft compositions for various aesthetic purposes. This course includes the iago manipulate, study of Essay Last major historical and cultural movements and their relationship to literature and the other fine arts. Humanities is Pursuit For More Male Exemplary Educators a rigorous course of study in which high school students respond to aesthetic elements in texts and other art forms through outlets such as discussions, journals, oral interpretations, and dramatizations.

Students read widely to understand the commonalities that literature shares with the on Custer´s Last, fine arts. Characters In The. In addition, students use written composition to show an Last in-depth understanding of mise pronounce creative achievements in the arts and literature and how these various art forms are a reflection of history. All students are expected to participate in classroom discussions and presentations that lead to an understanding, appreciation, and on Custer´s Last, enjoyment of critical, creative achievements throughout history. Understanding is demonstrated through a variety of media. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for unitary government example, English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Humanities, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) The student reads and Essay, views varied literary and art forms.

The student is expected to: (A) recognize the major historical and cultural movements as reflected in various art forms; and. (B) read widely to see connections (commonalities) that literature shares with fine arts and historical and/or philosophical writings. (2) The student expresses and supports responses to various types of texts and compositions. The student is expected to: (A) respond to aesthetic elements in texts and characters the witch, other art forms through various outlets such as discussions, journals, oral interpretations, and enactments; (B) use elements of text and other art forms to defend his/her own responses and interpretations; (C) compare reviews of Essay Last literature, film performance, and other art forms with his/her own responses; and. (D) develop and use assessments for evaluating literary work and other art forms as a reflection of history such as political, social, and philosophical movements. (3) The student uses writing as a tool for learning and research. The student speaks and writes clearly and presents effectively to audiences for Essay on Early Education’s Pursuit For More Exemplary, a variety of purposes. The student is expected to: (A) show an in-depth understanding of creative achievements in literature and Essay Last Stand, the arts through writing; (B) describe how personal creativity is expressed within the requirements of an art form; and. (C) describe and analyze the relationship between form and john influence, expression. (4) The student understands and interprets creativity. The student is expected to participate in discussions that lead to understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment of creative achievements such as: (A) discuss how personal creativity is expressed within the requirements of an art form; (B) discuss conditions that encourage creativity; (C) discuss the relationship between form and expression; and.

(D) discuss the major historical and cultural movements as reflected in various art forms. (5) The student analyzes and critiques the significance of visual representations. The student is expected to: (A) recognize and Last, evaluate how literature and various other art forms convey messages; and. (B) examine the impact of literature and various other art forms. Source: The provisions of this 110.55 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) In order to have full participation in the civic process, students must have a good understanding of public dialogue. Students must learn the concepts and skills related to preparing and presenting public messages and to analyzing and evaluating the messages of others. Within this process, students will gain skills in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and thinking and will examine areas such as invention, organization, style, memory, and unitary government example, delivery. (2) For high school students whose first language is Essay on Custer´s not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and lion wardrobe, language learning.

(3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Public Speaking I, II, III, elective courses, are described in Essay on Custer´s subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) Rhetoric. The student traces the development of the government, rhetorical perspective. The student is Essay expected to: (A) recognize the influence of classical rhetoric in shaping Western thought; (B) explain and use the classical rhetorical canons of invention, organization, style, memory, and delivery; (C) analyze how modern public address influences public opinion and policy in a democratic republic; (D) analyze the ethical responsibilities that accompany freedom of speech; (E) develop and use critical, deliberative, empathic, and noche boca arriba, appreciative listening skills to Last analyze and evaluate speeches; and. (F) apply knowledge and understanding of rhetoric to analyze and evaluate oral or written speeches. (2) Speech forms. The student recognizes and analyzes varied speech forms.

The student is expected to: (A) identify and analyze the traditional elements of speech form, including introduction, body, and conclusion; (B) identify and how does, analyze logical patterns of Essay Last organization for specific speech forms; (C) identify and analyze the characteristics of a speech to inform; (D) identify and analyze the characteristics of a speech to persuade, including propositions of unitary government example fact, value, problem, and/or policy; (E) identify and analyze characteristics of Essay Last Stand speeches for special occasions; and. (F) analyze and evaluate the rhetorical elements in models of speeches that inform, persuade, or inspire. (3) Invention. Essay For More. The student plans speeches. The student is expected to: (A) identify and Essay Stand, analyze the influence, audience and occasion as a basis for choosing speech strategies; (B) select and limit topics for speeches considering his/her own interests, timeliness, and the importance of the topic; (C) select and limit purposes for speeches; (D) research topics using primary and secondary sources, including electronic technology; and. (E) analyze oral and written speech models to evaluate the topic, purpose, audience, and occasion. (4) Organization. The student organizes speeches.

The student is Essay on Custer´s expected to: (A) apply knowledge of speech form to characters in the lion the witch and the organize and design speeches; (B) organize speeches effectively for specific topics, purposes, audiences, and occasions; (C) choose logical patterns of organization for bodies of speech; (D) prepare outlines reflecting logical organization; and. (E) analyze and evaluate the organization of oral or written speech models. (5) Proofs and appeals. The student uses valid proofs and appeals in speeches. Stand. The student is expected to: (A) analyze the how does iago roderigo, implications of the audience, occasion, topic, and purpose as a basis for on Custer´s, choosing proofs and appeals for noche analisis, speeches; (B) choose logical proofs and appeals that meet standard tests of evidence; (C) use logical, ethical, and emotional proofs and Essay on Custer´s, appeals to support and clarify claims in speeches; (D) choose proofs and appeals that enhance a specific topic, purpose, and tone; (E) choose and develop appropriate devices for introductions and conclusions; (F) choose or produce effective visual supports; and.

(G) analyze and evaluate the proofs and appeals used in oral or written speech models. (6) Style. The student develops skills in using oral language in public speeches. The student is unitary example expected to: (A) distinguish between oral and written language styles; (B) write manuscripts to Last facilitate language choices and enhance oral style; (C) use rhetorical and characters and the, stylistic devices to achieve clarity, force, and aesthetic effect; (D) use informal, standard, and technical language appropriately; (E) employ previews, transitions, summaries, signposts, and Essay, other appropriate rhetorical strategies to enhance clarity; and. (F) evaluate a speaker's style in oral or written speech models. (7) Delivery.

The student uses appropriate strategies for rehearsing and presenting speeches. The student is expected to: (A) employ techniques and strategies to reduce communication apprehension, develop self-confidence, and facilitate command of information and ideas; (B) rehearse and employ a variety of iago manipulate roderigo delivery strategies; (C) develop verbal, vocal, and on Custer´s Last Stand, physical skills to enhance presentations; (D) use notes, manuscripts, rostrum, visual aids, and/or electronic devices; and. (E) interact with audiences appropriately. (8) Evaluation. Characters In The Lion The Witch And The Wardrobe. The student analyzes and evaluates speeches. The student is Essay on Custer´s expected to: (A) use critical, deliberative, and appreciative listening skills to evaluate speeches; and. (B) critique speeches using knowledge of rhetorical principles.

Source: The provisions of this 110.57 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) Understanding and noche analisis, developing skills in communication are fundamental to all other learning and to all levels of human interaction. For successful participation in professional and social life, students must develop effective communication skills. Rapidly expanding technologies and changing social and corporate systems demand that students send clear verbal messages, choose effective nonverbal behaviors, listen for desired results, and apply valid critical-thinking and problem-solving processes. Students enrolled in Communication Applications will be expected to identify, analyze, develop, and evaluate communication skills needed for Essay Last Stand, professional and social success in interpersonal situations, group interactions, and personal and manipulate, professional presentations. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the Essay on Custer´s Last, student expectations for Communication Applications are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) Communication process. Unitary Example. The student demonstrates knowledge of Essay Last various communication processes in professional and social contexts.

The student is expected to: (A) explain the importance of effective communication skills in professional and noche analisis, social contexts; (B) identify the components of the communication process and their functions; (C) identify standards for making appropriate communication choices for self, listener, occasion, and Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, task; (D) identify the characteristics of oral language and analyze standards for using informal, standard, and technical language appropriately; (E) identify types of nonverbal communication and their effects; (F) recognize the importance of effective nonverbal strategies such as appearance, a firm handshake, direct eye contact, and appropriate use of space and distance; (G) identify the components of the listening process; (H) identify specific kinds of listening such as critical, deliberative, and empathic; (I) recognize the john, importance of gathering and using accurate and complete information as a basis for making communication decisions; (J) identify and analyze ethical and social responsibilities of communicators; and. (K) recognize and analyze appropriate channels of on Custer´s Stand communication in organizations. (2) Interpersonal. The student uses appropriate interpersonal communication strategies in professional and social contexts. The student is expected to: (A) identify types of professional and social relationships, their importance, and the purposes they serve; (B) employ appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening skills to enhance interpersonal relationships; (C) use communication management skills to in the develop appropriate assertiveness, tact, and courtesy; (D) use professional etiquette and Essay Stand, protocol in situations such as making introductions, speaking on the telephone, and offering and receiving criticism; (E) send clear and appropriate requests, provide clear and accurate directions, ask appropriate and purposeful questions, and respond appropriately to the requests, directions, and questions of others; (F) participate appropriately in conversations; (G) communicate effectively in interviews; (H) identify and use appropriate strategies for dealing with differences, including gender, ethnicity, and age; and. (I) analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of one's own and noche boca arriba analisis, others' communication. (3) Group communication. The student communicates effectively in groups in professional and social contexts. The student is expected to: (A) identify kinds of groups, their importance, and Stand, the purposes they serve; (B) analyze group dynamics and processes for participating effectively in groups; (C) identify and analyze the roles of group members and their influence on group dynamics; (D) demonstrate understanding of group roles and their impact on group effectiveness; (E) use appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening skills to how does roderigo promote group effectiveness; (F) identify and Last, analyze leadership styles; (G) use effective communication strategies in leadership roles; (H) use effective communication strategies for solving problems, managing conflicts, and unitary, building consensus in groups; and.

(I) analyze the participation and contributions of group members and evaluate group effectiveness. (4) Presentations. The student makes and evaluates formal and on Custer´s Last Stand, informal professional presentations. The student is expected to: (A) analyze the audience, occasion, and purpose when designing presentations; (B) determine specific topics and purposes for presentations; (C) research topics using primary and secondary sources, including electronic technology; (D) use effective strategies to organize and outline presentations; (E) use information effectively to support and clarify points in presentations; (F) prepare scripts or notes for presentations; (G) prepare and use visual or auditory aids, including technology, to enhance presentations; (H) use appropriate techniques to manage communication apprehension, build self-confidence, and noche arriba, gain command of the information; (I) use effective verbal and on Custer´s Last, nonverbal strategies in en scene presentations; (J) make group presentations to inform, persuade, or motivate an audience; (K) make individual presentations to inform, persuade, or motivate an audience; (L) participate in question-and-answer sessions following presentations; (M) apply critical-listening strategies to evaluate presentations; and. (N) evaluate effectiveness of his/her own presentation.

Source: The provisions of this 110.58 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) Literature and its presentation are integral to understanding the cultural aspects of a society. Students in Oral Interpretation I, II, III will select, research, analyze, adapt, interpret, and perform literary texts as a communication art. Students focus on intellectual, emotional, sensory, and aesthetic levels of texts to attempt to capture the entirety of the author's work. Individual or group performances of literature will be presented and evaluated. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for Essay on Custer´s Last, English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Oral Interpretation I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) Definition and theory. The student recognizes oral interpretation as a communication art. The student is expected to: (A) explain definitions and theories of oral interpretation as a communication art; (B) analyze the lion and the wardrobe, role of the interpreter and the ethical responsibilities to the author, the literary text, and the audience; and.

(C) develop and use a workable theory of interpretation as a basis for Essay Last Stand, performance choices. (2) Selection. The student selects literature for Essay Pursuit Male Exemplary, performance. The student is expected to: (A) select literature appropriate for the reader, the Stand, audience, and the occasion; (B) apply standards of literary merit when selecting literature for individual or group performance; (C) choose literature that can be appropriately adapted; and. (D) select performance materials from a variety of literary genre. (3) Research. The student uses relevant research to promote understanding of literary works. How Does. The student is expected to: (A) read the text to grasp the author's meaning, theme, tone, and purpose; and. (B) research the author, author's works, literary criticism, allusions in the text, and definitions and Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, pronunciations of Essay Education’s For More Male Exemplary Educators words to enhance understanding and appreciation of the chosen text. (4) Analysis.

The student analyzes the chosen text to assess its implications for adaptation, interpretation, and performance. The student is expected to: (A) identify and analyze the literary form or genre; (B) identify and analyze structural elements in the chosen text; (C) identify and analyze the narrative voice and/or other speakers such as personae in the literature; (D) identify and analyze the time, place, and atmosphere; (E) analyze the shifts or transitions in speaker, time, and place to on Custer´s Stand determine who is speaking, to whom they are speaking, where they are speaking, when they are speaking, and for what reason they are speaking; (F) analyze individual units such as paragraphs, verses, sentences, and lines for meaning and specificity; (G) identify descriptive phrases, figures of speech, stylistic devices, and manipulate, word choices to analyze the imagery in the text; (H) trace the emotional progression of the Essay Last, text; and. (I) recognize literal and symbolic meanings, universal themes, or unique aspects of the text. (5) Adaptation. The student adapts written text for individual or group performance based on appropriate research and characters in the the witch, analysis.

The student is expected to: (A) maintain ethical responsibility to author, text, and audience when adapting literature; (B) apply appropriate criteria for lifting scenes and cutting literary selections; (C) use effective strategies for planning and Essay on Custer´s Stand, organizing programs focused on a specific theme, author, or central comment; and. (D) write appropriate introductions, transitions, and/or conclusions to supplement the boca, text. (6) Interpretation. The student applies research and analysis to make appropriate performance choices. The student is expected to: (A) justify the use or nonuse of on Custer´s Last manuscript or other aids; (B) justify strategies for the use of mise focus, gesture, and movement; (C) justify the on Custer´s, use of characters the witch vocal strategies such as rate, pitch, inflection, volume, and pause; (D) justify the use of dialect, pronunciation, enunciation, or articulation; and. (E) use research, analysis, personal experiences, and responses to the literature to justify performance choices. (7) Rehearsal and performance. The student uses insights gained from research and analysis to rehearse and perform literature for a variety of on Custer´s Last Stand audiences and occasions. The student is expected to: (A) use effective rehearsal strategies to locke promote internalization and visualization of the text; (B) use appropriate rehearsal strategies to Essay on Custer´s Last develop confidence and enhance effective communication of the who did john locke, text to an audience in individual and group performance; (C) participate in effective group decision-making processes to prepare and present group performances; and. (D) present individual and group performances.

(8) Evaluation. The student uses critical and appreciative listening to evaluate individual and group performances. The student is Essay on Custer´s Stand expected to: (A) listen critically and appreciatively and government example, respond appropriately to the performances of Essay Last others; (B) analyze and evaluate various performance styles; (C) use a variety of techniques to evaluate and critique one's own and others' performances; and. (D) set goals for future performances based on evaluation. Source: The provisions of this 110.59 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) Controversial issues arise in aspects of personal, social public, and professional life in modern society.

Debate and argumentation are widely used to make decisions and reduce conflict. Students who develop skills in argumentation and debate become interested in Essay Childhood Male Exemplary Educators current issues, develop sound critical thinking, and sharpen communication skills. They acquire life-long skills for intelligently approaching controversial issues. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Debate I, II, III, elective courses, are described in Last Stand subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) Role in manipulate society. Essay On Custer´s Stand. The student examines the historical and contemporary contributions of debate in decision-making and democratic processes.

The student is expected to: (A) identify the historical and contemporary use of debate in social, political, and religious arenas; (B) examine the role of the forensic progression of discussion, persuasion, and characters in the lion, debate in Essay on Custer´s Last dealing with controversial issues; and. (C) recognize the role of how does manipulate argumentation and debate as an effective means of Last Stand analyzing issues, discovering truth, finding solutions to problems, and understanding opposing viewpoints. (2) Analysis of issues. The student analyzes controversial issues. The student is expected to: (A) use appropriate standards to analyze and interpret propositions of fact, value, problem, and policy; (B) accurately phrase and unitary government example, define debatable propositions; (C) analyze and evaluate propositions and related issues presented in academic and public settings; and. (D) recognize, analyze, and use various debate formats to support propositions. (3) Propositions of value. The student develops and demonstrates skills for debating propositions of value. The student is expected to: (A) explain the concept of a value as it applies to Last Stand a debate; (B) analyze the Childhood For More Male, role of value assumptions in formulating and evaluating argument; (C) analyze the works of classical and contemporary philosophers; (D) apply various standards for evaluating propositions of value; (E) apply value assumptions and/or classical and contemporary philosophies appropriately in formulating arguments; (F) develop and use valid approaches to construct affirmative and negative cases; (G) use valid proofs appropriately to support claims in propositions of value; (H) construct briefs for value propositions; and.

(I) apply voting criteria to value propositions. (4) Propositions of policy. The student develops and demonstrates skills for debating propositions of Essay Last policy. The student is expected to: (A) evaluate implications of stock issues in affirmative and negative case construction and and the, refutation; (B) use and evaluate a variety of valid strategies to construct affirmative and negative cases; (C) construct debate briefs for policy propositions; and. (D) analyze and Essay Last, adapt approaches to accommodate a variety of judging paradigms. (5) Logic. The student applies critical thinking, logic, and reasoning in debate. The student is expected to: (A) analyze and create arguments using various forms of boca analisis logic such as inductive and deductive reasoning, syllogisms, traditional models of logic, and cause-effect; (B) identify fallacies in reasoning and apply standards of validity and relevancy in analyzing and constructing argument; and. (C) analyze the role of value assumptions in personal, social, and political conflicts. (6) Proof. The student utilizes research and proof in Essay on Custer´s Last debate.

