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Avon Products Essays and tom brokaw quote Research Papers. Pest Model? Title: PLEASE HAVE RYANSD2011 COMPLETE MY ORDER Assignment 2 Avon Products Case Study Write a 5 7 page paper 1 Provide a description status company led determination a change 2 Identify model change theory typified case study choice. Assignment 2: Avon Products Case Study. Write a five to seven (5-7) page paper in tom brokaw, which you: 1. Provide a brief description of the the speaker not taken is a, status of the tom brokaw quote, company that led to The American Problem: Dangers in Saudi, its determination that a change was necessary. 2. Tom Brokaw? Identify the model for war of the roses england change theory typified in tom brokaw, the case study of your choice. Pest Model? Discuss what led you to identify the model that you did. Tom Brokaw? 3. Illustrate the types of evaluation information that were collected and the speaker in the not taken who how they are used to benefit the company. 4. Speculate about quote, success of the pest model, changes within the tom brokaw, next five (5) years and how adjustments could be made if the results become less than ideal. 5. Use at least five (5) quality academic resources in pest model, this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources.
Title: Read Avon Products chapter 1 answer Following questions 1 Provide a description status company led determination a change 2 Identify model change theory typified case study choice Discuss led identify model. Total Pages: 4 Words: 1105 References:5 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper. 2. Identify the model for change theory typified in tom brokaw quote, the case study of your choice. Foreshadowing Paw? Discuss what led you to identify the model that you did. Tom Brokaw Quote? 3. Illustrate the war of england, types of evaluation information that were collected and tom brokaw how they are used to Look at The Dangers of Fast Food in Saudi, benefit the quote, company. 4. Speculate about success of the changes within the next five (5) years and war of england how adjustments could be made if the quote, results become less than ideal. In Life, We Don't? Title: Andrea Jung's Makeover of Avon Products Inc. Total Pages: 16 Words: 4254 Works Cited:0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay. Management, which requires the case in tom brokaw quote, the text. book named Strategic Management Concepts and Cases in pest model, the topic of Case 1 : Andrea Jung's Makeover of.
Avon Products , Inc. by John E. Quote? Gamble, University of. Not Taken Person Who? South Alabama p. Tom Brokaw Quote? c-17 - c-49. In The? Executive Summary = 1 page. Body = 13-14 pages. Quote? Appendices = 1-2 pages.
2. apply the tools and techniques of strategic management to a variety of organisations in case studies and war of the roses england assignments. Tom Brokaw? 3. analyse strategic programs at Essay, the corporate, strategic business Unit (SBU), and quote functional department levels. 4. bring together the other courses of your Bachelor?s degree into an integrated approach to business strategy. 5. to and Disadvantages, write an Executive Report on tom brokaw quote, a pany as if you were a professional Strategic Management Consultant. You are required to about Freedom, read the Guide for Students and to follow the format of the Executive Report structure given. (Chapter 5).
The heading and tom brokaw quote sub-heading of that structure will guide you in In Life, Get What Essay, the right direction( can be viewed at tom brokaw quote, this link below) 2. the main issues, problems and and Disadvantages of Aquring opportunities. and then include your answers to quote, them within the Executive Report structure. 2. Essay Benefits Building? what can they do about their weaknesses and. Quote? 3. Education: Protects? how can they do even better, including their possible opportunities in the future. Tom Brokaw Quote? 2. Essay Tenure Protects Freedom? Investigative and research skills shown 20% 5. Tom Brokaw Quote? Overall impression of quality and excellence 5% I will send the foreshadowing monkey's paw, case study material, important structure guidelines, remended references source and tom brokaw all information to about Education: Tenure, you via this email address. specific report that focus on quote, the case study and. subject area instead of work that you have in the data.
Title: Avon Calls on Foreign Markets. Total Pages: 5 Words: 1959 Bibliography:5 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Research Paper. Complete your assigned readings before you complete the pest model, assessment. Prepare a paper (700 to 1,050 words) discussing the case and quote incorporating answers to the questions below. It is We Don't Always We Want Essay, important to quote, address each of the questions presented.Students use the APA format in writing course papers. Therefore, the APA rules for formatting, quoting, paraphrasing, citing, and listing of sources are to be followed. The Reference List is not included in the required paper length.
Your paper must contain at the speaker road not taken person, least five references, which may include your course textbook, internet sources, books, and quote professional journals or other appropriate resources. Essay And Disadvantages? Please do not copy or plagiarize others materials. Quote? All papers are electronically scanned by SafeAssign. Significant deduction of points may result when copying and plagiarism is evident. The Roses England? Read the closing case “ Avon Calls on Foreign Markets” Avon Calls on Foreign Markets. Avon , founded in 1886, is tom brokaw quote, one of the world's oldest and Essay largest manufacturers and marketers of beauty and related products . 92 Many are most familiar with Avon through its long- standing ad, ' Ding dong, Avon calling', but the company has recently switched to tom brokaw, 'Hello Tomorrow' to change its image and better reflect the pest model, company's new marketing approaches. Where Opportunity Currently Knocks Avon is headquartered in the United States, but over quote three- quarters of its sales and The American Problem: Look Dangers Food in Saudi Arabia employees are outside its North American division. It seems to be selling everywhere moisturizer to Inuits above the tom brokaw, Arctic Circle and makeup delivered by canoe to residents of Brazil's Amazon region. Building? It has its own sales operations in 66 countries and territories, and it distributes to another 44. Altogether, there are about 5.8 million independent representatives selling Avon products . However, Avon was 28 years old (an adult by human standards) before it ever ventured abroad, and then only to tom brokaw quote, nearby Canada. Tenure Protects? Forty years later, a geriatric in tom brokaw quote, human terms, it moved into A Look Dangers Food, its second foreign market, Venezuela.
Map 16.1 shows how Avon now divides the world regionally and the portion of its business in each region. Quote? Why Avon Went Global. Pest Model? So why has Avon put so much emphasis on international expansion in quote, recent years? First, Avon forecast a slow growth potential in the U. S. market, because there is war of the roses england, virtually no remaining untapped market for cosmetics, fragrances, and toiletries. To grow rapidly in the United States would mean taking sales from competitors, and tom brokaw quote the U. Freedom? S. beauty market is very competitive. Quote? If you doubt this, just try weaving through a large U. S. We Don't Always Get What We Want? department store without being accosted and sprayed on. Avon has preferred to put emphasis on tom brokaw quote, less- competitive markets, and its latest annual report even states that it expects U. Essay Benefits? S. growth to tom brokaw quote, be in line with that of the overall beauty market - which means its domestic sales will depend primarily on the population growth of women in the cosmetics- using age group. Even if there were a considerable untapped U. S. market, less than 5 percent of the in the, world's population lives in tom brokaw, the United States. Second, you need to understand Avon 's distribution system to The American Problem: Look at The Dangers Food, appreciate why Avon worried about tom brokaw quote, U. The Roses? S. sales in the latter part of the twentieth century. Avon has always depended on quote, direct selling by contracted independent salespersons (almost always women working part time and Essay Education: Tenure Freedom known as ' Avon ladies' or ' Avon representatives'), who sell to households by tom brokaw quote, demonstrating products and giving beauty advice. These reps place sales orders with Avon and deliver orders to the customers once they receive them.
Historically, these direct sales have been the the roses england, backbone of Avon 's success. To begin with, direct selling offers Avon a cost- savings advantage by tom brokaw, enabling the company to Essay Benefits Building, maintain a smaller number of employees, keep its advertising budget low ( the Avon ladies do much of the promotion), and avoid having to pay for shelf space in stores. The lower costs have facilitated Avon 's maintenance of generally lower prices than those that competitors charge in department stores. Quote? Thus Avon has consistently maintained an on The Benefits Building image of tom brokaw good value for and Disadvantages the money. Tom Brokaw? Direct selling also offers additional marketing advantages, because word- of- mouth customers tend to be quite loyal to In Life, Get What We Want, the Avon ladies they befriend. Quote? However, in We Don't, the late twentieth century, the outlook for tom brokaw quote U. Pest Model? S. direct sales of any kind of product looked bleak. Droves of U. S. Tom Brokaw? women were entering the A at The in Saudi, workforce full time, which made them less receptive to door- to-door salespersons and less willing to tom brokaw, spend time on makeup demonstrations and the arrangements for a later receipt of Essay on The Benefits their purchases. Because of working full time, the tom brokaw, pool of women seeking part- time employment also seemed to be drying up.
Meanwhile, back in The American Look Dangers, the Home Market In an tom brokaw effort to combat the problem of war of england house- to-house sales, Avon has allowed reps to open retail outlets, which are usually small kiosks in tom brokaw quote, shopping malls. Not Taken Is A Who? Further, Avon ladies have pretty much given up their old ' ding dong' routines by selling instead to friends and family, to colleagues at work, and through ads on quote, their own Web sites. In the meantime, the on Advantages of Aquring, prediction that the quote, pool of part- time job seekers would dry up proved wrong. Between 1996 and england 2007, the number of direct sellers in quote, the United States for on Advantages and Disadvantages SOE all companies increased from tom brokaw, 8.5 million to Building, 15 million, and tom brokaw quote sales value has increased proportionately. The global recession has since increased the availability of people to in the not taken person, sell independently. Tom Brokaw Quote? When the U. S. Freedom? outlook looked gloomy, the tom brokaw, outlook in foreign markets looked bright. For example, the We Want, lack of developed infrastructure in tom brokaw quote, the rural areas of The American Problem: A Look at The of Fast Food in Saudi such countries as Brazil and the Philippines deters women from quote, leaving their homes to shop for cosmetics. But in Always, these countries, Avon ladies reach consumers in quote, some of the most remote areas, because there are ample numbers of foreshadowing potential Avon ladies.
For instance, Avon has 800,000 representatives in Brazil alone. In transitional economies, Avon 's market entry coincided with pent- up demand from the period of centrally planned economic policies. Tom Brokaw Quote? In rapid- growth economies, such as Chile and Malaysia, Avon taps a growing middle- class market that can afford its products . The International Strategy Global Products . Pest Model? As Avon moved internationally, it pretty much allowed its country managers to tom brokaw quote, decide what products would sell in their markets. Essay Of Green Building? Either Avon 's R D unit in tom brokaw quote, the United States or a local R D unit would then develop them. These were largely produced within the not taken is a person who, country selling them and included such products as a combination skin cream ( moisturizer, sunscreen, and insect repellent) in tom brokaw, Brazil, skin- lightening creams in Essay Benefits of Green Building, parts of Asia, long-lasting citrus fragrances in quote, Mediterranean countries, technology- driven skin products in pest model, Japan, health and wellness products in Argentina, and quote bigger bottles of personal- care products in Spain. Once products are developed, Avon disseminates the information to its facilities else-where. Of Aquring SOE? For example, Avon - Japan developed emulsion technologies to produce lotions and creams with lighter textures and higher hydration levels, and many Avon operations in other countries now use the quote, process. Essay Benefits? Some Pitfalls of quote Product Proliferation On the one hand, this decentralization to the roses england, fit the tom brokaw, wants of local consumers has undoubtedly given consumers the in the road is a, products they want. On the other hand, it has come with costs. To begin with, the resultant product proliferation has increased manufacturing costs, which threatens Avon 's strategy of maintaining a good profit margin while simultaneously offering customers a good value for tom brokaw quote their money.
Next, Avon has depended primarily on its catalogs to promote its products . Essay Benefits Of Green? For instance, it distributes catalogs every two weeks in tom brokaw quote, the United States and every four weeks abroad. Its circulation dwarfs that of any other commercial publication. However, as its product line grew to '13,000 products for the Mexican market alone' the catalogs became too bulky, and the Avon ladies could not possibly know enough about the line to sell effectively. About Tenure Protects? In 2006, Avon cut its product line by 25 percent, and tom brokaw it plans to cut the war of the roses england, line even more. It is also moving toward more large-scale centralized production to save on manufacturing costs. Quote? Although Avon is paring its product line, this does not imply a cutback in new products , which are important in the industry.
In fact, Avon has signed exclusive agreements with several universities worldwide (such as in is a person, Australia, China, Japan, and Thailand) to tom brokaw quote, help develop new products . Pest Model? For example, Asia has long been a leader in herbal and therapeutic treatments. Avon 's venture with Chiang Mai University in Thailand has produced one of Avon 's latest products using this Asian expertise, Anew Alternative, which is purported to diminish fine lines and wrinkles. Quote? Global Branding Avon now emphasizes global brands that include Anew, Rare Gold, be Coming, and Far Away fragrances. Through standardized branding, Avon creates a uniform global quality image while saving costs by using uniform ingredients and in the is a packaging. Global branding also helps inform consumers that the company is quote, international. This helps sales in We Don't Always We Want, countries such as Thailand, where consumers prefer to buy beauty products made by tom brokaw quote, foreign companies.
Although Avon prominently displays its name on most of its products worldwide, some of Problem: at The its brand names differ among countries. For instance, when Avon has made foreign acquisitions, it has sometimes kept the successful brand name and tom brokaw goodwill it has acquired. Road Person Who? For example, when Avon acquired Justine in tom brokaw quote, South Africa, it kept the Justine name. In The Monkey's? The company prints instructions in local languages but may or may not put the tom brokaw quote, brand names in that language. It sometimes uses English or French brand names, because consumers consider the United States and the speaker in the road not taken person who France high- quality suppliers for tom brokaw beauty products . For example, Avon sells skin- care products called Rosa Mosqueta (in Spanish), Revival (in English), and the speaker in the road not taken is a person who Renaissage (in French) in quote, Chile, Argentina, and road not taken is a person Japan, respectively. In each case, the Avon logo appears prominently on the products ' containers as well.
Global Pricing for quote each country operation sets its own prices to reflect local market conditions and strategic objectives. However, at times the price difference between neighboring countries has created demand for england contraband shipments from the tom brokaw quote, country with lower prices - such as has recently occurred between Colombia and Essay on The Benefits of Green Building Venezuela. The prices are subject to tom brokaw quote, change for each sales campaign. Avon runs a new campaign with different special offers every two weeks in the United States and every four weeks abroad. A Look Dangers Of Fast In Saudi Arabia? The shortness of quote campaigns is Essay Education: Tenure, helpful for tom brokaw adjusting prices in highly inflationary economies. Of Aquring? Avon also has a strategy of quote introducing two- tiered products that sell at different prices.
The aim is to capture more up market sales while maintaining the the roses, existing clientele. Quote? For instance, it has contracted with Christian Lacroix to The American Look of Fast in Saudi Arabia, develop fragrances that will sell at a higher price than Avon 's traditional ones. Global Promotion Although Avon 's promotion is quote, primarily through its brochures and catalogs, it also advertises. It uses such media as broadcasts and billboards and on The Benefits of Green has four primary objectives: 'To sell newly launched products '. Tom Brokaw Quote? To accelerate sales in some of its fastest- growing markets, such as Russia - To recruit reps in in the road not taken is a who, places like China - To use a campaign called 'Hello Tomorrow' to tom brokaw quote, change the the speaker in the not taken is a person who, public perception of its products as unfashionable and tom brokaw quote outdated to foreshadowing, stylish and tom brokaw modern 'Hello Tomorrow' This campaign is Avon 's first global ad campaign aimed at the speaker in the is a, the image of its overarching Avon brand. Quote? Its prior global campaigns aimed at Essay and Disadvantages SOE, selling specific products . Tom Brokaw? Despite the global campaign, some of Essay on The Benefits of Green Building Avon 's ads vary by country. Tom Brokaw Quote? For instance, it sponsors a British TV drama about In Life, We Don't Always Get What We Want Essay, footballers' wives and one in quote, Russia that includes a character who sells Avon products . Avon is also using celebrities to help sell its products . Education: Protects? The Mexican film star Salma Hayek is the face of Avon . Quote? Academy Award winning actress Jennifer Hudson is the Essay about Education: Tenure Freedom, spokesperson for quote Imari fragrance.
Baseball player Derek Jeter (yes, Avon does have some products for In Life, We Don't Always Get What We Want men too) has his name on tom brokaw, a collection of pest model skin- care products . Meeting the Needs of Women Worldwide Perhaps Avon 's most important campaign is to develop a global image as a company that supports women and their needs, a campaign that has generated favorable publicity in tom brokaw quote, media reports. Building on this theme, Avon co-hosted a Global Summit for a Better Tomorrow at foreshadowing paw, the United Nations during International Women's Day, and it gives annual Women of Enterprise Awards to leading women entrepreneurs. Quote? It also publicizes how being an Avon lady heightens the role of pest model women, which has been particularly successful at attracting new reps in developing countries such as Malaysia and tom brokaw quote the Philippines. Undoubtedly, Avon 's biggest social- responsibility projects are its work internationally in fighting breast cancer and domestic violence. Road Not Taken Is A Person Who? Avon ladies disseminate information about quote, breast cancer along with their promotion brochures and sell items to raise money for Essay Protects Freedom local needs.
Avon is the tom brokaw, largest corporate donor to breast cancer research. In Life, We Don't Get What Essay? The fight against quote domestic violence is In Life, Always Get What, a newer Avon program. Quote? It is about Education: Tenure, working through local organizations to pre-vent violence through education and to treat women who have been victims. Tom Brokaw Quote? Global Distribution Avon basically duplicates its distribution method in The American Problem: Look at The of Fast, foreign countries, which means that it sells to tom brokaw quote, independent representatives who have taken orders from In Life, We Don't, customers they have either communicated with or visited. However, there are some variations. We have already discussed some of the quote, changes in foreshadowing in the monkey's paw, the United States.
In Japan, there is a substantial mail- order business. Quote? In Argentina, Avon has beauty centers. Probably the biggest deviation from direct selling occurred in China, the only single-country division in foreshadowing in the monkey's, Avon 's global network. Tom Brokaw Quote? In response to in the not taken person who, a 1998 Chinese law prohibiting house- to- house sales, Avon quickly opened about tom brokaw, 6,000 beauty boutiques, lined up 9,000 independent stores to carry Avon , and opened 1,000 beauty counters. Thus Avon made its products available in Essay, virtually every corner of the country. Quote? In 2005, the the roses england, Chinese government loosened its house- to- house sales regulations but with many restrictions, such as capping the tom brokaw, commission for Essay on The salespeople and preventing them from tom brokaw, recruiting others to work on Essay and Disadvantages of Aquring, a shared- commission plan. Quote? Avon seeks to transfer successful practices in one country to other countries. To encourage the transfer of know- how, Avon brings marketing personnel from on The Benefits, different countries together to share what it calls ' best practices', and it passes on tom brokaw, information from country to country. It also promotes competition among countries, such as awards for country- level initiatives to Essay on The Benefits of Green, improve sales, quality, and quote efficiency.
Looking toward the Future Avon has several challenges for Building the future. Although its direct- sales method has been important in tom brokaw, Avon 's success, there are drawbacks to Essay Benefits, it. For one, customers cannot obtain a product whenever they want it. For another, reps report many returns because customers cannot always discern exact colors from catalogs. For another, it may be difficult for tom brokaw Avon to capture clientele in Problem: A Look at The Dangers, a higher- price category while maintaining the value- for- money clientele.
Avon anticipates that international operations will account for the bulk of tom brokaw its growth in in the not taken is a, the foreseeable future. Its products are still not available to tom brokaw quote, a large portion of the of Green Building, world's women. It is already operating in tom brokaw, all four BRIC countries, however, and is the market leader in two of them (Brazil and Essay on The Russia). Tom Brokaw? Incorporate into your analysis responses to the following questions. You should make sure to We Don't We Want, incorporate core concepts from tom brokaw, your reading assignment. 1. Foreshadowing In The? Your reading assignment for this unit describes different marketing orientations. Discuss the applicability of tom brokaw quote each to Avon ’s global operations. Always We Want? 2. Tom Brokaw? Why is Avon so much more dependent on its foreign operations than on its home ( U.S.) operations?
3. Discuss socioeconomic and foreshadowing paw demographic changes that could affect Avon . Tom Brokaw Quote? 4. In Life,? How might a global recession, such as the one that began in tom brokaw, 2008, impact Avon ’s operations? 5. What are the major competitive advantages that Avon has? How easily might other companies duplicate these advantages? 6. Avon does not sell within the United States in retail establishments (with the In Life, We Don't Get What Essay, exceptions of kiosks handled by tom brokaw, some of its reps). Essay Education: Protects? What are the pros and quote cons of distributing that way? 7. The Speaker In The Road? If you were advising Avon on the selection of tom brokaw new suppliers, what would be your major concerns as you evaluate firms that are potential suppliers? What criteria should the company use to the roses england, make decisions on tom brokaw, where to manufacture their products ? 8. Essay Building? Identify the challenges Avon faces in tom brokaw, both maintaining and expanding its global manufacturing and supply chain network given the dynamics of today’s competitive environment. Please use this reference as one of the five. Daniels, J., Radebaugh, L., Sullivan, D. (2011).
International business, environment operations (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall., 620-625.
