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Christianity and the History of Technology. Longform version of a six-part series on Christianity and the history of technology. Since the mid-twentieth century, there has been a sustained, if modest, scholarly conversation about the relationship between technology and religion. Among scholars who have specifically addressed the nature of this relationship, research has focused on the following set of concerns: religions role in determining Western societys posture toward the natural world, religionss role in abetting technological development, religions role in shaping Western attitudes toward labor and labors tools, and, more recently, the use of religious language and categories to describe technology. The majority of these studies focus almost exclusively on European and North American context and so religion amounts to montana Christianity.

Jacques Ellul, Lynn White, George Ovitt, Susan White, David Noble, and Bronislaw Szerszynski have been among the Essay in the more notable contributors to this conversation. Jacques Elluls comments are the themes earliest, but they do not set the terms of the debate. The Black Cat Poem. That honor falls to Lynn White who in montana themes his 1968 essay, The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis, first proposed that Europes relationship to technology had been distinctly shaped by the Christian worldview. Scholars have repeatedly returned to room and reasons further scrutinize this thesis and its ecological frame. George Ovitts The Restoration of Perfection: Labor and montana 1948 themes, Technology in Medieval Culture remains the most thorough treatment of the Virginia Governor Candidates Views on Abortion nexus of questions generated by Whites essay. Ovitt concludes that there is good reason to significantly qualify Whites claims. Susan Whites study, Christian Worship and Technological Change , stands apart as a consideration of technologys influence on montana Christian liturgy. David Noble builds on the work of White and Essay about to Learning Styles Students, Ovitt to offer an account of 1948 themes what he terms the religion of technology which amounts to a pervasive intermingling of religious concerns with the room 101 ideas and reasons project of technology as a well as a tendency to link the quest for transcendence to technology.

Finally, Bronislaw Szerszynskis Nature, Technology, and the Sacred offers a theoretically sophisticated reconsideration of Whites argument which, with respect to the technological character of contemporary society, embraces Elluls diagnosis of montana technological society. Szerszynski also moves the argument out of the medieval period to argue that the really decisive transformations in the intellectual and religious context of Europes technological history should be located in the Protestant Reformation. Jacques Ellul: A-technical Christianity. Elluls The Technological Society was first published in French in 1954 and bond, the first English translation appeared in themes 1964. Within the brief historical sketch Ellul provides of the evolution of technique, he examines the relationship between Christianity and technology. In Elluls estimation, Christianity as it was practiced through the late Medieval period was at the black cat poem best ambivalent to the advance of montana themes technology.

He recognizes that received opinion contrasts the Eastern religions, which were supposedly passive, fatalist, contemptuous of life and action with Christianity, the religion of the West, which was supposedly active, conquering, turning nature to profit. Although this characterization was widely accepted, Ellul believed it to be in error. It both ignored the real technical advances of Eastern civilizations and misunderstood the posture of Christianity to technical development. According to Ellul, the emergence of Christianity marked the breakdown of Roman technique in every area on the level of room 101 ideas organization as well as in the construction of cities, in industry, and in transport. In his view, Julian the Apostate, and later Gibbon, were not altogether mistaken in attributing the themes withering of the Empire to Essay Immaculateness Rye by J.D. Salinger rise of the Church. Following the collapse of the Roman Empire in the west, a society emerged under the tutelage of Christianity, which Ellul characterized as a-capitalistic as well as a-technical. In every sphere of Medieval culture save architecture Ellul sees the same nearly total absence of technique. Ellul goes on to challenge the two historical arguments employed by those who believed that Christianity paved the way for technical development. According to the first, Christianitys suppression of slavery gave impetus to themes the development of technology to relieve the miseries of manual labor. According to the second, Christianitys disenchantment of the natural world removed metaphysical and psychological obstacles to its technologically enabled exploitation. The former fails to account for the impressive technical achievements of slave societies, and the latter, while valid to a certain extent, ignores the other strictures Christian faith placed on technical activity, namely its other-worldly and ascetic tendencies.

Additionally, Christianity subjected all activity to moral judgment. Accordingly, technical activity was bounded by non-technical considerations. It is within this narrow compass that certain technical advances were achieved and propagated by bond wallpaper, the monasteries. Lynn White: Christianity and montana, the Cultural Climate of Technological Advance. In his classic essay, The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis, Lynn White, Jr. staked out a position that departed from Ellul at almost every conceivable point. To Learning. White begins by describing the montana 1948 gap in technical achievement that opened up between Western Europe and both Islamic and Byzantine civilizations to the the east. This gap predated the Scientific Revolution of the sixteenth century and was already evident by online banner ads, the late Middle Ages. Consequently, White turns to the Middle Ages to understand the themes nature of Western technology. Although White is at this stage in his career moving from the single-factor approach to technological change, elements of the approach are still evident in the The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis in which he points to the introduction of the heavy plow as catalyst for changing attitudes about humanitys relationship to nature.

In Whites words, the heavy plow attacked the land with such violence that cross-plowing was not needed. White also notes that this new attitude of domination was soon given pictorial expression in Frankish calendars which depicted man and nature in opposition with man as master. At this juncture in the essay, however, White shifts from a single technological factor analysis of social change to a consideration of the Teaching Students cultural influences that conditioned the development and deployment of technology in adversarial relationship to nature. White finds the Christian religion, as practiced in montana 1948 themes Western Europe, to be the banner chief culprit. Especially in its Western form, White concludes, Christianity is the montana most anthropocentric religion the world has seen. After briefly recalling the Essay on Childhood Immaculateness in the Salinger well known plot points and montana themes, language of the creation narrative in the opening chapter of the book of Genesis, White contrasts Christianity to ancient paganism and the Eastern religions and finds that Christianity not only established a dualism of man and nature but also insisted that it is Gods will that man exploit nature for his proper ends. Christianity accomplished this psychic revolution by bond wallpaper, disenchanting nature, making it possible to exploit nature in a mood of indifference to the feelings of natural objects. White, then, affirms the second argument Ellul dismissed in his analysis of the relationship between Christianity and nature. He surmounts one of Elluls criticisms that eastern branches of Christianity did not yield the same relationship to nature and thus religion is not the key factor by pointing to the significant differences in theological outlook that characterized the activist Latin churches in the West and the contemplative Greek churches of the East. Ellull had noted the difference, taking the Russian Orthodox Church as his case in point, but he concluded that the difference must be cultural and not religious. While the cultural shaping of ancient Christianity should not be overlooked, the fact remains that by montana 1948, the Middle Ages both Eastern and Western Christianity had taken on their distinct shape and were now, as culturally inflected variations of the same religion, shaping the intellectual climate of their respective societies. Furthermore, White also strengthens the argument by pointing to the sacramental vision of eastern Christianity. Nature existed as a system of signs to be read and through which God spoke to humanity. Online Ads. This was, in Whites view, an essentially artistic rather than scientific view of nature.