The student is expected to: (A) locate and how does roderigo, use a variety of reliable technological and print sources; (B) identify and apply standard tests of evidence for on Custer´s Last, choosing appropriate logical proofs; (C) demonstrate skill in recording and organizing information; and. (D) utilize ethical guidelines for debate research and use of evidence. (7) Case construction. The student identifies and applies the basic concepts of debate case construction. The student is expected to: (A) identify the roles and responsibilities of the affirmative and negative positions; (B) explain and apply the distinctive approaches to prima facie case construction; and. (C) use a variety of approaches to noche arriba construct logical affirmative and Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, negative cases. (8) Refutation. The student identifies and noche arriba, applies the basic concepts of argumentation and refutation. The student is expected to: (A) listen critically to formulate responses; (B) take accurate notes during argumentation such as flow a debate; (C) analyze and apply a variety of approaches for refuting and defending arguments; (D) recognize and use effective cross-examination strategies; and.

(E) extend cross-examination responses into refutation. (9) Delivery. The student uses effective communication skills in debating. The student is expected to: (A) use precise language and effective verbal skills in argumentation and debate; (B) use effective nonverbal communication in argumentation and debate; (C) use effective critical-listening strategies in argumentation and debate; (D) demonstrate ethical behavior and courtesy during debate; and. (E) develop extemporaneous speaking skills. (10) Evaluation. The student evaluates and critiques debates. The student is Essay on Custer´s Last Stand expected to: (A) use a knowledge of debate principles to develop and apply evaluation standards for various debate formats; and. (B) provide valid and constructive written and/or oral critiques of debates. Source: The provisions of this 110.60 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.

(1) Communication skills are important in mise pronounce all aspects of life. Students who have mastered concepts and developed skills in Essay on Custer´s introductory courses should be provided with opportunities to extend their knowledge and expand their skills in in the lion more advanced study. Independent Study in Speech provides opportunities for advanced students to plan, organize, produce, perform, and evaluate a project that enables them to develop advanced skills in communication, critical thinking, and Essay on Custer´s Stand, problem solving. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the characters in the lion the witch and the, students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and on Custer´s Stand, skills as well as the student expectations for Independent Study in Speech, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) Propose. The student plans and designs an independent study project. The student is Education’s Pursuit For More expected to: (A) select a topic and define a purpose for Last, an independent study project focused on a specific aspect of mise communication; (B) review the research related to the topics identified; (C) develop a formal proposal for the project; and. (D) plan the format and develop the timelines for production and presentation.

(2) Research. The student conducts research to support and develop the approved project. The student is expected to: (A) locate and gather information from a variety of primary and secondary sources, including electronic technology; (B) use systematic strategies to organize and record information; and. (C) analyze the research data and develop conclusions to provide a basis for on Custer´s, the project. (3) Produce. The student produces the final product for the project. The student is expected to: (A) limit the chosen topic, purpose, and format for the presentation; (B) develop systematic strategies to document the project; (C) develop appropriate evaluation strategies for each aspect of the production and lion and the wardrobe, presentation of the on Custer´s Last Stand, project; (D) organize and outline the text for the presentation; (E) choose appropriate proofs, literary texts, and/or scenes to develop and support the text; (F) produce a written text of superior quality; and. (G) review and revise plans, outlines, and scripts with the teacher. (4) Rehearse and present. The student presents the final product. The student is expected to: (A) use rehearsal strategies to gain command of the text and enhance the communication and staging of the presentation; (B) demonstrate appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication skills to enhance and enliven the Childhood Education’s Educators, presentation; (C) use appropriate visual and auditory aids to on Custer´s Last Stand support, create interest, and/or add aesthetic appeal to the final presentation; and.

(D) document the boca arriba, progress of the project and submit the final written text or script. (5) Evaluate. The student and designated individuals evaluate the project. The student is expected to: (A) use strategies to on Custer´s Last Stand evaluate the unitary government, project and the presentation; and. (B) analyze problems related to the project and assess implications for future projects.

Source: The provisions of this 110.61 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) Students enrolled in Journalism write in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students enrolled in this course are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis, carefully examining their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the Essay Last Stand, conventions and mechanics of written English. In Journalism, students are expected to Essay on Early Childhood Pursuit For More Male Exemplary write in a variety of forms and for a variety of audiences and purposes. Students will become analytical consumers of media and technology to enhance their communication skills. Published work of professional journalists, technology, and visual and electronic media are used as tools for Essay on Custer´s Stand, learning as students create, clarify, critique, write, and locke, produce effective communications. Last Stand. Students enrolled in Journalism will learn journalistic traditions, research self-selected topics, write journalistic texts, and learn the principles of publishing. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3) Statements that contain the en scene pronounce, word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the Last, phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Journalism, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of influence this section. (b) Knowledge and Last, skills. (1) The student demonstrates an mise en scene understanding of media development, press law, and responsibility. The student is expected to: (A) identify the history and development of American journalism through people and events; (B) identify the foundations of press law, including copyright law, the on Custer´s Last, fair use exemption, and the ownership of who did john intellectual property; (C) identify the foundations of on Custer´s Last Stand journalistic ethics; (D) distinguish between responsible and irresponsible media action; and. (E) understand the consequences of plagiarism. (2) The student demonstrates an understanding of the different forms of media and the different types of journalistic writing. The student is expected to: (A) distinguish the similarities and differences of print, broadcast, and online media; and. (B) distinguish the unitary government, similarities and differences of news, feature, and opinion writing. (3) The student reports and writes for a variety of Essay on Custer´s audiences and purposes and researches self-selected topics to write journalistic texts.

The student is expected to: (A) demonstrate an understanding of the elements of news; (B) select the most appropriate journalistic format to iago manipulate roderigo present content; (C) locate information sources such as persons, databases, reports, and past interviews; gather background information; and research to prepare for an interview or investigate a topic; (D) plan and write relevant questions for an interview or in-depth research; (E) gather information through interviews (in person or telephone); (F) evaluate and confirm the validity of background information from Essay on Custer´s Stand a variety of sources such as other qualified persons, books, and reports; (G) write copy synthesizing direct and indirect quotes and other research; (H) use journalistic style to write copy; (I) revise and edit copy using appropriate copy editing symbols; (K) create different forms of journalistic writing such as reviews, ad copy, columns, news, features, and editorials to inform, entertain, and/or persuade; (L) write captions; and. (M) demonstrate an understanding of the function of headlines through the writing of headlines. (4) The student demonstrates understanding of the principles of publishing through design using available technologies. The student is expected to: (A) identify the appropriate form of journalistic publication to present content such as newspapers, newsmagazines, online media, broadcasts, and newsletters; (B) design elements into noche, an acceptable presentation; (C) use illustrations or photographs that have been cropped to Essay on Custer´s Stand communicate and emphasize a topic; (D) use graphic devices such as lines, screens, and boca analisis, art to communicate and emphasize a topic; and. (E) prepare a layout for publication. (5) The student demonstrates an understanding of the economics of publishing. The student is expected to: (A) understand general salesmanship in selling professional or student-produced publications; (B) differentiate between advertising appeals and propaganda; (C) differentiate between the Essay Last Stand, various types of advertising such as classified, display, public service, and mise en scene pronounce, online advertising; and. (D) design an advertisement for a particular audience. Source: The provisions of this 110.62 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) Students enrolled in Independent Study in Journalism write in Essay a variety of forms for a variety of audiences and purposes.

High school students enrolled in this course are expected to plan, draft, and complete written communications on a regular basis, carefully examining their copy for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English. Students will become analytical consumers of unitary government example media and technology to enhance their communication skills. Published work of professional journalists, technology, and visual and electronic media are used as tools for learning as students create, clarify, critique, write, and produce effective communications. Students enrolled in Independent Study in Journalism will refine and on Custer´s Stand, enhance their journalistic skills, research self-selected topics, plan, organize, and prepare a project(s). (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and characters lion and the, language learning. (3) Statements that contain the Essay, word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the characters in the lion and the wardrobe, student expectations for Independent Study in Journalism, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of on Custer´s Stand this section. (b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student refines and enhances journalistic skills. The student is expected to: (A) formulate questions, refine topics, and clarify ideas; (B) organize and support what is known and what needs to be learned about a topic; (C) compile information from primary and boca, secondary sources using available technology; (D) organize information from multiple sources, including primary and secondary sources; (E) link related information and ideas from a variety of sources; (F) evaluate product based on journalistic standards; (G) understand and apply press law and journalistic ethics, including copyright law, the Essay on Custer´s Last, fair use exemption, and the ownership of intellectual property; and. (H) understand the consequences of plagiarism. (2) The student produces visual representations that communicate with others. The student is expected to: (A) conduct a research project(s) with instructor guidance and produce an original work in print or another medium demonstrating advanced skill; and. (B) use a range of mise pronounce techniques in planning and Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, creating projects. Source: The provisions of this 110.63 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.

(1) Students need to be critical viewers, consumers, and producers of media. The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and produce communication in a variety of forms is an important part of language development. High school students enrolled in this course will apply and use their journalistic skills for a variety of purposes. Students will learn the laws and ethical considerations that affect broadcast journalism; learn the role and function of broadcast journalism; critique and analyze the Essay on Early Childhood Education’s Pursuit For More Male Exemplary Educators, significance of visual representations; and learn to produce by creating a broadcast journalism product. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and on Custer´s Last, skills as well as the student expectations for Advanced Broadcast Journalism I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of mise this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) The student demonstrates an understanding of broadcast media development, law, and responsibility to cover subjects of interest and importance to the audience. The student is expected to: (A) identify the historical development of broadcasting from on Custer´s Last early radio to present-day formats, including radio, television, and noche boca arriba, online media; (B) identify the function and Essay Last, role in government society of Essay Stand broadcast media, including radio, television, and online broadcasts; (C) understand and apply the lion the witch, laws affecting broadcast journalism, including copyright law, the fair use exemption, and on Custer´s Stand, the ownership of intellectual property; (D) understand and on Early Childhood Education’s Male Exemplary, apply ethical considerations affecting broadcast journalism; (E) understand the consequences of plagiarism; (F) explore the impact of broadcast formats on society; (G) seek viewer opinions on the broadcast to determine its impact on future programming; and. (H) identify the strategies of broadcasting to reach certain audiences, including programming decisions.

(2) The student understands how broadcast productions are created and disseminated. The student is expected to: (A) understand the role of various personnel, including producers, station managers, technical directors, camera operators, webmasters, and news anchors, in broadcast journalism; (B) understand the economics of broadcasting such as advertising and public funds; (C) consider finances in Stand making decisions, including air time, length of program, and content; (D) create and execute a financial plan for programming; and. (E) identify technical elements of broadcast production used to create and mise en scene, deliver broadcast programming such as school cable systems and live web streaming. (3) The student produces programming such as newscasts, interviews, and public service announcements. The student is expected to: (A) determine which events and issues are newsworthy for an audience and write appropriate copy for the content; (B) select the Last, most appropriate journalistic format to present content such as school cable systems and websites; (C) apply pre-production skills such as storyboarding, scriptwriting, and scheduling; (D) apply skills in reporting and writing to produce programs required to lion the witch and the meet entry-level professional expectations; (E) create programs that involve skills such as camera angles and movements, audio, lighting, and on Custer´s Last, incorporation of graphics; (F) deliver content that addresses tone, facial expressions, appearance, emphasis on key ideas, fluency, and rate; (G) deliver content that demonstrates the development of a professional identity in the community; (H) apply post-production skills such as editing, voice-overs, and transitions; (I) demonstrate knowledge of new and emerging technologies that may affect the field; and.

(J) critique the boca arriba, broadcast to find its strengths and weaknesses to improve products based on those critiques. (4) The student demonstrates leadership and Essay on Custer´s Last, teamwork abilities. The student is expected to: (A) determine roles for which different team members will assume responsibility; (B) work cooperatively and collaboratively through a variety of staff assignments; (C) listen actively and Essay Education’s For More Male Exemplary Educators, critically and then respond appropriately to team members; (D) develop a deadline schedule and a regular means of monitoring progress; (E) submit work for editing and critiquing and make appropriate revisions; and. (F) edit and critique work of others. Source: The provisions of this 110.64 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) Students enrolled in Photojournalism communicate in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences and purposes.

High school students are expected to plan, interpret, and critique visual representation, carefully examining their product for publication. Students will become analytical consumers of media and technology to enhance their communication skills. On Custer´s Last Stand. High school students will study the laws and unitary, ethical considerations that impact photography. Published photos of professional photojournalists, technology, and visual and electronic media are used as tools for learning as students create, clarify, critique, and produce effective visual representations. Students enrolled in this course will refine and enhance their journalistic skills and on Custer´s, plan, prepare, and produce photographs for a journalistic publication, whether print, digital, or online media. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the Childhood Education’s Pursuit, students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the Essay on Custer´s, phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Photojournalism, an how does elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) The student interprets/critiques visual representations. The student is Essay expected to: (A) recognize the major events in the development of modern-day photography; (B) recognize composition principles and their impact on photography; (C) recognize and apply ethical and legal standards to all aspects of photojournalism, including copyright law, the fair use exemption, and the ownership of intellectual property; (D) recognize the boca analisis, impact of electronic technology and future trends in digital imaging on the traditional field of photojournalism; and.

(E) understand the consequences of plagiarism. (2) The student produces visual representations that communicate with others. The student is expected to: (A) identify the basic parts of a camera and their functions; (B) manipulate shutter speed, ISO, and Essay on Custer´s Last, aperture/F-stop to produce different effects in photos; (C) produce a properly exposed photo where the subject is sharply focused; (D) produce photos that apply the composition principles; (E) use lighting and be aware of influence its qualities such as direction, intensity, color, and the use of Last Stand artificial light; (F) stop action by determining appropriate shutter speed or use panning or hand holding with slower shutter speeds; (G) evaluate technical qualities of photos; (H) use appropriate equipment to download images and make prints or upload images; and. (I) improve photo quality by using appropriate technology. (3) The student incorporates photographs into journalistic publications. The student is expected to: (A) plan photo layouts; (B) illustrate events with appropriate photos and captions; (C) plan photographs in relation to assignments from an editor; (D) create a system for roderigo, organizing deadlines and camera equipment and for filing photos for publication; (E) create and publish slideshow packages using available technology; and.

(F) publish photos in both print and online formats. Source: The provisions of this 110.65 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261. (1) Students enrolled in Advanced Journalism: Yearbook I, II, III/Newspaper I, II, III/Literary Magazine communicate in a variety of forms such as print, digital, or online media for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students are expected to plan, draft, and complete written and/or visual communications on a regular basis, carefully examining their copy for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the Last, conventions and mechanics of noche arriba written English. In Advanced Journalism: Yearbook I, II, III/Newspaper I, II, III/Literary Magazine, students are expected to become analytical consumers of media and technology to Essay Last Stand enhance their communication skills. In addition, students will apply journalistic ethics and standards. Published works of professional journalists, technology, and visual and electronic media are used as tools for learning as students create, clarify, critique, write, and produce effective communications. Students enrolled in Advanced Journalism: Yearbook I, II, III/Newspaper I, II, III/Literary Magazine will refine and enhance their journalistic skills, research self-selected topics, and plan, organize, and prepare a project(s) in one or more forms of media.

(2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for locke influence, English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word including reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase such as are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Last Stand, Advanced Journalism: Yearbook I, II, III/Newspaper I, II, III/Literary Magazine, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) The student understands individual and staff responsibilities of coverage appropriate for the publication's audience. The student is expected to: (A) understand the role and who did locke, responsibilities of each staff member and the purpose of the Last Stand, publication; (B) use the on Early Education’s Pursuit Male, skills necessary to plan and produce a publication; (C) read both professional publications and other student-produced publications to Essay generate story and design ideas for the local publication; (D) conduct research using a variety of sources such as interviews with primary sources, databases, or published reports; and. (E) conceive coverage ideas for mise pronounce, packaged presentations of Essay Stand material, including, but not limited to, copy, infographics, sidebars, photos, art, and multimedia components. (2) The student understands media law and journalistic ethics and standards and the responsibility to cover subjects of interest and importance to the audience. The student is expected to: (A) find a variety of credible sources to john influence provide balanced coverage; (B) compose the story accurately keeping his/her own opinion out of non-editorial coverage; (C) provide editorial coverage to inform and encourage the reader to make intelligent decisions; (D) critique the publication to find its strengths and weaknesses to improve products based on those critiques; (E) seek non-staff opinion on the publication to determine its impact on future publications; (F) understand the consequences of plagiarism; and.

(G) understand and apply copyright law, the fair use exemption, and the ownership of intellectual property. (3) The student understands all aspects of a publication and the means by which that publication is created. Stand. The student is expected to: (A) identify elements used to create publications; (B) create and execute a financial plan for supporting publications such as sales and advertising; and. (C) consider finances in making decisions, including number of pages and cost-incurring extras such as color, paper quality, and number of arriba analisis copies for on Custer´s, print publications. (4) The student produces publications. The student is expected to: (A) determine which events and issues are newsworthy for the audience; (B) select the unitary example, most appropriate journalistic format to present content; (C) apply skills in reporting and writing to produce publications; (D) design pages for publications; (E) plan and produce photographs for publications; (F) incorporate graphics into publications; (G) write and design headlines for publications; (H) research and write captions for publications; (I) produce publications using available technology; and. (J) evaluate stories and coverage for balance and readability. (5) The student demonstrates leadership and Essay Last Stand, teamwork abilities.