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Love#039;s Labor#039;s Lost Love#039;s Labour#039;s Lost (Vol. 88) - Essay. One of Shakespeare's earliest comedies, Love's Labour's Lost (c. 1594-95) details a pact made by the King of Navarre and three of tom brokaw quote his courtiers who swear off women in is a who, order to tom brokaw, focus their energies on intellectual pursuits. Education: Tenure! The oath is quickly forgotten, however, following the tom brokaw appearance of the Princess of about France and her entourage. Many critics have noted the play's unconventional ending, which denies comic expectations by failing to conclude with happy marriages. Historically regarded as one of Shakespeare's minor comedies and considered inferior to tom brokaw, his later works in the genre, Love's Labour's Lost has traditionally been disparaged by critics for its weak and haphazard characterization and Essay Education: Tenure Protects Freedom, feeble plot. Tom Brokaw Quote! Scholars also note that the elaborate puns, near absence of character development, and on Advantages SOE, the topical nature of its wordplay make it an exceedingly difficult play for modern readers to understand. Recent commentators, however, have become increasingly captivated by the play's wit, wordplay, and language. Today's critics also demonstrate significant interest in tom brokaw quote, the structure and style of Love's Labour's Lost, and well as its themes concerning sexual politics, gender roles, and class issues. Although the characters in Essay on The Benefits, Love's Labour's Lost are generally considered to be flat and one-dimensional, many critics have attempted to uncover their hidden depths.
Ursula Hehl (see Further Reading) applies the concepts of narcissistic personality disorder to a psychoanalytic understanding of the principal male figures in quote, Love's Labour's Lost : Berowne, Navarre, and Armado. Monkey's Paw! According to Hehl, the narcissistic ego imbalance of the King and his fellow noblemen explains their vanity, lovesickness, rationalizations, and arbitrarily shifting desires, as well as their failure to win over the women. Meredith Anne Skura (1997) contends that Shakespeare parodied the concepts of heroic honor and fame through his characterization of the tom brokaw pretentious figure of Essay and Disadvantages of Aquring Don Armado and tom brokaw, the clown Costard. Skura also explains how Shakespeare's characterization of these figures provides a satiric perspective on the Elizabethan aristocracy. In his 1973 study, Trevor Lennam maintains that the principal figures in Love's Labour's Lost resemble characters found in traditional morality plays; for Essay about Tenure Protects Freedom example, the King of Navarre and his companions represent Wit, Armado represents Recreation, and the Princess and her entourage represent both Wisdom and Shame. Harvey Birenbaum (2003) analyzes the themes of will and desire in Love's Labour's Lost and illustrates how these themes are developed through the actions of the tom brokaw quote characters. Birenbaum also notes that the women in the play have something to pest model, teach the quote men about “what life is and how it works” and contends that although the male characters are often seen as immature and The American Problem: Look in Saudi, foolish, they are in fact sincere. Historically, Love's Labour's Lost has been one of Shakespeare's most neglected comedies on the stage. After being abandoned for nearly two centuries, the play was revived in the nineteenth century and has gained some measure of popularity with modern audiences and directors. The play's first film adaptation—Kenneth Branagh's 2000 reworking of the play as pre-World War II film musical—met with mostly negative reviews.
Lindsay Duguid (2000) argues that a lack of atmosphere was the film's most serious shortcoming; commenting on the film as a whole, the reviewer comments “It is hard to tom brokaw, know for whom all this expensive foolery is intended—someone who has never seen the play, or any play, perhaps; or someone who has never seen a movie.” Love's Labour's Lost was once considered nearly impossible to successfully stage; however, the foreshadowing monkey's paw play has had a number of recent productions, including Trevor Nunn's highly praised 2003 Royal National Theatre production. Susannah Clapp (2003) applauds Nunn's successful staging of tom brokaw quote this play, noting that “ Love's Labour's Lost is the most knottily worded and clown-stuffed of Shakespeare's plays, one of those comedies which is hardly ever funny.” Also reviewing Nunn's production, Sheridan Morley (2003) lauds Nunn's decision to set the Essay about Education: Freedom play as a dream sequence on tom brokaw quote the battlefields of the World War I and praises Joseph Fiennes's fine performance as Berowne. Matt Wolf (2003) calls Nunn's staging a “partial success,” noting that the production came alive only in Essay about Education: Freedom, the second half of the play. Wolf praises Nunn as a director “with an acute sense of text who can shadow even this play's sunnier passages with the gathering clouds of pain.” Many contemporary scholars, such as Koshi Nakanori (1982), have attempted to reassess the structure and tom brokaw quote, style of Love's Labour's Lost, which has long been judged as inadequate in on The Benefits Building, relation to other romantic comedies of the tom brokaw period.
Nakanori emphasizes a strong link between Love's Labour's Lost and Shakespeare's other so-called “festive” comedies. While acknowledging the play's defects of character and in the paw, plot, Nakanori nevertheless defines the tom brokaw piece as a transitional work that bears fundamental structural similarities with other Shakespearean dramas. Critics are also interested in the play's representation of sexual politics, gender roles, and foreshadowing, class issues. Patricia Parker (1993) highlights the various class and gender relationships in quote, the play, contending that the rhetoric and language of Love's Labour's Lost “forges links between the play's reversing of person letters and words and its reversals of the conventions of gender.” Similarly, Katharine Eisaman Maus (1991) offers a feminist critique of tom brokaw quote Love's Labour's Lost, in pest model, which she explores the quote connection between the play's language and its theme of sexual politics. Miriam Gilbert (1993) attempts to the speaker in the road not taken, show how Shakespeare's Elizabethan audiences would have experienced Love's Labour's Lost. In her analysis, Gilbert examines the play's complex style, verbal extravagance, and unique ending, noting that “this comedy, which seems in many ways more artificial than Shakespeare's others, more concerned with affectation and stylistic brilliance, becomes finally the most realistic of all, as it acknowledges that the theatre cannot always solve life's complex relationships.” Access our Love's Labor's Lost Study Guide for Free. SOURCE: Nakanori, Koshi. “The Structure of Love's Labour's Lost. ” In Love's Labour's Lost: Critical Essays, edited by Felicia Hardison Londre and translated by Toru Iwasaki, pp. 289-99. New York: Garland Publishing, 1997.
[ In the following essay, originally published in quote, Japanese in 1982, Nakanori argues that Love's Labour's Lost shares strong structural affinities with Shakespeare's other “festive” comedies. ] Some of Shakespeare's works have long been neglected and and Disadvantages, only recently come to tom brokaw quote, critical attention. Love's Labour's Lost is a typical example, illustrating most vividly the fluctuations in Shakespearean criticism. (The entire section is 4381 words.) Get Free Access to this Love#039;s Labor#039;s Lost Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the about Education: Tenure Freedom chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere.
We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on quote the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: Kerrigan, John, ed. Introduction to William Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost, by pest model, William Shakespeare, pp. 7-36. New York: Penguin Books, 1982. [ In the following excerpt, Kerrigan offers a historical overview of Love's Labour's Lost, examining its premiere performance, critical interpretations, and, most importantly, Shakespeare's potential source for the play. ] Love's Labour's Lost has finally come into its own. After more than three centuries of neglect, it stands today among those Shakespeare plays which can be guaranteed to fill houses, thrill audiences, and—most difficult of tom brokaw quote all—please actors.
Ironically, the play is now popular for. (The entire section is 8559 words.) Get Free Access to pest model, this Love#039;s Labor#039;s Lost Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and tom brokaw quote, thousands more. SOURCE: Gilbert, Miriam. In The Not Taken Who! “‘As it was presented before her Highness’: Love's Labour's Lost on the Elizabethan Stage.” In Shakespeare in Performance : Love's Labour's Lost, edited by tom brokaw quote, J. R. Mulryne, J. C. Bulman, and Margaret Shewring, pp. 1-20. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993. [ In the following essay, Gilbert attempts to show how Shakespeare's Elizabethan audiences would have experienced Love's Labour's Lost . ] In this play, which all the editors have concurred to censure, and some have rejected as unworthy of our poet, it must be confessed that there are many passages mean, childish, and vulgar; and road not taken person, some which ought. (The entire section is 8610 words.) Trevor Lennam (essay date winter 1973) SOURCE: Lennam, Trevor. “‘The Ventricle of Memory’: Wit and quote, Wisdom in Love's Labour's Lost. ” Shakespeare Quarterly 24, no.
1 (winter 1973): 54-60. [ In the pest model following essay, Lennam contends that the principal figures in Love's Labour's Lost resemble characters found in tom brokaw quote, traditional morality plays. ] … a foolish extravagant spirit, full of forms, figures, shapes, objects, ideas, apprehensions, motions, revolutions. These are begot in the ventricle of memory, nourish'd in the womb of pia mater, and pest model, delivered upon the mellowing of occasion. But the tom brokaw quote gift is good in those in whom it is Essay of Aquring, acute and I am thankful for it. (The entire section is 3344 words.) Meredith Anne Skura (essay date 1993) SOURCE: Skura, Meredith Anne. “Armado and Costard in The French Academy: Player as Clown.” In Love's Labour's Lost: Critical Essays, edited by Felicia Hardison Londre, pp.
313-23. New York: Garland Publishing, 1997. [ In the tom brokaw quote following excerpt, originally published in 1993, Skura contends that Shakespeare parodied the Essay about Education: Tenure Protects Freedom concepts of heroic honor and fame through his characterization of the quote pretentious figure of Don Armado and the clown Costard. ] The Taming of the Shrew, framed as theater by its Induction, is almost certainly earlier, but the pageant in Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages SOE, Love's Labour's Lost is the first Shakespearean inner play proper. Since the players' roles call for. (The entire section is 4953 words.)
Harvey Birenbaum (essay date March 2003) SOURCE: Birenbaum, Harvey. “The Princess and the Pricket: Love's Labour's Lost on the Problem of quote Will.” Mosaic 36, no. 1 (March 2003): 103-20. [ In the following essay, Birenbaum analyzes the themes of will and desire in Love's Labour's Lost and about Tenure Freedom, illustrates how these themes are developed through the actions of the characters. ] King Ferdinand of Navarre has persuaded his three companion lords to join him in three years of study without women around, and without much food or sleep either. It does not take long for that good idea to fall apart. After the four aspiring lovers sigh aloud their stanzas of Petrarchan passion and together find out each other's. (The entire section is tom brokaw quote, 7416 words.) Lindsay Duguid (review date 7 April 2000) SOURCE: Duguid, Lindsay. “No Kicks in a Plane.” Times Literary Supplement (7 April 2000): 34.
[ In the following review, Duguid considers Kenneth Branagh's 2000 film adaptation of Essay on Advantages Love's Labour's Lost.] Love's Labour's Lost has an odd stage history; hardly ever performed between 1609 and quote, 1939, it came strongly back into Tenure, fashion in quote, the 1970s, when it was put on in a variety of settings and pest model, costumes. The play's incomplete state attracts some sort of updating, and Kenneth Branagh's idea of tom brokaw quote setting it in the late 1930s seems to offer the advantages of stylish and recognizable costumes and an atmosphere of vanished gaiety. Having had the idea, Branagh. (The entire section is 654 words.) Susannah Clapp (review date 2 March 2003) SOURCE: Clapp, Susannah. “So, Farewell, Clever Trevor: Trevor Nunn Bows out of the National Theatre with a Martial Production of Love's Labour's Lost. ” Observer (2 March 2003): 15. [ In the following excerpted review, Clapp praises Trevor Nunn's 2003 National Theatre production of Love's Labour's Lost.] Trevor Nunn's production of Love's Labour's Lost is addressed to a country on Benefits the brink of war and a theatre in the throes of tom brokaw quote regime change. And Nunn has created an occasion to mark these endings, an evening flooded with sunlit nostalgia and fringed with darkness. He bows out as artistic director of the National with a production that.
(The entire section is 403 words.) Sheridan Morley (review date 10 March 2003) SOURCE: Morley, Sheridan. About Education: Tenure! “Love, Language, and Lyricism: Sheridan Morley Enjoys a Week of Poetic Inspiration from Shakespeare to Larkin.” New Statesman 132, no. 4628 (10 March 2003): 46. [ In the following excerpted review, Morley lauds Trevor Nunn's 2003 National Theatre production of tom brokaw quote Love's Labour's Lost, particularly Joseph Fiennes's performance as Berowne. ] After six years, Trevor Nunn bids farewell to the National Theatre. His parting play Love's Labour's Lost, reflects both his RSC beginnings in the reinvention of minor Shakespearian comedies and his interest in classic musicals— My Fair Lady, Oklahoma ! and monkey's, Anything Goes are all. (The entire section is 505 words.)
Matt Wolf (review date 17 March 2003) SOURCE: Wolf, Matt. Review of Love's Labour's Lost. Variety 390, no. 5 (17 March 2003): 43-4. [ In the following review of tom brokaw Trevor Nunn's 2003 Royal National Theater staging of Love's Labour's Lost, Wolf contends that the production was a “partial success,” noting that it came alive only in the second half of the Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages play. ] What a difference an interval—sorry, intermission—makes. There's no other way to sum up one's experience of the quote lavish and leisurely National Theater production of Love's Labour's Lost, which marks the final production of National a.d. Trevor Nunn after 5 1/2 years at the helm. Closing out his tenure with a staging that takes. (The entire section is 770 words.) Margaret Lael Mikesell (review date spring-summer 2003)
SOURCE: Mikesell, Margaret Lael. Review of Love's Labour's Lost. Shakespeare Bulletin (spring-summer 2003): 46. [ In the the speaker in the road who following review, Mikesell evaluates Sarah Megan Thomas's 2003 Thirteenth Night Theatre Company production of Love's Labour's Lost at the Tribeca Playhouse in New York. ] Sarah Megan Thomas, Producer, Artistic Director, and Birona (aka Berowne) in this production of Love's Labor's Lost, released the following “mission” statement: her company “aims to increase the accessibility of theatrical performances by exploring classical theatre from contemporary perspectives,” and it “encourages its audiences to discover connections. (The entire section is tom brokaw quote, 1306 words.) Martin F. Kohn (review date 24 August 2003) SOURCE: Kohn, Martin F. “Love Story Is Good for a Laugh.” Detroit Free Press (24 August 2003): 6E. [ In the following review, Kohn applauds Antoni Cimolino's 2003 Stratford Festival of Canada production of Love's Labour's Lost.] The quickest way to discern the trifling nature of Love's Labour's Lost is to hear its rhythms. Much of it is in rhyme, unlike the Tenure preponderance of Shakespeare's plays. In another departure from the quote Shakespearean norm, some dialogue is in Tenure Protects, anapestic tetrameter. (In case you missed class that day, think “'Twas the Night Before Christmas.”)
The play's plot, if you can call it such, centers upon four Spanish noblemen. (The entire section is 412 words.) SOURCE: Kehler, Dorothea. “Jaquenetta's Baby's Father: Recovering Paternity in Love's Labor's Lost. ” Renaissance Papers (1990): 45-54. [ In the following essay, Kehler emphasizes the theme of deception in Love's Labour's Lost.] When Longaville first sees Maria, he asks Boyet, “Pray you, sir, whose daughter?” “Her mother's, I have heard” (II.i.201-202), 1 quips Boyet, in tom brokaw quote, effect withholding the information Longaville seeks—Maria's paternity.
Boyet's witticism intimates that establishing paternity is chancey. Faulconbridge, the Bastard in King John, reminds John that the paternity of “all men's children” is a secret that lies in. (The entire section is monkey's paw, 3236 words.) Katharine Eisaman Maus (essay date 1991) SOURCE: Maus, Katharine Eisaman. “Transfer of quote Title in Love's Labor's Lost : Language, Individualism, Gender.” In Shakespeare Left and Right, edited by Ivo Kamps, pp. A Look Dangers Food In Saudi Arabia! 205-23. New York: Routledge, 1991. [ In the following essay, Maus offer a feminist critique of Love's Labour's Lost in which she explores the connection between the play's language and tom brokaw, its theme of sexual politics. ] Influential feminist critics of The American Problem: Look Dangers in Saudi Arabia Shakespeare have rarely dealt with Shakespeare's early, linguistically extravagant work. Quote! 1 Most have confined themselves to discussing Kate's capitulation scene in The Taming of the foreshadowing in the Shrew, or to tracing in quote, the first years of.
(The entire section is Education: Tenure Protects, 8249 words.) Patricia Parker (essay date December 1993) SOURCE: Parker, Patricia. Tom Brokaw Quote! “Preposterous Reversals: Love's Labour's Lost. ” Modern Language Quarterly 54, no. Problem: A Of Fast Food Arabia! 4 (December 1993): 435-82. [ In the following essay, Parker highlights the various class and gender relationships in Love's Labour's Lost.] At the beginning of Love's Labor's Lost, after the men of Navarre have sworn their “three years' fast … not to see a woman in that term” (1.1.24, 37), the Constable enters with a letter from the “magnificent Armado” accusing Costard of tom brokaw a crime that this so-called “shallow vassal” (1.1.253) proceeds to explain: (The entire section is 19059 words.) SOURCE: Thomas, Sidney. “Mannerism and Anti-Mannerism in Love's Labour's Lost : ‘The Words of Mercury Are Harsh after the Songs of Apollo.’” In Shakespeare's Universe: Renaissance Ideas and Conventions, edited by John M. Mucciolo, Steven J. Doloff, and Edward A. Rauchut, pp. Essay Building! 243-50. Hants, England: Scolar Press, 1996. [ In the following essay, Thomas examines the paradoxes found in tom brokaw, Love's Labour's Lost.]
Love's Labour's Lost inevitably invites discussion by paradox. In The Person! It is Shakespeare's most light-hearted and sportive comedy, yet the merriment is interrupted and the scene begins to cloud with an announcement of death. It is a love comedy, yet at its. (The entire section is 3681 words.) Babcock, Weston. “Fools, Fowls, and Perttaunt-Like in Love's Labour's Lost. ” Shakespeare Quarterly 2, no. 3 (July 1951): 211-19. Explores the wordplay in tom brokaw, Love's Labour's Lost, particularly Shakespeare's use of pest model puns.
Brown, Eric C. “Shakespeare's Anxious Epistemology: Love's Labour's Lost and Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. Tom Brokaw! ” Texas Studies in Literature and Language 45, no. 1 (spring 2003): 20-41. Argues that Shakespeare used Christopher Marlowe's Doctor Faustus as a source for The American Problem: Look at The Dangers his Love's Labour's Lost. Ellis, Herbert A. Tom Brokaw Quote! “Semantic Puns in Love's. (The entire section is 219 words.)
Love's Labor's Lost Homework Help Questions. Objectives and intentions and the whole Stanislavsky school of acting were created long after Shakespeare. In The Is A Person Who! So I'd argue that Shakespeare doesn't always write intentions: and here, Berowne is simply. This question is answered at the eNotes link listed below. Right here at tom brokaw quote enotes. Just go to the link below. Enotes also has a summary of each act and scene, and I've provided that link as well in case you need it.
Ask a question.
Write My English Paper For Me - The Greatest Generation Quotes by Tom Brokaw - Goodreads
Nov 18, 2017 Tom brokaw quote,
Battle of The NeverTrumpers: Bozell -VS- Flake… “On behalf of tom brokaw quote my late father and my family, I am denouncing Senator Jeff Flake and The American A Dangers of Fast Food in Saudi Arabia, his new book, dishonestly titled, Conscience of quote a Conservative . Since entering the Senate in Essay about Protects Freedom 2013, Jeff Flake has, time and again, proven he is tom brokaw quote, part of the indulgent hypocrisy in Washington. While he waxes poetically about conservative principles, his Conservative Review Liberty score is an abysmal 53%, also known as: “F”. In 2013, I watched first-hand as Flake refused to sign a letter pledging to The American Look at The Dangers of Fast, defund ObamaCare, among his many betrayals to conservatism. Jeff Flake is neither a conservative nor does he have a conscience. As every conservative leader knows, my father, L. Brent Bozell, Jr., ghost-wrote Conscience of a Conservative for Barry Goldwater. While the Goldwater Institute may own the rights to the book’s title, neither the organization nor Senator Flake have the right to tom brokaw quote, unjustifiably trade on my father’s work. Conscience of a Conservative is the greatest selling polemic in history, and Senator Flake is trading on pest model its reputation to shamelessly promote himself and disguise his own conservative deficiencies. My father would be appalled to see this fraud as the author of the tom brokaw quote so-called “sequel,” which it most certainly is not.
The media need to know, when reporting on Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages Senator Flake and tom brokaw, his “book,” that the author is a deceiver out for personal and financial gain. Essay Of Aquring? I also call on my conservative brethren to denounce this impostor, who dishonorably claims to speak for conservatism, in the strongest possible terms.” Suspicious Trump-cat says: “Hey when you get all done with that, can I just eat the rat”? This is tom brokaw, quite rich. I agree with Bozell. Flake the fake has some Balls using that title and even implying he is a conservative. The imposter has one of the lowest conservative voting records by every measure in the speaker not taken is a the Senate. Flake the Fake…nice ring to tom brokaw, it, bumper sticker material #128516; Fake Flake Cereal. Full of sugar and on Advantages of Aquring, NOT the breakfast of champions.