While the West initially shared this sacramental vision, by the late Medieval period it had given way to a natural theology more inclined to read nature by 1948 themes, understanding the workings of nature rather than merely contemplating its appearance. (Bronislaw Szerszynsk will later take up this semiotic argument in depth.) The rhetorical frame of Whites article concerns itself with the sources of the present ecological crisis, but the body of his argument addresses itself to another question: What accounts for the advance of Western technology beyond its civilizational rivals? Whites essay, while initially gesturing toward a single-factor account of banner ads technological change, on 1948 themes the whole points toward a social factors approach focusing on Latin Christianity as the force driving the evolution of western European technology. By so doing, it set the terms and became a key point of online departure for subsequent discussion of religions relationship to technology. Most notably, it anchored the 1948 debate in the Middle Ages, it pointed to the cultural significance of Governor Views Essay seemingly arcane theological distinctions, it identified Christianity as the most important cultural factor driving technological activity in the West, and it linked the historical question to environmental concerns. Lynn White further developed his thesis in a long 1971 article, Cultural Climates and Technological Advance in the Middle Ages, in which he directly set out to identify the sources of the unprecedented technological thrust of the medieval West.

White begins by montana 1948 themes, discussing medieval Europes propensity for borrowing and Essay Styles of My Students, elaborating on technologies initially developed in other societies. The culture of medieval Europe was unique in the receptivity of its climate to transplants and this accounts in part for the vigor of medieval technological output. However, this receptivity is itself in need of explanation and in response White reaffirms the logic of The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis: What a society does about technology is influenced by casual borrowings from montana themes, other cultures, although the extent and uses of these borrowings are reciprocally affected by attitudes toward technological change. Fundamentally, however, such attitudes depend upon what people in a society think about their personal relation to room and reasons nature, their destiny, and how it is montana themes, good to act. These are religious questions. In what follows, White amplifies and augments the lines of Essay Catcher Rye by Salinger argument adumbrated in the earlier essay while also drawing out additional lines of evidence in support of his thesis. The seminal work of themes medieval historian Ernst Benz, whose writing on the subject had appeared in Italian in 1964 and was presented in in The Rye by J.D. English in 1966, is introduced into montana 1948, Whites argument for the first time. Benzs study of Zen Buddhisms anti-technological impulses led him to locate Western Europes embrace of technological change in its religious outlook. He pointed to Christianitys linear conception of history, its presentation of God as architect and potter, its theological affirmation of the goodness of material creation, and its presupposition of the intelligent craftsmanship of the created order all in his view unique to Christianity as the components of what White terms a cultural climate remarkably hospitable to technological advance.

White affirms the contours of Benz analysis, but he finds room for improvement. Drawing on two articles independently published in 1956, White once again points to the disenchantment of nature supposedly accomplished by on Childhood Immaculateness Catcher in the Rye by Salinger, Christianitys cultural triumph over ancient paganism. 1948. He also reaffirms and further develops the importance of the distinction between Latin and Eastern Christianity. Here White strengthens his earlier observations by drawing on iconographic and textual evidence. Beginning shortly after the turn of the first Christian millennium, Western iconography depicts God in the act of creation as a builder, master craftsman, and later a mechanic it was a visual tradition never adopted in the Eastern churches. Exegetically, White points to the Western and Eastern interpretations of the story of Martha and ads, Mary in 1948 themes Lukes gospel. Emily. While a surface reading suggests an endorsement of contemplation over activism, Latin interpreters, beginning with Augustine, go out of montana 1948 themes their way to emily bond soften and even reverse the apparent critique of activism and labor. With this White then draws in what will become another key locus of attention in subsequent discussions of technology and Christianity: the 1948 attitude toward labor in the monastic orders, particularly the cat poem Benedictines. White notes that in the Byzantine world, which, unlike the West, did not suffer a general collapse of culture, the religious orders were not forced to bear the burden of sustaining all aspects of civilization, secular and religious. Themes. In the West, however, following the collapse of Candidates and Education Roman authority, the montana 1948 religious orders, notably the Benedictines, found themselves in the position of performing both religious and secular duties, of uniting worship and labor. Room And Reasons. This commitment to labor and the mechanical arts would, in Whites view, generate a uniquely religious impetus for the development of technology.

White supports his contention by drawing on the work of the pseudonymous Theophilus and montana themes, Hugh of Saint Victor. Theophilus work, dating from the early 12th century, provides an indispensable record of the eras technological knowledge while attesting to the religiously motivated technical innovation that White takes to be characteristic of the age. Meanwhile, Theophilus contemporary, Hugh of Saint Victor incorporated the mechanical arts into Virginia Essay, his influential classification of knowledge and the arts. While the mechanical arts were accorded the lowest place in the hierarchical ranking of the arts, they were nonetheless included and this was no small thing. Montana. Together, the bond wallpaper work of Theophilus and Hugh supported Whites thesis regarding Western Christianitys role in shaping Europes technological surge in the Middle Ages.

White concludes with one more corroborating piece of iconographic evidence. An illustration of Psalm 63 in the Utrecht Psalter dating from the mid-ninth century features a confrontation by between King David and the Righteous and a much larger force of the ungodly. While the ungodly use a whetstone to sharpen their sword, the godly employ the first crank recorded outside China to rotate the first grindstone known anywhere. Clearly, White concludes, the artist is telling us that technological advance is 1948 themes, Gods will. While The Historical Roots of the black Our Ecological Crisis is cited more often and is more frequently taken as a point of departure, it is in Cultural Climates and montana themes, Technological Advance in emily wallpaper the Middle Ages that White most persuasively argues the case for Christianitys formative influence on the history of 1948 themes technology in 101 ideas Western society. With its inclusion of Ernst Benz research and its discussion of Benedictine spirituality, this essay frames the research agenda for montana themes subsequent research and discussion.

George Ovitt: Challenging the Lynn White Thesis. George Ovitts The Restoration of Perfection: Labor and Technology in Medieval Culture , published in 1987, provides the first book length treatment of the major themes advanced in Whites thesis. Ovitt, who in his preface pays appropriate academic homage to White, sets out to explore more fully the claims made on behalf of emily wallpaper Christian faith and 1948, practice in relation to medieval attitudes toward technology. Ovitts analysis is also deeply influenced by the black, Max Weber and montana themes, Lewis Mumfords application of Weberian insights to Benedictine monasticism. Finally, Ovitt also tests the alternative claims made by Jacques Le Goff in his 1980 evaluation of medieval attitudes toward labor and technological development. Against Whites thesis, Le Goff argued that shifting theological attitudes toward labor and technology followed upon rather than instigated transformations in economic and material conditions. In addition to his evaluation of prior scholarship, Ovitt also contributes a chapter on the medieval and Christian roots of the and reasons notion of progress. The notion of progress becomes another important semantic net that catches significant elements of the relationship of religion and technology.

Ovitt concludes that early Christian writers, and their medieval heirs, acknowledged material progress and 1948, human sovereignty over nature, but these were linked inextricably to moral progress and the striving for sovereignty over the more intractable self. Notions of progress, in other words, were not yet, as they later would be, reduced to or considered equivalent to technical progress. In this, as in countless other ways, the Western medieval church took its cue from Augustine whose view of the mechanical arts can best be labeled as ambiguous. Turning specifically to the claims advanced by White and Governor Views and Education, Benz, Ovitt chooses to test them by 1948, conducting an extensive review of the medieval periods hexaemeral literature, i.e., commentaries on the six days of creation. His review of this literature leads Ovitt to substantially qualify both Benzs claims regarding the image of God as craftsman and Whites suggestion that Christian theology sanctioned a rapacious posture toward nature.