The student is expected to: (A) determine roles for which different team members will assume responsibility; (B) work cooperatively and collaboratively through a variety of staff assignments; (C) determine coverage and concepts for publications; (D) develop a deadline schedule and a regular means of monitoring progress; (E) listen actively and critically and then respond appropriately to team members; (F) submit work for editing and critiquing and make appropriate revisions; and. (G) edit and critique work of others. Source: The provisions of this 110.66 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.

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(Teaching) Essayist Literacy in the Multimedia World. Abstract: This article presents an argument for the “re-turn” of on Custer´s Last Stand, essayist literacy in multimedia and who did locke, multiliteracy contexts. For its democratic, pedagogical, and intellectual potential, essayist literacy is too important to be removed from Essay Stand, composition curriculum, but it needs to manipulate be re-imagined within a diversity of Last Stand, essay traditions, including the turn toward multimedia writing undertaken in diverse writing classrooms. This article analyzes the findings from a study of in the lion the witch and the, one such ‘re-imagined’ essayist literacy unit/assignment in a composition course designed to focus on multiliteracies at a research university in the Northeast United States. Douglas Hesse The decline in essayist literacy has been viewed as the on Custer´s Last, decline of knowledge itself. Ron Scollon and Suzanne Scollon. Adam Banks’s chair’s address at the 2015 Conference on College Composition and Communication in Tampa, FL, triggered heated discussion on the place of “the essay” in writing curriculum. In his speech, Banks weighed in on the status of the essay and declared its promotion to “dominant genre emeritus.” While recognizing the value of “the essay,” Banks wanted to “acknowledge the on Early Education’s Pursuit For More Exemplary, rise and promotion of many other activities around which writing and communication can be organized” and urged writing teachers to Essay on Custer´s move past this dominant genre and teach writing in its expanded sense, including “multimodal, multimedia forms of composing.” From Twitter to listservs, writing teachers and scholars reacted to his speech, some interpreting it as a call for the field to abandon the essay, and others maintaining that Banks was just opposing a mechanical and stilted version of the academic essay, not the genre of the essay itself. For instance, Andrea Lunsford posited that Banks’s speech itself was an essay “in the very best sense of the word” (WPA Listserv), or, as David Green noted, it was “an interesting, exploratory, meditation on a topic through language and symbols” (WPA Listserv). As these scholars pointed out, Banks was not, in fact, pitching the arriba analisis, idea of sacrificing essayist literacy in all its manifestations; his major issue was with the static five paragraph, thesis-driven, academic textual form that has potential to Essay Last stifle the creative and innovative use of mise en scene pronounce, multiple media/modes, languages, and forms of Last Stand, expression in variegated forms of composing.

As Banks’s speech and the ensuing discussion illustrate, the genre of “the essay” and its place in the writing curriculum is a contentious one. Many scholars argue that essayist literacy should not be removed from composition curriculum since it is valued for its historical and current role in mise, knowledge production, preservation, organization, and Essay, dissemination; for its flexible form, which can sponsor its writers’ and readers’ space for critical reflections and conversations with other genres and en scene pronounce, text forms; for its pragmatic function in Essay Stand, numerous situations, ranging from the college admission process to a job search; for its humanistic and democratic values; and for its merit as the john, medium of inquiry, argument, or pursuit of knowledge (Badley, Hesse, Olson, Bloom, Scollon and on Custer´s Last, Scollon, Heilker, Trimbur). Therefore, as the argument goes, essayist literacy should be given the due space it deserves in Pursuit For More Male, composition curriculum. This article considers how we can make essayist literacy instruction and Last, writing assignments steeped in that tradition pertinent to a diverse body of students in this age of multimedia. While some argue for government example, primacy of multimodal composition, sometimes even at the cost of traditional, print-based essays, others insist on the value of the essay and on Custer´s Stand, adherence to boca arriba its traditional form (Badley, Hesse, Heilker). It is Essay within this context that this study addresses one central question: what does a multimediated essayist literacy look like in a 21st century classroom? In an noche arriba analisis, attempt to explore this question critically, and extensively, I designed a research study of the Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, writing practices of college students that explores how the form we ask students to produce can be re-imagined within diverse essay traditions, multimedia contexts, and students’ multiliteracy practices. Essayist Literacy for a Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Classroom. The typical essay form our students are being asked to produce now is how does iago far removed from the original notion of essay introduced by Michel de Montaigne and has been challenged by the plural literacy traditions our students bring to Essay on Custer´s the classroom and the increasing trend of locke, multimodal essay composition inside and outside the Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, academy. In the Montaignean sense of the term, subjectivity, pursuit of truth, and exploration characterize an essay, as opposed to the objective and neutral tone associated with the current ‘standard’ academic essay.

Like Montaigne, many other thinkers and scholars foreground subjectivity, exploration, and the search for en scene, truth as the major qualities of an essay. One among them is Essay Stand Georg Lukacs, who argues that “[T]he essay . must be an uncertain exploration of received opinion that searches for truth rather than trying to establish it” (qtd in Paul Heilker’s The Essay 38). Essayists advocating for a Montaignean approach present the essay form as antithetical to science or logic or even the rational order imposed by disciplinary conventions. However, a typical thesis-driven academic essay, Ron Scollon and Suzanne Scollon contend, is who did locke influence a particularly western communication pattern “carefully inculcated through processes of Essay, socialization” (9). Therefore, it is wrong to assume that everyone across the world has this same pattern of writing or speaking, as it is not an “automatic outcome of maturation” (9). Essayist literacy, in that sense, can be seen as a historical and cultural construct of the Western world. But Marcia Farr has a different take on the evolution of en scene, essayist literacy. Essay On Custer´s. In her view, “[E]ssayist literacy may have arisen as a genre style (Olson, 1977; Scollon Scollon, 1981; Trimbur, 1990), but it currently represents a situational style because it is associated more generally with academic situations (classrooms, academic conferences, public lectures) than specifically with essay writing” (8). Farr makes another striking observation about essayist literacy that, as a Western historical and cultural construct, “[E]ssayist literacy can be understood as one way, or style, of “speaking” among many. Here “speaking” refers to both oral and Childhood Education’s For More, written uses of language, as it does in Bakhtin’s (1986) work on Last ‘speech’ genres” (7). If we were to accept Farr’s position on lion and the wardrobe essayist literacy, it raises a critical question: What happens if we teach or attempt to teach this genre of discourse to a diverse body of Essay, students?

Heilker states that through this practice we “impose strict limits upon the various discourses students bring to classtheir regional, racial, ethnic, and boca arriba analisis, socioeconomic jargons . ” (55), whereas Linda Brodkey posits that such a practice rejects “minorities and Essay, women . as either scholars or subjects” in the name of maintaining “the processes of disinterested, intellectual inquiry (Said 1982)” (13). Farr herself contends that many groups of john influence, students are discriminated against as they “use spoken and on Custer´s, written language in boca analisis, ways that contrast sharply with the implicit model of language use underlying much writing instruction in Essay on Custer´s, this country” (5). Our current model of instruction privileges some over other groups of students, continues Farr, because “[T]hose who already know and boca arriba analisis, use, at least in Essay Last, some contexts, discourse that resembles this taught model relatively closely have less difficulty learning to produce texts that conform to it than those whose naturally acquired discourse differs from it” (5). This implies that students from other cultures and unitary government example, discourse conventions are disadvantaged within the current model of instruction on essayist literacy. So, while discussing essayist literacy, we should be mindful of the Essay Last Stand, fact that our classrooms are rife with the “multiplicity of discourse styles” which in no way are “deficient versions of the Essay Education’s For More Male Exemplary, Western European (male) tradition of rational discourse but simply may differ from it in some, though, perhaps not all, ways” (Farr 7). We should also be aware that “reasoning can be carried out and Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, displayed in a variety of discourse styles” (Farr 32) across cultures.

As Farr states, “A text that may appear “illogical” through the lenses of essayist literacy may be quite logical when looked at through other lenses. Childhood Education’s For More Educators. The logic may become clear (to outsiders) only with an understanding of unstated cultural assumptions” (32). Essay On Custer´s Stand. The implication of this for en scene pronounce, our instruction is that “[S]tudents whose ‘ways of speaking’ may differ significantly from the on Custer´s Stand, ways of essayist literacy are not taught effectively by instructors who do not understand and how does iago manipulate, appreciate the Essay on Custer´s, sociolinguistic repertoire they have brought to unitary government the classroom with them” (Farr 33). Hence, the re-imagination of this literacy form and the ways it is being taught to diverse students in composition classes is on Custer´s Last imperative. Such a re-imagination of essayist literacy, however, entails an integration and incorporation of characters, multimodal and multilingual literacy practices that our students regularly engage in Essay on Custer´s, their daily lives, and/or that regularly feature in many contemporary media platforms.

Expanding the genre this way facilitates a more critical understanding of its “traditional” designation as a neutral and objective academic prose form, for it recognizes that this genre is not necessarily a static and stilted text form, but a flexible semiotic mode capable of unitary, accommodating multiple media and discourse styles that our students bring with them to our classrooms. Responding to Essay on Custer´s Last increasing influence of multimedia technology in students’ literacy practices, Kathleen Blake Yancey argues that we need to re-conceive “composition in a new key.” According to her, such a reconceived notion of composition or writing includes print, but it also includes writing for noche analisis, the screen and Essay Last, an understanding that writing is not just textual but also visual. Yancey’s view of who did john, writing reflects Gunther Kress’s ideas of the changing landscape of writing and literacy in Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, this age of unitary government, multimedia/new media. Kress writes that given the on Custer´s Stand, “theoretical change . from how does iago roderigo, linguistics to semioticsfrom a theory that accounted for language alone to a theory that can account equally well for Essay Last Stand, gesture, speech, image, writing, 3D objects, colour, music and no doubt others” (35-36), the language modes, such as speech and writing should have to be “dealt with semiotically” as they constitute “a part of the whole landscape of the Education’s Pursuit For More Exemplary Educators, many modes available for representation” (36). Jodie Nicotra also speaks of the literacy landscape, but from the point of view of changes in material technologies of literacy, shedding light on the evolution of literacy and literacy technologies over timefrom orality to writing, from writing to Essay on Custer´s Stand print, and from print to digital media. She explains that digital media technologies are not changing the fact that we write and speak, but only the ways we write and speak. In following Nicotra’s line of argument, it can be said that we and our students still compose, but compose with different media technologies, and this fact challenges the Essay on Early Male Exemplary, ways we teach our students to compose, as Steven Fraiberg notes: “composition for the twenty-first century requires a shift toward conceptualizing writers as ‘knotworkers’ negotiating complex arrays of Essay Last, languages, texts, tools, objects, symbols, and tropes” (107). Fraiberg argues that writers these days remix multiple modes or media as they “design” composition of different kinds. According to how does roderigo him, as the “flow of content across multiple media platforms” collides, intersects, crisscrosses, and interacts “in unpredictable ways” (Jenkins qtd. in 107), 21st century writers naturally bring together content from those “multiple media platforms” (107) when they compose texts of diverse sorts, including academic essays.

So, one way to challenge the limitations of essayist literacy might be to contextualize it within multiple media platforms that include print, visual, digital, etc. As are multimodal literacy practices, multilingual literacy practices are also integral to our students’ literate lives these days; therefore, essayist literacy needs to take that reality into account as well. There is already a lot written in World Englishes, intercultural communication, as well as in rhetoric and composition about the Last Stand, role of language, language varieties, cultures, and students’ past literacy traditions in shaping students’ current literacy practices. Cynthia L. Selfe and Gail E. Hawisher, for unitary example, instance, argue that cultural ecologies influence literacy practices, whereas Steven Fraiberg contends that multilingual writing is a design like any other literate practice. Fraiberg advocates for mashing or the complex blending of multilingualism and multimodality as a new framework for composition (117). In fact, multilingualism and Essay on Custer´s, English language varieties (World Englishes) are long held to in the the witch and the wardrobe be great semiotic resources for composition as they contribute to and increase what Selfe calls the bandwidth of semiotic resources for composition by making available all means of persuasion (Selfe, Aurality and Multimodal Composing ). Essay Last. For instance, Yamuna Kachru notes that writers from mise en scene pronounce, Outer (countries where English is spoken as a second language) and Expanding Circles (countries where English is spoken as a foreign language) use different rhetorical organizations in on Custer´s Stand, writing because of “nativization of English” and “Anglicization of indigenous languages” due to mise pronounce increasing “contact between English and local languages” (379). Essay Stand. Her characterization of textual structures by writers from different places highlights the possibility of the varied literacy traditions our diverse students are likely to how does iago bring to our classrooms. On Custer´s. Our students’ plural discourse structures and literacy practices ask us to arriba analisis re-vision our current understanding of on Custer´s Last, essayist literacy and how we teach the essay genre in a globalized writing classroom, informed by multiple languages, modes of representation, and meaning making practices. Essayist Literacy Instruction in the Multimedia Age: A Research Study.

It is within this context that this essay addresses the research question: How do students negotiate multiple literaciesincluding essayist literaciesin a 21st century classroom? In an attempt to explore this question critically, and extensively, I designed a research study of the writing practices of college students. For the study, I collected argument essays from unit 2 in my course focused on essayist literacies (see Appendix 1) but situated among assignments that were less traditional and called on multiple literaciesessay reflections, blog posts and how does iago manipulate, responses, portfolios and portfolio reflectionsfrom fourteen student research participants. I also conducted interviews with each participant immediately after the unit was over. On Custer´s Last Stand. In addition, as another set of data, I collected the participants’ literacy narratives from the first unit, along with interviews with students about their literacy traditions. Additional data included my field notes, and curricular artifacts from unit 2, including the unit syllabus, calendar, assignment descriptions, evaluation criteria, class heuristics, and unit objectives. I examined this data in light of relevant theoretical insights from unitary government, scholarship in essayist literacy and other closely connected fieldsintercultural communication, World Englishes, rhetoric and composition, and new media. The research participants for this study included diverse students from my sophomore level writing class in the Spring of 2012one Haitian female, one Mexican male, one Mexican female, one South Korean male, one African American male, one African American female, two Puerto Rican females, one Indian male, two white American females, two white American males, and one mixed race (white and African American) female. My course for Essay Last, this particular class was framed around the idea of multiple literacies, or multiliteracies (New London Group, Schwartz, Lynch and For More Educators, Wysocki) for Essay on Custer´s Last, diverse students in this age of globalization and technologies. Inspired by Michele Anstey and characters the witch and the wardrobe, Geoff Bull’s argument that “Globalization provides a contextual necessity for Essay Last, us to become multiliterate” (175), my course took up multiliteracies in its broader frame, with multiliteracies not only encompassing the notion of plural literaciessuch as visual, cyber, academic, critical, digital, new media, and intercultural, among other kinds of literacies (Kalantzis and Essay Education’s Pursuit Male Exemplary, Cope; New London Group; Anstey and Bull; Hawisher and Selfe; Selber)but also entailing the ability to interact using multiple Englishes in Essay on Custer´s, English speaking contexts and multiple writing/communication styles across cultures and disciplines.

In addition, this notion of multiliteracies also encompassed the ability to critically evaluate information and resources and to use them ethically across contexts. In my course, mutliliteracies, therefore, meant a repertoire of creative, critical, reflective and rhetorical skills that students need to characters successfully navigate the complexities of the Last, globalized world. With regards to essayist literacy, in particular, the notion of mise pronounce, multiliteracies spoke to students’ acquisition of skills and ability to choose, practice, and Essay Stand, negotiate different forms and levels of essayist literacy as the writing context or occasion calls for analisis, them. In fact, essayist literacy was included in my curriculum as a subset of multiliteracies, and re-imagined within the context of multiple media, Englishes, languages, and writing styles. Through triangulation and rhetorical analysis of all the data sources, I found a complex negotiation happening in the students’ process of essay writing, from topic selection, to Essay location and evaluation of sources, to adoption of a particular essay form or style. I also discovered similar negotiation in place with regards to students’ past and present linguistic, cultural and literacy traditions, and their personal and academic ‘selves.’ Even though the degree of negotiation varied across students as expected given their different positionalities (detailed discussion to follow), they nonetheless demonstrated that exploratory and academic essays are not watertight compartments as some scholars tend to maintain, but more flexible. The findings from this study also challenged my assumptions about on Early Education’s Male Exemplary Educators diverse students’ linguistic and stylistic negotiations during the composing process in Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, English for academic audiences.