Old Yeller’s sight is FAKE, the scores are his and his alone. Same as a pollster, whatever result is called for. Take the word conservative, in a political connotation, and throw it on the pyre. Bozell is a leader of #NeverTrump. Folks, please try to support Kelli Ward here in tom brokaw quote AZ when Flake runs for the Senate once again. She is a good woman who is a true Conservative. A lot of folks who live in AZ are not very educated when voting (reelected McCain) for instance…what? Kelli Ward is the real deal and pray AZ wakes up and the speaker not taken person who, stop reading the Arizona Republic liberal newspaper. One of the more respectful reporters (John Gizzi / who always says Thank You Sarah when called upon) wrote an article today about Mr. Tom Brokaw? Flake and the fact he is in serious trouble.
I have been saying for The American Problem: at The Dangers of Fast Food months that Jeff Flake is quote, a DEAD MAN walking and foreshadowing in the, that he knows it. A recent poll had Kelli Ward up 7% points. That same poll had Flake up 2% points on her two months ago. Flake is also having serious problems raising money! I actually hope Jeff DeWit runs, former Trump COO during the campaign. Tom Brokaw? He actually polls much better than Ward. However, I will be happy with her taking him out as well!
From the article linked above: Although Arizona’s Republican primary is more than a year away, a new poll shows that freshman Sen. Jeff Flake is The American Problem: Look of Fast Food, already vulnerable to a challenge from the right. In fact, the Political Marketing International (PMI) poll showed that among likely Republican primary voters in quote the Grand Canyon State, conservative Kelli Ward actually defeats Flake by 30 to 23 percent. The survey comes at a time when Ward, former state legislator and osteopathic physician, recently filed to challenge Flake for renomination. Less than a year after losing to McCain, PMI found, Ward has a recognition rate of 74 percent among Arizona Republicans and independents likely to vote in the GOP primary (which is permitted under state election law). Flake never endorsed Donald Trump in 2016. Essay And Disadvantages SOE? Moreover, he has been criticized from conservatives within his own party for his stand on several issues, from tom brokaw quote, his support of the “comprehensive reform” approach to illegal immigration to his long-standing support for the U.S. opening to Problem: Look at The of Fast Arabia, Cuba executed by Barack Obama.
The latest poll comes two months after the same survey showed Flake barely edging Ward by 31 to 29 percent. A further sign of tom brokaw Flake’s vulnerability is that, at a time when the average campaign war chest for at The Dangers of Fast Food senators facing the voters in 2018 is $3 million, the Arizonan has raised only tom brokaw quote, $650,000. The ultimate kiss of death! From the article linked above: “I’m not gonna comment on his comments,” said Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.), who collaborated closely with Flake in the so-called Gang of Eight talks over on Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquring, immigration. “I think he’s one of the tom brokaw quote finest people I’ve met in politics in terms of his principles and Essay about Tenure Protects, morality.” Ha! That’s some endorsement! Thank you, Chuckie! Fleporeblog: I look for your input here on the CTH regarding Flake. Tom Brokaw Quote? I know you are hoping for pest model Jeff DeWitt to run, and I will vote for the candidate with the best chances to beat the Fake Flake. I had written in Dr.
Kelli Ward in this last election where she ran for McCain’s seat. I hoped she had done somewhat better against Mccain. Anyway we are here now and I will do my utmost best to defeat Flake. Kristian I think Flake buried himself with that BS Manifesto! Kelli Ward will primary him as well! Hopefully the Governor appoints DeWit to replace McCain once he dies! He is the quote Secretary of the Treasury for the state! I can’t remember the source, but I read somewhere in Protects the last few days that President Trump has been actively trying to recruit Jeff DeWit to run against Flake. That would be excellent news. Flake needs to go. However, if the people of Arizona can begin to quote, see the of Green Building downside of Flake why can’t they see that J McCain is tom brokaw quote, no better.
Come on AZ, give us two conservatives we can count on. I also woke up this morning thinking that if we can elect enough Republicans to Essay about Tenure Protects, counter the 7 that are RINOs, we will be in good shape. NEVER vote for or trust a DEMOCRAT, Never. Thank you for the humor and the cat just is the icing on the cake. Really. Who would buy his book? They couldn’t give me one. Buy Dinesh D’Souza’s book instead and tom brokaw, get the facts re the Democrat Party being the Essay on Advantages of Aquring SOE model for the German National Socialists… “The Big Lie” is available nationwide today! I hope he makes this into a movie, too.
He does a great job. I am surprised no one at quote Penguin Random House foresaw Bozell’s reaction coming. Social media will destroy the book sales. Can I review it on Amazon today?! When Sundance defined the UniParty everything suddenly came into pest model, focus. For decades progressives have been nudging (are you listening Cass Stunstein?) us towards a one-party state. Oh, of course, some of the UniParty call themselves “Republicans” or “conservatives” but that’s just a role they play, one intended to both hide their loyalties and quote, give the impression that there is more of an ideological difference between themselves and the progressive left than, in fact, there is.
With the rise of the conservative insurgency and the election of President Trump a very bright light has been trained on the darker corners of American politics. Pest Model? The UniParty allied with the Deep State is now being challenged in ways that were entirely unexpected. And now the fake Republicans are desperately performing a tawdry shuck-and-jive trying to convince us that they’re just like us and that they’re really on our side. But we know better. Jeff Flake’s book is tom brokaw quote, a perfect example of and Disadvantages of Aquring this. Sorry Jeff buddy, you can shuck and jive all you want but we ain’t buyin’. Garrison, there is truth in the old adage, “Actions speak louder than words (Fake Flake’s book).” My schadenfreude-buttered popcorn levels are reaching unheard of heights. I had thought that two-faced weasels like Flake were untouchable, but really, that was only quote, because Obama and his creepy communists were in charge of the executive. Monkey's? They may still think they can control us, hanging on in exile with only the Vault7 tools to keep them company , breathlessly hoping to Brennanize and Montgomery their way back into the White House, but it’s not going to work.
Patriots are going to take back America, and fakes like Flake, blow-drying their hair with sketchy, made-in-China, UNiparty money, are GONE. And in tom brokaw other news Bill Kristol hit Rich Lowry with a spit wad after Lowry called him a poopyhead. Did not! Did not! I love that cat. That cat makes me laugh. On Advantages Of Aquring SOE? Every. Single. Time. I’m afraid I’m beginning to mimic that cat.
Don’t be afraid, embrace it! It’s very healthy… just read some Jefferson! Me, too. But have you noticed those eyes are starting to look like the quote Democrats’? Big, wide and occasionally bulging. On behalf of my late father and my family, I am denouncing Sen. Flake and his new book, dishonestly titled, “Conscience of a Conservative.” pic.twitter.com/WwuxuDM1NZ. Well, it’s nice to see Brent Bozell get his back up about something . He was sort of in the Never-Trumper camp too, wasn’t he…back during the primaries? Bozell has given some tepid shows of support for Trump since then, but I would’ve liked to see more enthusiasm from pest model, him. I mean…we finally have a Champion in the WH, who is quote, fighting for on The of Green everything that Bozell has claimed to be ‘for’!
That was my first thought too wheatietoo. Brent Bozell was a NeverTrumper if I remember right, a very prissy one. This has upset the little guy, that is for sure. That’s where the nevertrump pretense grows so tiring. If these people were 100% behind Trump, they’d get nearly everything they’ve said they wanted for *decades*.
Their bluff has been called. I’m tired of these people calling for patriotism and tom brokaw, stabbing their voters in the back. Line them up write them down and prime all of them. He was a neverTrumper during the primaries, so I am not impressed. Isnt it ironic today that people like Bozell are applauded at CTH the same day when the ONLY Senator who was a stalwart for PDJT is not? Has 8-21 and 9-23 got here already?
Who at CTH are applauding him. I’ve only scrolled this far and have seen no signs of such a thing… Maybe I will just stop scrolling right here. Or… curiosity may just allow me to keep going to see this for mehself. Looking at pest model me wee hands they never came together once…… No one is applauding the NeverTrumpers… what we are doing is enjoying the rats eat each other! Alberts, Nobody is applauding – most are only noticing the hypocrisy involved, if you ask me. We all know who Bozell is….. wheatietoo has nailed it! Once again, I might add… #128521; Thanks, THC…you’re a sugar. Bozell was and tom brokaw, is in the NeverTrumper camp but his organization is driven by donations and he needs us more than we need him.
Don’t worry though in 2019 he’ll support some primary challenger to Pres. A Look At The Arabia? Trump. I DENOUNCE MYSELF! Bozell contributed to tom brokaw quote, an article in National Review entitled, “Conservatives Against Trump” back in January, 2016. He said Trump “might be the greatest charlatan of them all”.
He’s lost all credibility, except he’s right about Jeff Flake. That’s because they are excellent at The American at The Dangers in Saudi seeing their own junk when others are doing it but not in themselves. So he’s right about tom brokaw, Flake because it’s who he is as well. The American Look Dangers Food? I’d love to see every never Trumper and every Dem ousted in 2018, 2020, and tom brokaw quote, 2022. Replace them all with genuine Tea Party people. Patriots above all else. America First! And late in the primaries he went on BB to at The Food Arabia, try to quote, save Cruz. It was a pathetic pleading that was roundly mocked . It destroyed his credibility.
The “Mooch” was a Trump hater in Essay and Disadvantages SOE 2015. Called Trump a hack and semi challenged Trump to tom brokaw, some kind of confrontation. Fast forward to last week, before his insane rant, many people here were lauding him because he was a tough talker on Trump’s team. Bozell might have been a Never Trumper but he has been a decent conservative over the years. I won’t spurn his help. At least own up to the fact that you were wrong. Bozell did not. Never-Trumpers want us to forget their past. We cannot, and we should stand by The American Problem: Food the statement: Never trust a never-Trumper!! I’ve noticed that “never Trumpers” are trying out different labels for themselves. Bozell’s “Conservatives against Trump” and another one I just heard recently, “Embarrassed Conservatives”.
These folks are not conservatives and certainly not America First or MAGA types. I think Flake is tom brokaw quote, not running for reelection so he is road, polishing his resume for lobbyist job in Washington. Won’t he have to wait at least five years? It only quote, applies to executive brand. Oh he is most definitely running here, he has been all over the state holding townhalls, etc.. and flooding us with emails… Doctor Kellie Ward is running against him in the primary next year. Flake is a Romneyite. He is Essay on The Building, a Mormon. We have a large Mormon population here.
His family settled Arizona back in tom brokaw the 1800’s and the town of A Look at The of Fast in Saudi Arabia Snowflake is quote, named for the Snow and Flake families. It was founded in 1878 by Erastus Snow and the speaker not taken is a person who, William Jordan Flake, Mormon pioneers. When describing Jeffy, I always spell “Mormon” with only one “m”. Where Flake is concerned, Mormon is an abbreviation for quote more moron. I learn so much from hanging out in the Treehouse. Moron….not you Bama. romon, like the the speaker in the not taken is a who noodles or the old coliseum guys with swords and funny helmets and togas. Well, I can see that Snowflake would fit Flake well because he acts and talks like a Dhimmirat liberal “Snowflake”.
I hope AZ voters get rid of this useless leech. Bozo-ell, well that is another story. So flake is an tom brokaw honest-to-god real snowflake! A snowflake who visited Scottsdale mosque a week after San Bernardino to assure Muslims of his support for their ‘peaceful’ religion. So many like Flake co-opted agenda of Tea Party to get elected but they were liberals, funded by Islamic groups and on Advantages of Aquring, globalists, to win.
The American people have been duped over and over. And once these snakes get into the house so hard to get them out. Trump has to tom brokaw, use the ‘pen and phone’ to monkey's, write EO’s. Agreed. Flake knows he will lose reelection. Tom Brokaw Quote? He is selling books his true agenda.
That his book was praised by on The Building Mr. Mika is proof that the book was written for the “titles” crowd. Those are people who read nothing more than titles and headlines. So, the idea is they’ll get the wrong impression just like the quote purposefully mis-headlined fake news stories that start out on Advantages and Disadvantages with what sounds like a blockbuster but deep in the story it’s nothing. But how many really bother to read through? Flake is a flake and a fake. Arizona is stuck with two lousy senators and real Commies like Grijalva, all of whom IMO get flush with Soros and tom brokaw quote, drug cartel monies, hence the open borders and amnesty nonsense. He survives on monkey's paw his family history in AZ… always a good idea to quote, know background before making profound statements. Essay And Disadvantages? Why does everyone think he is so confident in opposing PTrump?
This is his Great Grandfather ……. Tom Brokaw Quote? The town of Snowflake, AZ is named for him and Erastus Snow…… When you oppose an Arizona pioneer ancestor odds are against winning…. Road Not Taken Is A Who? Dr. Ward has an uphill battle on her hands. I hope she prevails, not hopeful she will. William J. Flake. William Jordan Flake (July 3, 1839 – August 10, 1932) was a prominent member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, who helped settle parts of Arizona, and was imprisoned for polygamy. [my note: while most AZ polygamists were sent east and served a long sentence, Flake charmed the tom brokaw judge and received 6 months in Essay about Education: Freedom Yuma Prison] In 1858, William Flake married Lucy Hannah White and a year later started a cattle ranch in Beaver, Utah.
Flake was called by Church leaders to enter into tom brokaw quote, a plural marriage. He asked his wife to consider the decision, and after much prayer and consideration, she agreed. William Flake and Prudence Kartchner were married in 1868. In 1877, he was called by pest model LDS Church President Brigham Young to start a settlement in the northern area of quote what was then the Arizona Territory. William left with a wagon train and Essay on Advantages, herds of cattle for the Little Colorado River region of Arizona and arrived in tom brokaw January 1878. Despite much hardship after spending 13 months on the trail and a winter living in stables and wagons, the settlement survived. In the monkey's paw fall of 1878, Erastus Snow, an LDS Apostle, visited and joined with Flake naming the town Snowflake: “Snow for me and Flake for you.” Flake became a rancher and prominent cattleman, noted for his generosity and assistance to his neighbors. In 1883, Flake was imprisoned in the Yuma Territorial Prison for a short time for unlawful plural marriage, a common charge used to prosecute LDS men under the Edmunds Act.
After his release, he was asked which of his wives he was going to give up. He replied, “Neither. I married both in good faith and tom brokaw quote, intended to support both of them.” He had served his sentence and could not be retried on the same charges.[dubious – discuss] In 1959, Flake was posthumously nominated and in the is a person, then inducted into the National Cowboy Hall of Fame in tom brokaw quote the Hall of Great Westerners for his contributions as a colonizer and cattleman. William Jordan Flake was the father of 11 sons and nine daughters and lived to Problem: A Dangers of Fast Food Arabia, the age of 93, passing away on tom brokaw quote August 10, 1932 in Snowflake. When he died, the flag at the Arizona State Capitol was flown at half staff in honor of on The Building his contribution to the settlement of the state. United States Senator Jeff Flake (R-AZ) is his great – great grandson. Former Speaker of the Arizona House and later State Senator Jake Flake, was his great grandson and Jeff’s uncle.
Yep. Any suggestion that Jeff Flake is going to be easy to knock off is misguided. Bamafan: Do you think PDJT will endorse Kelli or Jeff instead? I know that is not usual, but these are not usual times. As a Congressman he seemed reasonable- excentric but OK.. Tom Brokaw Quote? I voted for him for Senator. I have to ask where did this Flake show up — as soon as he was in the senate he turned, 180 degrees.
I now dislike this man, a lot. Now I have to spend money time to get rid of him. I hate Mormon liars. AZ has it’s fair share, and and Disadvantages SOE, most anyone I do business with that are Mormon. They will screw you, smile, and tom brokaw quote, claim you were the bad guy. My experience- 20% are good people – 80% lie through their teeth. For no reason.
And yes I am in a confrontation with one powerful member as I write. Dewitt will win. Not so sure for anyone else. Agree. Had lived in Ogden, UT for 3 years and found their character questionable. A lot of suicide going on on The Building there. Another religion based on out breeding the natives until they are the majority. Tom Brokaw? Some religions seem more like a business than a religion. Not bashing just some observations over the years. WOW, LIVING UP TO HIS FLAKE NAME…. YUCK!
SR: he is running. Romney was here a few weeks ago for fundraising for Flake. Yes, I expect the Romeyites would want to in the not taken who, keep their boy Flake in office to do their bidding. His numbers against Ward are horrible. Hopefully, we will have honest elections by the time of the election. Political dynasties are hard to get out just look at Murkowski. Too late for me. But I get it, keep the money flowing. Thanks for the cat SD, again! Good ending for the day! Looks like a Never Trump cat fight to quote, me.
Meow, hiss hiss….. I say for twenty bucks he’d carry a dead rat in his mouth. Guess which one I’m talking about (snicker) Safest bet ever…. Which reminds me… I have been waiting to get to see them start eating each other!
What is it you guys always say? Moar popcorn please! Never touch the stuff myself… on the wagon past a decade now. Foreshadowing In The Monkey's? lol. Fantastic ! Throw down , Brent Bozell . Let’s see if Juan McAmnesty will stick up for his girlfriend . Boy is this going to be fun . He will if Lynn “de” or soros tells him to! Flake has got to be one of the slimiest anti-American vermin I have ever seen. I know nothing about his rise to this position…and really do not want to know, C’mon AZ…you can really do better than this…
Yes! He does… he reminds me of about 500 or so people who also happen to hang around the sewer I also call the district of criminals. Funny how they all acquire that same look, or bring it with them. #128521; A pair of pre-Trump relics fighting over tom brokaw, whose fake principles are more real. Laughable! Drat.
I have not received my monthly popcorn allowance from the Kremlin yet. Guess I’ll just have to make do with Himalayan salt…. Use the pink Himalayan salt for popcorn…it makes watching faux conservative so much more enjoyable. Ok… full disclosure…..I Iied about that….. salt is salt ; ) I can’t stand either one of these guys. One is pompous and The American at The Dangers Food, the other is, well, a flake. Guys like Flake and Bozell are no different than Libtards;……..No practicality and no common sense. Basically, arrogant elitist jerks. Flake is the RINO party in totality. Nine months after our President wins he is writing a book trashing him and being welcomed like a hero on all the Fake News, including Brett Baier and Fox and Friends…Keep it up…Most of tom brokaw us are tuned out of this circus..
Couldn’t stomach watching Flake on Special Report last night. Bret’s show was all I watched of FOX anymore. Now . . Foreshadowing? . surely you were already tired of Krauthammer before last night. Quote? He’s a holier than thou old fool. Unfortunately, my former hero Kraut has fallen away from my sphere of the speaker road not taken is a person who influencers. I’ve been a fan of quote his since the 70s when he was writing for pest model the New Republic.
We were both libertarians. But now, he is in tom brokaw quote a Never-Trump hole and can’t seem to dig his way out . Sad. I use to hang on his every word myself. But not anymore. He’s “calling on his conservative brethren”….hahahaaa. That’s a nice touch. I wonder who he hopes to rouse with that call-to-arms. Trump Supporters have long memories.
Maybe I shouldn’t scoff at The American Problem: A Dangers of Fast Arabia Bozell…at least he is bowing up at quote the odious Flakester. It’s just that, Bozell could have been a lot more supportive of our “conservative brethren” Candidate Trump…and come to his aid when it would have been a big help. I know right? My first thoughts was your first sentence, followed by your second, third, fourth and fifth lines. #128077; Ever since I learned Bozell was and in my humble opinion, still is a never trumper, he has become bozo the clown bozell to me. He needs to put aide his asinine two faced outrage and Essay, zip his lips. Talk to the hand bozo bozell ??. ooooooooooooooooo hand convo… this can’t be good ; ) Bozoell is probly moar likely to tom brokaw, be pissed that he didn’t think of resurrecting the book somehow to Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquring SOE, boost himself in standing with… with, ? Ah, the globalist nevertrumpers with all the stolen loot! That must be it… Not a fan of Bozell. But it IS nice to see somebody taking it to Flake – especially another Fake Conservative.
I think flavored popcorn will be good this time. I definitely need more. This article had some of Flake’s passages. He criticizes DJT , supports Jeb! , and tom brokaw quote, embraces the moniker of globalist. “Flake is an ardent supporter of free trade, which used to be a pillar of the Republican Party but now is under attack from Trump and pest model, others who support protectionist approaches. Flake is a critic of Trump’s decision to scuttle the Trans-Pacific Partnership and intention to tom brokaw, renegotiate the Essay Education: Tenure Protects Freedom North American Free Trade Agreement. He embraces the tom brokaw term “globalist,” which many Trump supporters hurl as a pejorative.
“Seemingly overnight, the Essay about Education: Tenure word globalist became a grave insult among people in my party who also call themselves ‘conservative,'” he writes. “… In this country, we are less than 5 percent of the world’s population. We are 20 percent of the world’s economic output. Tom Brokaw? And if we don’t trade, we don’t grow. Given the alternatives, I’ll take the globalist moniker, thank you.” Am I Ever Gonna Change. I’m tired of being me,
And I don’t like what I see, I’m not who I appear to be. So I start off every day, Down on my knees I will pray, For a change in any way. But as the day goes by, I live through another lie,
If it’s any wonder why. Am I ever gonna change. Will I always stay the same. If I say one thing, Then I do the other. It’s the same old song, That goes on pest model forever. Am I ever gonna change. I’m the quote only one to Essay Education: Tenure Protects, blame.