Ovitt finds that while there is ample evidence of the portrayals of God as craftsman in the hexaemeral literature of the Latin Church, it is Virginia Governor and Education Essay, balanced by the continued portrayal of God as a detached and transcendent Creator a portrayal shared with the 1948 Eastern Church which appears just as frequently as the image of God as craftsman. Additionally, Ovitt suggests that when the image of God as craftsman is employed, it often suggests that as the finished products of the Views on Abortion and Education Essay craftsmans hand are often put to montana uses contrary to the craftsmans intentions, so too the work of Gods hands, namely humanity, often rebels against the intentions of the Creator. Regarding, Whites thesis, Ovitt follows earlier critics in questioning whether, on the one hand, White has adequately described the biblical data and its theological elaboration, and, on the other, whether such a direct, causal connection could in any case be reasonably drawn between a religious perspective and emily, the cultural consensus. Montana. Ovitts research additionally suggests that the more common depiction of on Childhood Rye by J.D. humanitys relationship to creation is better understood as one of custodianship or stewardship rather than unbridled exploitation. Themes. Moreover, Ovitt points out that the idea that nature exists to be used by human beings does not by itself explain the uses to which it is put.

Ovitt approvingly cites Mumfords suggestion that it was not until Francis Bacons introduction of a power-hungry technical mentality that the West took off on Essay about the self-destructive course it now follows. Moreover, if we look for the direct result of the montana themes medieval Christian ethic of Essay on Childhood Immaculateness in The J.D. domination we find a long-lived tradition of 1948 craftsmanship and subsistence farming democratic polytechnics, in Mumfords terms, rather than authoritarian megatechnics. The really significant question for the histoiry [sic] of technology in Ovitts view, is not what Christianity taught about the domination of nature, but what Christianity taught about the domination of human beings by other human beings. And with this Ovitt turns to consider medieval social and education systems, specifically the practice of labor in the monastic orders and the place of the mechanical arts in emily bond wallpaper medieval classifications of knowledge. Regarding the montana 1948 former, Ovitt indeed finds that the monastic tradition, in online banner both its eremitic and cenobitic manifestations, upheld the fundamental dignity and themes, spiritual usefulness of labor. Moreover, Ovitt finds the online banner Rule of St. Benedict to be the most effective reconciliation of the spiritual needs of the individual and the economic needs of the community. Most importantly, he concludes that contrary to the later logic of capitalism, the significance of labor did not reside in its products or uses of technology and invention quantitatively as a means of enhancing productivity, rather it resided in the process of labor which was aimed at personal holiness and communal self-sufficiency. Ovitt reasonably concludes that a Weberian analysis of monasticisms role in incubating incipient capitalism as well as fostering a peculiarly Western enthusiasm for technology should be balanced by the spirit of Augustines prayer O Lord, I am working hard in this field, and montana, the field of my labors is my own self which expressed the dominant medieval priorities. In his survey of medieval classifications of knowledge, particularly that of Hugh of Saint Victor in the twelfth century and Thomas Aquinas in the thirteenth, Ovitt finds a generally positive estimation of the mechanical arts even while they retain the lowest rank among the various arts. In his estimation, more than their admission into the theologians classifications of knowledge was needed to generate the particular enthusiasm for technology that would come to distinguish Western society.

What was needed was the decoupling of labor, and labors tools from the realm of the Virginia Candidates and Education Essay sacred and the control of theologians and a renewed interest in judging technology by its products rather than its effects on the spiritual lives of its users. This would be achieved, ironically, by the Gregorian Reform movement originating within the church which sought to clarify the respective roles of the 1948 church and Governor Candidates Views on Abortion Essay, the state. In so doing, the church sanctioned a three-fold division of society including those who ruled and fought, those who labored, and those who prayed. This division tacitly endorsed the separation of 1948 labor from the purview of the church and Essay Immaculateness in the, created the space for technology to evolve apart from moral and spiritual constraints or considerations. Contrary to White, then, Ovitt suggests that Christianitys chief contribution to the evolution of distinctly Western attitudes to technology may have been its stepping out of the way as it were.

Ovitts study significantly complicates the historical arguments made by Benz and White as well as Elluls earlier summary of Christianitys relationship to montana 1948 themes technique. The total picture is on Teaching to Learning Styles Students the whole more ambiguous than the montana work of any of these scholars would lead readers to believe. Medieval attitudes toward nature, labor, and Virginia Essay, the mechanical arts were on the whole positive but hardly enthusiastic. More importantly, Ovitt convincingly showed that technical considerations were, as one might expect, consistently subordinated to spiritual ends as demonstrated by 1948 themes, the Benedictines willingness to lay aside labor when it became possible to commission a lesser order of lay brothers or even paid laborers to perform the banner ads work necessitated by the community. Ovitts work has appropriately taken its place beside that of White as a major contribution to the scholarly exploration of the relationship of medieval Christianity to Western technology. If we are to find the sources of montana 1948 themes western enthusiasm for technology it is necessary to banner begin with medieval Christianity, but after Ovitts thorough work it is no longer possible to end there. Susan White: Technology and Liturgy. In 1994, Cambridge scholar Susan J. White, published a study entitled Christian Worship and Technological Change . Whites study reverses the themes direction of the inquiry by asking not about the effect of Christianity on the evolution of Essay Catcher Rye by J.D. Salinger technology, but about the consequences of montana 1948 technology for Essay on Childhood Immaculateness Catcher in the Rye by Salinger Christian worship. In providing the rationale for her study, White cited the themes earlier work of Ellul, Lynn White, Mumford, and room and reasons, Ovitt exploring the complex relationship between Christianity and technology. In her most compelling chapter, White discusses the role of astronomical technology the astrolabe, the albion, and the rectangulus in refining the Christian liturgical calendar which had been in acknowledged disarray as well as the role of the mechanical clock in recalibrating the rhythms of the liturgy. On these points, however, White is montana 1948, mostly following the earlier work of Mumford and Lynn White.

Thus her noting the 101 ideas contrast between Eastern Orthodoxys longstanding rejection of the mechanical clock and its quick embrace in the western churches, a point also registered by Lynn White. In a subsequent chapter, Liturgy and Mechanization, White takes an approach that resonates with Elluls articulation of technique , noting how transformations in Christian liturgical practice during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were often inspired by the goals and logic of machine technology. In her analogy, liturgy became a form of montana 1948 mechanistic technology. Susan Whites work is useful for its reframing of the the black question regarding technology and Christianity in light of montana technologys influence on the religion. Her work is Virginia Governor Views, especially helpful for those who have never considered the consequences of technological change on montana 1948 themes liturgical practice. She does not, however, advance the debate initiated by Lynn White regarding the banner ads relationship between Christianity and western technology. In 1997, however, historian David F. Nobles The Religion of Technology raised the question again with renewed vigor. David Noble: The Religion of Technology.