Based on my prior readings of how does manipulate, scholarship in rhetoric and composition, applied linguistics, and literacy studies (Canagarajah; Young; Lu; Pennycook; Horner, Trimbur and Royster; New London Group), my assumption going into this research was that if provided with an appropriate assignment, instruction, and resources, international multilingual students would negotiate multiple languages, writing styles, essay forms and on Custer´s Last Stand, literacy traditions much more actively and effectively than domestic American students. But findings from this study complicated that assumption and challenged me to re-evaluate any preconceived notions I had about any group of students. An analysis of student artifacts showed that domestic American students also negotiate, but negotiate differently because their positionalities and negotiating factors are different. Furthermore, American students negotiate slightly different elements to government example varying degrees than their international multilingual counterparts. As the case studies analyzed below also demonstrate, domestic American students do not negotiate linguistic or cultural differences as complexly as international students while writing in English for American institutions; they nevertheless negotiate, for example, formal and informal tones, personal and on Custer´s Stand, academic ‘selves,’ and thesis driven and exploratory essay forms if their composing and research processes are supported with relevant resources and instruction. Thus, on who did john the one hand, this study challenged my assumption about the composing process of some groups of students; on the other, it also demonstrated the effectiveness of my pedagogical strategy that students in globalized classrooms (Khadka) should be taught to negotiate a number of on Custer´s Stand, factors, such as linguistic, cultural, and stylistic differences, and binaries in essay forms (such as exploratory/thesis-driven, inductive/deductive, alphabetic/multimodal etc.), encouraging them to retain the foundational values of essay, such as ‘personal,’ ‘exploratory’ and ‘situated,’ while being rhetorically persuasive to their intended audiences, including the academic ones. In short, this study showed that students can and should negotiate multiple literacies, including more traditional print literacies, while taking up essayist literacy in a writing class. The findings from this study suggest that we can productively foreground negotiation, or shuttling (Canagarajah, Toward ) on multiple fronts of language, culture, dialect, style, and media, as the en scene, major goal while teaching essayist literacy in on Custer´s Stand, a diverse 21st century writing classroom. In this study, I made triangulation the central part of analysis because it is highly valued in qualitative research for its function of cross-verifying interpretations and research findings with additional testimonials. For triangulation, I used multiple sets of boca arriba analisis, datastudent texts, interviews, field notes, curricular artifacts, and relevant insights from multiple interconnected fields of studyintercultural communication, World Englishes, new media, globalization, and rhetoric and composition, which also served as analytical frameworks for on Custer´s Stand, my study. Analisis. Another factor I accounted for in this study is participants’ positionalities in light of the Last Stand, prevailing research theories that a writer’s position in a context (essay writing context, for instance) is example shaped by his or her gender, class, race, culture, language, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, political views, literacy background, and/or personal and professional experiences.

Therefore, a particular literacy practice of a writer reflects imprints of his or her positionality. For this specific reason, I examined the implications of positionalities in my diverse student participants’ essayist literacy practice. I collected the details on their positionalities by asking them to compose extended literacy narratives and by conducting follow-up interviews with additional questions around their literate lives in the past and present. I also asked them to Essay on Custer´s Stand reflect on their writing and research process for the argument essay, connecting their rhetorical choices (of persona, tone, style, resources etc.) with purpose and/or with their cultural, literacy, and linguistic traditions. How Does Roderigo. I used all these data in conjunction with other sets of data collected through multiple research methods for the purpose of triangulation, and for analyzing participants’ research and writing process in Stand, this particular assignment. These multiple approaches to collecting and analyzing data helped me to explore and answer my research question: How do students negotiate multiple literaciesincluding essayist literaciesin a 21st century classroom? Taking into consideration interdisciplinary conversations about essayist literacy, and literacy in general, I divided my sophomore-level writing course into four units focused on the theme of multiliteracies. I took up multililiteracies as a topic for the course because it was broad enough to let students choose something they were interested in or wanted to explore further.

I settled on this topic also because I could teach this course informed by, what I prefer to call, a multiliterate composition pedagogy. Moreover, multiliteracies as a topic was multifaceted and closely aligned with other productive research areas, such as globalization, information and communication technologies, World Englishes, new media, and intercultural communication. In order to familiarize students with the Essay Childhood Pursuit Exemplary, concept of multiliteracies, I had a small set of articles, and videos in my calendar. Essay On Custer´s Last. I assigned them The NCTE’s Definition of 21st Century Literacies ; The New London Group’s A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures ; Howard Gardner’s The Washington Post article: The End of unitary government example, Literacy? Don't Stop Reading ; Victoria Department of Education’s Video Series: 1. On Custer´s Last Stand. Considering Multiliteracies and characters and the wardrobe, 2. Exploring Multiliteracies; and Last, two YouTube videos: A Vision of Students Today (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGCJ46vyR9o) and Multimedia and Multi-literacies in pronounce, the Composition Classroom (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c4zSDOQ9mVY).

The first unit (See Appendix 2 for assignment details) in my course was dedicated to learning from students about their literacy traditions (literacy narrative assignment) and teaching/practicing critical and Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, visual literacies (rhetorical analysis of a digital artifact project), whereas the third unit was meant to and the introduce students to Last Stand the notion of remediation (Bolter and Grusin) with some hands-on training with “repurposing” media (See Appendix 3 for details on remediation project). Students were asked to remediate their unit 2 print-based argument essays into web forms in this unit. Analisis. This particular project was intended to put students to on Custer´s Stand work with multiple media or modalities, introduce them to iago convergence culture (Jenkins), as well as make them cognizant of the rhetoricity of different media (e.g. website vs. print), or the dynamics of on Custer´s Last, intercultural/interracial communication. Unit four, on the other hand, was dedicated to documentary production (See Appendix 4 for details on mise pronounce collaborative documentary film-making project), in which students collaborated in on Custer´s Last, groups of three to produce a movie on a controversial contemporary topic like Occupy Wall Street, the Trayvon Martin (shooting) case, or the Democratic Movement in the Middle East. While units 1, 3, and noche arriba analisis, 4 were fruitful and interesting for students and me, the unit given relatively more time and space in the curriculum was the 5-week-long unit 2. This unit was given due importance in recognition of the value of Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, essayist literacy in students’ academic and professional lives, and for its key place in who did john locke influence, course structure and the assignment sequence. On Custer´s Stand. While unit 2 culminated in a traditional print-based argument essay, unit 3 activities and its web design projects were built on the foundation laid in unit 2. While designing unit 2 based on essayist literacy in particular and the course itself in general, I had to negotiate a number of thingsmy research agenda/s, my program requirements/course learning objectives, current scholarship in Essay on Early Childhood For More, essayist literacy and multiliteracies, and Last, my own evolving sense of composition curriculum for a diverse classroom. For instance, I was flexible in source requirements for the essay even though one of the mise, designated outcomes for Essay Last, the course specifically states that the course is geared toward teaching students to use “library resources” and some methods of primary data collection. With that statement, the course outcome leaves aside popular texts and many multimedia sources found on the web, so I expanded it to include those kinds of characters the witch wardrobe, sources as well.

This demonstrated that sources, in this age of multimedia, are available in Essay Last Stand, digital mediums as much as they are in print mediums; that information is available in popular sources as much as they are in scholarly sources; that each medium (such as image, text, and sound) has its own unique affordances, and mediums work more productively in combination than in isolation; that compositions, even essays, now are increasingly multimodal and/or multimedia; and that information abundance is both a boon and bane at noche analisis the same time. In order to ensure that students actually get acquainted with and use both scholarly and popular sources in different formats, I specified the potential types and number of sources to be used in the essay, and also provided them with the description of the evaluation process for locating and selecting credible and relevant sources. My assignment description also had specific directions about on Custer´s Last Stand avoiding too broad topics or research questions while still giving students freedom to choose any issue(s) associated with the course inquirymultiliteracies. Students were specifically asked to narrow their scope for the essay around one or two central research questions on their chosen topic but to “engage the complexities (social, political, ideological, economic, historical) of and current debates about that topic” (Writing Program Outcome). Moreover, I added a separate note regarding English language varieties and styles of writing or literacy traditions on the assignment description, aiming to pronounce encourage plurality and originality in students’ work. This particular note on language and style was intended to make students aware of the fact that communities across the world compose texts in different styles; they do speak different languages, even if only on Custer´s Last, different varieties of the same language. Additionally, the note on language brought attention to the fact that privileging one language, or language variety over unitary another, or one writing style above another could prove discriminatory to some groups of students, while other groups could feel at home and, as a consequence, may have unintended advantages.

Next, I made it clear in the language of the assignment that academic writing, and academic language, is what I value, but that there is no single universal academic writing style or academic language. With that note on on Custer´s World Englishes and plurality of academic writing styles around the world, I negotiated the notion of academic writing articulated in the designated course outcomes while complicating the traditional notion of essayist literacy in roderigo, the context of globalization and increasing cross-cultural and Last Stand, cross-linguistic interactions. Academic writing in a general sense is what the characters lion and the, Writing Program wants instructors to teach students; the on Custer´s Last, course description says: “WRT [. ] focuses on the rhetorical strategies, practices, and conventions of critical academic researched writing,” which implies plurality of academic writing with the term “conventions,” but neither the course description nor the learning outcomes speak specifically about the form of the essay or the characters in the the witch and the wardrobe, type of sources, or the writing style, or the language variety to be used or adopted in the class. The story of negotiation did not end there; putting together materials and activities for the unit constituted another kind of negotiation. Essay Last. On the one hand, there is no denying that a course driven by multiliteracies as an inquiry should reflect ‘multi’ in its course materials and artifacts too, which means the course materials should ideally be an assemblage of texts in multiple media, multiple modalities, and multiple forms; on the other hand, this particular unit was dedicated to essayist literacy, which in a traditional sense is print-based literacy. There were also programmatic priorities to be mindful of, such as the strong tradition of academic writing instruction in the field. Characters Lion. Nonetheless, the negotiation was productive, and ultimately I gathered three videos ( A Vision of Student Today, Multimedia and Multiliteracies in the Composition Classroom, and Epic 2014 ), one online news article (Howard Gardner’s The Washington Post article: The End of Literacy? Don't Stop Reading ), one website (Victoria Department of Education’s multiliteracies web page), three print texts, ( Making an Effective Argument, a chapter from Jack Selzer and Lester Faigley’s Handbook, Good Reasons ; Yamuna Kachru’s book chapter, Speaking and Writing in World Englishes from Essay on Custer´s Stand, The Handbook of World Englishes ; and Sheila J. Ramsey’s journal article, Interactions between North Americans and Japanese: Considerations of Communication Style ), a set of handouts on unitary different aspects of writing and research (such as narrowing the research focus; locating and evaluating print and Internet sources; textual, visual and multimodal analysis and argumentation; drafting a research proposal; evolving thesis; claim making and synthesizing sources; annotated bibliography; composing, revising and editing process; codemeshing and translanguaging; methods of data collection and analysis; stylistic and linguistic plurality/diversity; dialoguing with sources; and documenting sources), and Essay on Custer´s Last, some sample documents as unit texts. These multiple texts and topics enabled me to place essayist literacy within a context of multimedia and unitary, multiliteracies. Case studies of how students responded to Essay on Custer´s Last such a re-designed essayist literacy unit yielded some interesting findings. I will present some of them here.

In the following discussion, I closely look at the data specific to two of my research participants, who I call Sophia and Andre. My analysis is specifically focused on the kinds and degrees of negotiations these participants engaged in their writing and research processes within the context of characters, essayist literacies. I particularly examine the moments and instances of negotiation in action with respect to their choice of Essay Last, topics, languages and/or English varieties, their decision on “personas” and characters in the lion the witch, writing styles, and their determination of sources and forms for their respective essays. On Custer´s Stand. For instance, I analyze how these participants explored and narrowed topics for their research; how they evaluated and selected sources for their essays; how they settled on writing styles including the use of tone, diction, languages and/or English varieties; and how they decided on the form/s for their essays. The analysis organized this way helps to make sense of multiple sets of data and also to examine in detail how or whether students engaged essayist literacy in its expanded sense. Essay On Early Childhood Pursuit Male Exemplary Educators. In order to frame my analysis better, I use the Essay on Custer´s, first course assignmentthe literacy narrativeto contextualize the second unit and to give insight into these participants’ positionalities and Childhood Pursuit For More Educators, previous literacy experiences. Sophia is a Hispanic female student from Puerto Rico. Her alphabetic literacy began with her learning writing and reading in Spanish, her first language. From first grade on, she also started taking English and Math classes.

Her computer literacy also began from grade one, although computer intensive classes began in her high school years, around the same time her Internet literacy began. Her literacy narrative details her preliminary literacy education as follows: The first language I started using for writing was Spanish, a year after I also started writing in English. I began reading in English and Spanish when I was about five or six years old, yet I have always made use of the English language when it comes to working on on Custer´s Last Stand a computer. I come from Puerto Rico, making this my first language Spanish, and English my second language.

I learned to speak English because my mother and grandmother would always play Disney sing along videos and movies for me, and the books they bought me were usually in English, so that I was able to learn it more quickly and unitary example, have a better core or base in this language than what was taught in school. (literacy narrative) In Sophia’s digital literacy learning experience, the hegemony of English is evident; she reports that she has always used English in digital activities even though Spanish is her first language. As an English-as-a-second-language speaker, she confesses that she struggles to on Custer´s Stand switch between her first and second language while writing in English: “Having to switch languages back and forth also makes my writing experience confusing and limited, if I happen to boca arriba not know how to write something in Essay Stand, specific or the way I think of it in Spanish is not ‘the correct way’ to manipulate roderigo write it in English” (literacy narrative). Here, it is also important to note that her entire pre-university education was done in Puerto Rico. In her argument essay for unit 2, Sophia discusses the language policy debate in Puerto Rico in Essay Stand, some length, exploring the larger cultural and historical issues associated with this high-stakes topic, and presenting her position on how does roderigo the debate. Initially, she had planned to talk about the English language policy in on Custer´s Last Stand, Latin American and Caribbean countries, but later narrowed her focus to the language policy in Puerto Rico. She discusses her narrowing process in her reflection essay: I had the characters lion the witch and the, curiosity of learning about how the Essay on Custer´s, English language is presented and taught in Latin America and the Caribbean, but this topic resulted to be too broad and I was not able to find many good articles or specific books on the topic since these countries have a wide range in culture, and laws and policies on language.

I had to change my topic and focus of the essay into one specific region and who did john, that choice . was the English language in Puerto Rico. My research into her source use found that Sophia used some Spanish language sources. Essay. For instance, IV Congress of the Spanish Language by mise en scene Eugenio Besnard-Javaudin, and Essay on Custer´s, The Spanish of noche analisis, Puerto Rico by Centro Virtual Cervantes are sources written in Spanish and available only online. Similarly, The Singularly Strange Story of the English Language in Puerto Rico is an online article in Spanish by Alicia Pousada from Universidad de Puerto Rico. Essay Last. Sophia also used a Spanish print article, Manuel Alvarez Nazario’s Historia de la lengua española en Puerto Rico (History of the Spanish Language in Puerto Rico). Of course, she also had sources that ranged from images to videos in English that were produced within the United States. In that sense, there is diversity in her source use, and her sources come from scholars and who did john locke influence, publication forums (both print and Essay, web) from how does iago manipulate roderigo, across borders. On Custer´s Last. As expected, she provides translations of texts cited in languages other than English. Sophia is aware that her native language and culture influenced her writing style. Pronounce. She says: “because my main language is Spanish . I was translating from Spanish to English, my thoughts, ideas and opinion . I would read books in Spanish and would translate them” (interview).

True to her words, she uses some quotes in Spanish in the essay, but provides English translations for them. She begins her essay with an epigraph in Spanish: “Un idioma debe servir como herramienta de paz. Nunca para oprimir. Siempre para liberar. Ivelisse Rivera”, which she translates as: “A language should serve as a tool for peace. Never for oppression. Stand. Always for john, freedom.” Since she is more proficient in Spanish than in on Custer´s, English, she says that she has to “switch languages back and how does roderigo, forth,” which makes her “writing experience confusing and limited” (literacy narrative).

She also regrets that translation did not come as naturally or sound as good as the original: “translated stuff . Essay On Custer´s Stand. does not sound like an English” (interview). This confusion and translingual challenge is reflected in her style. In that sense, even though her essay was submitted in English, she actually composed it in Spanish, which suggests that her writing has the style of a Spanish essay. Structurally, Sophia says, Spanish and noche boca arriba, English essays are different, and she was taught to compose them differently: “Spanish essays begin with an introduction, and they really do not talk much about thesis statement” (interview). Essay Last. Even though she claims that she was taught to write essays in both languages and differently for each one, the organization of her essay is more Spanish-like than English. For instance, at the beginning of her essay she had a long section that traced the how does, historical accounts of language policy in Essay on Custer´s Stand, Puerto Rico: “I provide a summarized history of Puerto Rico since the Spanish colonial times until the colonization of the United States and who did locke influence, how these various establishments have affected the people of Puerto Rico” (from her essay).

Although she states that at the beginning of her essay, she does not give a reason why that historical survey was necessary. Only after that long section follows her thesis, which she reinforces time and Stand, again in the essay except for example, in the conclusion. Instead of reinforcing or circling back to her claim, she ends her essay with a call to language teachers of Puerto Rico: “Teachers have to work with motivating students to appreciate the Spanish language more and learn it with passion as part of their culture, and also encourage them and teach that it is also important to learn English, and many other languages to Essay on Custer´s Last Stand expand their knowledge and Essay on Early For More Exemplary, become better intellectual human beings” (from her essay). In that sense, her essay has a hybrid structure and conclusion different from conventional western academic essay. Sophia also has a dominant personal voice present in the essay that reflects her positionality: “I included my perspective” because “I care about this topic . it has directly affected me, my family, my community and everyone around me” (essay reflection). Her strong personal presence in on Custer´s Last, the essay has to characters in the do with her personal investment in the topic: “I personally support the idea of learning another language to expand our horizons, yet it should not be done by force, but because the people actually have an interest and a need to Essay on Custer´s Last Stand be more intellectual in terms of who did john locke, learning the language” (essay). She has an engaged voice in that she directly addresses her audience, for instance, in this excerpt from her essay: “I think that language creates and helps shape the culture of Last Stand, a country or region. When you take away something as unique as language from someone, you are taking away their culture, their identity, their way of expressing without limitation and direction” (essay). In her essay reflection, she makes it clear that her personal presence in the essay was her deliberate rhetorical choice: “I chose to write about the English Language in Puerto Rico . because it is how does roderigo a topic that I as a Puerto Rican can relate to on Custer´s Last Stand and have knowledge of john locke, . because it has directly affected me, my family, my community and everyone around me” (portfolio reflection). Sophia’s composing process is notable for a number of reasons. Essay. As a multilingual writer, she works her way through a number of forces that defined her composing situationassignment requirements, current writing instruction, her multilingual and multicultural positionality, her past literacy learning (particularly past writing instruction), and government example, her translingual challenges, among others.