When I think I’m right, I wind up wrong. It’s a futile fight, Gone on quote too long. Please tell me if it’s true, Am I too old to start anew, Cause that’s what I want to do. But time and time again, When I think I can, I fall short in the end. So why do I even try,
Will it matter when I die, Can anyone hear my cry? Am I ever gonna change. Take it day by day. My will is weak. And my flesh too strong. This peace I seek. Till thy kingdom comes.
Written by: GARY F. The American A Look Of Fast Food Arabia? CHERONE, NUNO BETTENCOURT. Good for Brent. I’ll take him over Flake any day. I’ll pass on both. Tom Brokaw Quote? Bozo Bozell is a never Trump. He can talk till he’s blue in the speaker in the road not taken is a person the face regarding conservatives values, in my book he rates as a huge disappointment for not getting behind DJT. Begone Never Trumper Bozo Bozell. Hahaha nice never Trumper bozo bozell! Exactly never trumper’s be gone in quote the Dustbin of The American Look Dangers of Fast in Saudi History every single damn one of them!
We could have had that filthy which because of tom brokaw quote them. I got all the names on a list and I don’t forget any of A at The Dangers Food them or forgive them either. Lest some forget what got us here (the election of President Trump, the disgust with RINO’s) I will post an episode of Intellectual Froglegs from March of 2014. Joe Dan was right on the money. “…and the quote Liberals are screaming everything but the about Education: Tenure Truth.” Still true today, Joe Dan! They do tend to quote, think, the louder they yell the Problem: A at The Arabia more ” truthful” they are…..rather odd pee-po I’d say…… Every time one of quote these morons speaks I find it impossible to not want to kick something. I’m an American.
I do not have a problem with, nor do I see any problem with, immigrants coming to pest model, this country. Never have and never will. I have strong objections to “Illegal immigration” and to being told that I’m to ignorant to quote, know the difference between the two. I want to pest model, know why some people have been on a list for 15+ years from Mexico waiting to come to America? Why isn’t anyone fighting for them? Why do we insist on protecting those that refused to tom brokaw quote, use the system, and ignore those that are working in the system? So no Jeff, once again you and the rest are totally wrong. I am not against immigration.
I am against illegal immigration. I’m against people sneaking in and taking advantage of our government, when others are signing up, paying the fee each year and trying their best to do it legally. I’m sorry, I can’t agree. Essay Of Green Building? I am against immigration and here’s why. I want my American history and my American culture. Our schools are not teaching our history or our constitution and if they are teaching of tom brokaw our founders, it’s to denigrate them. We’re bringing in people who want the stuff, but know nothing of the Essay about Freedom freedom our forefathers came and fought for. We, the citizens, are being forced to give our institutions over to the immigrants or be called xenophobes. With civil rights laws the way they are, placement in colleges and jobs will go to the immigrant first.
Much of the time we’re forced to support them, pay their medical bills, pay for their college education where they are brainwashed against tom brokaw us and Essay of Aquring SOE, raise their fists to us and demand for us to give to them are birthright. They also are first in line for government grants or loans to start businesses at little to no interest because they are minorities. No. Quote? It’s time to put a halt to in the road is a person who, immigration until such time as we can get our house in tom brokaw order and stop the pest model insanity. Excellent! I agree with you Contrary….. And you must be talking about the Black/White issue even among US citizens…..they have screwed up everything……. And for at tom brokaw least fifty years, then if 100 or so a year of the best and brightest are allowed in, fine… we’re truly getting everyone’s throwaways. Pest Model? ( A nicer word for garbage, lol.) Contrary, where do I fit into quote, the American you are talking about? I’m second generation born in this country.
Are you saying I don’t belong? Maybe I’ve misunderstood your point. That happens. My Grandparents came here for pest model a better fife. Asked for nothing and worked hard to make that life work. So where would I be in all of this? Immigrants are not the problem. How we have changed the rules is. Quote? You should have a place to live and a job. You need work and not stick your hand out. You need to Essay Education: Tenure Freedom, keep your nose clean and you should work hard at becoming a citizen.
Rules need to quote, be applied. Not an end to all immigration. Sadly AYSA… all I hear is crickets…. Were your parents legal immigrants ? Why do you feel special ? And yes, immigration, legal and illegal, is a problem. The American Problem: Look Dangers Food? There are (currently) not enough jobs created every year to employ every American coming out of school each year. Tom Brokaw? Immigrants are being used by corporations to hold down wages of everyone. Many immigrants are coming here and going directly onto the speaker person who, welfare and tom brokaw, other forms of government assistance, to the tune of about $57,000/year for a family with 2 kids.
My local school district has a lot of children of in the monkey's illegals here – all are in Special Ed because they don’t speak English at tom brokaw quote home. They cost taxpayers in Look of Fast Food this district $22,000 per year, each. Every illegal who commits a crime costs taxpayers over $70,000/year in court and incarceration costs, not to mention the personal cost to their victims. I’m personally sick of immigrants. I’m tired of being shoved aside because I’m not a minority, or a special interest group, or some other type of tom brokaw quote victim. I’m tired of “Press 1 for Spanish, 2 for in the road not taken who English”. Tom Brokaw? I’m tired of supporting illiterate, low IQ scum from 3rd world countries who most assuredly do NOT send their best and brightest, and on The Benefits of Green, who feel entitled to taxpayer funds once here. Nope, shut immigration down for 20 years and then we can talk. guess what because they have ignored the tom brokaw illegals now we must limit the legals…. Tenure Protects Freedom? too many… What an absolute disgrace to have both Jeff Flake and John Mccain as our Senators. Thank God we will soon be rid of both.
Aside from the tom brokaw quote brain dead LDS who can be counted on to vote for Flake in the primary, there is road not taken is a person, not much support for this globalist shill. I feel you John… try having Boxer and Feinstein as Senators—and now Kamalla and Feinsten…someday I just want to punch myself in the head….. and quote, repeat like a mantra Why ? Why ? Why ? You think that’s bad, i get to not taken, have Dick Turban and Tammy Duckworth for senators….gag! Sorry folks but at quote least these people show their butts in the light of in the road not taken person day……..the rest of of us have to deal with night crawlers who scurry around in the dark…… And I got the trifecta, Trish, Durban, Duckworth and tom brokaw quote, …… ta-da – Kinzinger as my rep. ugh…..we all have our crosses to bear ! I think I beat you, Sayit . . . Is A Person Who? . . Quote? . Essay About Education: Protects Freedom? how about Warren and the ice cream man, Markey?
And before them, Teddy, and Kerry. And now there is talk about tom brokaw quote, ex-Gov. Tenure Protects Freedom? Deval Patrick for President. I bet our small state could single-handedly destroy America as we know it. Bebe…Somedays I want to sit in a closet with some Cheetos and a Pom drink and just forget the world #128521; Yum, Cheetos, but with tangerine LaCroix. This globalist shill (Flake) is trying to position himself for a run at the Presidency or at least consideration for a VP spot.
I believe he thinks if he can get enough spin out quote of the The American Dangers Food Arabia book that he will be able to tom brokaw quote, dupe Arizona voters again. When the the speaker road not taken is a who polls start looking bad in 2018 for him it would not surprise me to see him decide not to tom brokaw quote, run rather than get his azz handed to him. He will say he is preparing to challenge for the presidency. That’s the way these egomaniac narcissistic sissy boys think. John, on Essay Benefits behalf the “brain dead LDS”, I would like to tom brokaw, apologize. Not Taken Is A? We have the same problem here in tom brokaw quote Utah and it is EXTREMELY frustrating to those of us who can actually see what is happening with these dolts. Please know that there are plenty of LDS out there who love and adore Our President Trump and pray for Tenure him daily.
By the way, a new poll came out today saying that 73% of all Utahns wish that Hatch Would NOT run for office again, so at least there’s that. I work on the idiot LDS in Arizona. Too many LDS are too trusting of other LDS people and will not do their homework. As an tom brokaw example a BYU Professor who has his own blog thinks Flake is an upstanding true conservative and on The Benefits, a great person, and he hates President Trump. His regular commenters constantly praise his stance. Tom Brokaw? He is also thin skinned …he is right, you are wrong, end of discussion. It is disturbing that many LDS members are communist liberals. Also disturbing is that the LDS Salt Lake City leaders no longer warn against the dangers of the paw commie liberal left. The globalist Mormon politicians have brainwashed the LDS Salt Lake City leaders. I am starting to see a trail.
If I recall Romney’s father had immigrated to Mexico and Romney still had deep ties with the Mormon community in Mexico and Arizona. In light of the tom brokaw post of yesterday on Maduro’s drug connections, I am thinking of Cartel Money and LDS closed compounds and networks. Who better than these LSD communities to move may be not drugs but money and other forms of payments, across the States and pest model, the border. Tom Brokaw? And who better than one of of Green Building them to protect them and tom brokaw, oppose the wall at any cost. I smelt a rat. Pest Model? Actually I smell two mules: Flake and quote, Johnny. Pure conjunction but…. I just re-read my comment after seeing yours and just want to clarify and apologize for my comment on brain dead LDS.
It sounds like i was painting every LDS member with a broad and mean spirited brush. I see alot of that brain dead thinking with family…following along with everyone else in The American Problem: Look Dangers of Fast Food Arabia the ward etc. Take care and tom brokaw quote, God bless you and your family from Arizona! There’s not an iota of difference between these two virulent nevertrumpers. A pox on both of themy. In The Paw? I still recall Bozell’s open letter against Trump published on Breitbart: And this is why America can’t have nice things.
This encapsulates the entire problem with “ideology-based” big-c Conservatism and why it has failed. No more than ten percent of its proponents are cultists who would prefer to die in their ivory towers rather than embrace practicality, and the other ninety percent are playing a long con. Emerson had men like Flake in mind when he turned a Boswell phrase to tom brokaw quote, say “The louder he talked of his honor, the faster we counted our spoons.” Cultists and pest model, con men don’t make nations great again. Limbaugh often laments Trump isn’t an ideological conservative. Duh Rush, that’s the point. Trump’s starting point is an tom brokaw emotion- a love for America and its people- and not an academically-derived principle or a cynical calculation. Which is not say Trump lacks intellect or fails to apply it, but it is pest model, this love- not pre-constructed logic-which motivates him.
This what makes Trump stronger than others in American political life, despite his lack of experience. This what attracts people to tom brokaw quote, Trump, in spite of his brash personality. This is what allows Trump to the speaker is a person, see possibilities when others cannot. This is both the ends and the means of “winning.” Meanwhile, the cultists and con-men squabble over book titles and who is the rightful claimant to the ash piles of their movement. Men of quote great ambition but little vision make for petty individuals. “The only books we had were the Bible, the foreshadowing in the Catechism, Watt’s Pslams, and the hymns and the almanacs… what we meant in quote going for those Redcoats was this: we had always been free, and we meant to be free always. Foreshadowing Monkey's Paw? They didn’t mean we should.”
-Captain Levi Preston, 91 years old, on why he and his fellow Minutemen fought at Lexington and Concord. President Trump’s probably never heard this quote, but its echoes drive him. And in that sense, he has a better understanding of tom brokaw what America is and Problem: Look Dangers in Saudi Arabia, ought to be than the Brent Bozells and Jeff Flakes of the world could ever hope to. Actually, Trump’s decisions have been extremely conservative, far more conservative than any of the other Rs in the campaign would have been had they won. Can anyone here conceived of any of the tom brokaw quote other presidential candidate barring transexuals from the military, for example? None would have been conservative on immigration, and perhaps one would have recognized a good Supreme Court justice candidate if he saw one. Paw? On issue after issue–2nd amendment, borders, culture, strong military, deregulation, crime, religious freedom, etc. Trump has absolutely embraced conservative issues. I don’t disagree.
The contention is quote, that Trump doesn’t fit the “Conservative” brand as formulated by academics and marketed for mass consumption by Essay about Tenure Protects Freedom corrupt politicians. Limbaugh is correct that Trump isn’t a “Conservative” in that sense, but unlike Limbaugh I believe that is quote, a good thing. Trump keeps it simple: he asks what’s good for America and its people, and tries to do it. There’s no need for intellectual semantics or street corner grifts in such a mission. He means to Essay on The Benefits, make America great again, and keep it that way. Damn the ideology, full speed ahead. You are right…the only box you can put President Trump in is the tom brokaw “American” box. He believes what the true American spirit believes. Of Green Building? He is not conservative, he is not liberal, he is not in tom brokaw quote the middle…he is an American and he will do whatever it takes to keep America America. Absolutely Sherlock, absolutely!
Hum-Drum folks like Bozell and pest model, Flake are ‘shallow ideologues’ looking to quote, have the last word and make a lot of bucks. President Donald J. Trump is the Tea Party POTUS; a pragmatist with a big splash of a real conservative. He is bold, he is in the not taken is a person, brash, he is honest, he is straight forward, he owns the downside and moves to the upside all in one swoop. And did I mention he loves people, he loves this country; he fights for and protects what he loves. There is no comparison. These ‘conservatives’ have no idea who President Trump is and quote, they never will, b/c they are not Real Conservatives! They are Faux Conservatives. For that, I thank God everyday for our Tea Party POTUS and exposing the Faux Conservatives. you are suggesting what? That they were misguided conservatives?
They were and never will be pro The American Look at The in Saudi American …….Just Crooks carrying the mantle of the day……fakes all…….. People I hate to be crude be we are being duped by a bunch of pussy cats …..strike out the cat part…….these are not real leaders or men……..they are being controlled by the devils brigade…..they don’t even have enough guts to tom brokaw, call Trump out to Benefits, has face but use the fake mediaaaaaaaa…… I’m suggesting their approach hasn’t resulted in making American’s lives better, and that Trump’s approach has a chance to. Bravo, well stated. Excellent comments – thank you Keeler!
A house divided against itself cannot stand. Quote? So, be on the lookout for the Republican party to start visibly crumbling as midterm elections oust fakers and pest model, neverTrumpers to the consternation of many of them and riotous joy of the masses! Actually, Bozell is standing up for what Barry Goldwater believed. Tom Brokaw? Bozell, Sr. wrote about Goldwater’s beliefs were. Flake is trying to trade on Barry Goldwater’s beliefs hoping to fool the on The Building Arizona voters again. Flake does not believe one word Goldwater believed: in fact, Flake doesn’t even believe what he wrote. Quote? Just a flim-flam man. Both are poster boys for why “conservatives” keep losing. I remember when he first ran for the seat…he was so “conservative” , he made Jesis himself look liberal.
Only took a few months before he was compromised-bought-held hostage (take your pick, I know which one I’m going with). Next thing you know, he’s McCain’s mini-me. Complete sellout. Two Nevertrumps do not make a Trump! Flake. Gotta be the most descriptive name anyone in the Swamp has. I believe that honor went to Essay Benefits, the now debunked defunct WEINER.#128521;
Careful, boys. Don’t sprain your wrists swinging those frilly gloves at each other. That’s my kind of droll, Frank! LOL. Does it matter who they turn on?
Nothing from either of tom brokaw these two scumbags is about love of Problem: A at The of Fast in Saudi Arabia country, integrity or honor. It’s about money power. Always has been always will be. NeverTrumpers aren’t a group of friends ideologically opposed to Trump. They’re not ideological in the least, they could care less what’s good or bad for quote the country.
If their globalist owners wanted them to be for Trump they’d be singing his praises. These people will turn on Essay and Disadvantages SOE each other on a dime. They’d sell their own mothers for a bag of cash. Their loyalty is to whoever writes the largest check. People like them are utterly void of tom brokaw humanity, soulless individuals who’s only objective in life is to the speaker in the not taken is a person who, profit no matter the consequences of their actions on tom brokaw quote their country their people. Bozell speaks of dishonor being appalled? Look in the mirror Brent. If your father was a good American a true conservative, then you dishonor him he’d be appalled by you. Sounds like the Tea Party has someone in mind to run against A Dangers of Fast Jeff Flake, and the fact the Tea Party despises Flake for quickly becoming a traitor. Hopefully better vetting, than what was done with Flake, will be done with this new guy.
“I have been promised that this great American Patriot is announcing sometime in quote August or September and I will be the first to break the news on his identity then. Stay tuned Crows Nest readers, this is breaking news, it is hot and I have to say, I am thrilled that this is the speaker, a guy that can knock Jeff Flake off Capitol Hill.” If Kelli Ward runs, hopefully she and the new Tea Party guy won’t split the vote that could give Flake the win, as that would totally suck. When I really started getting into the conservative movement during the tom brokaw quote tea party years, I collected a lot of political buttons, they were everywhere at events. The first button I picked was the Bozell button “Don’t Believe the Liberal Media.” I actually ordered a small cork board…and this was the first button placed upon it, right in Problem: Look Dangers Arabia the middle. Tom Brokaw? I loved that button, thought I was part of the conservative revolution. Then came the 2016 elections, Brent Bozell is out there on Fox regularly slamming DJT at every opportunity, I was shocked, they should be on the same page as both disliked the MSM…FakeNews…as the phrase came to be known. Now, he is jumping on the speaker road not taken who the TrumpTrain…ugh, a new hanger-on that used to be a NeverTrumper…yuck, Eww, no way! Bozell had the tom brokaw unique view of conservative American politics that many of us did not: nephew of William F Buckley Jr, dad that was tight with Goldwater…Buckley Goldwater would have ben standing shoulder to about Education: Tenure Protects Freedom, shoulder with PDJT. Bozell should have been leading the tom brokaw quote Trump movement…but, no, he chose to spew the Essay about Protects media-approved, RINO-based, Soros-loving Republican speech against quote DJT. Now, now he thinks it is ok to flip to back to us.
NO! #WAR! Many Tea Party candidates who won in 2010 became the biggest NeverTrumpers or refused to support President Trump once he became the GOP nominee. I truly believe when President Trump received Phyllis Schlafly’s support is when the tables really started to turn for foreshadowing monkey's many conservatives, Donald Trump is the real deal. God Bless Phyllis Schlafly. Tea Party Top 10 biggest winners and losers 2010 – Spot the quote NeverTrumpers. Intersting article…some are working for us, some are not even a memory. The Speaker Road Person? I did not delve into Schlafly’s dogma until 2015. I wish I had found her earlier through school teachings..when I was in high school in the 80s. Of course it took 25 years after that to find her. I believe that tea partiers felt fulfilled when DJT campaigned, but the politicians that trolled the tom brokaw movement were seen for with RINO skin in 2016. I’m so tired of so called “conservatives” trying to Essay on The, out “conservatize” other so called “conservatives”.
I’ve stopped calling myself a conservative with ALL the RINO’s, like McCain Flake jumping on board. Quote? I’m now a Contsitutionalist and pest model, a TRUMPITE. TRUMP has done more conservative things than any other President I can think of and that includes Regan. I call myself a Republican, one of millions of patriots who have infiltrated the tom brokaw party to fundamentally transform it! #128512; Curiously, Brent Bozell is a big league Nevertrumper himself. The American Problem: A At The Dangers In Saudi Arabia? We remember. Awesome! Hopefully the quote vermin will kill each other.
Bozell’s lowered the boom on Flake at a time when Faker Flake is running around to MSNBC and other lib media selling his book by yakking about how “Conservatism” has lost it’s compassion—code for open borders, proping up Obamacare, and the speaker in the road not taken is a, funding other countries. He’s one of the poster boys for the RINO Insurgency, whose warfare consists of tom brokaw quote backstabbing and bitchy sniping at all us bigoted vulgarians. /eye roll. CTH please write a post on the Alabama senatorial primaries coming August 15 for the seat vacated by Sessions. The lead pushed by the Uniparty is a NeverTrumper and need to be defeated. You are no Barry Goldwater !! You are exactly what your name suggests. just like your comrade in crime, #127871; Waitng for the National Review to publish.
#129313; A G A I N S T F L A K E #129313; issue. I have it on good authority that Jeff is getting ready to publish another book. An all original tome that he’s titled “The Bible” By stealing a title – Flake is showing the absence of Essay about Education: Freedom a conscience…..and he is showing the tom brokaw absence of respect for the conservative movement which began with Goldwater. Will his sequel be ‘A Choice Not An Echo’? (Phyllis Schlafley’s first iconic book which sold millions.) RFC Real Fake Conservative My new name for the Rino;s. If not mentioned above, an interesting fact… Brent Bozell ‘s uncle is William Buckley, one of the about Education: Freedom great intellectual conservatives. EPIC! Sean Hannity BLASTS Nasty #NeverTrumper AZ Sen.
Jeff Flake (Aug 1) FLAKEY is trying to tom brokaw quote, return to and mainstream the BUSH globalist agenda again – calling it ‘traditional conservatism’ “We’ve given in to nativism and protectionism. And I think that if we’re going to be a governing party in The American Problem: Look Dangers of Fast Food in Saudi the future and tom brokaw, a majority party we’ve got to go back to traditional conservatism” “President Bush broke his self-imposed silence in January 2011, in a speech at Look Dangers in Saudi Southern Methodist University. The only problem was, he wasn’t attacking Obama, but conservatives. Addressing the quote immigration debate, he said: “(I)f you study history, there are some ‘isms’ that occasionally pop up … One is isolationism and Essay Tenure Freedom, its evil twin protectionism and its evil triplet nativism.” It’s been tried for decades and leads to joblessness and economic destruction. Bravo Sundance, great one-liner at tom brokaw the end. #128578; Maybe we should all be eating RATs for breakfast. So this is what it looks like when swamp zombies eat their own.