Noble describes a thousand-year old Western tradition in which the advance of the useful arts was inspired by montana themes, and grounded upon religious expectation. Moreover, Noble claims that technology and faith are merged, and always have been, the technological enterprise being, at the same time, an essentially religious endeavor. Noble insists that this is emily bond wallpaper, not a metaphorical claim, but rather literally true: modern technology and religion have evolved together , and as a result, the technological enterprise has been and remains suffused with religious belief. In the end, however, it is difficult to isolate what exactly Noble has identified through his discussion of 1948 monasticism, millenarianism, Baconian enthusiasm, Free Masonry, and the twentieth century technologies of transcendence including the atomic bomb, space flight, artificial intelligence, and biotechnology. Wallpaper. Noble has, from one angle, uncovered the history of an alternative religion, the religion of technology, which might be best understood as a Christian heresy with an immanentized eschatology. He builds on the work of White, Benz, and Ovitt to argue for a major transformation in Christianitys view of the mechanical arts around the eleventh century, and, in his estimation, it was during this period that technological progress came to be equated with progress toward the material restoration of the created order. It was this faith in technological progress that would henceforth characterize the core of the religion of technology. From another angle, though, Noble has only shown that religious language and religious aspirations are frequently associated with technology, particularly by montana themes, the elite practitioners that are driving the development and deployment of new technology. Any effort to arrive at a more clearly defined conclusion would falter under close examination since Noble has brought together a remarkably diverse collection of evidence and has not drawn very precise causal relationships. Instead, his method is to drive home a general sense of technology and religions entanglement by citing as many plausible instances of the cat poem claim as possible. Nobles slippage between of the use of faith and religion is indicative of the general nature of his claims. It is also problematic that Nobles borrowings from themes, Benz, White, and Ovitt give no indication that there is any underlying tension in their respective accounts of Christianitys relationship with technology.

For example, although he is clearly familiar with Ovitts work, he approvingly cites Whites thesis in The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis without qualification. Moreover his deployment of theological terminology in the opening chapter does not inspire confidence in his grasp of nuance in the relevant theological literature. But Noble is less interested in joining that debate than he is in registering a more general complaint. Noble is clearly concerned about the and reasons religious hopes for transcendence that have been repeatedly attached to new technologies throughout the history of Western society. In his view, this tendency clouds our ability to think clearly about technology, a problem that grows all the more acute as our technologies evolve into more complex, and potentially dangerous realities. In the end we may say that Noble has established the presence of a religious veneer that frequently appears on the surface of technology to influence its development and adoption without clarifying or systematizing the varieties, sources, and consequences of themes that veneer. Bronislaw Szerszynski: Technology, Nature, and the Sacred. In his 2005 book, Nature, Technology, and the Sacred , Bronislaw Szerszynski traces the evolving understandings of nature and the sacred in order to provide an alternative account of Virginia Views secularization and montana 1948 themes, disenchantment, two processes in which technology has traditionally been assigned a critical role. To begin with, he argues that the best way to understand the evolution of ideas about nature from pre-modern to modern societies is, in fact, not as a process of secularization or disenchantment, but rather as a process of depersonalization. The advent of Christianity did not, as Lynn White (among others) suggested, simply empty nature of its metaphysical content leaving it vulnerable to exploitation.

Rather, Christianity removed personal agencies that inhabited nature and replaced them with a semiotic layer of meaning. Nature became alive, not with minor deities and spirits, but with meaning that could be allegorically interpreted. This conception of nature as a religiously meaningful system of the black cat poem signs acted as a brake on the potential exploitation of nature that White and others imagined following on the Christian triumph over the pagan worldview. However, the Protestant Reformation, in Szerszynskis view, did lead to montana 1948 themes a situation like that imagined by White when it collapsed all meanings and interpretations to the level of the literal and Teaching to Learning Styles, effectively contained them in the text of the Bible. In this way, the semiotic cloak that had protected nature was pulled back leaving it defenseless against the advances of science and technology. The Reformation was decisive, but it did not act alone in themes reconfiguring the economy of the sacred in bond wallpaper relation to nature. In the 1948 themes late twelfth century, conceptions of nature were already beginning to shift owing to the growing influence of voluntarist theology that privileged the unrestrained will and power of God over the black cat poem, the potential intelligibility of the created order. Nonetheless, Szerszynski follows Ellul and Ovitt against White in taking medieval Christianitys attitude toward technology and nature to be mostly ambivalent and not by itself the cause of the Western technological mindset. Even the montana themes Reformation, in Szerszynskis view, did not entirely free technology from moral and religious constraints. Bond Wallpaper. The beginnings of this rupture are best traced to Francis Bacons privileging of montana themes techne over epistme . From this point Szerszynski traces a straight line to 101 ideas the evolution Elluls technological society. At this juncture, Szerszynski introduces David Nyes exploration of the 1948 themes technological sublime to reinforce his conclusion that by the nineteenth century technology commanded near religious reverence.

This religious reverence, however, echoes the earlier voluntarist transformation in the theological conception of God: technology, like the voluntarist God was to about be loved for itself, apart from its fitness for human life and purpose. Combined with the rise of montana 1948 bio-power documented by Michel Foucault which focused narrowly on the preservation and governance of cat poem biological life this meant that all transcendent frames of montana 1948 themes reference that might have limited technologys influence were now effectively displaced. Essay Immaculateness Catcher Rye By J.D. Salinger. As Noble noted, technology itself became the object of 1948 transcendent aspirations. Following Lynn White, the online banner examination of Christianitys relationship to technology has been firmly anchored in the Medieval period. With the exception of Szerszynski, none of the authors under consideration extensively explored the significance of the Reformation to the history of technology and Szerszynskis work was thin on historical sources. More work is needed on the Reformation and its relationship to technology. Of course, much work has already been done on the Reformation and the history of one particular technology, the printing press. Research has thus far also been focused on the role of Christianity in the emergence of Western technology. Montana 1948 Themes. It seems that more careful and serious work ought to be done on the way that technology has shaped Christianity. On Childhood Immaculateness Catcher Rye By J.D.. Susan White gestured in 1948 this direction, but her work was largely derivative of the studies undertaken by Lynn White and Lewis Mumford and was focused on online banner only a handful of illustrative cases.

Joseph Corn, whose work was not discussed above, has shown the importance of exploring religions role in the social construction of particular technologies. Corns The Winged Gospel offers a case study in the social construction of the airplane. Drawing on a wide array of sources including newspapers, popular and montana 1948 themes, professional journals, memoirs, and an assortment of varied cultural ephemera, Corn makes his case for the religious dimensions of the room and reasons airplanes social construction. The airplane was initially greeted by Thomas-like doubt that demanded sight in order to believe, and was thereafter frequently described with language that appealed to the supernatural flight was a miracle. Additionally, the use of the airplane and its celebration was often marked by ritual and ceremony that bore a striking resemblance to montana 1948 themes elements of Christian worship and practice. Finally, attitudes toward the airplane took on the character of a technological messianism, a faith in the power of the airplane to bring about a nearly eschatological reordering of society. In the end, of course, these hopes are reigned in by reality. Similar narrow studies focused on particular technologies and the role religious belief played in their social construction would strengthen our understanding of the relationship between technology and religion which thus far has been treated in mostly broad strokes. Finally, religious studies can also provide a helpful set of categories for understanding the role of technology in society, particularly given the pervasive interrelationship of technology and religion as documented by Noble. Ritual studies, for example, may usefully augment our understanding of the intersections of technology use and embodied practice. David Nyes incorporation of Durkheimian categories in Views on Abortion Essay his study of the technological sublime provides a helpful model for what this interdisciplinary exchange of methods can accomplish.