For instance, she uses an epigraph from a Spanish text and also cites a number of sources produced by Spanish-speaking authors outside the Essay Stand, Unites States. Her practice is Essay on Early Education’s Pursuit For More Male Exemplary Educators ideal from a point of view of Last Stand, integrating multiple sources; it nonetheless raises a number of mise, questions about translation and its complexityhow close to originals are her translations or the translated versions of originals she cites? A monolingual or even a bilingual teacher has no way of assessing translation accuracy unless she or he speaks the same set of languages that the student speaks, which is a rare coincidence in Essay on Custer´s Last, a globalized classroom. Similarly complex is the in the lion wardrobe, issue of writing style that she adopts in her essay. Last. She notes that she is Essay Childhood Education’s Educators aware of the differences in organizational patterns of typical English essays and Spanish essays, yet her essay organization does not reflect her adherence to on Custer´s Last Stand an English essay writing style. Despite her awareness, she explores and adopts a style that resonates with her topic, and is intrinsic to her positionality. My goal in Education’s For More Exemplary, this unit/assignment was to encourage students to negotiate writing styles, languages, and media for particular audiences and situations.

Sophia’s essay is testimony to Essay the fact that she negotiated a number of factors while composing this text for American academic audience, and her essay form departs from a traditional thesis-driven academic essay form. Therefore, her case affirms that essayist literacyand traditional print-based assignmentscan also cultivate the same attention to multiplicity as multimedia assignments. In addition, her composing style and essay form serves as a good example of the play of “multiplicity of discourse styles” in a writing class. En Scene. More importantly, her case supports the idea that essayist literacy can contribute to the aims of a course based on multiliteracies. Andre’s first language is English, and he is an African American male student in his sophomore year. He notes that his writing began with story composition in the fifth grade. His intense writing experience, however, began with his international baccalaureate program, where he enrolled in writing intensive courses. Regarding his overall writing experience, he notes, “I’ve experienced the growth in my writing.

From the thematic essays in history class to the analysis of novels, I’ve been introduced to the different sides of writing” (literacy narrative). He is also digitally literate: “Being born in the generation that I am, I was forced to become accustomed to the digital literacy” (literacy narrative). He began his digital literacy with typing and video games but later worked up to the complex tasks of assembling and disassembling the hardwares of desktop computers. He also learned to work with the Last Stand, Internet soon after. He, however, laments that he is an English monolingual speaker: “I feel like I have a disadvantage. So many people come from different places, and they have two languages or more. Most of my friends speak other languages. Their mother tongue may be Spanish or French; they come here and learn English, and I feel if I was born somewhere else or have different tongue, I would have two languages” (interview). In his argument essay, Andre explored the in the lion the witch wardrobe, relationship between technology and mental capacity with an overarching claim“as technology increases, our mental capacity decreases” (interview). In his reflection, he reveals that he struggled a lot while composing this essay: “I ran into Essay on Custer´s Stand writers block around the 5 th page because I knew the en scene pronounce, essay wasn’t supporting my thesis. Also, I didn’t have enough sources to help me justify my claims for 10 pages, so that was another reason I was stuck.

But once I change my thesis for the better, I was able to find sources for my argument and the oppositions” (essay reflection). His strenuous process, including his evolving thesis, shows that he evolved as a person and learned new things in the process of researching and on Custer´s Last Stand, writing this essay. More importantly, it shows his awareness of the need to Essay on Early Childhood Male Educators interact with multiple sources in order to be able to on Custer´s Last Stand construct an Essay on Early Childhood Male Exemplary, informed argument. Andre’s source use is on Custer´s Stand not much different from many other students in the class. He used print sources, such as Plato’s Phaedrus and Ziming Liu’s Reading Behavior in the Digital Environment: Changes in Reading Behavior Over the Past Ten Years, and multimedia sources including some YouTube videos, Rachel Dretzin’s documentary Digital Nation, , and some videos on multiliteracies taken from Bill Cope and Mary Kalanztis’ New Learning website. However, when it comes to his writing style, Andre reports that he consciously chose to represent himself, and his topic, in a particular fashion based on his positionality: [F]or writing style, I had to arriba analisis think about how I wanted the tone of the essay to sound, because in Essay on Custer´s Stand, unit 1 it was very communicative/funny and it was like to get the audience to laugh a little bit and this is a research paper, I want it to be stern, I want it to be like this is my voice and this is what I am saying, you guys should believe this, but also at the same time I did not want to scare the reader away. I want the people to have the en scene pronounce, comedic side: a couple jokes, metaphors so that people could actually have fun reading so I combined more of humorous side to what’s really stern and what an academic paper is all about. So I leaned more towards my academic part of it, but I was still able to slide [in] my humorous side too. (interview) From this excerpt, it becomes apparent that he deliberately chose two different approaches for the two different unit assignments of the same course. On Custer´s Last Stand. This also shows that he is mise en scene mindful of the Last Stand, academic writing situation where a serious approach to a chosen topic is expected.

That is the reason he moderates his humorous side in the interest of an academic tone. His humorous side, he says, he inherited from his father: “My dad he was always that funny comedic guy . always tells jokes and never stops. I put that into my writing and push it a bit too much so which is on Early Pursuit my downfall, so I got to pull back . because I am serious but my tone could come out as not serious because of the comedy in Essay on Custer´s, the paper” (interview). As he claims, his style in noche boca, the argument essay has a fusion of humorous and academic tones. Structurally, however, his essay begins with an epigraph from a popular documentary, Digital Nation, and is organized around subtitles, such as “Introduction,” and “Decline of Thought.” His thesis in the very first paragraph reads, “As technology increases, our ability to think critically suffers” (essay). To support his thesis he offers local as well as global examplesa primary research result and transnational (Korean kids’ addiction to video games) case study. Andre also includes a section devoted to opposing arguments in which he presents some potential arguments that people challenging his claim might present. This clearly shows that he is adhering to the structure of a thesis-driven essay and the traditional strategy of refuting the opposing arguments in order to Essay Last establish his own point. In that sense, his essay is well organized. Maintaining the form of government, a conventional academic essay, he closes his essay by offering a potential solution to on Custer´s Last the issue he raises and reinforces his claim. Additionally, throughout the essay, his tone is mostly neutral, detached and formal, yet is blended well with his ‘humorous side.’ In fact, the only instance where his personal side was brought into the essay was when he mentioned his own writing class to further his argument that technology should complement the human brain, but not rule over it: “The style of teaching is changing.

For example in my Writing class at [. ] University, students are requested to how does iago roderigo blog about readings that are done outside of class” (essay). He argued that blogs, or any other teaching technologies, should facilitate actual interactions in Essay on Custer´s Last, the class, but not substitute for them. Thus, stylistically speaking, his essay is primarily thesis-driven with a slight personal touch. This is significant because he is able to negotiate multiple discourse styles (personal humor with objective academic style, for instance) for a specific rhetorical purpose despite the fact that he is a monolingual writer trained to write in a specific way, and also despite the roderigo, fact that he is writing a traditional print-based essay. His case demonstrates a more complex view of essayist literacy in practice. In addition, Andre’s is an interesting example of an essay being a catalyst for the pursuit of knowledge, and its form a carefully crafted style of presenting ideas. As he mentions in his literacy narrative, essay and portfolio reflections, and Essay on Custer´s Stand, interview with me, his essay writing has been a journey of exploration about a number of interrelated issues pertaining to his topic. His evolving thesis that he describes when talking about john locke his writer’s block speaks to the fact that his essaying was tantamount to Essay on Custer´s Stand learning and discovery. His essay form is thesis-drivensomething expected of who did locke influence, a domestic American student schooled in American academic system all his life, but, in Essay Stand, his case, it is something carefully chosen to fit the academic audience. Another interesting thing about his style is that, even within a traditional thesis-driven form, he could incorporate his ‘humorous side’ and some personal reflections, which corroborates the idea that the academic essay is not necessarily a stilted form. Instead the essay form should be considered malleable to the writer’s rhetorical decisions, as was evident from Andre’s stylistic choice of a particular tone for the essay.

These two case studies are not representative of in the lion wardrobe, all fourteen research participants in my larger study, let alone of all domestic and international students in American higher education. In the larger study, I found that both domestic American and international multilingual students actively negotiated, though in different degrees, multiple factors, including languages, dialects, writing styles, tones, essay forms, literacy traditions, and media, while producing their argument essays. While the particular positionalities of on Custer´s, these participants informed the nature and degree of Education’s For More Male Exemplary, negotiation in the composing process, this study suggested that foregrounding negotiation of on Custer´s Stand, multiple literacies in a writing course or a writing assignment can encourage students’ learning and practice of “multiplicity of discourse styles” in locke, a writing class. It would be premature, though, to generalize anything based on Last the couple of on Early Childhood Education’s For More Exemplary, case studies presented above or even based on the findings from the analysis of my entire sample. It could be safe, however, to say that each student writer (research participant for that matter) labored or labors at the crossroads of Essay on Custer´s, multiple forces, including language, assignment requirements or expectations, and iago manipulate, her/his past literacy practices. This composing situation makes negotiation a skill imperative for each one of our student writers. Another aspect this study highlights is that writing teachers play an important role in Essay Stand, student writers’ learning and practice of and the, “multiplicity of discourse styles,” and skill of negotiation. However, supporting the growth of this ability in students involves redesigning both the curricular and pedagogical artifacts we use in or for the class.

An essayist literacy unit or assignment is just a case in point, which I redesigned keeping in view the changing student demographics, the complex tradition of academic or essayist literacy, and Essay on Custer´s Stand, increasingly multimediated forms of writing inside and characters in the lion and the wardrobe, outside the academy. This curricular and pedagogical experiment was driven by Essay on Custer´s Last my conviction that we can no longer overlook the linguistic and mise en scene, cultural diversity in Essay on Custer´s Stand, our classrooms, nor can we ignore the increasing global interactions of en scene pronounce, people and ideas, and the unprecedented influence of media and Stand, technology in our and our students’ literacy practices. Unitary Example. In fact, it could be counterproductive for our students, rhetoric and on Custer´s Last, composition as a discipline, and for American academic institutions for us to promote and enforce only the western essayist textual form in our classrooms, for doing so would be tantamount to imposing a norm from one particular culture or context on to the other. It would also mean privileging some groups of students and their stylistic conventions above other groups and their textual conventions. In plain terms, it would be equivalent to adhering to an undemocratic practice, something we should forgo sooner rather than later. Relinquishing this practice would involve expanding the boundaries of the course, unit, or assignment on essayist literacy in order to create spaces for multiple languages, multiple media, literacy conventions, and subjectivities or positionalities of the who did locke, essayists.

However, expanding the boundaries should not be understood to mean the sacrifice of Last, basic reading and writing skills in composition classes. Expansion should always be an ‘addition to,’ not a ‘subtraction from,’ what we have been doing in our classes. For instance, students in my class did most of the things students in any traditional writing class would do: critical summary, paraphrasing, critical responses to mise unit readings and texts, critical source evaluation, synthesis of multiple sources, textual and visual analysis, annotated bibliography, proposal writing, claim-making, evolving thesis, and so on. But they also obtained crucial insights that their positionalities and literacy backgrounds have, or can have, bearing on on Custer´s Stand their literacy practices. This meta-awareness of how multiple factors shape their writing performance benefitted them personally and academically.

They could see that their positionalities and iago manipulate, past literacy practices could serve as a reservoir of resources to turn to as and when needed to Essay Last make their communicative acts, essays for that matter, rhetorically effective. They also gained the insight that depending on the writing context they might find themselves in, they should even be able to suppress their positionalities and past literacy habits in order to write in a style and influence, convention of a particular genre in a particular composing situation. Therefore, it is imperative that a course, or unit, on Last Stand essayist literacy has components of multiple essay forms, multiple writing styles, multiple modes and mediums of noche boca arriba analisis, writing, and multiple presentation patterns incorporated into it. Essay. These components contribute to the development of the shuttling abilitythe idea that students should be able to move back and forth between differing essay forms, discourse styles, writing modes, and/or organization patterns, as the noche boca arriba, writing situation demands. They should even be able to negotiate those forms or styles towards their rhetorical end effective and Essay Last, persuasive arguments and claims on the topic at hand. Roderigo. Given the value of shuttling ability in the globalized world (and classroom), I foregrounded it even in on Custer´s Stand, another assignment in the sequencethe remediation project.

The remediation project was an extension to the argument essay assignment, where students repurposed their print-based essays for john, different media and different target audience. They remediated their academic essays into web forms, and the process involved therein brought into relief the on Custer´s Stand, complex relations among media, audience, context, resources, and presentation style. Mise En Scene. Working on this project, students particularly understood how their rhetorical and stylistic choices are shaped by the consideration of audience, and medium of delivery. Building further on this thread, the on Custer´s Stand, final assignmentthe collaborative documentary projectprovided students with an additional opportunity to roderigo reflect on and respond to a different composing situation, where a shuttling ability of slightly different sort was called into service. Therefore, it would be in the best interest of cultivating negotiation or shuttling skill in students to expand the breadth of course materials by situating essayist literacies within the Essay, context of multiple media and modalities, multiple languages, and multiple literacy traditions. This would essentially mean expanding the narrow bounds of essayist literacy, writing, and rhetoric and composition as a discipline.

In addition, this would mean adopting a global outlook to writing by example incorporating into Stand our curriculum, among other things, how writing is done and taught around the world and how its practice is shifting with the change in roderigo, writing technologies (Khadka). In broader terms, it all would mean the co-evolution of Essay on Custer´s, writing curriculum with multiple technologies, multimedia, and multiple literacy practices around the unitary government example, world. This would also entail larger shifts in the mission of Last Stand, composition classes, discipline of rhetoric and composition, and of American higher education. This would mean making the john influence, American academy conducive to the growth and flourishing of plurality of languages, literacy traditions, and multiple forms and genres of Essay Last Stand, writing. Finally, this would mean making composition classes, and characters, the discipline of rhetoric and composition, relevant to Essay Last Stand students and the world outside the academy through substantial transformation in their outlook towards ‘other’ Englishes, ‘other’ languages, ‘other’ writing styles, ‘other’ composition media and technologies, and arriba, ‘other’ student populations. Appendix 1: Unit 2 Essayist Literacy Assignments. A. 10-12 Pages of Argument Essay on Course Inquiry. You will investigate an issue, debate, problem, controversy or a question about multiliteracies in relation to other attendant issues, such as globalization, information and communication technologies, World Englishes, new media or intercultural communication in some length and Essay on Custer´s Last, depth.

You are required to use primary and secondary, scholarly and popular, and print and Essay on Early Pursuit Exemplary Educators, digital (online) sources in your essay. Essay On Custer´s Stand. When you research and develop your argument, you do a number of noche, things simultaneously: extend a conversation, historicize, make a new claim, complicate an on Custer´s, existing claim or established fact, find a gap in the studies done, and propose a solution or offer an alternative perspective. As a college-level student writer, you also make moves that academics make in their essays: state your thesis or theses at some points in the essay, make general or specific claims, and furnish evidences for in the lion the witch, the claims made. I am aware that it is almost impossible to come up with some grand universal claims or some irrefutable thesis or set of Essay Last Stand, theses in a paper of this length, but you can and have to attempt to present a tentative claim or set of noche boca analisis, claims in this paper corroborated by Last Stand the data or sources you retrieve through different research methods. Even though it is an academic essay and you might have been schooled to avoid personal in your academic essays, I am open to you implicating yourself in the essay i.e. using “I” or bringing in relevant personal narratives or experiences from how does iago, your life. In other words, your essay should ideally be a combination of Last, personal and academic, experiential and empirical, and who did influence, facts and narratives. A Note about English Varieties and Stand, Styles of Writing. As a writing teacher, I am aware that while requiring you to compose academic essay in academic English, I should not privilege one variety of English or one particular literacy tradition over other English varieties or literacy traditions (or writing styles). So that no one in the class feels discriminated against or underprivileged both linguistically and culturally, I entertain the play of English varieties or literacy traditions in your argument essays within reason.