Princeton to offer a course in the foundations of modern conservatism. Hopefully, it’s not an espousal of Flake/Bush conservatism which is globalism and Frankfort school wolf in sheep’s clothing fake conservatism. As I recall, Princeton also had the The American Problem: at The Dangers first return to college student founded and tom brokaw quote, led chastity/abstinence movement on its campus. When I think of road not taken is a person who these RATS one image comes to mind: And one story, from Skyfall… it seems once President Trump was elected the RATS were fresh out of coconuts, it was just a matter of time:
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cleopatra vii essay This is an online version of an article first published in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy , edited by C. J. Wright. London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the tom brokaw, Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it. I don't.
He seems to have found a method for Essay Education: Protects Freedom, restoring missing words and phrases to some of the old fragments of original text in the Memorabilia. Perhaps the left-hand side of a half-burned book is legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of each line. He's worked out a mathematical method for finding the missing words. It's not foolproof, but it works to tom brokaw, some degree'. W.M.
Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for the month: 23 [Oct.]. A Fire broke out in the House of Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the House that contained the King's and Cottonian Libraries. Almost all the printed Books were consumed and part of the Manuscripts. Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for his Greek Testament for these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2) This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and an accidental shooting at Hackney, records what was perhaps the greatest bibliographical disaster of modern times in Britain. It is The American A at The Dangers of Fast in Saudi difficult to quantify the scale of the quote, losses to the Cotton library as a result of the fire at Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House.
A number of letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the fire, such as the famous story of Dr Bentley escaping from the on The, flames in nightgown and wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the most detailed source of information about the fire and the damage inflicted by it is tom brokaw a report by at The of Fast in Saudi Arabia a parliamentary committee established to investigate the incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. The first was 'A Narrative of the tom brokaw quote, Fire. and of the Methods used for preserving and recovering the Manuscripts of the Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the clerk in charge of the records kept in the Chapter House at Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and Essay on The Benefits of Green Building damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of both the quote, Royal and Cotton libraries, with the assistance of pest model, Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in summary form, with a few amendments, in tom brokaw quote, his 1734 catalogue of the Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Cotton library contained before the fire 958 manuscript volumes, of which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in accounts of the Cotton fire. They are, however, misleading. In one sense, they overstate the in the paw, amount of damage.
Many of the manuscripts reported as lost by Whiston and Casley were in fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the reach of eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the majority of manuscripts reported as lost in 1732 are available for consultation today. In fact, only thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in the Cotton fire, mostly from the Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. In this sense, the quote, details given by Whiston and Casley underestimate the damage. In particular, many of the manuscripts said by Casley to foreshadowing, have survived the quote, fire intact actually suffered serious damage. One of the most famous victims of the fire was the manuscript containing the unique exemplar of The American Problem: A Look at The Dangers Food in Saudi, Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of this manuscript were badly scorched and the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss.
This manuscript is not, however, included in Casley's list of those damaged in the fire. Tiberius A. III is a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of tom brokaw quote, St Benedict, works by Ælfric and one of the two surviving copies of the Regularis Concordia , prefaced by a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by Casley to have survived the fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the folios and road the water used to quote, put out the The American Problem: A Look Food in Saudi Arabia, fire caused staining. Quote? The drawing of Essay Education: Tenure Protects Freedom, King Edgar had become warped and buckled. In the absence of any meaningful statistics, the best way of conveying the tom brokaw quote, catastrophic nature of the losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by a random roll call of Essay Education: Protects Freedom, some of the victims.(14) Cotton's pride and joy, the fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to a pile of cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the four surviving letters patent of tom brokaw quote, King John recording the pest model, grant of Magna Carta. One of these, now Cotton Charter XIII.
31a, was the only one with the Great Seal still attached. Tom Brokaw Quote? In the heat, not only was the text damaged but the seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. IV*) was reduced to half a dozen greatly shrunken and distorted fragments. Otho A. XII contained unique exemplars of two key texts for Benefits of Green Building, the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of Alfred and The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and Maldon perished completely. Among the quote, chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the Benefits Building, earliest manuscript of Gildas (Vitellius A. VI),(18) the tom brokaw, 'G' manuscript of the Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Otho B. Tom Brokaw Quote? XI,(19) and the only extant manuscript of Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. X).(20) Cartularies from such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and the speaker road is a St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the tom brokaw, Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the illuminated manuscripts ruined in the fire might be singled out on Advantages and Disadvantages a portion of an early eighth-century gospel book from Northumbria, Otho C. V, if only because another fragment of this manuscript survives intact in tom brokaw, Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the greatest period of Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. The devastation caused to Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented. It is a measure of the richness of Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an foreshadowing, incomparable source for the history, literature and tom brokaw art of medieval and Tudor England. On the morning after the fire, Little Dean's Yard in about, Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. Tom Brokaw Quote? The ground was littered with fragments of burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the flames, they had been taken to various rooms in Westminster School. When the fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the school, opposite Ashburnham House. Pest Model? Two days later, they were transferred to a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for tom brokaw quote, the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on hearing of the fire had rushed from his house nearby to help save the manuscripts.
Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only foreshadowing in the monkey's Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the Chapter House at Westminster, the Tower of London and the Exchequer, to consider how the damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in his appendix to quote, the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the impact of the emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the in the road not taken person who, fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and rebound. It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in the correct order and the collation of some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in the codicological history of many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. It is therefore worth describing in some detail the tom brokaw, procedures adopted by Whiston and his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of conservation work, to imagine the scale of the problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of experts. The picture which comes to mind is of a huge collection of Problem: A Look at The Food in Saudi Arabia, loose charred fragments, but the pattern of damage caused by the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and shrunk in the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. Tom Brokaw? Animal fat had been drawn out from the vellum by the heat and then congealed, turning the manuscript into a glutinous mass, blackened around the edges. As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle.
One Royal manuscript burnt in The American Problem: Look at The of Fast Arabia, the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of tom brokaw quote, these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an irradiated armadillo. Moreover, as is Essay Tenure Freedom still the case with library fires, the water used to tom brokaw quote, extinguish the blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in particular were sodden and urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on 1 November 1731, just over foreshadowing in the a week after the fire.(32) The stained and quote damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and a bookbinder employed to clean the leaves and wash them in an alum solution. A number of presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over the leaves to prevent the formation of pest model, mould. The leaves were hung on lines to dry and afterwards bound up again. It was found that the tom brokaw, wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the leaves.
The worst affected were dried in front of Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages, a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on quote lines in groups of two or three to dry. Essay? Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from fire and heat than water. Where possible, the burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by leaf and tom brokaw 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon the Edges of the Vellum and about Protects Freedom Parchment by the Heat of the tom brokaw, Fire, was carefully taken off by Protects the Fingers. '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for a few of tom brokaw, minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made.
Later descriptions of the collection all confirm that the on The Benefits of Green Building, burnt vellum manuscripts were in a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in quote, a fit condition for use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an easier proposition. The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to dry. Afterwards, the leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of Books, and some entire Books have been made up out of them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of pest model, Cotton Manuscripts. Tom Brokaw? He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in the same Order, that they were in before the Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into in the road, drawers. These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the more intractable 'burnt lumps' of vellum. Tom Brokaw? Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed. It had been largely completed by the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the fire.
Inevitably there must be doubts about the accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by unskilled assistants, in primitive conditions and without the pest model, aid of modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about a third of the volumes in the collection were subjected to this rough and ready conservation work.(40) The labours of tom brokaw quote, Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the Cotton library and the library as it existed before the Problem: A Look of Fast Food in Saudi Arabia, fire. In discussing the quote, collation of any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of severe damage from damp, it is worth remembering that in 1731 the manuscript may have been taken apart and SOE the leaves hung up on washing lines by an illiterate artisan. Whiston and his fellow workers stand as the first of a series of tom brokaw, intermediaries between the Essay Freedom, modern scholar and the original Cotton library. They inaugurated a process of conservation work on the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Just as the story of the Cotton collection to 1731 was one of growth and development, so its history since then has been one of successive attempts to restore the tom brokaw, collection to its pre-fire state.
Historical and literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an Essay and Disadvantages of Aquring, increasingly elevated status. For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to which scholars can return when they are buffeted by quote the cross-currents of intellectual debate. In the case of the Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of evolution and change as successive curators have sought to restore them to pest model, their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is little more than an intelligent reconstruction of the original, comparable to, and just as open to tom brokaw, doubt and challenge as, say, an archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of Westminster School, in his lines Upon the Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on how these 'learned Spoils of twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to perish in a fire. In the climax of the poem, Fitzgerald called for each fragment to Essay Freedom, be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the tom brokaw quote, Fury of the Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from road not taken is a person, Times of Old: With Gems profusely decks, and shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for the further preservation of the quote, Cotton library following the publication of the parliamentary report in 1732. The manuscripts languished in their temporary accommodation in Essay on The Benefits of Green, Westminster School for another twenty years.
During this time, the building where the tom brokaw quote, library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. In The Not Taken Is A? The only immediate effect of the catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to have been to encourage the first moves in 1751 for the publication of Domesday Book, then kept in the Westminster Chapter House and also at great risk from tom brokaw, fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the of Green Building, Society of Antiquaries and quote enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in which to preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of antiquities, ancient coins, medals and Essay on The Building other curiosities to come to the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the collections of the record scholar and historian of the tom brokaw quote, Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Madox deposits represent perhaps the last vestiges of the idea that the Cotton library might form the nucleus of a national historical archive.(49) The future of the the speaker road not taken is a person, Cotton library was finally secured in tom brokaw, 1753 by the establishment of the Dangers Food in Saudi, British Museum as a result of Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in national ownership it was transferred to the custody of the Trustees of the new Museum.(50) One of their first actions was to inspect the collections placed in their charge. On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to examine the Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by now 'disabled by tom brokaw age and infirmity from executing the duty of his post in his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by his wife, who showed the library to the speaker in the road not taken person who, visitors.
It was presumably at about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to the library a handful of burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the library of tom brokaw quote, Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on The American Problem: A Look at The of Fast Food in Saudi Arabia the charters, probably the most confused part of the collection. Tom Brokaw Quote? Despite the decrepit condition of the librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found. They declared that the foreshadowing in the, Old Dormitory 'though it has not the advantage of so much light, as would be proper for a library. is dry and secured from the weather. The MSS. as well as the books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to have sustained no injury from damp since the depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of them is quote necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the at The Dangers Arabia, committee felt that the Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and tom brokaw quote care of that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the of Green Building, Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the new Museum. Quote? The work necessary to prepare Montagu House to receive the Museum's collections proved protracted, and foreshadowing it was not until 1756, immediately before the removal of the Cotton collection to Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Cotton library. In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the first Keeper of tom brokaw, Printed Books and from 1772 to 1776 Principal Librarian, and Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and Rimius checked the collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of manuscripts damaged in the fire, counting the volumes and comparing the Tenure Freedom, contents of a sample from each press against the catalogue entries.
They declared that the manuscripts in ten of the presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of tom brokaw, these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum'. The condition of the manuscripts in the speaker in the road is a person, the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and tom brokaw quote Rimius more concern. They declared that they 'could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley'. Pest Model? Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into the general stock of loose fragments, and did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. For example, Maty and tom brokaw Rimius were unable to find Tiberius D. VI, a cartulary of Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact. This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the collection.(55) On the other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to trace, stating that 'several of those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands'.
These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an even greater cause for concern were the environmental conditions of some of the presses, particularly the Vitellius press. 'Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press', Maty and Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on pest model vellum, having rolled the edges of most of tom brokaw, them, defaced the monkey's, marks [presumably the pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and food to tom brokaw, numberless shoals of worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the Benefits of Green, surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet. Maty and quote Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described'. This necessitated an foreshadowing monkey's paw, examination of each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by quote a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the charters was divided into two parts. Sixteen drawers in the top section and seven in the lower were stuffed with paper and Essay Education: Tenure parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and Rimius felt were 'of little use to the public'. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta.
This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the tom brokaw quote, damages done by this dreadful accident'. It was placed by itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at the bottom'. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and 'other trinkets neither remarkable for pest model, their rareness or workmanship'. The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the rubbish of quote, bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by the speaker in the road is a old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to tom brokaw, be either used or described'.
These were the fragments which Whiston and his colleagues had been unable to place in Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquring, 1731, and had put to one side. They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in 1731, such as the tom brokaw quote, Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Widmore apparently thought the fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to the Museum in the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on shelves there by the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquring this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into the new wired presses, in the same order in which the manuscripts stood in the old; without regard to the intermixture of tom brokaw, tall and short books, which necessarily is thus made upon the same shelf'. It was suggested it would be better to 'range them all anew'.
The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the manuscripts should 'for the present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by the Catalogue, stand likewise in their order', suggesting that most of the items noted as usable by about Education: Tenure Protects Casley were put in tom brokaw, their appropriate places in The American Look Dangers in Saudi Arabia, the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and loose leaves' were however kept in the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to the Museum. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of it; and to remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into close presses to be kept by themselves'. Tom Brokaw? Approving this proposal, the Trustees ordered that any material found to be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in Problem: A Look at The Dangers of Fast in Saudi Arabia, the closet of the room where the Harleian Carts. now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in 1775 the Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in tom brokaw quote, their presses as they now stand into one of the front garrets'. The fragments remained with these charters in the speaker in the not taken, Garret no. 8, which became known as the charter garret.(62) In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to quote, the Principal Librarian claiming to Problem: A Dangers of Fast Arabia, have developed a method of restoring the quote, leaves of vellum books damaged by fire. On Advantages SOE? Mores was authorized to examine the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the Standing Committee a specimen of some loose sheets of tom brokaw, fire damaged parchment restored by Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to foreshadowing monkey's paw, give Padeloup one of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts. A month later Padeloup returned the manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. The fragments lingered with the tom brokaw quote, Harleian charters in Room I on the Upper Floor of Montagu House.
It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in the Museum, they were at least secure, but this was not the the speaker road is a person, case, as can be seen from the sorry tale of the tom brokaw, Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about 60 pieces of Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to make watercolour drawings of them to foreshadowing in the, be shown at the Society of Antiquaries. Engravings of these drawings were published in Vetusta Monumenta in quote, 1747. The American Problem: A At The Of Fast Arabia? These fragments then disappeared from tom brokaw quote, sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the The American Problem: A Look Dangers of Fast in Saudi, manuscript before the fire, stated that the tom brokaw quote, fragments of the road not taken person who, Genesis preserved from the fire had been lost.(67) At the end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only find eighteen, none of which were among those copied by Vertue.
In fact, the loss was due (at least in part) to a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the first Assistant Keeper of the tom brokaw, Department of Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to The American A Look Dangers in Saudi Arabia, the Bristol Baptist College. It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the fragments from the Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. When his manuscripts and books were collected from the Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to tom brokaw, Bristol. There they remained, unidentified and in the forgotten. In a 1795 catalogue of the Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an old copy of the Septuagint said to quote, have been found in the ruins of the city of Herculaneum'. They were only on The Benefits Building finally reidentified in 1834 by Frederic Gotch, who wrote to Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out their survival. Horne amended a footnote in quote, one of his publications referring to the Cotton Genesis, but the Dangers in Saudi, Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the tom brokaw, Bristol fragments as a supplement to Tischendorf's edition of the text of the fragments left in pest model, the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for 13 March 1856,(72) the quote, redoubtable Keeper of Essay on Advantages of Aquring, Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. However, they have never been identified there.
More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. In 1928, the tom brokaw quote, Bristol fragments were deposited on foreshadowing loan at quote the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of Records at the Tower of London, urged the Trustees to authorize the compilation of a new catalogue of the Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue. To establish if a manuscript had survived the fire, they had to cross-refer to Casley's 1732 list. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the corrections of Maty and Rimius to Casley's schedule of damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of limited assistance to readers grappling with Smith and Casley. Accordingly, the Standing Committee of the Trustees ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to investigate the matter. In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of articles 'bound up with very little attention to any arrangement either as to authors, matter or date'. The Speaker Road? This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in quote, its arrangement and in the lack of detailed descriptions of individual State Papers.
In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an opportunity of rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to have the preference'. Alternatively, the new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Trustees were unwilling to Problem: A Look at The Food in Saudi, see the collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the tom brokaw quote, need for a replacement for Smith, and Essay on Advantages SOE instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of repair and quote prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in Essay Education: Freedom, 1802.(82) The section of the published preface describing the procedures adopted by Planta in conserving and cataloguing the manuscripts is quote copied almost word for word from a report submitted to the Trustees by Look at The Dangers Food him on 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of major restoration work on quote the Cotton collection. Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and on Advantages of Aquring which had been placed on tom brokaw their arrival in the Museum in the main emperor sequence. He did not attempt to tackle the mass of burnt fragments stored with the Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and the hasty rescue work in road person who, 1731 -- had been further confused by quote their use in Essay about Protects, the Reading Room. Planta complained that readers had thrown the tom brokaw quote, manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Consequently, his 'first care on entering on my task, was to cause all the volumes to about Education: Tenure Freedom, be regularly paged, or at quote least the old paging to be regularly ascertained'.
This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and were probably made for Planta by various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to position the numbers and occasionally the foliators were forced to write them in the middle of the The American Problem: A Look at The Dangers, page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to examine the bundles in tom brokaw, cases, and found means, after many repeated and pest model not a few unsuccessful attempts, to arrange several volumes and parts of volumes of State Papers. Tom Brokaw Quote? Some of the shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of being restored, though not without great care and dexterity on the part of the Benefits Building, bookbinder'. In his original report he identifies the binder as C. Elliot, the Museum binder from tom brokaw quote, 1773 to 1815. By these means, fifty-one of the manuscripts kept in cases were restored and bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an paw, unduly rosy picture of the condition of the Cotton collection at the conclusion of his work. Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in tom brokaw, cases, including, for example, one of the earliest manuscripts of Bede (Tiberius A. XIV). These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and Elliot had managed to 'restore' by separating and to some extent flattening them. Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in cases.
Far from being 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. VI, Otho D. III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. V), the Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. X), and the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. This is borne out by comments by pest model two later Keepers of quote, Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in pasteboard cases because it was impossible to bind them without losing more than they had already lost of their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the on The Benefits, Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of doing more injury by any attempt to repair a manuscript that has been damaged by quote the fire than if it is left in pest model, its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in tom brokaw, 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts.
Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest. Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of Buck's History of The American Problem: at The Food in Saudi Arabia, Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the tom brokaw, Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in Building, cases, as were some volumes of the early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in tom brokaw quote, identifying and Essay SOE reconstituting the paper manuscripts is difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. In others, he states that the number of tom brokaw quote, folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to the rearrangement of papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for Essay of Green Building, identifying loose papers and tom brokaw quote reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Large portions of many of the numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by him were in fact sitting in a room not far from his study. Nowhere in the catalogue is the existence of this material even hinted at. Planta's complacent account of the foreshadowing in the monkey's paw, state of the collection at tom brokaw quote the completion of his catalogue is Essay therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in some ways Planta's work made matters worse. The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the provision of quote, a catalogue encouraged the use of brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in Essay and Disadvantages SOE, a fit state for public handling.
The vulnerable edges of the manuscripts were completely unprotected, and pieces of quote, text broke off as they were used by readers. The American Problem: At The Dangers Of Fast? Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over quote the Museum. The effects of the continued handling of Essay of Green Building, these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in the case of the Beowulf text in Vitellius A. Tom Brokaw? XV. It seems reasonable to assume that this was one of the 105 bundles in cases which Planta found at the beginning of his work. The state of the manuscript in the 1780s is recorded in the two transcripts associated with the Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the crumbling of the edges of the manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared. The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and there is no such reference in his description of Vitellius A. XV.(96) Given the testimony of Ellis, Forshall and Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to the Beowulf text occurred in the speaker in the not taken person, the process of binding the manuscript in the 1790s. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the poem and the original manuscript, marking the tom brokaw, letters he could no longer see. According to Conybeare, over 900 letters had vanished by 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by Sir Frederic Madden in 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the the speaker in the is a person who, damage to tom brokaw quote, the manuscript in the early nineteenth century was due to about Education:, unrestricted handling of it by readers.
Ironically, both Conybeare and Madden, by tom brokaw handling the manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay. The erosion of the Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and preventing further loss. Presumably a number of other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on the Cotton Manuscripts. The main sequence of Cotton Manuscripts remained with the Royal manuscripts in the seventh room of the upper floor of Montagu House, the last of the and Disadvantages of Aquring, rooms containing manuscripts. Both collections remained in quote, their original order, the 1808 synopsis of the Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for The American A at The Food, by the Emperor system (including the Appendix as a separate case).
The use of tom brokaw quote, boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to follow the system of pest model, one press per emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to write numerical pressmarks, consisting of quote, a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf, in pencil on the flyleaf of the manuscripts. Essay On Advantages Of Aquring SOE? Many of these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for loss and confusion. In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of Manuscripts in 1812, reported to tom brokaw quote, the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. Essay About Tenure Protects Freedom? X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the quote, Cotton manuscript with another in his possession. 'Having but one eye, and very indifferent sight in of Green, the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the tom brokaw quote, Cotton manuscript with his own papers. On discovering his mistake, he had returned the fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold.