Christianity and the History of Technology, Part Three. This is the third in 1948 a series of posts discussing the work of a handful of scholars exploring the historical relationship between Christianity and technology. First and second post. Lynn White further developed his thesis in cat poem a long 1971 article, Cultural Climates and montana 1948, Technological Advance in the Middle Ages, in which he directly set out to identify the sources of the unprecedented technological thrust of the Essay Teaching of My medieval West. White begins by discussing medieval Europes propensity for borrowing and elaborating on montana themes technologies initially developed in other societies. The culture of medieval Europe was unique in the receptivity of its climate to transplants and this accounts in part for the vigor of room medieval technological output. However, this receptivity is itself in need of montana 1948 themes explanation and in response White reaffirms the logic of the black cat poem The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis: What a society does about technology is influenced by casual borrowings from other cultures, although the extent and themes, uses of these borrowings are reciprocally affected by attitudes toward technological change. Fundamentally, however, such attitudes depend upon Essay about Styles of My Students, what people in a society think about their personal relation to nature, their destiny, and montana themes, how it is good to on Childhood in the Rye by Salinger act.

These are religious questions. In what follows, White amplifies and augments the lines of argument adumbrated in the earlier essay while also drawing out additional lines of montana 1948 themes evidence in support of his thesis. The seminal work of Virginia Views medieval historian Ernst Benz, whose writing on montana 1948 the subject had appeared in Governor Candidates and Education Essay Italian in 1964 and was presented in English in 1966, is montana themes, introduced into Whites argument for the first time. Benzs study of Zen Buddhisms anti-technological impulses led him to locate Western Europes embrace of technological change in Essay Immaculateness Catcher J.D. Salinger its religious outlook. He pointed to Christianitys linear conception of history, its presentation of God as architect and potter, its theological affirmation of the montana themes goodness of material creation, and its presupposition of the intelligent craftsmanship of the created order all in his view unique to Christianity as the components of what White terms a cultural climate remarkably hospitable to technological advance. White affirms the contours of Benz analysis, but he finds room for improvement. Drawing on two articles independently published in 1956, White once again points to the disenchantment of nature supposedly accomplished by Christianitys cultural triumph over Virginia Governor on Abortion, ancient paganism. He also reaffirms and further develops the importance of the distinction between Latin and Eastern Christianity. Here White strengthens his earlier observations by drawing on iconographic and textual evidence.

Beginning shortly after the montana turn of the first Christian millennium, Western iconography depicts God in the act of ads creation as a builder, master craftsman, and later a mechanic it was a visual tradition never adopted in the Eastern churches. Exegetically, White points to the Western and Eastern interpretations of the story of Martha and Mary in Lukes gospel. While a surface reading suggests an endorsement of contemplation over activism, Latin interpreters, beginning with Augustine, go out of their way to soften and even reverse the apparent critique of activism and labor. With this White then draws in what will become another key locus of attention in subsequent discussions of technology and Christianity: the attitude toward labor in the monastic orders, particularly the Benedictines. White notes that in the Byzantine world, which, unlike the themes West, did not suffer a general collapse of culture, the religious orders were not forced to bear the burden of sustaining all aspects of civilization, secular and religious. Banner Ads. In the West, however, following the collapse of Roman authority, the religious orders, notably the themes Benedictines, found themselves in the position of performing both religious and secular duties, of uniting worship and labor. This commitment to labor and the mechanical arts would, in Whites view, generate a uniquely religious impetus for the development of technology.

White supports his contention by drawing on the work of the pseudonymous Theophilus and Hugh of Saint Victor. Essay. Theophilus work, dating from the early 12th century, provides an indispensable record of the eras technological knowledge while attesting to the religiously motivated technical innovation that White takes to themes be characteristic of the age. Meanwhile, Theophilus contemporary, Hugh of Saint Victor incorporated the mechanical arts into his influential classification of Essay Immaculateness in the J.D. Salinger knowledge and the arts. Montana. While the mechanical arts were accorded the lowest place in the hierarchical ranking of the arts, they were nonetheless included and this was no small thing. Together, the work of Theophilus and Hugh supported Whites thesis regarding Western Christianitys role in shaping Europes technological surge in the Middle Ages. White concludes with one more corroborating piece of iconographic evidence. An illustration of Psalm 63 in the Utrecht Psalter dating from the mid-ninth century features a confrontation by between King David and the black cat poem, the Righteous and a much larger force of the ungodly. While the ungodly use a whetstone to sharpen their sword, the montana 1948 godly employ the first crank recorded outside China to rotate the emily bond wallpaper first grindstone known anywhere. Clearly, White concludes, the artist is telling us that technological advance is Gods will. While The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis is cited more often and is more frequently taken as a point of departure, it is in Cultural Climates and Technological Advance in the Middle Ages that White most persuasively argues the case for Christianitys formative influence on the history of technology in Western society.

With its inclusion of Ernst Benz research and its discussion of Benedictine spirituality, this essay frames the research agenda for montana subsequent research and discussion. (Next up: George Ovitts challenge to Whites thesis.) Christianity and the History of Technology, Part Two. This is the second in a series of posts discussing the online work of a handful of scholars exploring the historical relationship between Christianity and technology. First post. In his classic essay, The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis, Lynn White, Jr. Montana. staked out wallpaper a position that departed from 1948 themes, Ellul at almost every conceivable point. Ads. White begins by themes, describing the gap in technical achievement that opened up between Western Europe and both Islamic and Essay Styles of My, Byzantine civilizations to 1948 themes the the east. This gap predated the Scientific Revolution of the sixteenth century and was already evident by the late Middle Ages.

Consequently, White turns to the Middle Ages to the black cat poem understand the nature of Western technology. Although White is at this stage in his career moving from the single-factor approach to technological change, elements of the approach are still evident in the The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis in which he points to the introduction of the heavy plow as catalyst for themes changing attitudes about humanitys relationship to nature. In Whites words, the heavy plow attacked the land with such violence that cross-plowing was not needed. White also notes that this new attitude of domination was soon given pictorial expression in Frankish calendars which depicted man and nature in Essay on Childhood Immaculateness in The Catcher in the J.D. opposition with man as master. At this juncture in the essay, however, White shifts from a single technological factor analysis of social change to a consideration of the cultural influences that conditioned the development and deployment of technology in adversarial relationship to nature. White finds the montana Christian religion, as practiced in and Education Western Europe, to be the chief culprit. Especially in montana 1948 themes its Western form, White concludes, Christianity is the most anthropocentric religion the world has seen. After briefly recalling the well known plot points and language of the creation narrative in the opening chapter of the book of Genesis, White contrasts Christianity to ancient paganism and the Eastern religions and finds that Christianity not only the black, established a dualism of man and montana 1948, nature but also insisted that it is Gods will that man exploit nature for his proper ends. Christianity accomplished this psychic revolution by disenchanting nature, making it possible to room exploit nature in a mood of indifference to montana 1948 the feelings of natural objects. White, then, affirms the second argument Ellul dismissed in his analysis of the relationship between Christianity and Essay about Teaching to Learning of My Students, nature. He surmounts one of Elluls criticisms that eastern branches of Christianity did not yield the themes same relationship to nature and thus religion is not the key factor by pointing to the significant differences in theological outlook that characterized the activist Latin churches in the West and the contemplative Greek churches of the East. Ellull had noted the bond difference, taking the Russian Orthodox Church as his case in point, but he concluded that the difference must be cultural and not religious. While the cultural shaping of ancient Christianity should not be overlooked, the fact remains that by the Middle Ages both Eastern and Western Christianity had taken on their distinct shape and were now, as culturally inflected variations of the same religion, shaping the intellectual climate of their respective societies. Furthermore, White also strengthens the argument by pointing to the sacramental vision of eastern Christianity.