No doubt, I want you to compose your essay in academic language, the who did john locke, language that other scholars in the academy use, but I am also cognizant of the fact that there is no single universal academic language across disciplines or cultures. So, as you attempt to write as or like academic writers, you can bring in Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, your local English variety/ies or literacy tradition/s (or writing style/s) if the noche boca arriba, context demands or allows (e.g. while citing the local sources or authors, while remixing your original writing style with the Essay Stand, academic writing style or while offering examples of local/different argumentation pattern or information presentation style). Unitary Government Example. I won’t even have a problem with you citing sources in an/other language/s as long as you make the sense clear to your audience either through translation/s or discussion/explanation of cited text/s in English. In this paper, you reflect on Essay Last a number of choices you make during the selection of the topic for who did influence, your research, while conducting actual research on your chosen topic, while composing the essay, and while revising the essay for or before final submission. You tell your audience why you chose a particular topic or question or debate/controversy you did as well as what research methods you used to collect sources/information/data pertaining to that particular topic. You also tell your audience about your writing processwhen, how and where did you begin your essay? What were the challenges of Last, putting together research data/findings and your experiential/situational dimensions towards proposing or formulating a claim/claims about your chosen topic? How did you decide on who did influence the tone, style, language variety or cultural references of your essay? How much time did you spend on composing or revising the draft? Why did you revise if you did?

In what way did the assignment description or requirement or grading criteria affect your composition process or the final essay form? What is your overall experience of Essay on Custer´s Last, working on this particular assignment? Your portfolio should include every thing you do during the process and Essay Childhood Education’s For More Exemplary Educators, period of composing your unit 2 essay assignmentclass notes, drafts, sources, interview questions, interview tape or transcription, field notes, class works/ activities, peer review drafts, email exchanges, blogged texts, blog responses etc., and 1 page reflection on portfolio content/s. Appendix 2: Unit 1 Literacy Narrative, and Rhetorical Analysis Assignments. A. Alphabetic and Digital Literacy Narratives: 1000 words. Literacy narrative is composing a story about on Custer´s Stand reading and composing in print and/or digital media. Step 1: Alphabetic Literacy Narrative. Compose your literacy narrative in government example, alphabetsusing letters and words. Consider the following questions as you compose: When and how did you learn to read or compose texts on papers and (or) screens?

What made that learning possibleschools, parents, community centers, relatives or something/somebody else? What language(s) did you first use for reading, writing and/or online activities? Is English your first language? When and how did you learn to Essay on Custer´s Last Stand speak, read and write in English? What about computers and the Internet? When and where did you first encounter them? What did you begin with? What were the programs/applications you began your digital or cyber literacy with? Choose key events/moments in who did john, your literate life, and carefully organize your narrative around them.

You might want to consider these questions as you compose: Where did you stand in relation to alphabetic literacy or digital literacy and where are you now? If you speak more than one language, you can write your story in Last Stand, the first language and then in en scene, the second language and reflect on the difference in the story itself because of the language. You can also talk about literacy in the first language and the second language and the degree of proficiency in each of them. You can also shed light on the cultural or linguistic differences and literate practices or talk about Stand digital divide and mise, literacy learning (for example, English as the Essay Last, default language in computers or access to the Internet or computer programs and digital literacy etc.) if that speaks to your situation. Step 2: Digital Literacy Narrative. Video or audio record the narrative.

Camera on your computer or your phone should be fine. If you don’t have access to camera, talk to me. Step 3: Upload the recorded narrative to a computer. Step 4: Submit me both the narratives in a CD and/or via email. Appendix 3: Unit 3 Remediation Assignments. A. Remediation of arriba, Argument Essay in Essay on Custer´s, Web Form, Presentation, and Blog Post. Remediation is the incorporation or representation of one medium into noche arriba analisis another. Last. In their book Remediation: Understanding New Media, J. In The The Witch. David Bolter and Richard A. Grusin argue that digital or new media are characterized by remediation because they constantly remediate (present in different media) the contents from their predecessors such as television, radio, and print journalism (old media). Remediation, however, is not just an adaptation of the old. Sometimes, new media present old media in on Custer´s Last Stand, entirely new ways without any clue to the old and only people familiar with both know that remediation is taking place.

And another significant fact about remediation is that it is not that only new media remediate the old but it works both ways. Television screens and newspaper designs these days look more and more like websites with convergence of multiple media and modes in those platforms. Noche Boca Arriba. Remediation and media convergence therefore are the major phenomena characterizing the media and Essay Stand, composition landscapes in this time of major technological change. As a tribute and response to this ongoing media and composition trend, in this unit, you will remediate your progression 2 print-based argument essay in manipulate roderigo, a new medium. I encourage you to remediate it in a well-designed web site. Essay On Custer´s. The assignment is intended to give you an understanding of relationship among audience, medium, content and style. Upon completing the assignment, you will see, learn and experience how audience and medium shape the content and government example, style of presentation.

It is up to you to decide what media assets you want to use for composition and design ranging from videos, songs, audio interviews, images, alphabetic text (from your argument essay or additional texts), graphics to animations. Only limitation is that all those assets and Stand, resources should be rhetorically (effectively) used to represent (remediate) your progression 2 essay, which is to iago manipulate say that you should attempt to Essay on Custer´s Last present similar argument that you made in your alphabetic argument essay. Connected with the remediation project, you will also compose and post a 3-page long blog post on who did influence your profile in the course site about the rhetorical situation and composition style, audience factor and source and language variety choice, audience and document or web design, and media and on Custer´s Stand, composition patterns or forms. Pronounce. You must consider how the media shape the messages/contents or more explicitly, you must talk about what changed or did not change during your remediation of the Last, unit 2 argument essay, and why. In other words, in your blog post you must engage the dynamics of media and message, content and forms, audience and rhetorical choices. Unitary Government. You should also explain your project’s targeted audience, context, and purpose. Appendix 4: Unit 4 Documentary Production Assignments. A. Essay Last. Collaborative Documentary Film Project, and en scene pronounce, Presentation.

In this unit, you will work collaboratively in a group of 3 and Last, produce 8 to 10 minutes of documentary film. You will choose a movement or event (current or historical) that you find relevant and interesting and Childhood Education’s Pursuit Exemplary, that also connects with some aspect of Essay on Custer´s, course theme. Some potential topics could be Occupy Wall Street Movement, social media and protest (e.g. in Middle East and Africa), gaming and politics, gaming and learning, various civil rights movements (including LGBT issues), indigenous land rights issues etc. You might want to how does iago roderigo emulate the documentaries on Steve Jobs and Occupy Wall Street Movement we watch together in on Custer´s Last Stand, the class. Childhood Pursuit. Your documentary should incorporate a good amount and variety of sourcesalphabetic texts (books, articles, newspaper editorials etc.), audios, videos, still images, among others- and be organically composed.

It should also demonstrate your knowledge or learning of a number of techniques such as handling video camera, still camera, incorporating voice over into Stand the film or editing skills. On Early Education’s For More. The juxtaposition of different texts and narrative voice and their organic unity will be the key evaluation criteria for your project. Your project should also reflect your understanding of audience, textual cohesion, and Last Stand, ethical treatment of characters lion the witch and the, sources etc. In this paper, your group must reflect on each and every choice/decision made during the whole process of Essay Stand, documentary production. Pronounce. You might, for instance, talk about the collection or selection of source materials, decision on English variety to be used, narrative voice or work division or other critical dimensions of the on Custer´s Last Stand, process of collaborative research and composition. Anstey, Michele, and Geoff Bull. Teaching and Learning Multiliteracies: Changing Times, Changing Literacies . Newark: International Reading Association, 2006.Print.

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(Teaching) Essayist Literacy from Composition Forum 32 (Fall 2015) Online at: http://compositionforum.com/issue/32/essayist-literacy.php. Copyright 2015 Santosh Khadka. Composition Forum is published by the Association of Teachers of Advanced Composition with the support and generous financial assistance of Penn State University. Composition Forum ISSN: 1522-7502.

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conclusion chapter The Origin of Essay Stand, Species. Chapter 14: Recapitulation and Conclusion. by Charles Darwin. Recapitulation of the difficulties on the theory of Natural Selection - Recapitulation of the general and special circumstances in its favour - Causes of the general belief in the immutability of species - How far the theory of natural selection may be extended - Effects of Essay Pursuit Exemplary, its adoption on on Custer´s Stand the study of Essay Childhood Male Educators, Natural history - Concluding remarks. s this whole volume is one long argument, it may be convenient to on Custer´s Last Stand, the reader to have the leading facts and mise en scene pronounce, inferences briefly recapitulated. That many and grave objections may be advanced against the theory of descent with modification through natural selection, I do not deny. Stand! I have endeavoured to en scene pronounce, give to them their full force. Nothing at first can appear more difficult to believe than that the more complex organs and instincts should have been perfected not by means superior to, though analogous with, human reason, but by the accumulation of innumerable slight variations, each good for the individual possessor. Nevertheless, this difficulty, though appearing to our imagination insuperably great, cannot be considered real if we admit the following propositions, namely, -- that gradations in the perfection of any organ or instinct, which we may consider, either do now exist or could have existed, each good of its kind, -- that all organs and instincts are, in Essay Last Stand ever so slight a degree, variable, -- and, lastly, that there is a struggle for existence leading to the preservation of each profitable deviation of structure or instinct.

The truth of these propositions cannot, I think, be disputed. It is, no doubt, extremely difficult even to conjecture by what gradations many structures have been perfected, more especially amongst broken and failing groups of organic beings; but we see so many strange gradations in nature, as is proclaimed by the canon, `Natura non facit saltum,' that we ought to be extremely cautious in saying that any organ or instinct, or any whole being, could not have arrived at its present state by many graduated steps. There are, it must be admitted, cases of how does iago manipulate roderigo, special difficulty on the theory of Essay on Custer´s Last, natural selection; and one of the most curious of these is the the witch and the wardrobe existence of two or three defined castes of Essay Stand, workers or sterile females in the same community of ants but I have attempted to show how this difficulty can be mastered. With respect to the almost universal sterility of manipulate, species when first crossed, which forms so remarkable a contrast with the almost universal fertility of varieties when crossed, I must refer the reader to the recapitulation of the facts given at the end of the eighth chapter, which seem to me conclusively to show that this sterility is no more a special endowment than is the incapacity of two trees to be grafted together, but that it is incidental on constitutional differences in the reproductive systems of the Essay on Custer´s Last Stand intercrossed species. We see the truth of this conclusion in the vast difference in the result, when the same two species are crossed reciprocally; that is, when one species is first used as the en scene father and then as the Essay Last mother. The fertility of varieties when intercrossed and of their mongrel offspring cannot be considered as universal; nor is their very general fertility surprising when we remember that it is on Early Pursuit Male, not likely that either their constitutions or their reproductive systems should have been profoundly modified. Essay On Custer´s Last Stand! Moreover, most of the varieties which have been experimentised on have been produced under domestication; and as domestication apparently tends to eliminate sterility, we ought not to in the lion the witch and the, expect it also to produce sterility. The sterility of hybrids is a very different case from that of first crosses, for their reproductive organs are more or less functionally impotent; whereas in Essay Last Stand first crosses the organs on both sides are in a perfect condition. As we continually see that organisms of all kinds are rendered in some degree sterile from their constitutions having been disturbed by slightly different and new conditions of life, we need not feel surprise at locke influence hybrids being in Essay Stand some degree sterile, for their constitutions can hardly fail to have been disturbed from being compounded of two distinct organisations.

This parallelism is supported by another parallel, but directly opposite, class of facts; namely, that the vigour and fertility of all organic beings are increased by slight changes in their conditions of life, and noche boca arriba analisis, that the offspring of Last Stand, slightly modified forms or varieties acquire from being crossed increased vigour and fertility. So that, on the one hand, considerable changes in the conditions of life and crosses between greatly modified forms, lessen fertility; and on the other hand, lesser changes in the conditions of life and characters in the, crosses between less modified forms, increase fertility. Turning to geographical distribution, the difficulties encountered on the theory of descent with modification are grave enough. All the individuals of the same species, and all the species of the same genus, or even higher group, must have descended from Last Stand, common parents; and therefore, in however distant and isolated parts of the world they are now found, they must in how does iago manipulate roderigo the course of successive generations have passed from Last Stand, some one part to the others. We are often wholly unable even to conjecture how this could have been effected. Yet, as we have reason to believe that some species have retained the same specific form for very long periods, enormously long as measured by years, too much stress ought not to be laid on the occasional wide diffusion of the same species; for during very long periods of time there will always be a good chance for wide migration by many means. A broken or interrupted range may often be accounted for unitary government example, by the extinction of the species in the intermediate regions. It cannot be denied that we are as yet very ignorant of the Essay on Custer´s Stand full extent of the various climatal and en scene pronounce, geographical changes which have affected the earth during modern periods; and on Custer´s Last, such changes will obviously have greatly facilitated migration. As an lion the witch and the example, I have attempted to show how potent has been the Essay on Custer´s Last Stand influence of the arriba analisis Glacial period on the distribution both of the same and of representative species throughout the world. We are as yet profoundly ignorant of the many occasional means of transport. With respect to distinct species of the same genus inhabiting very distant and isolated regions, as the process of Essay on Custer´s Stand, modification has necessarily been slow, all the means of migration will have been possible during a very long period; and consequently the difficulty of the Education’s Pursuit For More Educators wide diffusion of species of the Essay same genus is in some degree lessened.

As on the theory of natural selection an interminable number of intermediate forms must have existed, linking together all the unitary government example species in each group by gradations as fine as our present varieties, it may be asked, Why do we not see these linking forms all around us? Why are not all organic beings blended together in on Custer´s Stand an inextricable chaos? With respect to existing forms, we should remember that we have no right to expect (excepting in rare cases) to discover directly connecting links between them, but only between each and some extinct and supplanted form. Arriba Analisis! Even on Last a wide area, which has during a long period remained continuous, and of which the climate and other conditions of life change insensibly in going from iago manipulate, a district occupied by one species into another district occupied by a closely allied species, we have no just right to expect often to find intermediate varieties in the intermediate zone. For we have reason to believe that only a few species are undergoing change at any one period; and all changes are slowly effected.

I have also shown that the intermediate varieties which will at first probably exist in the intermediate zones, will be liable to be supplanted by the allied forms on either hand; and the latter, from Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, existing in greater numbers, will generally be modified and improved at a quicker rate than the intermediate varieties, which exist in lesser numbers; so that the intermediate varieties will, in the long run, be supplanted and exterminated. On this doctrine of the in the wardrobe extermination of an Essay on Custer´s Stand infinitude of connecting links, between the living and noche arriba analisis, extinct inhabitants of the world, and at Last each successive period between the extinct and still older species, why is not every geological formation charged with such links? Why does not every collection of fossil remains afford plain evidence of the gradation and characters, mutation of the forms of life? We meet with no such evidence, and this is the most obvious and forcible of the many objections which may be urged against my theory. Essay Last Stand! Why, again, do whole groups of allied species appear, though certainly they often falsely appear, to have come in suddenly on the several geological stages? Why do we not find great piles of strata beneath the Silurian system, stored with the remains of the progenitors of the Silurian groups of fossils? For certainly on my theory such strata must somewhere have been deposited at these ancient and utterly unknown epochs in the world's history.

I can answer these questions and grave objections only on the supposition that the geological record is far more imperfect than most geologists believe. It cannot be objected that there has not been time sufficient for any amount of organic change; for the lapse of time has been so great as to be utterly inappreciable by the human intellect. The number of iago manipulate, specimens in all our museums is absolutely as nothing compared with the countless generations of countless species which certainly have existed. We should not be able to on Custer´s Last Stand, recognise a species as the parent of any one or more species if we were to examine them ever so closely, unless we likewise possessed many of the unitary government example intermediate links between their past or parent and present states; and these many links we could hardly ever expect to discover, owing to Essay on Custer´s Last, the imperfection of the geological record. Numerous existing doubtful forms could be named which are probably varieties; but who will pretend that in future ages so many fossil links will be discovered, that naturalists will be able to decide, on the common view, whether or not these doubtful forms are varieties? As long as most of the links between any two species are unknown, if any one link or intermediate variety be discovered, it will simply be classed as another and distinct species. Only a small portion of the world has been geologically explored. In The Lion The Witch And The Wardrobe! Only organic beings of certain classes can be preserved in a fossil condition, at Essay on Custer´s Stand least in any great number. Government Example! Widely ranging species vary most, and varieties are often at Essay first local, -- both causes rendering the discovery of intermediate links less likely. Local varieties will not spread into characters in the lion wardrobe, other and distant regions until they are considerably modified and improved; and when they do spread, if discovered in a geological formation, they will appear as if suddenly created there, and will be simply classed as new species.

Most formations have been intermittent in their accumulation; and their duration, I am inclined to believe, has been shorter than the average duration of specific forms. Successive formations are separated from each other by Essay Last enormous blank intervals of time; for fossiliferous formations, thick enough to resist future degradation, can be accumulated only where much sediment is deposited on the subsiding bed of the sea. During the boca arriba alternate periods of elevation and on Custer´s Stand, of stationary level the record will be blank. During these latter periods there will probably be more variability in the forms of on Early Childhood Pursuit Exemplary, life; during periods of subsidence, more extinction. With respect to the absence of Last, fossiliferous formations beneath the lowest Silurian strata, I can only recur to Essay on Early Childhood Pursuit Male Educators, the hypothesis given in the ninth chapter. That the geological record is Essay on Custer´s Last, imperfect all will admit; but that it is imperfect to the degree which I require, few will be inclined to admit. How Does Manipulate! If we look to long enough intervals of time, geology plainly declares that all species have changed; and they have changed in the manner which my theory requires, for they have changed slowly and in a graduated manner. We clearly see this in the fossil remains from consecutive formations invariably being much more closely related to each other, than are the fossils from formations distant from each other in time.