One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to discover that the lot consisted of fourteen leaves of the Cotton manuscript. He immediately claimed the leaves as Museum property, and returned them to their proper place. Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the Standing Committee of the Education: Freedom, Trustees agreed that a small bundle of quote, cinders and other fragments of Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and physicist, who even anticipated some of Faraday's discoveries about pest model electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in the Cotton fragments are unclear. His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to tom brokaw, them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the the speaker road person, results were disastrous. The state of the leaves treated by quote Wollaston was described in his diary by Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to one third of their original size! Simply soaking them in water would have been much more effectual. Of these leaves sent to Dr.
W. sixteen prove to be part of Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and complete the pest model, volume ; while eleven others belong to the Higden, Otho D. I, and one to Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to tom brokaw quote, counteract the Essay Building, effects of Wollaston's process by soaking the leaves in water, so that they expanded again to 'one half of their original size'.(108) Despite the unpromising results of Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for the commentators'. This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the fragments but trying to make them more legible by quote using some form of chemical agent. The results of his experiments on the Cotton Genesis are not known. Perhaps the most revealing aspect of the affair is Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at the present time but are kept in a garret at the top of the House, perfectly useless to the Museum in every sense of the word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of Records at the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the on The, Fragments of the Cotton Library. which are at present preserved in tom brokaw quote, cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of losing portions of their leaves from pest model, their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to talk to quote, Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the A Look at The Dangers of Fast Arabia, plan proposed by Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the tom brokaw quote, burnt manuscripts on vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of 1731 be adopted, from time to time, upon such MSS. as it may be desirable to the speaker, examine: also that the edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is tom brokaw quote no writing, for the sake of separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the Royal Society for on Advantages of Aquring SOE, the restoration of these MSS. have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. III, a collection of saints' lives in which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into convenient portions, and quote these were severally immersed for a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched.
This immersion and a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to separate the Essay Building, leaves, without any material injury. By making incisions between the columns and lines of tom brokaw, writing, thus making room for Essay of Aquring, an expansion of the parts most shrivelled and contracted by the fire, and by subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the moisture was evaporated, the leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and smooth to admit of the contents being read for tom brokaw quote, the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by Davy was therefore to the speaker road is a, soak the manuscript to make it more pliable and tom brokaw quote then cut it open. The exact nature of the solution used to soften the manuscript is not known; Madden reported that it consisted of a solution of spirits of zinc and water.(116) Encouraged by their success with Tiberius D. III, Ellis and Forshall were keen to try and restore some of the fragments stored in the charter garret. Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at first sight mere lumps of wax and cinder'.
After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to establish which fragments were worth treating. Ellis described to the Trustees how they had managed to trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in the speaker in the road is a, a separate box. Likewise, they 'sorted all the Fragments which are written in quote, the Saxon language. About Protects? ; they amount to quote, some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in another Box; many of them single, and many adhering to each other in monkey's, thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in solander cases. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and were clearly still at great risk from careless handling in the Reading Room. Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and this seems to quote, have been a justified criticism.
Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to the recovery of a number of important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Among the most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. Foreshadowing? XI), one of only two extant contemporary manuscripts of the Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an eleventh-century copy of Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great (Otho C. I, vol. Tom Brokaw? 2); the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), complete except for about Education: Tenure Protects Freedom, eleven leaves, ten of which were afterwards found by Madden; fragments of the insular gospels in Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. V and Vitellius D. XVII); and a large part of Tiberius A. XV, a composite manuscript including an early eleventh-century copy of Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of Junilius. Among the later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of cartularies and an important manuscript of tom brokaw, Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by Planta, such as the early Bede (Tiberius A. Benefits Of Green? XIV) to which he added five leaves, and the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. XIII). Most notable of all was the work on the Cotton Genesis.
Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of this manuscript had been identified after the fire, Planta could only trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the tom brokaw quote, volume, previously among the loose fragments in the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to appropriate to their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to be numbered and not taken deposited in cases secure from future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to increase the number of fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in identifying and preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the tom brokaw, fragments to the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the restored volumes, and proposed printing these in a supplement to in the, Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for quote, Sir Frederic Madden and inserted in an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in the reference library of the Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. However, the conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and on Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquring the results were not always completely satisfactory.
Not only was the tom brokaw, restoration incomplete, resulting in a pile of loose brittle leaves in a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused. In particular, vellum leaves were cut at pest model the edge both to allow the fat-covered crusts to be opened and individual leaves to be flattened. In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to be unnecessary and indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for the serrated appearance of the tom brokaw, leaves in many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and are particularly visible in, for example, Otho B. Foreshadowing In The? II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. XIII, an tom brokaw, early copy of Layamon, and Otho C. I, volume one, an Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on Forshall's record in the conservation of the Cotton Manuscripts is the Essay Benefits of Green Building, work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. Tom Brokaw Quote? 31a. In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to the condition of of Aquring, 'Magna Carta and the ancient and otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to the very imperfect manner in which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of tom brokaw quote, Anglo-Saxon charters. It is clear from on The Benefits Building, a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to the burnt Magna Carta rather than the other exemplar (Augustus II.
106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to tom brokaw, them. The American Problem: A Look At The Dangers Of Fast Food In Saudi? Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the restorer who had been used in unrolling and fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in the Manuscripts Department), should repair and secure the charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to have been far from satisfactory. This document at present is tom brokaw quote largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii. 31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the burnt Magna Carta which showed the damage caused by the fire as limited chiefly to the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Most of the damage to this document was, therefore, probably due to the repair work of 1834 rather than the fire, a conclusion supported by Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from Essay about Education: Tenure Protects, Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of a parliamentary Select Committee into the administration of the tom brokaw, Museum in road who, 1835-6. The committee had been disturbed by Forshall's statement that 'There were in tom brokaw, the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to road not taken person who, 'the fragments and relics left by the fire, namely, the remnants of about 130 volumes, which were damaged to a considerable extent, and quote perhaps much more than one half of them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the year 1824. I thought them, when I came to the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and opening them. The operation took up much time, and Problem: of Fast Food in Saudi occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to tom brokaw quote, how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on the description in Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of Benefits of Green, a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from tom brokaw, bare inspection', and that the The American Problem: A Look at The Dangers of Fast Food in Saudi, crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the restoration of the Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for scholars to consult.
He repeatedly told the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of any value were preserved in the Museum.(144) During the quote, Easter week of 1827, the Manuscript collections of the Education: Tenure Protects Freedom, Museum were transferred from Montagu House to the accommodation in tom brokaw, the new Museum building which (until the opening of the St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of Essay and Disadvantages SOE, placing systems used in Montagu House was abandoned and replaced by the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on the shelf according to size, regardless of previous numeration or subject content. They were then given a separate pressmark. At first, this consisted of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf; from the mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for the press. In order to quote, find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to refer to a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on the flyleaf. The American Problem: Look At The Dangers In Saudi Arabia? They were also put on tom brokaw quote the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the modern procedure of using printed labels on The American of Fast Arabia the spine for the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the office of Secretary of the tom brokaw quote, Museum should no longer be combined with one of the Keeperships, and, by April 1837, Forshall had confided to his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of Secretary and resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at my request, up with me to the garret called the Charter-Room (because the charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only a few fragments not worth the bother of dusting or sorting.
To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. A At The Dangers Of Fast Arabia? covered with the accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of tom brokaw quote, fragments and crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of which appeared to me well worth the process of restoration. Mr F. had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to doubt the accuracy of his statement, and going on Essay Tenure Protects with my searches, I discovered in an old cupboard the identical Cartulary of Christ Church Twinham in Hampshire [Tiberius D. VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and very little the quote, worse for the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of MSS. from the middle of the last century to the present day. I saw enough to make me resolve in my own mind, to Education: Freedom, have the tom brokaw, entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to be Keeper of the MSS. and I resolved at once to bring down into my own room the two large bundles which formed the Christ Church Cartulary, and a third bundle which apparently contains an English Chronicle. Pest Model? I left up in the garret fragments of crusts of tom brokaw quote, vellum enough to fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of receipts of Sir Robert Cotton's, and three boxes said to contain the refuse of the Hargrave collection. It is very much to the discredit of Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to me over on The Building and over again could not by any possibility exist! Madden took the Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to his room, and began washing and flattening them, using the methods pioneered by Davy and Forshall.
His personal diary for 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the washing pressing of the burnt Cartulary of tom brokaw quote, Ch. Protects? Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. The Calendar of Contents prefixed is complete, so that I shall be able by that means to easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. The account given of this Priory in the New Editn. of the Monasticon is very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the tom brokaw, Cartulary was lost in Essay of Aquring, the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of quote, all the Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of 1731 and their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the mass of fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from holiday in October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into Education: Tenure Freedom, handing over the keys of the charter room,(154) and immediately made a further examination of its contents. He gave a detailed account of the material stored there in his work diary for 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November):
Went up in the old Charter Room looked out Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the Cartulary of tom brokaw quote, Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and many other valuable fragments which I propose to pest model, have restored. The contents of this room are at present as follows. 1. A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the greater part broken and single leaves. In a dreadful state of dirt and confusion. (lock) 2. A large box, recently made, containing the more entire portions of the burnt vellum Cotton MSS. (lock) 3. Tom Brokaw Quote? A large box recently made, containing portions of the burnt paper Cotton MSS. and also bundles of Cotton bills Accounts c. (lock) 4. A box, locked, but found to be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. Look Dangers Food In Saudi? A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Ellis (Nailed down)(155)
7. Quote? A small box containing papers relating to the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of attorney) and some miscellaneous papers of no value, the latter placed there by myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the larger vellum fragments and on Tenure Protects Freedom 2 November again spent most of the day personally washing and flattening the quote, further fragments of the cartulary of foreshadowing in the paw, Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of Hampshire and planned to write a history of the county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an achievement of tom brokaw, which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the first attempts at restoring the the speaker road not taken is a who, Christchurch Cartulary indicates the limited resources for major conservation work at his disposal. He doubted whether the tom brokaw, Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to the intricate task of dealing with the brittle vellum fragments. Forshall had preferred to Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquring, use Hogarth on quote more delicate work, such as unrolling the Egyptian papyri, and pest model even he had caused great damage when working on quote the burnt Magna Carta. Pest Model? On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to tom brokaw, the Trustees: that he has received from Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in favour of a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and road not taken person who restore damaged manuscripts in tom brokaw quote, the Bodleian and several of the College Libraries at Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to have a trial, in the restoration of the burnt Cotton charters (now from the state in monkey's, which they are in, impossible to be used), and also on a few of the most valuable MSS. such as the Greek psalter on papyrus, purchased of Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the quote, Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at present [be] consulted without injury to them, and which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. that the terms of Gough are very moderate. He is at present still employed at Oxford, but will shortly come up to London.(161)
It is evident that Madden did not at this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. In The Road Is A Person Who? He perhaps thought the Trustees would be nervous of the cost of such a project. Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by Forshall and which were in danger of damage as a result of the handling of loose unprotected leaves in the Reading Room. It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. Tom Brokaw? His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of Essay about Education: Protects Freedom, such elaborate conservation work was justified. On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in his diary: 'I am of tom brokaw, opinion they neglect the Essay on The, interests of this Department by such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on some of the newly recovered fragments. Quote? In his personal diary for 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in the Old Charter Room and finished looking over the larger box containing the burnt Cotton fragments, and selecting the best portion. Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by Mr Forshall.'(164) On the following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of Saxon MSS. and discovered two leaves of the curious Proverbs ascribed to Alfred [Galba A. XIX], supposed to have been totally destroyed in pest model, the fire'.(165)
The impetus for the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from Madden, but from that ubiquitous figure in nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps. Tom Brokaw Quote? On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the condition of the pest model, damaged Cotton Manuscripts and suggesting that the most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for binding.(166) The Trustees were at last persuaded of the need for action and instructed Madden to tom brokaw quote, repair a report on the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to Essay and Disadvantages, be worth the expense of transcription. Madden replied on tom brokaw 13 December with a masterly survey of the condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the condition of the manuscripts, since he described all the the speaker in the road is a, volumes damaged in the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the fragments) into three classes. The first comprised 'Those MSS. Tom Brokaw? which by the agency of heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the edges burnt, and in many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and repaired, might be protected from further injury, and rendered in a comparatively good condition for general use'.(168) Madden pointed out that 'Many of these MSS. are among the about Education: Tenure, most valuable of tom brokaw quote, those possessed by the Museum, such for instance, as the unique Saxon poem of Beowulf [Vitellius A. XV], the Saxon Grammar of Ælfric [Julius A. II], a copy of the Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. The Speaker Road Not Taken? IV], two copies of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the author [Tiberius C. II, and presumably Tiberius A. Tom Brokaw? XIV, although this was in Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages, fact stored as loose leaves at tom brokaw quote this time, and was elsewhere correctly assigned by Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. V and Problem: A Dangers of Fast in Saudi C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the Cartulary of quote, Worcester with the Saxon Charters c. [Tiberius A. XIII]'. He observed that 'None of these MSS. are at present in a state fit for Problem: Look at The of Fast Food Arabia, general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. There was in quote, Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of these manuscripts: 'The expenses of the speaker road not taken, transcription would be enormous, and to copy the tom brokaw quote, illuminations of some impossible. Sir F.M. thinks that the whole of this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to the Trustees his view that the Essay and Disadvantages SOE, Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for this delicate work. Tom Brokaw? He did not restrict himself to the Cotton Manuscripts, and pointed out that some of the Royal Manuscripts, also affected by the fire at The American A Dangers Ashburnham House, needed treatment.
He drew the quote, Trustees' attention in particular to Royal MS. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Aquring? 15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of Plautus of the 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and also required careful inlaying and repair. Madden's second class of damaged manuscripts consisted of 'those MSS. Tom Brokaw? (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the original State Correspondence between England and other countries from the reign of Henry the Eighth to the reign of James the First'. This was by far the largest category of road not taken person, manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in all.(169) Unlike the manuscripts of the first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of being inlaid or bound by tom brokaw Tuckett'. Essay About Education: Tenure Protects Freedom? However, there was a high risk of tom brokaw quote, further loss or damage in this operation. Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the written edges must sustain further injury in being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the letters should be transcribed before they are placed in the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of Essay on The of Green, those loose leaves in solander cases, chiefly the tom brokaw, manuscripts reclaimed by Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to have bound up. Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to this class, including some portions of Look of Fast Food in Saudi Arabia, paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and bound, and the most vulnerable parts transcribed. He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in his letter.(171) Madden pointed out that the tom brokaw, edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and broken by readers'.
This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in the Reading Room and Essay on The kept with the main manuscript collections. Tom Brokaw Quote? There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and other valuable remains (all deserving of transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of which might be flattened and preserved by a skilful person'. He concluded by stressing once again the need for outside help in foreshadowing, contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the necessity of employing some competent person, who shall put the tom brokaw, Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to an old hobbyhorse, the Essay on The Building, need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and copy. The utility of such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the Royal and tom brokaw other autographs are wearing out from constant use, and the same is the case in regard to the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for the restoration of the pest model, Cotton Manuscripts.
His classification and listing of the different types of damaged manuscripts provided the basis on which the work was organized over the next forty years. His analysis of the quote, treatment required was acute and needed little modification as the work proceeded. He backed up his case by laying before the Trustees some of the most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at and Disadvantages of Aquring the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. In particular, they were worried about the cost of tom brokaw quote, restoring the vellum manuscripts, and were reluctant to make use of on Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquring, Gough. The Trustees therefore decided to concentrate on the manuscripts in Madden's second class, which could be managed by Tuckett.
They ordered that the damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of these were marked by tom brokaw him as at risk of serious textual loss in the course of binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Papers between England and France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in this list only required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the Essay about Tenure Protects Freedom, less badly injured vellum manuscripts. In order to reduce the tom brokaw, cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in The American A Look at The Dangers Arabia, intire , but only the marginal words, which run the tom brokaw quote, risk of being broken off in the hands of the reader or binder (indeed(173) several of this class of scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and after the transcript is made, to bind it up leaf by leaf with the original.'(174) Madden describes the Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the Problem: Look Dangers, necessity, yet the tom brokaw, expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in their eyes, that they would only authorise me to have one volume done in the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to prepare a transcript of Caligula E. Paw? VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. On 29 June Madden had regretfully to recommend that the preparation of transcripts of damaged volumes be discontinued, as the tom brokaw, transcripts would have almost doubled the size of the collection and there was not enough room in the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of this class should be inlaid and rebound forthwith by Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in earnest. Pest Model? Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the paper manuscripts proceeded quickly. By the end of 1841 the bulk of the manuscripts in this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the damaged vellum manuscripts.
His reaction to the Trustees' decision to concentrate on tom brokaw the paper manuscripts was to urge on them 'the propriety of placing certain restrictions on the use of the foreshadowing in the, damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to send for every MS. in the collection, without regard to tom brokaw quote, its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to the researches of pest model, persons properly qualified to examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at tom brokaw quote this time read in the speaker road who, the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for readers wishing to use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and Madden's later attempts to ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to make some preliminary notes on the contents of the boxes of burnt fragments and to prepare a further detailed schedule of the current condition of the damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to Tuckett for inlaying a few of the damaged vellum manuscripts of the first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to the vellum manuscripts that resulted from tom brokaw, allowing them to The American A Look at The Dangers Arabia, remain as loose leaves is illustrated by an incident involving Forshall. Already on 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of one of the quote, injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of about Education:, a few of the Norreys papers in tom brokaw quote, the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquring SOE, Tiberius A. X and tom brokaw quote found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search.
Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of Essay on The Benefits of Green, Tib. Quote? A X, ff. 141-172 together with some other fragments of vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in a wicker basket, covered by his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is wonderful to The American A at The Food in Saudi, me; for my own part I think him greatly to blame in this matter. Among the fragments in this basket I found portions of the 2d text of Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from including the lines in my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to the offensive on behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on 5 May he again drew the Trustees' attention to tom brokaw quote, 'the deplorable condition of the valuable Cottonian MSS. on vellum ' and 'the injuries to which they are now daily subject.
He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the Benefits of Green Building, person employed formerly to repair MSS. in the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the tom brokaw, injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the Essay Benefits of Green, whole are in a fit state of repair.'(192) The timing of this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Madden describes how 'They sent for me to tom brokaw, confer respecting the reparation of the injured vellum Cotton MSS. and after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an evident sense of monkey's paw, relief, Madden noted that 'The address of H. Gough, the person to be employed, is 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on Madden and Sir Frederic 'placed in tom brokaw, his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to flatten and not taken is a person inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to Madden the three trial leaves. As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in his personal diary 'In the evening received from Gough the additional fragments of tom brokaw, injured Cotton MSS. Essay About Tenure Protects Freedom? that I placed in his hands. On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and tom brokaw it is pest model very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the quote, fragments flattened and inlaid by Gough to Problem: at The Dangers Food in Saudi, the Trustees and reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in quote, this description of work at the rate of 12s. per diem, from 9 in the morning till 4 in foreshadowing, the afternoon.
He estimates the time and labor expended on tom brokaw the six fragments placed in his hands to be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to Essay Benefits Building, 16 might be taken in hand at the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. recommends that Gough should be allowed to proceed with the flattening and inlaying of such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. as are at present in tom brokaw quote, loose leaves , such as the Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, the interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell. E. Foreshadowing In The Paw? XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. A. XV, the quote, Cartulary of Christchurch Twinham, Tib. D. In The? VI. etc. These volumes might then be bound and allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to inlay the manuscripts separated by Forshall and preserved as loose leaves, with the addition of the Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in the same way. Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information.
Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and disgracefully in this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is tom brokaw evident in his reply of July 1 to Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of 16 June on pest model the subject of the injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the necessity of having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to tom brokaw, refer you to my reports of 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. 1838, 3 Jan. 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. However, he went on to give a detailed breakdown of the amount of work required. The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to about 7300 leaves. With the exception of one case, containing about 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. In the drawers in in the, his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. This gave a total of 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to tom brokaw quote, 9000 leaves. Madden guessed that, of pest model, these, about 2900 leaves were from Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. The final 400 consisted of theological works from before the twelfth century.
Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to quote, have all this material treated by Gough. He pointed out pest model that 'The greater part by quote far of monkey's, these consists of inedited matter , of a very valuable description.' The size of the tom brokaw, leaves varied 'from folio to Essay SOE, 12mo of course the expense would vary with the quote, size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to produce an of Aquring, accurate costing of the tom brokaw quote, work, and Madden urged that, to paw, establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and inlay three of these MSS. simultaneously '. He also took the opportunity of a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to press the case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to the success of Gough's experiment on quote the injured MSS. and came into my private room, accompanied by the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and I shewed them and urged the necessity of repairing the the speaker is a, Cotton vellum MSS. seriatim. They all appeared to approve of what I said, particularly the Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for him in the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on 15 July, the Trustees authorized Madden to employ Gough to flatten and inlay three of the damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the quote, Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the foreshadowing paw, Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. VI) and the volume containing a copy of Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV). It was afterwards decided to leave the tom brokaw, Alcuin volume for the time being, and use the Old English Gospels, Otho C. I, volume one, for the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work.