Nature existed as a system of signs to be read and through which God spoke to humanity. Montana. This was, in Whites view, an essentially artistic rather than scientific view of nature. While the wallpaper West initially shared this sacramental vision, by the late Medieval period it had given way to a natural theology more inclined to read nature by understanding the workings of nature rather than merely contemplating its appearance. (Bronislaw Szerszynsk will later take up this semiotic argument in depth.) The rhetorical frame of Whites article concerns itself with the montana 1948 sources of the present ecological crisis, but the body of his argument addresses itself to another question: What accounts for the advance of Immaculateness in The Rye by Western technology beyond its civilizational rivals? Whites essay, while initially gesturing toward a single-factor account of technological change, on the whole points toward a social factors approach focusing on Latin Christianity as the force driving the evolution of western European technology. By so doing, it set the terms and became a key point of departure for subsequent discussion of religions relationship to technology. Most notably, it anchored the debate in the Middle Ages, it pointed to the cultural significance of seemingly arcane theological distinctions, it identified Christianity as the most important cultural factor driving technological activity in the West, and it linked the historical question to environmental concerns. Cell Phones and Longbows: Watershed Moments In History And The Technologies That Facilitate Them.

In a recent NY Times editorial, historian Paul Kennedy drew our attention away from developments in consumer technology and montana themes, toward what he called the hard worlds of economics and politics. Kennedy believes that we may be passing through a watershed moment in human history largely unawares because we are distracted by less important facets of present circumstances. Rather than obsess about the latest gadgets that come on the market, we should be paying attention to at least four developments that are, according to Kennedy, of momentous import. They are, in his words: a. the waning of the Views on Abortion and Education Essay dollars heft b. Themes. the unwinding of European dreams of political union. c. the arms race in Asia d. the paralysis of the U.N. Security Council

These are indeed significant developments and emily, one should hope that they are not being ignored, by either the voting public, or those voted into office to steer the ship of state through these turbulent waters (although on the latter see the last post.) But it is unfortunate that Kennedy opposes attention to these economic and political developments and attention given to technological developments. It is unfortunate, and montana, also curious given some of what Kennedy himself alludes to in his essay. Describing two previous watershed moments in the history of the emily West he writes, No one alive in montana 1948 1480 would recognize the world of 1530 a world of new nation-states, Christendom splintered, European expansion into Asia and the Americas, the Gutenberg communications revolution. Perhaps this was the greatest historical watershed of all time, at Essay Teaching to Learning of My Students least in the West. There are other examples, of course. Someone living in England in 1750, before the widespread use of the themes steam engine, would have been staggered at emily its application 50 years later: The Industrial Revolution had arrived! Well, as I think about these moments of great historical change, it seems to montana 1948 me that technology was inextricably implicated in each. The Black Cat Poem. Technology, or better, technologies were not the sole factor driving historical change in these instances, but it would be hard to imagine the change taking place without the technologies.

Notably, Kennedy later refers to the critical role of the montana printing press in a rather odd paragraph: So what about today? Many newspaper correspondents and technology pundits point excitedly to our ongoing communications revolution (cell phone, iPad and other gadgetry), and to its impact upon states and Essay Immaculateness in the, peoples, upon traditional authorities and new liberation movements. The evidence for this view is clear across the entire Middle East, and even in the very tame Occupy Wall Street movement, although one wonders if any of the high-tech prophets proclaiming that a new era in world affairs has arrived have ever bothered to study the impact of the Gutenberg printing press, or of F.D.R.s radio chats to tens of millions of Americans in the 1930s and early 1940s. This is an odd paragraph because the events it cites seem to undermine the gist of montana themes his argument, and because of the closing line. Online. Im not sure which hight-tech prophets Kennedy has in mind, but, in fact, the printing press is often enough cited as a precedent of 1948 themes note when exploring the social transformations wrought by technological change.

While I doubt her work informs much of the popular level discourse, Elizabeth Eisensteins magisterial two-volume, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change certainly explores the consequences of the printing press in fine-grain detail. I suspect that Kennedy may be mostly distraught by the attention given to something like the release of the latest iPhone and the ensuing consumerist frenzy/orgy. Fair enough. Room. But when we consider the themes larger communications revolution, to use Kennedys own formulation, of room which the latest iPhone is but a bit part, then the montana focus on technology is not at all misplaced. In fact, I wonder whether technology could not be implicated in the four developments that Kennedy himself lists from the hard world of emily bond wallpaper economics and politics. Montana 1948. I suspect so. Governor And Education. For example, I would think it impossible to discuss the current monetary situation and fluctuations in currency values from the interconnected world of montana 1948 electronic, computerized buying, selling, and trading. Finally, it was Kennedys conclusion that led to the train of thought developed in this post.

Kennedy wrapped with the following: It is Essay on Childhood Catcher in the Rye by, as if one were back in 1500, emerging from the Middle Ages to the early-modern world. The crowds at that time were marveling at 1948 a new and more powerful longbow. Surely we can take our world a bit more seriously than that? The irony here is that if you consider Lynn Whites work on medieval society, then you might conclude the cat poem attention to the longbow was not at all misplaced. Whites thesis taken by itself is montana themes, probably reductionistic, but it does point to important factors. He argued that the feudal system and the consequent social order was premised on the invention of the stirrup which led to online the appearance of mounted, armored soldiers and the rise of wealthy, landed aristocrats who could afford to maintain mounted knights in their service. This social order was itself challenged by 1948 themes, the invention of the longbow which, given its long range and cat poem, armor piercing capability, drastically undermined the combat effectiveness of mounted knights. Historian Theodore Rabb, in The Last Days of the Renaissance , has likewise argued for the analogous role played by gunpowder in the evolution of the modern nation state.

Looking only at technology, especially if by that we mean consumer electronics in suburban context, is certainly too narrow a frame by 1948 themes, which to understand our times. But the reverse is also true: trying to understand political and economic realities while ignoring the underlying technologies that shape those realities is likewise ill advised. Technology, politics, and economics not to mention all of the other complex social realities we too neatly compartmentalize by the very act of naming them these are all recursively interrelated and entangled in fascinating ways and we do well resist the the black temptation to take refuge in explanations and understandings that refuse the complexity by unduly privileging one dimension of montana 1948 social reality over all others.

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I will also be using, The Television series, Rescue. The Swiss Family Robinson By: Johann Rudolf Wyss The novel The Swiss Family Robinson is about a family who is shipwrecked on a desert island. It is set in the early 1800's in tropical America. The novel begins on a ship where the family is being battered by a storm. After the emily bond wallpaper ship gets wedged. ? This is not an ordinary story . This is a story about a family that keep a crocodile named Gustave as a pet and treat it like a cat.

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When word started getting out that there was going to be a third movie, viewers were a little skeptical. They were not sure if it would live up to bond the first two movies. 1948 Themes! Toy Story 3 came out in theaters. will interpret his unique style and give us a better understanding of bond wallpaper his works. Montana 1948! Faulkner was borin into a life of 101 ideas and reasons a well known upper middle class family . He was raised in the south, specifically Oxford, Mississippi, and is now buried there. Faulkner, being a southerner himself, easily adapted to the. turned purple and his brow furrowed. He yelled us with a funny phase stop barking! the whole classroom became as silent as the grave immediately in montana the first few time but tended to be useless as he was too nice . Although he looked very funny and humorous, he was also very strict and inspiring. As.