Such is the Essay on Custer´s Last Stand sum of the several chief objections and difficulties which may justly be urged against on Early Childhood Pursuit For More my theory; and I have now briefly recapitulated the answers and explanations which can be given to them. I have felt these difficulties far too heavily during many years to doubt their weight. But it deserves especial notice that the more important objections relate to questions on which we are confessedly ignorant; nor do we know how ignorant we are. We do not know all the possible transitional gradations between the simplest and the most perfect organs; it cannot be pretended that we know all the varied means of Distribution during the long lapse of on Custer´s Last, years, or that we know how imperfect the in the lion the witch Geological Record is. Grave as these several difficulties are, in Essay Stand my judgement they do not overthrow the theory of descent with modification. Now let us turn to the other side of the argument.

Under domestication we see much variability. This seems to unitary government, be mainly due to the reproductive system being eminently susceptible to changes in the conditions of life so that this system, when not rendered impotent, fails to reproduce offspring exactly like the Essay on Custer´s Last parent-form. Variability is governed by many complex laws, -- by correlation of growth, by use and disuse, and by on Early Childhood Education’s Pursuit Male Exemplary Educators the direct action of the on Custer´s Last physical conditions of life. There is how does manipulate roderigo, much difficulty in Last Stand ascertaining how much modification our domestic productions have undergone; but we may safely infer that the amount has been large, and unitary, that modifications can be inherited for long periods. On Custer´s Last Stand! As long as the conditions of life remain the same, we have reason to believe that a modification, which has already been inherited for many generations, may continue to be inherited for who did, an almost infinite number of Essay Last, generations. On the who did influence other hand we have evidence that variability, when it has once come into play, does not wholly cease; for new varieties are still occasionally produced by our most anciently domesticated productions. Man does not actually produce variability; he only Essay on Custer´s unintentionally exposes organic beings to new conditions of life, and then nature acts on the organisation, and causes variability. But man can and does select the variations given to him by nature, and thus accumulate them in any desired manner. He thus adapts animals and plants for his own benefit or pleasure.

He may do this methodically, or he may do it unconsciously by preserving the individuals most useful to him at the time, without any thought of altering the breed. It is analisis, certain that he can largely influence the character of a breed by selecting, in on Custer´s each successive generation, individual differences so slight as to be quite inappreciable by an uneducated eye. This process of selection has been the great agency in the production of the most distinct and useful domestic breeds. That many of the breeds produced by man have to a large extent the character of natural species, is shown by the inextricable doubts whether very many of them are varieties or aboriginal species. There is no obvious reason why the principles which have acted so efficiently under domestication should not have acted under nature. In the preservation of favoured individuals and races, during the constantly-recurrent Struggle for Existence, we see the most powerful and Education’s Pursuit For More, ever-acting means of selection.

The struggle for existence inevitably follows from the high geometrical ratio of increase which is common to all organic beings. This high rate of Essay Last, increase is mise, proved by calculation, by the effects of a succession of peculiar seasons, and by the results of naturalisation, as explained in the third chapter. More individuals are born than can possibly survive. A grain in the balance will determine which individual shall live and which shall die, -- which variety or species shall increase in on Custer´s number, and which shall decrease, or finally become extinct. As the individuals of the same species come in all respects into the closest competition with each other, the wardrobe struggle will generally be most severe between them; it will be almost equally severe between the varieties of the Essay on Custer´s Last Stand same species, and next in characters in the lion wardrobe severity between the on Custer´s Stand species of the unitary government same genus. But the struggle will often be very severe between beings most remote in the scale of on Custer´s Last, nature. The slightest advantage in one being, at any age or during any season, over those with which it comes into on Early Exemplary, competition, or better adaptation in however slight a degree to the surrounding physical conditions, will turn the balance. With animals having separated sexes there will in most cases be a struggle between the males for Essay on Custer´s, possession of the females. The most vigorous individuals, or those which have most successfully struggled with their conditions of on Early Educators, life, will generally leave most progeny. But success will often depend on having special weapons or means of defence, or on the charms of the males; and the slightest advantage will lead to victory. As geology plainly proclaims that each land has undergone great physical changes, we might have expected that organic beings would have varied under nature, in the same way as they generally have varied under the changed conditions of domestication.

And if there be any variability under nature, it would be an unaccountable fact if natural selection had not come into play. Last Stand! It has often been asserted, but the assertion is quite incapable of proof, that the amount of variation under nature is a strictly limited quantity. Man, though acting on arriba analisis external characters alone and often capriciously, can produce within a short period a great result by adding up mere individual differences in Essay Last his domestic productions; and every one admits that there are at least individual differences in species under nature. But, besides such differences, all naturalists have admitted the existence of varieties, which they think sufficiently distinct to be worthy of record in systematic works. No one can draw any clear distinction between individual differences and slight varieties; or between more plainly marked varieties and subspecies, and species.

Let it be observed how naturalists differ in the rank which they assign to the many representative forms in Europe and North America. If then we have under nature variability and a powerful agent always ready to act and select, why should we doubt that variations in any way useful to beings, under their excessively complex relations of life, would be preserved, accumulated, and how does manipulate, inherited? Why, if man can by patience select variations most useful to himself, should nature fail in selecting variations useful, under changing conditions of life, to her living products? What limit can be put to this power, acting during long ages and rigidly scrutinising the whole constitution, structure, and habits of each creature, -- favouring the good and rejecting the bad? I can see no limit to this power, in slowly and beautifully adapting each form to the most complex relations of life. The theory of natural selection, even if we looked no further than this, seems to me to be in itself probable. Essay On Custer´s Last! I have already recapitulated, as fairly as I could, the iago roderigo opposed difficulties and Essay Last Stand, objections: now let us turn to the special facts and arguments in favour of the theory. On the view that species are only strongly marked and permanent varieties, and that each species first existed as a variety, we can see why it is that no line of demarcation can be drawn between species, commonly supposed to have been produced by special acts of mise pronounce, creation, and varieties which are acknowledged to have been produced by secondary laws.

On this same view we can understand how it is Essay, that in each region where many species of Childhood For More Educators, a genus have been produced, and where they now flourish, these same species should present many varieties; for Stand, where the Childhood For More Male manufactory of Essay Stand, species has been active, we might expect, as a general rule, to find it still in action; and this is the pronounce case if varieties be incipient species. On Custer´s Last! Moreover, the species of the large genera, which afford the greater number of varieties or incipient species, retain to a certain degree the pronounce character of varieties; for they differ from each other by on Custer´s Last a less amount of difference than do the species of smaller genera. The closely allied species also of the larger genera apparently have restricted ranges, and they are clustered in little groups round other species -- in which respects they resemble varieties. These are strange relations on the view of each species having been independently created, but are intelligible if all species first existed as varieties. As each species tends by iago its geometrical ratio of Essay Last, reproduction to increase inordinately in number; and as the Childhood Education’s Exemplary modified descendants of each species will be enabled to increase by so much the more as they become more diversified in habits and structure, so as to be enabled to seize on many and widely different places in the economy of Essay Stand, nature, there will be a constant tendency in natural selection to preserve the in the and the most divergent offspring of any one species.

Hence during a long-continued course of modification, the Essay Stand slight differences, characteristic of varieties of the same species, tend to be augmented into the greater differences characteristic of unitary government, species of the same genus. New and improved varieties will inevitably supplant and exterminate the older, less improved and intermediate varieties; and thus species are rendered to a large extent defined and distinct objects. Dominant species belonging to Essay Last Stand, the larger groups tend to characters the witch and the wardrobe, give birth to new and Last Stand, dominant forms; so that each large group tends to become still larger, and at the same time more divergent in character. But as all groups cannot thus succeed in increasing in who did locke size, for the world would not hold them, the Last more dominant groups beat the less dominant. This tendency in the large groups to go on increasing in pronounce size and diverging in character, together with the almost inevitable contingency of much extinction, explains the arrangement of all the forms of life, in groups subordinate to groups, all within a few great classes, which we now see everywhere around us, and which has prevailed throughout all time. This grand fact of the grouping of all organic beings seems to me utterly inexplicable on the theory of Last Stand, creation. As natural selection acts solely by accumulating slight, successive, favourable variations, it can produce no great or sudden modification; it can act only by very short and slow steps. Hence the roderigo canon of `Natura non facit saltum,' which every fresh addition to our knowledge tends to make more strictly correct, is on this theory simply intelligible. We can plainly see why nature is prodigal in variety, though niggard in innovation. On Custer´s Last! But why this should be a law of nature if each species has been independently created, no man can explain.

Many other facts are, as it seems to me, explicable on unitary example this theory. Essay Last Stand! How strange it is that a bird, under the form of woodpecker, should have been created to prey on insects on the ground; that upland geese, which never or rarely swim, should have been created with webbed feet; that a thrush should have been created to en scene pronounce, dive and feed on sub-aquatic insects; and that a petrel should have been created with habits and structure fitting it for the life of an auk or grebe! and so on in endless other cases. But on the view of Essay, each species constantly trying to increase in who did number, with natural selection always ready to adapt the slowly varying descendants of each to any unoccupied or ill-occupied place in nature, these facts cease to be strange, or perhaps might even have been anticipated. As natural selection acts by competition, it adapts the inhabitants of on Custer´s, each country only in relation to the degree of perfection of their associates; so that we need feel no surprise at the inhabitants of any one country, although on the ordinary view supposed to have been specially created and Essay on Early Childhood Education’s Pursuit For More Male Educators, adapted for that country, being beaten and supplanted by the naturalised productions from another land. Nor ought we to marvel if all the contrivances in nature be not, as far as we can judge, absolutely perfect; and if some of them be abhorrent to our ideas of Last Stand, fitness. We need not marvel at the sting of the bee causing the bee's own death; at drones being produced in such vast numbers for one single act, and being then slaughtered by their sterile sisters; at the astonishing waste of pollen by our fir-trees; at the instinctive hatred of the queen bee for her own fertile daughters; at ichneumonidae feeding within the live bodies of caterpillars; and at other such cases. Who Did John Influence! The wonder indeed is, on the theory of natural selection, that more cases of the want of absolute perfection have not been observed. The complex and little known laws governing variation are the same, as far as we can see, with the Essay Last Stand laws which have governed the production of so-called specific forms. In both cases physical conditions seem to have produced but little direct effect; yet when varieties enter any zone, they occasionally assume some of the characters of the species proper to analisis, that zone. In both varieties and species, use and disuse seem to have produced some effect; for it is Essay Stand, difficult to resist this conclusion when we look, for instance, at the logger-headed duck, which has wings incapable of flight, in nearly the same condition as in the domestic duck; or when we look at the burrowing tucutucu, which is unitary government example, occasionally blind, and then at certain moles, which are habitually blind and have their eyes covered with skin; or when we look at the blind animals inhabiting the dark caves of America and Europe.

In both varieties and Essay Last Stand, species correction of in the and the, growth seems to have played a most important part, so that when one part has been modified other parts are necessarily modified. In both varieties and species reversions to long-lost characters occur. Essay Last! How inexplicable on the theory of creation is the Essay on Early Childhood Education’s Pursuit For More Male Educators occasional appearance of stripes on the shoulder and Stand, legs of the several species of the horse-genus and in their hybrids! How simply is this fact explained if we believe that these species have descended from a striped progenitor, in the same manner as the several domestic breeds of pigeon have descended from the blue and barred rock-pigeon! On the ordinary view of each species having been independently created, why should the specific characters, or those by which the species of the same genus differ from each other, be more variable than the generic characters in arriba which they all agree? Why, for Essay on Custer´s Last, instance, should the colour of a flower be more likely to vary in any one species of characters the witch wardrobe, a genus, if the other species, supposed to Essay Stand, have been created independently, have differently coloured flowers, than if all the species of the genus have the same coloured flowers? If species are only well-marked varieties, of which the characters have become in mise en scene pronounce a high degree permanent, we can understand this fact; for on Custer´s Stand, they have already varied since they branched off from a common progenitor in certain characters, by which they have come to be specifically distinct from each other; and therefore these same characters would be more likely still to be variable than the generic characters which have been inherited without change for characters in the the witch and the wardrobe, an enormous period. It is inexplicable on the theory of creation why a part developed in a very unusual manner in any one species of a genus, and Last Stand, therefore, as we may naturally infer, of great importance to the species, should be eminently liable to variation; but, on my view, this part has undergone, since the en scene several species branched off from a common progenitor, an unusual amount of Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, variability and modification, and therefore we might expect this part generally to influence, be still variable. But a part may be developed in on Custer´s Last Stand the most unusual manner, like the wing of a bat, and yet not be more variable than any other structure, if the Essay For More Male Exemplary part be common to Last, many subordinate forms, that is, if it has been inherited for on Early Childhood Pursuit For More, a very long period; for in this case it will have been rendered constant by Essay on Custer´s long-continued natural selection.

Glancing at instincts, marvellous as some are, they offer no greater difficulty than does corporeal structure on how does manipulate roderigo the theory of the natural selection of successive, slight, but profitable modifications. We can thus understand why nature moves by graduated steps in endowing different animals of the Essay Last same class with their several instincts. I have attempted to show how much light the principle of gradation throws on the witch wardrobe the admirable architectural powers of the hive-bee. Habit no doubt sometimes comes into play in modifying instincts; but it certainly is not indispensable, as we see, in the case of neuter insects, which leave no progeny to inherit the effects of long-continued habit. On the view of all the species of the same genus having descended from a common parent, and having inherited much in common, we can understand how it is that allied species, when placed under considerably different conditions of life, yet should follow nearly the same instincts; why the on Custer´s Last Stand thrush of Essay Childhood Pursuit For More Educators, South America, for instance, lines her nest with mud like our British species.

On the view of instincts having been slowly acquired through natural selection we need not marvel at some instincts being apparently not perfect and liable to mistakes, and at many instincts causing other animals to suffer. If species be only well-marked and permanent varieties, we can at Last once see why their crossed offspring should follow the how does iago manipulate roderigo same complex laws in their degrees and kinds of Last Stand, resemblance to who did john locke influence, their parents, -- in being absorbed into each other by successive crosses, and in other such points, -- as do the crossed offspring of acknowledged varieties. On the other hand, these would be strange facts if species have been independently created, and varieties have been produced by secondary laws. If we admit that the geological record is Essay on Custer´s, imperfect in an extreme degree, then such facts as the record gives, support the theory of descent with modification. New species have come on the stage slowly and at successive intervals; and the amount of change, after equal intervals of time, is widely different in different groups.

The extinction of species and of whole groups of species, which has played so conspicuous a part in the history of the organic world, almost inevitably follows on the principle of natural selection; for old forms will be supplanted by mise pronounce new and Essay, improved forms. Neither single species nor groups of species reappear when the chain of ordinary generation has once been broken. The gradual diffusion of dominant forms, with the slow modification of mise pronounce, their descendants, causes the forms of life, after long intervals of time, to Last, appear as if they had changed simultaneously throughout the world. The fact of the fossil remains of each formation being in some degree intermediate in character between the fossils in the formations above and below, is simply explained by how does iago manipulate their intermediate position in the chain of descent. On Custer´s Last Stand! The grand fact that all extinct organic beings belong to the same system with recent beings, falling either into who did locke influence, the same or into intermediate groups, follows from the on Custer´s living and the extinct being the offspring of common parents. As the groups which have descended from an ancient progenitor have generally diverged in character, the progenitor with its early descendants will often be intermediate in character in comparison with its later descendants; and thus we can see why the more ancient a fossil is, the oftener it stands in some degree intermediate between existing and allied groups. Recent forms are generally looked at as being, in some vague sense, higher than ancient and characters the witch and the, extinct forms; and they are in so far higher as the later and more improved forms have conquered the on Custer´s Last Stand older and less improved organic beings in the struggle for life.

Lastly, the characters in the lion the witch wardrobe law of the n='448' long endurance of allied forms on the same continent, -- of Essay Last, marsupials in in the lion the witch and the wardrobe Australia, of Last, edentata in America, and en scene, other such cases, -- is intelligible, for within a confined country, the recent and the extinct will naturally be allied by descent. Looking to geographical distribution, if we admit that there has been during the long course of ages much migration from one part of the Essay world to another, owing to former climatal and example, geographical changes and to the many occasional and on Custer´s Stand, unknown means of dispersal, then we can understand, on the theory of descent with modification, most of the who did john great leading facts in Essay Last Distribution. We can see why there should be so striking a parallelism in the distribution of organic beings throughout space, and in their geological succession throughout time; for in both cases the beings have been connected by the bond of ordinary generation, and the means of modification have been the same. We see the full meaning of the wonderful fact, which must have struck every traveller, namely, that on the same continent, under the unitary government example most diverse conditions, under heat and on Custer´s, cold, on mountain and lowland, on deserts and marshes, most of the inhabitants within each great class are plainly related; for they will generally be descendants of the same progenitors and early colonists. On this same principle of manipulate, former migration, combined in most cases with modification, we can understand, by on Custer´s Last the aid of the Glacial period, the identity of some few plants, and the close alliance of many others, on the most distant mountains, under the most different climates; and likewise the close alliance of some of the inhabitants of the sea in the northern and southern temperate zones, though separated by the whole intertropical ocean. Although two areas may present the same physical conditions of life, we need feel no surprise at their inhabitants being widely different, if they have been for a long period completely separated from each other; for arriba, as the relation of organism to organism is the most important of on Custer´s Stand, all relations, and as the two areas will have received colonists from some third source or from each other, at various periods and in different proportions, the course of modification in the two areas will inevitably be different.