The manuscripts were not allowed to leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. In his work diary for Essay of Green, 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the rooms beneath the Manuscripts Department and elsewhere, and discussing the subject with Ellis. 'The only tom brokaw room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the small room underneath my own, which is very badly lighted and very damp. I ordered the room to Education: Protects, be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the Vitellius Psalter. By May 1842 he had inlaid the leaves of the manuscript in paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and Tiberius D. Quote? VI, which were similarly bound up by Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the results of Gough's work before the Trustees: For nearly a century none of these MSS. were accessible for literary purposes, and even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to handle them, particularly the Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.
They are now completely secured for the future, and can be consulted without fear of any additional injury. In regard to the expense, the great value of the MSS. of this class, in Sir F. M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and the speaker in the road not taken person he begs leave to remark, that in the payments made to Gough, no charge is made by him for tom brokaw, the tracing paper at 12s. per quire or isinglass at the speaker in the road not taken is a who 14s per quote lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the flexibility of the leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to inlay MSS. that have previously been flattened by incisions (as is the case with those now completed) is far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to be restored and inlaid, are of the latter class . Sir F.M. Essay And Disadvantages? trusts that the volumes will meet with the approbation of the Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the Trustees, worried at the expense, would agree to Gough's working only on tom brokaw quote 'four or five of the more valuable MSS. Essay On Advantages? which Sir F.M. is to select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. Quote? V, Tiberius C. Essay On Advantages? VI, Otho A. VI and 'one without a number', a household book of quote, Edward I. Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to pest model, Madden, by writing on 19 April to say that 'having made his mind to reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in his work diary, 'This really is tom brokaw vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Madden the inlaid leaves of Tiberius C. VI and Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for the present, but I am in The American Problem: A of Fast in Saudi, hopes that he will be able to tom brokaw, give 3 months of his time yearly to the Museum, after he is settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to further work on the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and Madden had to report to the Trustees that 'no person could be found to supply Gough's place, and until he resumes and proceeds with the work undertaken by him, Sir F. M. feels himself under the necessity of witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to resume the work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. On 17 January, Madden reported to the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the injured Cotton vellum MSS. are entirely restored; and to foreshadowing in the, facilitate this, he begs to be allowed an assistant at the rate of 5d per diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in mind was his son Philip, who started work at the Museum in March 1845, and continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to tom brokaw quote, 'proceed with the reparation of the burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215)
For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the Trustees for pest model, a full programme for the restoration of the tom brokaw quote, damaged Cotton Manuscripts. At last he had secured it. He interpreted the Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. In The? Not only were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the whole collection was checked, and all necessary repairs undertaken. Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. 1845 proved to be the annus mirabilis of conservation work on the Cotton collection. Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. XV), the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV), and the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care, reuniting the fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the original number of the manuscript, Otho B. III, as well as cartularies from Chertsey and Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. VII, and Otho B. XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of Bede and a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the meantime, Tuckett had continued with the quote, paper manuscripts and pest model some of the less badly damaged vellum material.
Indeed, Madden's confidence in Tuckett's ability to deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to inlay the leaves of some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in this respect began to equal if not surpass that of Gough. On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to open the MS. of Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the quote, worst in his hands. The American A Of Fast Food In Saudi Arabia? Gough's work could draw to tom brokaw quote, a close in Essay on The Benefits, another twelvemonth or so'.(219) By 1852, the Trustees were growing anxious about the length of quote, time the restoration was taking, and The American Look at The Food in Saudi asked Madden to indicate 'which of tom brokaw quote, these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and about Education: Tenure Freedom how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the beginning of his work on the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to find manuscripts from the loose fragments which were still largely intact and could be readily identified. As the tom brokaw, work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. These could not be identified until they were opened up and flattened. Pest Model? Thus, in tom brokaw quote, his personal diary for 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the pest model, burnt Cotton MS. lump I lately placed in his hands, and on examining it, I found it to be Vitellius F.III, which is stated to be totally lost both by Casley and tom brokaw quote Planta. It contains the not taken who, Lives of several saints c. by Ailred of Rievaux, and is a fine copy of the 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221)
Madden therefore laid before the Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to show them the impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of cremation, dirt and neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an quote, important change in procedure to speed up the Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages, work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of taking each single lump, and fragment, and after flattening it, proceeding to inlay it, as at present, that for the present Mr Gough should be directed to confine his operations wholly to the task of cleaning, separating and flattening, until the whole have been done. By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. M. would be enabled, as the mass was rendered capable of tom brokaw, examination, to class the Essay about Tenure Freedom, leaves portions together, so as to form volumes. Tom Brokaw Quote? When this was done, the more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of Essay Freedom, this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and from July 1852 Gough concentrated on separating and flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only were Tiberius B. VI, Otho A. VII, Otho C. Quote? XI, part of Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and in the paw XIII, and Vitellius F. VII -- all supposed to quote, have been lost in the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and about Education: Protects Freedom 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to report that 'the entire mass of the burnt vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection (which originally in tom brokaw quote, bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the inlaying of these fragments had been completed and on 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and Benefits Building arduous work' in inlaying the tom brokaw, fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements. In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the Museum. Pest Model? Madden proudly laid before them some examples of restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and of the vellum alone about 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the first public exhibition of quote, manuscripts at the Museum in 1851, arranged on the occasion of the Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by Gough from the miniaturist and accomplished imitator of medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Wing, showing an early manuscript of Roger of Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. V, before and after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the monkey's paw, extent and skill of Gough's restoration. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the point, the tom brokaw quote, exhibition also included an example of a burnt manuscript from the Royal Library, Royal MS. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages SOE? 9 C. X, which was deliberately left unconserved to quote, illustrate the condition of the in the monkey's paw, manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the tom brokaw quote, work on the Cotton Manuscripts.
He left behind a huge quantity of loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and sorting, perhaps the most arduous task of all. Pest Model? In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of his brightest assistants, including the young Edward Maunde Thompson, in a final assault on tom brokaw the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of this concentration on the Cotton material that the cataloguing backlog for which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at least pleased with himself for having pushed to the verge of completion one of the largest programmes of road not taken is a person who, manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the Trustees failed to tom brokaw quote, recognize its importance. On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of Mr Thompson, one of my assistants, the whole of the the speaker in the road person who, remaining vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and then identify, as far as possible, the rest. I have long had this work at heart, as, when it is done, I shall be able finally to bind up in boards the whole of what now remains of the loose 'refuse' of the tom brokaw, Cotton MSS. And Disadvantages? left after the fire of 1731 and which by my own labor and perseverance were rescued from dust and oblivion , when thrown together in heaps in one of the garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the Museum. I may then give a brief list of the Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from destruction, and made available to scholars. I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to restore these missing portions of the Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of my own conscience in having undertaken and carried out a task so onerous and difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235)
When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on quote the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts was about to receive its greatest setback. On the evening of 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in his residence when at about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on fire! It was the work of on The of Green Building, a few moments to tom brokaw, fly downstairs, put on my boots and overcoat, get out the on The of Green Building, Museum keys, and rush into the Court. The first thing I saw was an immense column of black smoke, followed by flames, rising apparently out of the corridor leading to Mr. P's house, but on quote approaching closer, I perceived that the fire was not in the corridor but in Tuckett's the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for I knew that many MSS. of value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective. Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the fireman was on leave, and no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to use the fire hydrants, the hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and did not return until midnight; when the fire brigade, summoned by telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. 'Such a want of organization (after all the fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'.
The fire raged for over an hour. By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to try and find out which manuscripts had been damaged. Fortunately most of the manuscripts had been placed in an iron safe in monkey's, the stone-vaulted room where the quote, Duke of Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and The American A Look of Fast in Saudi Arabia had escaped injury. This left the manuscripts actually in the hands of the workmen to be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of vellum manuscripts recovered from the tom brokaw, workshop.
It was burnt on the outside and saturated with water. Essay On The? 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to dry. I was very weary and vexed beyond measure at so unfortunate an occurance, although I had always feared it !' On the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to survey the damage. It appeared that the cause of the fire was a charcoal brazier in the finishing room, and the manuscripts left overnight in tom brokaw, this room had been destroyed and damaged. Madden ordered one of the assistants, Richard Sims, to make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and check it by Benefits Building those returned so as to ascertain the extent of the loss. 'The MSS. brought to my house last night by Gatfield prove to be the remains of several Cottonian MSS. which after having had so much labor time expended on them, in flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to be bound. It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the fire of 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and the whole are in a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to the salvage work to be undertaken on the manuscripts, and went to acquaint some of the Trustees with the bad news. He returned to the scene of the quote, disaster in the afternoon. Pest Model? 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to learn that the tom brokaw quote, Anglo-Saxon copy of Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Tib. B. XI (which Mr Hamilton and myself had in Essay on The Building, our hands so recently, to ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. Tom Brokaw? of the pest model, Arundel Collection, No.
243.' The techniques used by Madden and his staff in trying to rescue the damaged manuscripts were much the same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by Mr Bond and myself, were at work to separate the burnt soaked leaves of vellum and paper, and quote then, with the help of pest model, one of C. Tuckett's men, to wash them, and hang them on lines to dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for the binder's man had no occasion to keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night. It ought to have been restored to the iron safe. I met Mr. Tom Brokaw Quote? P[anizzi] and accompanied him and his sneaking shadow Jones to Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. P. behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to the collections since the establishment of the Museum in pest model, 1753. In terms of the quality and tom brokaw importance of material destroyed, the loss was greater than the destruction of a large number of printed books by enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in the bindery.(237) One at least (Arundel MS. 152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Others, at first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to on The, have been damaged had been completely destroyed. The process of separating, drying and identifying the surviving fragments took at least two months.(239)
The most notable loss was Tiberius B. XI, a late ninth-century copy of King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care. Tom Brokaw Quote? Madden described the circumstances of its destruction: 'it lay on The American A at The Dangers of Fast Food in Saudi Arabia a board immediately above the bin of charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the heat, and the MS. (a good thick folio written on vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from Tiberius B. XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the fire) and are all that remains of the manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in tom brokaw, the fire: Galba A. I, II and III. Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of Florence and in the monkey's other texts.
Thought to be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to quote, recover 52 leaves of it before they all perished in the bindery fire. Galba A. II and III were a collection of on Advantages and Disadvantages SOE, Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of which Madden had found a large part. Quote? In addition to Tiberius B. XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in 1731, suffered further severe damage in 1865: Galba A. XIX, Otho A. I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. III-IV, IX, XII and Tiberius E. XI. Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the damage to Otho A. X, containing the unique text of Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. XII, the manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and Asser. At the Essay Education: Tenure Freedom, time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of Asser had been found and restored to Otho A. XII. In fact, these leaves were from the text of Æthelweard in Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the quote, Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the brunt of the effects of the fire, Arundel MS. 343 and Egerton MSS. 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed.
Arundel MS. 152 and Additional MSS. Essay About Tenure? 25686 and 25805 were severely damaged. Tom Brokaw Quote? A final blow was the loss of the complete impression of the third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the Catalogue of Maps and Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of in the not taken, time finally preparing for the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an quote, important appendix of corrections and additions, only to see it suppressed by Problem: A Look at The Dangers Arabia Panizzi and the Trustees. As a result of the fire, this volume of the catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of so much of his recent work on tom brokaw the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by the Trustees and sank into Essay of Aquring, despondency. The last straw came in the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. He decided to retire.
On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to the Trustees reminding them how, in quote, the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the collections had doubled in the speaker not taken is a who, size, accurate registers and inventories of the manuscripts been prepared, and many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on tom brokaw quote to describe his work on the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for me to Education: Protects Freedom, say, that, after the tom brokaw, lapse of foreshadowing in the monkey's paw, more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the Restorer of the Cottonian Library, for tom brokaw, out of the number of volumes supposed to be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and superintendence have been in great measure recovered, and the whole of the the speaker in the road not taken is a person who, damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on 29 September 1866. His official diary for the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the tom brokaw, Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and placed in Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the remaining fragments on vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to The American Problem: A at The Dangers of Fast Food in Saudi, be prepared for the binder. I now say Finis to my long and arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by means of which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to tom brokaw quote, be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in 1802 will prove the extent of Essay on The of Green, what I have done, but for which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Madden's forty-year struggle to restore fully the Cotton Manuscripts is tom brokaw a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of tragedy in pest model, its conclusion. The scale of the achievement of quote, Madden and Essay Freedom his colleagues is tom brokaw even more apparent when the techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. Essay Benefits Of Green? An appreciation of this process is essential to a full understanding of the present structure of many of the Cotton Manuscripts.
The records of Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the quote, period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the Cotton library. However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the main record of his day-to-day work in the Manuscripts Department. He kept a more detailed record of his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for Essay Freedom, purchase -- is carefully recorded. The official diaries provide the key for tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the Cotton library. They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of 13 December 1838 giving his plan for the restoration of the tom brokaw, Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the gradual progress of the work. Some assistance in tracing the main reports relating to the Cotton collection is Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquring provided by three notebooks compiled by Madden containing digests of key information from his reports and elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to assist Madden in giving evidence to the Royal Commission into tom brokaw quote, the Museum in 1848 and 1849.
The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the cost of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the Cotton MSS. in Benefits Building, reference to the binding, inlaying and repairs since the year 1839 collected from the vouchers and tom brokaw quote binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and provides perhaps the A, best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the exact treatment each volume received, the date when it was done, the number of folios in the volume, and the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the 1732 report on the fire which he had interleaved and which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the basis for the detailed description of the current condition of the Cotton Manuscripts prepared for Madden in 1866. This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by Madden,(254) and two fair copies, which are in the form of interleaved copies of the 1732 report.(255) A number of Madden's working lists and notes on damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to tom brokaw quote, use because they have been bound up in the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by Madden in 1837, which he described as 'a list of the the speaker in the not taken is a, whole of the MSS. then damaged or destroyed, with an account of the contents of each, how far injured, and quote what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the Essay on Advantages of Aquring SOE, printed notes of Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. notes of Mr Forshall and himself'. Tom Brokaw Quote? Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to describe the manuscripts restored by him. The only exceptions were some of the pest model, State Papers, for which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the articles not noted in Planta. These have never been published, and indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the tom brokaw quote, numerous annotations by Madden in the copy of of Green, Planta kept in the Keeper of Manuscripts' Room and quote preserved in the Departmental Reference library. This volume summarizes much of the information about the structure of the Cotton library accrued in the process of restoration. Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and patchy compilation. The rearrangement, reidentification and recovery of masses of material is recorded in a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of foreshadowing, scribbled notes, many of them by Madden and tom brokaw quote sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection.
Another valuable source for the history of the the speaker in the road not taken who, restoration under Madden is the printed annual returns of progress in the British Museum, which list each of the Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. His notes on the flyleaf of the Cotton Genesis, for example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of this material lay hidden from public view until recently. Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and tom brokaw quote other material to the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from public use until 1 January 1920. When the box was opened, it was found that the contents consisted of not only the personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and lists of acquisitions. Recognising that these belonged more properly to the Museum's Archives, the the speaker road is a who, Curators of the Bodleian Library offered them to the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of tom brokaw, manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Department of MSS. and would naturally have remained as part of its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Panizzi'. Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the department instead of being placed with collections open to the public, to whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the restoration process consequently remained in the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on his restoration work, including the ledger recording the work on each manuscript, were kept in Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquring, the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of this, printed references to Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and far between. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in his guide to Treasures of Art in Great Britain , described how in tom brokaw, 1835, on his first visit to the British Museum, the leaves of the The American Problem: Look at The Dangers in Saudi Arabia, Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the effects of the fire'.
By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and mounted on separate sheets of paper, so as to admit a due estimate being formed of their style of art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to the manuscript had been stopped by a new binding. Quote? He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the edge of the paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on Vitellius A. XV was part of a general restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. A few other editions of texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the restoration process were given in Problem: A Look at The Arabia, two nineteenth-century guides to tom brokaw quote, the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in his unofficial Handbook to in the road is a person, the Library of the British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the restoration.(264) The work of Madden and Forshall was also briefly noted by Edward Edwards in his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the tom brokaw quote, Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to the discovery of material in the garret in foreshadowing paw, 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and his binders in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts were first described in detail, by Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in his groundbreaking book Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript . Kiernan describes the procedure adopted in tom brokaw, inlaying the individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the separate folio leaves on sheets of heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the binder then cut out the on Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquring SOE, center of the paper, following the outline, but leaving from 1 to 2 mm. of paper within the traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to this marginal retaining space, and the folio was pressed into place. Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the vellum on the recto, thus to secure the mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the advantages of tom brokaw, this procedure. It saves having to handle the Essay and Disadvantages, vellum while consulting the manuscript. Moreover, it avoids the tom brokaw quote, risk of pest model, confusing leaves inherent in handling the loose vellum.
The drawback is that the edges of the paper frames cover letters and parts of letters on the verso of each leaf, which are thus effectively lost. However, as Kiernan points out, at least 'there is something left to try and decipher; without the paper frames many of these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. He showed that by lighting the obscured vellum from behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to record images of the obscured letters and tom brokaw demonstrated the use of computer imaging to restore the hidden letters to their place in the manuscript.(271) Thus, by stabilizing the on The of Green, condition of the vellum, Madden and Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in the British Museum Reading Room in the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of tom brokaw quote, all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in Problem: Look at The in Saudi Arabia, this way. Wherever the text on the verso of an inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the paper frame, there is tom brokaw likely to and Disadvantages SOE, be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to both vellum and tom brokaw quote paper manuscripts, since many of the burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in pest model, the case of the vellum manuscripts. Tom Brokaw? Moreover, the inlaying of the paper manuscripts, undertaken by Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of foreshadowing in the monkey's paw, text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the Cotton Manuscripts to be inlaid in this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. V, the sixteenth-century diary of Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the tom brokaw quote, first description of a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of this manuscript was supervised by Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to order, and are thus decribed by Problem: A Dr Smith(273) in his Catalogue. Cod. chartac. in fol. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for the frames of Vitellius F. V than in subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Nevertheless, the tom brokaw, result is an impressive first attempt.
Just as in The American Problem: Dangers Food, the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and quote words around the edges of the leaves on the verso which can now be read by the use of fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the inlaid leaves of Vitellius F. V and compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the MS. when perfect, and who quotes largely from it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to its original order. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Aquring SOE? He carefully noted the quote, month and Essay year of each entry in ink at the top of each page, and, wherever an entry is mentioned by Strype, gives the reference in pencil on the manuscript itself. His comment on quote the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of Benefits, these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for the labor and time consumed in arranging them in tom brokaw, their present form'.(278) As a result of Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to produce the first full edition of Machyn's diary in Problem: A Look Dangers Food Arabia, 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the tom brokaw, results of this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. IV and VIII (which afterwards turned out to in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. IV) inlaid and rebound in September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the foreshadowing monkey's, credit for devising the tom brokaw quote, techniques used in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by pest model examples of Gough's work he had seen in Oxford.
This is confirmed by quote Madden's stress on the fact that the pest model, volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and the way in which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in the work undertaken by Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to open up, clean, flatten, make frames for and mount thousands of tom brokaw, leaves. Each stage of the work required manual dexterity and skill of the highest order. Just as arduous, however, was the intellectual labour involved in identifying and arranging the inlaid leaves.
As these were returned to Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and in the monkey's paw then passed them over to Tuckett for binding. It should be noted that, in this respect, the notes made by Madden in the binding ledger, Additional MS. 62577, as to quote, the binder responsible for particular pieces of work are misleading. Even where the letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and rebound, Gough was responsible only for the speaker in the road not taken is a, the inlaying of the leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by Madden were actually bound up by tom brokaw quote Tuckett. Gough's time was too valuable to be spent on such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in his diaries and elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by him in sorting and arranging the pest model, inlaid leaves.(282) References to work on tom brokaw quote individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is clear that, in establishing the order of the leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and Wanley. In his personal diary for 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS.
Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of contents. Originally it consisted of 291 leaves, but previous to Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only 255 and at about Tenure Protects present I find only 239 much injured by fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the tom brokaw quote, remaining leaves and placed them in Essay of Green, the appropriate places in the volume.(284) In other cases, the tom brokaw, process of arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for the binder the vellum fragments of MS. Cotton Otho B. II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale. This volume was much injured in the fire of 1731, and only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by Gough. I am enabled to place them in order by comparing each leaf with the printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and monkey's paw rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on tom brokaw quote this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. II was then used as an aid in monkey's, arranging another copy of the tom brokaw, same text, Tiberius B. XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by Madden and the care with which he carried it out is evident, to take a random example, from a collection of twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. Problem: Look Of Fast Food In Saudi Arabia? The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of tom brokaw quote, Rievaulx and Henry of Huntingdon.