2006 ed.: 7-21) This story is an Essay Teaching of My Students, epic, so we will see Rama take a journey to achieve greatness. Be aware that R. K.Narayans The Ramayana is montana 1948 only a condensed English translation. Many details and important scenes have been shortened or omitted from the original Sanskrit story . It is room 101 ideas and reasons based more on the. Apparently, American teen movies are of huge success, sowing the seeds of American culture over the world, telling stories of the U.S. youths life and expressing something provocative in 1948 themes a funny and easy way and in the exact American style. That is the American teen movie. Watching an wallpaper, American teen movie. Becky Roberts January 27, 2009 Professional Development Final Project My Story January 22, 2007 started out like any other workday. Get ready for 1948 themes, work, get the girls ready for school and get out of the house by 8:30 so I can get Caitlin to kindergarten on time.

Hugs kisses and. Review of Funny in Farsi by emily bond, Firoozeh Dumas. Funny in Farsi** by 1948, Firoozeh Dumas Critique As I began reading the story , I tend to write down the characters that are introduced in the front cover so I know who is who. After a while whole pages were covered in names that were far too numerous and unique to remember or keep track of. Obviously. appropriateness of the story chosen..7-8 12. Role of the adult my role in the presentation.8 13. Conclusion8-9 14. References.9 15. Appendences; photo evidence , recorded story , diagram, childrens. SMITA GANDHOTRA ASSIGNMENT 1 1ST YEAR ENGLISH HONOURS, SECTION-B 5TH MARCH 2014 PERSONAL AND NATIONAL IDENTITIES IN FUNNY BOY In Shyam Selvadurais novel Funny Boy, a boys growth into adolescence is set against stringent heteronormative society and escalating political tensions in Sri.

Alcohol Ruins Lives: as Shown by Raymond Carvers Short Stories. Alcohol Ruins Lives: As Shown By Raymond Carvers Short Stories What We Talk About When We Talk About Love is a collection of short stories by Raymond Carver. Named One of the Views true contemporary masters, by Robert Towers of The New York Times Review of Books, Carver creates fiction that opens the.

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drug dealer essays The discussion on the appropriate punishment for the drug dealers has been ongoing for a long time without a clear standpoint. In order to determine the punishment that would befit these criminals, it is necessary to have a look at the implication that their actions have to the society. Montana Themes. Trading of drugs is harmful to online ads, the society and may even lead to deaths for users. Montana Themes. Majority of the drug dealers target the youth as their main market and then ensure that they are hooked on drugs in order to provide a constant market. Whenever a young person is the black cat poem, hooked to drugs at that age, it is almost impossible for them to go back and withdraw easily (NIDA). This leads to a situation where they lose focus in their lives while still a young age. It is thus befitting to say that drug dealers indeed kill the futures of the young people of the society. Constant use of drugs by any user becomes addictive and could have adverse effects in montana themes the future.

For users of hard drugs, it is likely that they suffer both mentally and physically, with some cases leading to death (Califano, 65). The responsible parties for these deaths are the drug dealers who solicited trade with the user. Thus, it is banner, only fair that a death penalty is imposed to montana 1948 themes, them as they either have killed or have an intention and purpose to the black cat poem, do the same through drug dealing. One of the characteristics of drug dealing is that it is an expensive trade. In most high profile cases, the news is always about the huge value of income that these people have for their involvement in crime. Montana Themes. According to 101 ideas and reasons, Cohen, it is possible for a drug dealer to make 813,000 dollars annually (Cohen). This is a lump sum amount of money especially considering that these individuals work for approximately 15 hours per week.

Since the trade is illegal, it does not necessarily help the country as no taxes can be collected from montana themes, it. The implication of this is that it damages the economy in that there are a few individuals evade taxes, yet they have a constant flow of cash (Cohen). Furthermore, such cases can also be treated as evasion of room and reasons taxes. If these individuals are given some years to serve in prison, it will only montana 1948, be a matter of time before they go back to the trade after release. Keeping them in jail for Essay Immaculateness Catcher J.D. a lifetime is 1948, also unfair to bond wallpaper, the taxpayers since there will be enormous maintenance costs for upkeep. This is especially considering that when soliciting their trade, they do not pay taxes to montana 1948 themes, help and build the nation. Essay Teaching Styles Students. It is thus evident that these drug dealers hurt the country in general, and the only punishment should be the 1948 themes elimination through the death penalty. Apart from the damage that drug dealing causes to the whole country generally, many ramifications are brought about by the vice to individual lives. Once an individual is hooked to substance use, it is almost impossible for them to leave the vice. Some of the common drugs like marijuana and cocaine are especially immensely popular amongst the youths. The trend of users has become worse in the black the recent years with reports of teenagers using drugs.

This ruins the health of the future generation mentally and montana, physically. Apart from the direct implication that drugs have on an individual, there are indirect effects that are likely to occur. Reports suggest that some of the accidents that occur in emily the society involve or are caused by an individual with cases of drug abuse. This explains the montana 1948 themes massive increase in road related accidents in the last few years (Califano, 65). It is thus evident that the drug dealers affect the lives of on Abortion Essay innocent people who may not be necessarily hooked on to drugs.

Concisely, this can all be described as murder or intention to montana, murder. It would be unfair to the whole society if drug dealers were either to go scot-free or to jail for wallpaper some time considering the substantial risk that they pose to the whole society. In order to avoid such a scenario where the deaths of the innocent go unpunished, it is necessary to have capital punishment for the drug dealers. Drug dealers do not benefit the country in any way since most of the time they lead to the downfall of the economy. Whenever an individual is convicted to face jail time, the state has to 1948, pay for room 101 ideas and reasons the maintenance of the whole period. Majority of the current cases involving drug dealers culminate into a maximum time penalty that mostly involves life sentence. This implies that the government has to montana themes, maintain the individual in jail for the rest of their lives. This becomes a burden to the rest of the community since it has to pay more taxes than earlier in order to support a harmful criminal. This is online banner, extremely unfair since there are other burning issues that the government can attend to with the taxpayers money. It is senseless to have a dangerous criminal under the funds of the 1948 same people that they are trying to Essay on Childhood Immaculateness in The Catcher J.D., harm in montana themes the society (Behren).

The situation is even worse if they are to come out of jail and return to the society to trade drugs. It is thus necessary to eliminate them from the society using death penalties. Supporting drug dealers in prison for the rest of their lives is an encouragement to those who may have no way out in the society especially since their trade alienates them from their own families. About Teaching To Learning Styles Of My Students. The best option is to eliminate them from the society to ensure that the behavior becomes unacceptable even to montana 1948, their own families. When considering such a monumental decision that could have massive implications in emily the society, it is essential to have the perception of the public. One of the states with the montana 1948 highest crime rates is California, mainly due to the lifestyles of the people in the State. Emily Bond Wallpaper. A recent study sought to find out what the perception of the public was in the matter of introducing the death penalty for the drug dealers.

The results suggested that 70% of those sampled would rather have the death penalty (Bedan et al, 188). Majority of the decisions of this section was because they are criminals. Others went on ahead to cite that it was a burden to them as taxpayers to pay for the comfort of criminals in montana the jails. Therefore, majority of the society believes that drug dealing is cat poem, a serious offence that requires a maximum penalty, and that jail time is indeed a waste of time and resources. Montana Themes. Furthermore, there is evidence that shows that in states that have the death penalty, albeit for other reasons, have low crime rates compared to those without (Rubin, 855). It is imperative to 101 ideas, point out that the death penalty on drug dealers does not have full support from the whole society. At least 25% of those interviewed in the study suggested that it is not appropriate to montana themes, have the capital punishment because of the issue (Ariane).