On this view of migration, with subsequent modification, we can see why oceanic islands should be inhabited by few species, but of these, that many should be peculiar. We can clearly see why those animals which cannot cross wide spaces of ocean, as frogs and characters the witch wardrobe, terrestrial mammals, should not inhabit oceanic islands; and why, on the other hand, new and peculiar species of bats, which can traverse the ocean, should so often be found on islands far distant from any continent. Such facts as the presence of peculiar species of bats, and the absence of all other mammals, on oceanic islands, are utterly inexplicable on the theory of independent acts of on Custer´s, creation. The existence of closely allied or representative species in any two areas, implies, on locke influence the theory of descent with modification, that the same parents formerly inhabited both areas; and we almost invariably find that wherever many closely allied species inhabit two areas, some identical species common to both still exist. Wherever many closely allied yet distinct species occur, many doubtful forms and on Custer´s Stand, varieties of the same species likewise occur. It is a rule of high generality that the inhabitants of each area are related to the inhabitants of the nearest source whence immigrants might have been derived. We see this in lion wardrobe nearly all the on Custer´s plants and animals of the Galapagos archipelago, of Juan Fernandez, and of the other American islands being related in the most striking manner to the plants and animals of the neighbouring American mainland; and those of the how does iago manipulate roderigo Cape de Verde archipelago and other African islands to the African mainland. It must be admitted that these facts receive no explanation on Essay on Custer´s the theory of creation. The fact, as we have seen, that all past and characters in the the witch and the, present organic beings constitute one grand natural system, with group subordinate to group, and with extinct groups often falling in between recent groups, is Essay on Custer´s, intelligible on the theory of natural selection with its contingencies of extinction and how does manipulate, divergence of character.

On these same principles we see how it is, that the mutual affinities of the species and genera within each class are so complex and circuitous. We see why certain characters are far more serviceable than others for on Custer´s Last, classification; -- why adaptive characters, though of how does manipulate, paramount importance to the being, are of hardly any importance in classification; why characters derived from rudimentary parts, though of no service to the being, are often of high classificatory value; and Essay on Custer´s, why embryological characters are the most valuable of all. Noche! The real affinities of all organic beings are due to inheritance or community of on Custer´s Last Stand, descent. The natural system is a genealogical arrangement, in which we have to discover the lines of descent by the most permanent characters, however slight their vital importance may be. The framework of bones being the same in the witch and the wardrobe the hand of a man, wing of a bat, fin of the Last Stand porpoise, and leg of the who did john horse, -- the same number of vertebrae forming the neck of the giraffe and of the elephant, -- and innumerable other such facts, at once explain themselves on the theory of Essay on Custer´s, descent with slow and slight successive modifications.

The similarity of pattern in the wing and leg of a bat, though used for such different purposes, -- in the jaws and legs of a crab, -- in the petals, stamens, and pistils of a flower, is likewise intelligible on the view of the gradual modification of in the lion and the wardrobe, parts or organs, which were alike in the early progenitor of each class. On the principle of successive variations not always supervening at an early age, and being inherited at a corresponding not early period of life, we can clearly see why the embryos of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fishes should be so closely alike, and should be so unlike the adult forms. We may cease marvelling at the embryo of an air-breathing mammal or bird having branchial slits and arteries running in loops, like those in a fish which has to breathe the air dissolved in water, by Essay Last Stand the aid of well-developed branchiae. Disuse, aided sometimes by natural selection, will often tend to reduce an organ, when it has become useless by changed habits or under changed conditions of life; and we can clearly understand on this view the meaning of rudimentary organs. But disuse and selection will generally act on the witch and the each creature, when it has come to maturity and on Custer´s Last Stand, has to play its full part in the struggle for existence, and will thus have little power of acting on an organ during early life; hence the organ will not be much reduced or rendered rudimentary at this early age. The calf, for instance, has inherited teeth, which never cut through the gums of the upper jaw, from an unitary government example early progenitor having well-developed teeth; and we may believe, that the teeth in the mature animal were reduced, during successive generations, by on Custer´s Last Stand disuse or by the tongue and palate having been fitted by natural selection to browse without their aid; whereas in the calf, the teeth have been left untouched by selection or disuse, and on the principle of inheritance at corresponding ages have been inherited from boca arriba, a remote period to the present day. Essay Last Stand! On the view of each organic being and each separate organ having been specially created, how utterly inexplicable it is that parts, like the teeth in the embryonic calf or like the shrivelled wings under the soldered wing-covers of some beetles, should thus so frequently bear the plain stamp of inutility!

Nature may be said to have taken pains to reveal, by rudimentary organs and by homologous structures, her scheme of modification, which it seems that we wilfully will not understand. I have now recapitulated the chief facts and considerations which have thoroughly convinced me that species have changed, and Education’s Male Exemplary Educators, are still slowly changing by the preservation and accumulation of successive slight favourable variations. Why, it may be asked, have all the most eminent living naturalists and geologists rejected this view of the mutability of Essay, species? It cannot be asserted that organic beings in government a state of nature are subject to no variation; it cannot be proved that the Essay on Custer´s Stand amount of government, variation in the course of long ages is on Custer´s, a limited quantity; no clear distinction has been, or can be, drawn between species and well-marked varieties. It cannot be maintained that species when intercrossed are invariably sterile, and varieties invariably fertile; or that sterility is a special endowment and sign of creation. The belief that species were immutable productions was almost unavoidable as long as the roderigo history of the world was thought to Essay Stand, be of influence, short duration; and now that we have acquired some idea of the lapse of time, we are too apt to assume, without proof, that the geological record is so perfect that it would have afforded us plain evidence of the on Custer´s Stand mutation of species, if they had undergone mutation. But the chief cause of our natural unwillingness to admit that one species has given birth to how does iago manipulate, other and distinct species, is that we are always slow in admitting any great change of which we do not see the intermediate steps. The difficulty is the same as that felt by so many geologists, when Lyell first insisted that long lines of inland cliffs had been formed, and great valleys excavated, by the slow action of the Stand coast-waves. Pronounce! The mind cannot possibly grasp the full meaning of the term of on Custer´s Stand, a hundred million years; it cannot add up and government, perceive the full effects of many slight variations, accumulated during an almost infinite number of generations. Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume under the form of an Essay on Custer´s abstract, I by government example no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of Essay Last Stand, facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as the `plan of creation,' `unity of design,' c., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact.

Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject my theory. A few naturalists, endowed with much flexibility of mind, and who have already begun to doubt on the immutability of species, may be influenced by this volume; but I look with confidence to john, the future, to young and rising naturalists, who will be able to Last, view both sides of the question with impartiality. Whoever is led to believe that species are mutable will do good service by conscientiously expressing his conviction; for only thus can the load of prejudice by which this subject is overwhelmed be removed. Several eminent naturalists have of late published their belief that a multitude of reputed species in noche each genus are not real species; but that other species are real, that is, have been independently created. This seems to me a strange conclusion to Last Stand, arrive at.

They admit that a multitude of forms, which till lately they themselves thought were special creations, and which are still thus looked at by the majority of naturalists, and which consequently have every external characteristic feature of true species, -- they admit that these have been produced by variation, but they refuse to extend the same view to other and noche boca analisis, very slightly different forms. Nevertheless they do not pretend that they can define, or even conjecture, which are the Essay Last Stand created forms of life, and which are those produced by iago secondary laws. They admit variation as a vera causa in one case, they arbitrarily reject it in another, without assigning any distinction in the two cases. The day will come when this will be given as a curious illustration of the blindness of preconceived opinion. These authors seem no more startled at a miraculous act of creation than at an ordinary birth. But do they really believe that at innumerable periods in the earth's history certain elemental atoms have been commanded suddenly to flash into living tissues?

Do they believe that at each supposed act of creation one individual or many were produced? Were all the Last Stand infinitely numerous kinds of animals and plants created as eggs or seed, or as full grown? and in noche arriba analisis the case of mammals, were they created bearing the false marks of nourishment from the mother's womb? Although naturalists very properly demand a full explanation of every difficulty from those who believe in on Custer´s the mutability of species, on their own side they ignore the whole subject of the first appearance of en scene pronounce, species in what they consider reverent silence. It may be asked how far I extend the doctrine of the modification of species. The question is difficult to answer, because the more distinct the forms are which we may consider, by Essay Stand so much the arguments fall away in mise en scene force.

But some arguments of the greatest weight extend very far. All the members of whole classes can be connected together by on Custer´s Last chains of affinities, and all can be classified on Essay on Early Childhood Pursuit For More Male Exemplary Educators the same principle, in groups subordinate to groups. Essay On Custer´s Stand! Fossil remains sometimes tend to fill up very wide intervals between existing orders. How Does Iago Manipulate! Organs in a rudimentary condition plainly show that an early progenitor had the organ in a fully developed state; and this in some instances necessarily implies an enormous amount of modification in the descendants. Throughout whole classes various structures are formed on the same pattern, and at an embryonic age the species closely resemble each other. Therefore I cannot doubt that the theory of descent with modification embraces all the members of the Essay on Custer´s Last same class. I believe that animals have descended from at most only four or five progenitors, and plants from an equal or lesser number. Analogy would lead me one step further, namely, to the belief that all animals and plants have descended from unitary example, some one prototype.

But analogy may be a deceitful guide. Nevertheless all living things have much in common, in their chemical composition, their germinal vesicles, their cellular structure, and their laws of growth and reproduction. We see this even in so trifling a circumstance as that the same poison often similarly affects plants and animals; or that the poison secreted by the gall-fly produces monstrous growths on the wild rose or oak-tree. Therefore I should infer from analogy that probably all the organic beings which have ever lived on this earth have descended from some one primordial form, into Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, which life was first breathed. When the views entertained in this volume on the origin of species, or when analogous views are generally admitted, we can dimly foresee that there will be a considerable revolution in example natural history. Systematists will be able to pursue their labours as at present; but they will not be incessantly haunted by the shadowy doubt whether this or that form be in essence a species. This I feel sure, and I speak after experience, will be no slight relief. The endless disputes whether or not some fifty species of British brambles are true species will cease. Systematists will have only to decide (not that this will be easy) whether any form be sufficiently constant and distinct from other forms, to be capable of definition; and if definable, whether the Essay differences be sufficiently important to deserve a specific name. This latter point will become a far more essential consideration than it is at present; for manipulate, differences, however slight, between any two forms, if not blended by intermediate gradations, are looked at by most naturalists as sufficient to raise both forms to Essay Stand, the rank of species.

Hereafter we shall be compelled to acknowledge that the only distinction between species and well-marked varieties is, that the iago latter are known, or believed, to be connected at the present day by intermediate gradations, whereas species were formerly thus connected. Hence, without quite rejecting the consideration of the Essay on Custer´s present existence of intermediate gradations between any two forms, we shall be led to weigh more carefully and to value higher the actual amount of difference between them. It is quite possible that forms now generally acknowledged to be merely varieties may hereafter be thought worthy of specific names, as with the primrose and cowslip; and in noche boca this case scientific and common language will come into accordance. In short, we shall have to treat species in the same manner as those naturalists treat genera, who admit that genera are merely artificial combinations made for convenience. Essay On Custer´s Stand! This may not be a cheering prospect; but we shall at least be freed from the vain search for the undiscovered and undiscoverable essence of the term species. The other and more general departments of natural history will rise greatly in interest. The terms used by naturalists of affinity, relationship, community of type, paternity, morphology, adaptive characters, rudimentary and aborted organs, c., will cease to be metaphorical, and will have a plain signification. When we no longer look at an organic being as a savage looks at a ship, as at something wholly beyond his comprehension; when we regard every production of nature as one which has had a history; when we contemplate every complex structure and instinct as the summing up of many contrivances, each useful to the possessor, nearly in the same way as when we look at any great mechanical invention as the summing up of the labour, the experience, the reason, and even the manipulate blunders of numerous workmen; when we thus view each organic being, how far more interesting, I speak from experience, will the study of natural history become! A grand and almost untrodden field of inquiry will be opened, on the causes and Essay on Custer´s, laws of variation, on correlation of how does, growth, on the effects of Essay on Custer´s Last, use and disuse, on the direct action of external conditions, and so forth. The study of domestic productions will rise immensely in value.

A new variety raised by man will be a far more important and noche, interesting subject for on Custer´s Last Stand, study than one more species added to the infinitude of already recorded species. In The The Witch And The! Our classifications will come to be, as far as they can be so made, genealogies; and will then truly give what may be called the plan of creation. The rules for classifying will no doubt become simpler when we have a definite object in on Custer´s view. John Locke! We possess no pedigrees or armorial bearings; and we have to discover and trace the many diverging lines of descent in our natural genealogies, by characters of any kind which have long been inherited. Rudimentary organs will speak infallibly with respect to the nature of long-lost structures. On Custer´s! Species and groups of species, which are called aberrant, and boca arriba, which may fancifully be called living fossils, will aid us in forming a picture of the ancient forms of life. Embryology will reveal to us the structure, in some degree obscured, of the prototypes of each great class. When we can feel assured that all the individuals of the same species, and all the closely allied species of most genera, have within a not very remote period descended from one parent, and have migrated from some one birthplace; and when we better know the Essay on Custer´s many means of migration, then, by government the light which geology now throws, and will continue to throw, on former changes of climate and Essay on Custer´s, of the level of the land, we shall surely be enabled to trace in an admirable manner the former migrations of the the witch inhabitants of the whole world. Even at present, by Essay Stand comparing the differences of the inhabitants of the sea on in the the witch wardrobe the opposite sides of a continent, and the nature of the various inhabitants of that continent in relation to their apparent means of immigration, some light can be thrown on ancient geography.

The noble science of Geology loses glory from the extreme imperfection of the record. The crust of the earth with its embedded remains must not be looked at Essay on Custer´s as a well-filled museum, but as a poor collection made at hazard and at rare intervals. The accumulation of each great fossiliferous formation will be recognised as having depended on an unusual concurrence of circumstances, and the blank intervals between the successive stages as having been of vast duration. But we shall be able to gauge with some security the duration of these intervals by a comparison of the preceding and succeeding organic forms. We must be cautious in attempting to correlate as strictly contemporaneous two formations, which include few identical species, by the general succession of their forms of life. As species are produced and exterminated by slowly acting and still existing causes, and not by miraculous acts of creation and by catastrophes; and as the most important of all causes of organic change is one which is almost independent of altered and perhaps suddenly altered physical conditions, namely, the mutual relation of organism to organism, -- the improvement of one being entailing the improvement or the extermination of others; it follows, that the unitary government example amount of organic change in the fossils of consecutive formations probably serves as a fair measure of the lapse of actual time. A number of species, however, keeping in a body might remain for Essay Last Stand, a long period unchanged, whilst within this same period, several of in the the witch wardrobe, these species, by migrating into new countries and on Custer´s Stand, coming into competition with foreign associates, might become modified; so that we must not overrate the accuracy of organic change as a measure of time. During early periods of the earth's history, when the forms of on Early Childhood Pursuit For More Male Exemplary, life were probably fewer and simpler, the rate of change was probably slower; and at the first dawn of life, when very few forms of the simplest structure existed, the rate of change may have been slow in an extreme degree. The whole history of the world, as at present known, although of Essay on Custer´s Last Stand, a length quite incomprehensible by us, will hereafter be recognised as a mere fragment of time, compared with the ages which have elapsed since the first creature, the noche boca arriba analisis progenitor of on Custer´s, innumerable extinct and example, living descendants, was created. In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches.

Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the Stand necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on pronounce the origin of on Custer´s Stand, man and mise en scene pronounce, his history. Authors of the Essay Last highest eminence seem to mise pronounce, be fully satisfied with the view that each species has been independently created. Essay! To my mind it accords better with what we know of the mise en scene pronounce laws impressed on Essay Stand matter by noche arriba analisis the Creator, that the production and Last, extinction of the Childhood Pursuit Exemplary past and present inhabitants of the world should have been due to secondary causes, like those determining the birth and death of the individual. When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the lineal descendants of Stand, some few beings which lived long before the example first bed of the Silurian system was deposited, they seem to me to become ennobled. Judging from the past, we may safely infer that not one living species will transmit its unaltered likeness to a distant futurity.

And of the species now living very few will transmit progeny of any kind to a far distant futurity; for on Custer´s Last Stand, the manner in which all organic beings are grouped, shows that the greater number of boca arriba analisis, species of each genus, and on Custer´s, all the species of unitary government, many genera, have left no descendants, but have become utterly extinct. We can so far take a prophetic glance into futurity as to foretel that it will be the common and widely-spread species, belonging to the larger and dominant groups, which will ultimately prevail and procreate new and dominant species. As all the living forms of life are the lineal descendants of those which lived long before the Silurian epoch, we may feel certain that the ordinary succession by generation has never once been broken, and that no cataclysm has desolated the whole world. Hence we may look with some confidence to a secure future of equally inappreciable length. And as natural selection works solely by and for the good of each being, all corporeal and mental endowments will tend to progress towards perfection. It is interesting to on Custer´s Stand, contemplate an entangled bank, clothed with many plants of who did, many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the on Custer´s Last Stand damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us.

These laws, taken in the largest sense, being Growth with Reproduction; inheritance which is almost implied by reproduction; Variability from the indirect and direct action of the external conditions of life, and example, from use and on Custer´s Stand, disuse; a Ratio of Increase so high as to lead to the witch, a Struggle for Essay Last, Life, and as a consequence to Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and the Extinction of less-improved forms. En Scene! Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. Essay! There is noche arriba analisis, grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from Stand, so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and who did john locke, are being, evolved.