Some of the main reasons cited for this are that it does not solve any problem when these offenders are eliminated (Robert et al, 618). This section of the society argued that the cat poem most appropriate punishment is life imprisonment and many therapies for 1948 the offenders. The arguments also argued along the lines of religion. A section of the society believes that killing an offender does not change the fact that it is also murder (Robert, 323). A cross section of this category also argues that the current death penalty system is at fault since it has many loopholes that a criminal can use to escape and thus lead to their acquittal. Response to the counter arguments. It is true that executing someone even for security reasons is still a form of murder. However, there have to be checks and balances in every society. Executing criminals who pose a significant risk to the rest of the society should be considered as unavoidable. This is because it causes more benefits than harm when this section of wrongdoers is eliminated from the society.

If this group is left to survive in the society, it will surely lead to more deaths than earlier before. It also becomes a burden to the society if it has to provide the upkeep of wallpaper these criminals in montana the jails (Behren). It is not right that people with such a serious risk to the society should be sentenced to a comfortable life in prison while the victims of emily their trade are still languishing in mental hospitals and possibly to the graves. The conditions in jail are too comfortable and relaxing to accommodate perpetrators of such crimes. Furthermore, it is likely that this group of montana 1948 themes criminals contact the outside world while still in prison and continue to cause more harm to the society while still alive. Drug dealers are some of the worst criminals in the society since they affect many sectors. Cat Poem. Drug dealing leads to montana, addiction to the users that could result to health complications. At times, this may even lead to fatal injuries or death.

Drug dealers do not have any benefit to 101 ideas and reasons, the society as they make a lot of money and still do not pay taxes. When these perpetrators are arrested and montana 1948, convicted to imprisonment, most cases lead to banner ads, a long time in 1948 themes jail. This is the black cat poem, strenuous to the people, as they have to pay taxes to support the stay of the criminals in montana 1948 prison. Online Banner Ads. Studies show that the majority of the montana public prefers the death penalty for drug dealers especially due to the high risk that they pose to the society when they are alive. When in jail, it is emily bond, possible that they still have contact with the 1948 outside world and thus could still be dangerous to 101 ideas, the society. The most appropriate punishment for montana drug dealers is the death penalty since it is necessary that they are eliminated from the bond society fully. Bedau, Hugo Adam., and Paul G. Cassell. In Defense of the Death Penalty. Debating the Death Penalty: Should America Have Capital Punishment? : The Experts on Both Sides Make Their Best Case. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. Montana 1948 Themes. 186-93.

Print. Behren, Stephanie. How many people are incarcerated for drug related offenses? Open salon. 2010. Room And Reasons. http://open.salon.com/blog/stephannie/2010/05/16/how_many_people_are_incarcerated_f or_drug_related_offenses. Califano, Joseph A. 1948 Themes. Chapter 5: Americas Deadliest Epidemic. High Society: How Substance Abuse Ravages America and What to Do about It. New York: Public Affairs, 2007. 65- 66. Print.

Cohen, Ariane. A Drug Dealer. New York. New York publishers. 2007. Internet. http://nymag.com/news/features/2007/profit/32888/ National Institute on Drug Abuse. The Science of emily bond wallpaper Drug Abuse and Addiction.

New York: NIDA, 2011. Internet. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/media-guide/science-drug-abuse- addiction. Robert West, et al. Drug Trafficking: Time To Abolish The Death Penalty. International Journal of Mental Health Addiction 8.4 (2010): 616-619. Academic Search Complete. Web. Montana Themes. 1 Oct. 2012. Robert West, et al. Candidates. Drug Trafficking: Time To Abolish The Death Penalty. Journal Of Groups In Addiction Recovery 4.4 (2009): 322-326. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 1 Oct.

2012. Rubin, Paul H. Dont Scrap The Death Penalty. Criminology Public Policy 8.4 (2009): 853- 859. Criminal Justice Abstracts with Full Text. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. National Institute on Drug Abuse. The Science of 1948 themes Drug Abuse and Addiction. New York: NIDA, 2011. Internet. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/media-guide/science-drug-abuse-addiction.

There has been a rise in the cases that involve drug abuse in the recent years especially amongst the youths. There are different categories of drug users and addicts have a 40% of relapsing once they embark on treatment. Robert West, et al. Drug Trafficking: Time To Abolish The Death Penalty. Journal Of Groups In Addiction Recovery 4.4 (2009): 322-326. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. The death penalty is not effective both generally and in particular in the cases that involve drug dealing.

Not only should the death penalty be eliminated for Virginia Candidates on Abortion and Education Essay the drug dealers but also generally. Califano, Joseph A. Chapter 5: Americas Deadliest Epidemic. High Society: How Substance Abuse Ravages America and What to Do about It. 1948. New York: Public Affairs, 2007. 65-66. Print. Majority of deaths in the country are as a result of ill health that is sometime scaused by the consumption of substance. The text goes into details on how drugs can lead to cancer, heart attacks and other fatal diseases like HIV/AIDS. Cohen, Ariane. A Drug Dealer. New York. New York publishers.

2007. Internet. http://nymag.com/news/features/2007/profit/32888/ Drug dealers are amongst the highest pais earners considering that they do not submit taxes. It is the black cat poem, possible for a dealer to 1948 themes, garner a profit of $813,000 per year. Drug dealers target everyone as their customers ranging from the rich clientele to the poor night runners.

Behren, Stephanie. How many people are incarcerated for drug related offenses? Open salon. 2010. http://open.salon.com/blog/stephannie/2010/05/16/how_many_people_are_incarcerated_for_drug_related_offenses. Approximately 50% of the prisoners in federal jails are there because of drug dealing cases, with California having 20%. Drug dealing is the banner ads single case with the most convicts in the jails, thus use most of the 1948 taxpayers money.

Bedau, Hugo Adam., and Paul G. Cassell. In Defense of the Death Penalty. Debating the Death Penalty: Should America Have Capital Punishment? : The Experts on Both Sides Make Their Best Case. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. 186-93. Print. 70% of the people interviewed on whether the Essay about Styles Students death penalty should be introduced for the drug dealers agreed while 25% said it was not the most appropriate idea. The conclusion of this book is that majority of America actually wants the montana introduction of the Essay about Teaching Students death penalty for the drug dealers. Robert West, et al. Drug Trafficking: Time To Abolish The Death Penalty. International Journal Of Mental Health Addiction 8.4 (2010): 616-619. Academic Search Complete. Montana. Web. The Black. 1 Oct. 2012.

The death penalty is ineffective since it does not deal with the real problems that cause drug dealing. This is a counter argument on the introduction of the 1948 themes death penalty for the drug dealers as it may not be as effective as it seems. Rubin, Paul H. Dont Scrap The Death Penalty. Criminology Public Policy 8.4 (2009): 853-859. Criminal Justice Abstracts with Full Text. Web.

1 Oct. 2012. The article argues that the death penalty does indeed act as a deterrent to related vices in the society. Arguments on looking for alternative methods to handle drug dealers are welcome, but the real danger is still in ads the poor neighborhoods and thus the death penalty should not be abolished. Are you looking for a similar paper or any other quality academic essay?

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