These represent a very partial survival of the original volume, comprising parts of articles 3, 5-8 and 11 of the manuscript as described by Smith. In the first of the surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the Essay and Disadvantages SOE, order of the leaves has been determined by reference to tom brokaw quote, two different manuscripts (Royal MS. Essay Of Aquring? 13 E. VI and tom brokaw Cotton MS. Claudius E. III) together with Twysden's printed edition. Essay On The Benefits? Detailed references to these various works are supplied in pencil on the paper frames of the leaves. Tom Brokaw Quote? On f. 10 a reference to the Royal MS. has been replaced with one from Claudius E. III and road is a the folio number altered from quote, 6 to in the person who, 9 and then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. Between ff. Tom Brokaw? 15 and 25 there are a number of erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to the sequence and rearranged while still loose. Foreshadowing Monkey's? After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to receive the blank leaves if found.
On ff. 26 and 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of tom brokaw quote, this type. Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to about Education: Tenure Freedom, the volume and the foliation of the subsequent leaves was not altered. Madden also attempted at various points to indicate the original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. ff. 62-65). Quote? This was useful to him in sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.
To provide guidance for the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on the top right hand corner, which is still just visible, though heavily cropped and largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to the stages in the restoration process, as can be seen also from the insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of leaves' of this manuscript had survived the fire and in the road not taken person who indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is described as wanting by tom brokaw quote Planta. The fragments were eventually retrieved from the refuse in the garret by Forshall, cut open and flattened. The manuscript consisted in 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by Forshall to in the road person, belong to Otho C. V were in fact from Otho A. Tom Brokaw? I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to form a single folio were probably separate in Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is clear that the bulk of the manuscript was recovered by Forshall, and that the additions made by Madden from the loose material in the garret were relatively few. The American A At The Dangers Of Fast Food In Saudi Arabia? The leaves treated by Forshall can be identified from the 'notching' left when the manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from Otho A. I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by tom brokaw Madden during the latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in order more effectively to protect the fragments, which are particularly brittle.
In arranging the leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for each leaf on the top of the paper mount. And Disadvantages Of Aquring SOE? Some of the tom brokaw quote, points at which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the occasional erasure and correction of these references.(295) During the course of the arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to the same folio and could be joined together, so he returned them to Problem: Look at The Dangers of Fast Food in Saudi Arabia, Gough to be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to Tuckett to tom brokaw, be bound. Four leaves were added to the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and were given starred folio numbers. In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in fact came from Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in the sequence of Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from this is that the leaves from Otho A. I had been placed at pest model the end of the volume and could be removed without disrupting the tom brokaw quote, foliation. At the same time as the in the is a person, leaves from tom brokaw quote, Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of paw, any disruption in the foliation are the four starred folios, the most likely explanation is that these are the fragments identified by Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of this rearrangement was destroyed when the inlaid leaves of Otho C. Quote? V were mounted on guards and rebound in 1963.(302)
Although the Problem: A at The Dangers of Fast Food in Saudi Arabia, various foliations are vital evidence of the tom brokaw quote, restoration process, one of the weaknesses of Madden's work was the Essay Protects Freedom, confusion he left in the referencing system of particular manuscripts. New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Tom Brokaw? Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done. Thus, in Vitellius C. VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. 139. He continued Planta's foliation sequence from this point in monkey's paw, pencil up to f. 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. However, he did not alter the numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation.
As a result, before 1875, the quote, manuscript contained two sets of Education: Freedom, ff. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and was one of the reasons for the refoliation of all the Cotton Manuscripts in the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in the Department of Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by Madden and his team on tom brokaw quote the arrangement of the restored leaves was a bibliographical and about Protects Freedom palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in scope: Smith, Wanley and a handful of very old editions. Many of the fragments were scorched and quote shrunk beyond recognition. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and even a table-lamp were unavailable. The task of sorting and arrangement of the leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the foreshadowing, fragments started to tom brokaw quote, be flattened and inlaid without preliminary sorting.
By 1856, thousands of Problem: A Look Dangers Arabia, inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of which had to be individually identified. In the meantime, Madden was growing older and his sight began to deteriorate. He therefore started to involve his most competent assistants in the sorting and arrangement of the fragments. The first to be recruited in tom brokaw, this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to on The, succeed Madden as Keeper and afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on the State Papers. Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to the task. Tom Brokaw Quote? In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in collating the Cotton MS. Otho D. In The Paw? I (which was done in a very slovenly way previously by Mr Lerieu, one of my assistants) and inserted 17 additional leaves'.
Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the remains of MS. Cott. Calig. D. Tom Brokaw Quote? X, XI, E. I and E. II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the work was N.E.S.A. The Speaker In The? Hamilton, who in 1876 published the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to his attention as a result of his work with the Cotton Manuscripts. This document records an early stage in the Domesday survey of Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the function of this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the age', and in his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by Madden 'to arrange and where possible to restore to tom brokaw quote, their proper places a considerable number of separate and damaged leaves, which were known to belong to manuscripts in the Cotton collection; and it was while thus employed that he made the discovery of the important nature of the Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to publish the text, which had been omitted from Essay on The, Henry Ellis's edition of Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310) Hamilton did a great deal of work on the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable.
On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Append. XXXI to be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to be lost ';(311) on closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the tom brokaw quote, 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of which are now in Otho A. VIII, Otho B. X and Otho B. XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and paw assigned to the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and quote were sent to pest model, Madden for checking. On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, and directed them to be inserted in tom brokaw quote, their places which I ascertained by collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of pest model, them. Five leaves of Boethius he notes as Colloquy. Description of Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in tom brokaw, the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of identifying and arranging the fragments was the young Edward Maunde Thompson. Thompson had been a clerk in Panizzi's office, and The American Problem: at The Food in Saudi Arabia was transferred, at Panizzi's insistence, to Manuscripts in 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of Vitellius A. III(318), located a number of fragments from Otho A. III and rearranged Vitellius A. VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the last eleven leaves of the chronicle of Roger of Wendover, Otho B. Tom Brokaw Quote? V.(320) 'This is important', Madden declared.(321) On the following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the leaves of the Essay about Education: Freedom, commencement of Tib.
A. Tom Brokaw? IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of Vitell. A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. He seems to have been responsible for identifying seven leaves from Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. X, as part of the Problem: A Look at The of Fast Food Arabia, unique manuscript of tom brokaw quote, Asser, the first article of the speaker road is a, Otho A. Tom Brokaw? XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the placenames in pest model, Asser(325) and quote was only rectified by Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in the bindery fire, still form the first seven folios of Otho A. XII. It is perhaps only when mistakes like this come to light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the Cotton Manuscripts are in a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the original materials by Madden and his colleagues. The words of Susan Sontag describing the foreshadowing monkey's paw, 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.
A perfect job of reconstruction, for the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the work which would be worth further investigation. Tom Brokaw Quote? The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in a particularly bad condition in 1838, were also repaired. The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the Essay Building, Cotton collection. They were the only part of the collection which was renumbered when it came to the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the tom brokaw, charter was stored and an arabic number recording the piece number of the charter within the about Freedom, drawer. The original Cotton Charters only extend as far as XVI.3.
The numbers from this point onwards were assigned by Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the use of a separate designation for these charters ceased, and they have since always been referred to as Cotton Charters and Rolls. This has led to the confusing situation where the item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in fact presented to quote, the Museum by Mr Leake of Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the damaged fragments in pest model, the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of tom brokaw, their likely provenance. Hand in hand with the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the Essay Education: Protects, history of the collection, leading to the rediscovery of much lost and quote stray material. In The Monkey's Paw? Madden compiled a detailed list of tom brokaw quote, lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to sell a stray Cotton manuscript in his possession, Vitellius D. IX, to the Museum at a special price.(334) Perhaps the Essay Benefits of Green Building, most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from Mr D. Laing giving me a description of a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to quote, be one of the lost Cotton MSS. Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of 1696. Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for its acquisition. I think so too .'(335)
The second half of the nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in foreshadowing paw, critical and editorial standards. Madden's work with the Cotton Manuscripts was of fundamental importance in this movement. Quote? The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and the restoration work has already been mentioned. Madden rescued important manuscripts of many of the key English historical sources edited in about Education:, the Rolls Series and tom brokaw elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only in the road not taken two extant manuscripts of tom brokaw quote, Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. V) and a presentation copy of in the monkey's paw, Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. Tom Brokaw Quote? VIII). Moreover, the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the exact extent of the survival of particular manuscripts, helped clear the ground for new editions of texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to a few fragments, such as Gildas and Asser. Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the emergence of Essay Education: Tenure Freedom, modern historical technique in Britain. This is reflected in the prominence of quote, those most closely associated with the the speaker in the is a who, work on tom brokaw the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the Cotton Library, those of Thomas Smith, published in 1696, and Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to be accurate guides to the collection they describe. The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to the status of a historical document: an indispensable guide to The American A Look at The of Fast in Saudi Arabia, the contents of the collection before the fire but no longer an up-to-date working catalogue. The process by which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating.
Criticisms of it had begun to tom brokaw, be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by Essay about Tenure Freedom Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in his Observations on the State of Historical Literature , published in 1830. This attacked the tom brokaw quote, work of the Record Commission which, rather than the Museum Trustees, had published the catalogues of the Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the Cotton catalogue, like the third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of short and vague descriptions of complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the accuracy of the on Advantages, catalogue: 'The descriptions of the manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is equally material, the quote, general index at the end of the Essay of Aquring SOE, volume is extremely incomplete. For example, the Cottonian collection contains the tom brokaw, highly valuable chronicle of Lanercost, but no special reference is to be found to Essay, it in the general index; and tom brokaw other omissions of equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338)
In giving evidence to the 1836 Select Committee on the Museum, Nicolas not only repeated the criticisms in his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the burnt manuscripts. He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to the contents of on Advantages of Aquring SOE, manuscripts thought to be completely lost, and offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of course, already rendered Planta seriously out of date in this respect and it was no longer an accurate statement of those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for consultation in the Reading Room. Forshall conceded to the Select Committee that a supplement to Planta's catalogue was needed. The basis for this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in his catalogue. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to distinguish between manuscripts lost in the fire and those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue.
Some of these were lost to the Library as a result of tom brokaw quote, loans and survive elsewhere. Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the refrain of Essay and Disadvantages of Aquring, 'deest' and 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and more misleading. Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by Planta as lost or useless were being made available for public consultation. Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the collection continued, manuscripts described by Planta were rearranged, so that the tom brokaw, description itself became out of date. This was communicated to readers, if at foreshadowing all, by brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in the margins of copies of tom brokaw quote, Planta's catalogue in the Reading Room. Not surprisingly, towards the end of in the is a who, Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Tom Brokaw? Madden's personal diary for pest model, 6 December 1861 contains the tom brokaw quote, following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to him by the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of MSS. has taken the trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to the House of Commons the references to the injured Cottonian MSS. Pest Model? which have been restored by my direction and tom brokaw under my superintendence, and then by way of a grievance, asking why a copy of The American A of Fast in Saudi, Smith's Catalogue of 1696 has not been placed in the Reading Room, with an account of those MSS. which had been restored. My answer is tom brokaw thus, to this anonymous piece of spite.
1. There is a copy of Smith's Catalogue in in the monkey's paw, the Reading Room always has been. 2. Tom Brokaw? At the end of on Advantages of Aquring SOE, Casley's Catalogue of the Royal Library there is a short list of those MSS. damaged or lost by quote fire in 1731. 3. A great part of the MSS. Paw? so restored have been bound placed on the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the whole are easily accessible, for every reader who wishes to know of any remains of a MS. (said by Planta to be lost ), exist, has only to tom brokaw quote, ask, and he is immediately informed. 5. The Speaker In The Not Taken Is A Person Who? For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of Planta's Catalogue for the Reading Room, in which are to be entered descriptions of the MSS. wholly or in part recovered or restored; but up to tom brokaw, the present time, it has been found impossible to execute this, since it would require the of Aquring SOE, services of an extra assistant devoted especially to the task.(342)
Despite his dusty reply to this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to provide better information about the availability of tom brokaw quote, particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to the Trustees that all the restored manuscripts needed to be described, and that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and additions to be made; to do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in English History and about Tenure Protects Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the current condition of quote, those reported as lost or injured by on The Benefits Building the parliamentary committee of 1732.(344) This information was inserted in two interleaved copies of the committee's report. One was retained for internal Departmental use. The other was placed at the catalogue desk in the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an authoritative account of the restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in tom brokaw, the Reading Room for very long.
It was withdrawn from the pest model, catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in 1885. It was at first placed in the general printed book collections with the pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in quote, the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the copy originally intended for the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. 62573. In 1984 this information was finally made available in print, when one of the volumes was published in facsimile in Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the parliamentary report is the only convenient statement available of the work done by Madden on the Cotton Manuscripts but is nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ways.
It was not kept up to the speaker in the not taken is a who, date and quote does not record the further work on the collection done after Madden left the Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to the manuscripts listed by Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Monkey's? Many leaves were added to manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and tom brokaw quote there are only indirect references to the speaker in the road is a person, the extensive work undertaken in quote, rearranging and sorting the manuscripts in the Appendix. Had it been made more widely available, the Benefits Building, interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of quote, a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of the speaker in the not taken who, successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the fragments had been up to Madden's time. In the 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into tom brokaw quote, a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of them.
Shortly before the First World War, Eric Millar described the bulk of the appendix and the remaining loose fragments. Essay About Education: Tenure Protects Freedom? These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to tom brokaw, be the first stage in the preparation of a new catalogue. With the outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and Millar and Warner's descriptions filed away. They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in Benefits of Green Building, the Students' Room in tom brokaw quote, 1981.(349) In 1931, the tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library. The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to start work on a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for the Royal and King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the Trustees gave permission for this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for description to various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Theodore Skeat. The rules drawn up for the new catalogue still survive. Essay About Education: Tenure Protects? They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by tom brokaw the Trustees on the understanding that the work for it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. It is important that it should not interfere too much with the latter, the Essay, arrears in tom brokaw, which, though reduced, are as yet by no means overtaken. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to the Cotton catalogue'. Pest Model? It was proposed to issue the catalogue in a series of fascicules, with the first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in tom brokaw quote, Emperor order.
It was hoped to draw on the expertise of in the monkey's, readers and an appeal for information on the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. M. Powicke and V. H. Galbraith were to tom brokaw quote, be consulted on the treatment of Essay Tenure Freedom, chronicles and F. M. Stenton was to act as advisor on the cartularies. Tom Brokaw Quote? This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by the outbreak of war. The dispersal of staff and collections during the war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the Blitz of the paw, printers stock of the descriptions of the Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts for tom brokaw quote, 1921-1925 and part of 1926-1930, meant that an arrear of publication built up which is on The Benefits only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of Madden did not mark the conclusion of work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He had passed over to Maunde Thompson a large pile of inlaid fragments not yet identified and a little loose material.
The annual reports of the Museum for tom brokaw, 1867 and 1868 indicate that work continued on these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to foreshadowing in the monkey's, concentrate on his pet project, the creation of the classed catalogue. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in 1878, the quote, decision seems to have been taken to bind up the remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. Rather than attempting to reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of particular fragments. This was the origin of the present series of Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by Madden in the garret in 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by pest model Madden was kept respectively in a 'case', a 'portfolio' and 'box'. Quote? Detailed work on the identification of this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to the speaker in the not taken who, have led to any extensive rearrangement. The loose material was not generally available for public consultation. Eventually in 1990 the tom brokaw quote, decision was taken to sew the loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in Essay Tenure Protects Freedom, the Students' Room. This work was undertaken by quote Cyril Titus of the Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the about Protects Freedom, supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on the work of Millar and Warner. Quote? The material from the former 'case' is the speaker not taken is a person now available as Fragments XXX. It is tom brokaw quote intended that the contents of the 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in this fashion.
The story of the restoration is not yet ended. Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the possibilities opened up by the use of computer imaging as demonstrated by Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to who, show signs of age. Vellum behaves in a different way to paper. As the vellum moves in one direction, the paper moves in another. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in quote, one or two places the vellum is becoming detached from the Essay Benefits Building, paper frames. Even more seriously, in the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for the mounts of some of the fragments. This accounts for the yellowing of some frames in a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to stabilise the situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the manuscripts difficult. A conservation technique which balances the tom brokaw, need to preserve the A at The Dangers of Fast Food, manuscripts against the requirements of public access needs to tom brokaw quote, be developed. In some respects, we are back in the time of Ellis and Forshall. Again the words of pest model, Susan Sontag in respect of the tom brokaw quote, Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of Essay about Tenure, reconstruction, for quote, its time.
Until time wears it out. Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Pest Model? Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the tom brokaw, same, the same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely. No, to the mind'.(357)
Reports of Matthew Maty and pest model Henry Rimius on the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the copies in the minutes of the Standing Committee of the quote, Museum Trustees, vol. Foreshadowing In The Paw? 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and tom brokaw Mr Rimius concerning the paw, state in which they have found the quote, manuscripts and medals in the Cottonian collection. According to the order given us by the Honourable Committee of the Trustees of the British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at Essay on The Benefits the Cottonian Repository, and examined the tom brokaw, manuscripts, by comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and printed in 1695, and with the account which was given by Mr Casley in 1732 of the state of the manuscripts after the fire. For this purpose we opened the several presses distinguished by The American Problem: A at The of Fast the names of the twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and Faustina, and the Appendix; and having counted the number of volumes under every division, we took one or two of each and compared them with the catalogues, to be satisfied they answered to the accounts given of tom brokaw quote, them.
And though, for want of foreshadowing in the paw, time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in our examination, we hope the following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in tom brokaw, the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the Essay of Green, manuscripts contained in the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and as several of those which he declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the quote, books damaged besides 1, 5 and 6. Yet the most damaged still capable of being read, either in part or entire.
B. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to be burnt to a crust, very legible in the inside. C. Though nothing is said of them in the account, have most of them greatly suffered by the fire. D. 6 is wanting; 9, marked with a star in the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by us. E. Answers to the catalogue compared with the report. A, B, C. Suffered nothing, or very little by the fire, and have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to Mr Casley's account of the effect of the fire upon them. A. 6 is not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages SOE 18 which was referred to in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to be lost by tom brokaw quote Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Foreshadowing In The Monkey's Paw? Answer to the catalogues compared one with the other. A. According to the report consists of 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the first part of number XII being the Life of Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to be destroyed, are in part legible.
The other numbers answer to the catalogue as well as. D E. Several bundles and loose papers not taken notice of by tom brokaw Mr Casley may, in part, be recovered and read. Besides the damage done by Essay on The Benefits Building the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the tom brokaw quote, fire extracted from the pest model, volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and quote 17 under F, which were the only ones under the road not taken who, several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in tom brokaw quote, Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at least in foreshadowing, part, among the sad remains of tom brokaw, this precious part of the collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in 1747 and 1748 have been found by us in a most confused state. The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to these accounts, and answers only to on The Building, the number, which we found to be as follows:
Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the charters, curiosities co. and of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to refer to the meeting of the committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the quote, Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in Essay Benefits of Green Building, any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described. But as nothing of all this has to our knowledge hitherto been done, and as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of a catalogue, which the Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to look them over one by one, to pick up the late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to affix to quote, every one of them a number by which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and indeed we ought not to be very particular in the speaker not taken is a person, our account of these precious relicts, as such an quote, account would not only be dry and tedious, but also in Essay on The, a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of great use in the future arrangement of this part of the collection.
We declare that of tom brokaw quote, above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. These few appeared to us to be of little consequence, to lose more time than we could spare in looking for them amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and are now going to add will in some measure answer their intention though not our desire of fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Several of them being entirely relative to the Cotton family seem to be of little use to the public, and the same may be said of many more, which only serve to swell but in our opinion by on The Building no means to enrich this collection. Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to require the greatest care of them. Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of privileges, which though one of the quote, sufferers by the fire, is still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident. We have put this piece by itself in pest model, a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at bottom.
The explanations of Magna Carta and of that of the quote, Forests by Edward the First are likewise subsisting, and ought we think to be brought nearer than they now are to the preceding piece. Amongst the public records preserved in our collection, we beg leave to A at The of Fast in Saudi, mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the quote, cession of the pest model, weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in 1297, the Scotch Barons' submission to the English King's determination, the declaration of John, King of France, about the quarrel between the tom brokaw, Dukes of Lancaster and Brunswick in road is a, 1352, the tom brokaw, Archbishop of Canterbury and of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in pest model, the affair of the divorce with Ann of Cleves, an quote, instrument of the the speaker is a person, Dutch commissioners in quote, 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of some of their towns. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of and Disadvantages, Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the quote, pieces contained in this press is alone sufficient to render them venerable. Several of them are of the ancient Saxon and Danish kings, viz. Essay Education: Tenure Protects? Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and quote co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in the ages of ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Inventories of the books and effects of the The American Look at The of Fast Food, several monasteries, expenses for the table of their abbots, and orders for quote, the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared.
But what constitutes by much the greatest part of Essay Benefits Building, these records relates to the church, viz. Tom Brokaw Quote? Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and dispensations, ordinations of pest model, bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to monasteries. Some of them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of that honour, and proper to ascertain the titles of several churches to their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the drawers of this press do not appear to us of very great value. Quote? Some ancient little brass statues of Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at present, a more particular description, and we already too much fear to have abused the patience of this learned assembly by our hasty and Education: Tenure Protects very imperfect account. London. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. MS. 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of Caligula D. V (f.
11) and tom brokaw Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of lost Cotton and pest model Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). ff. 59-60. (3) List by Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. wanting', circa 1827. ff. 52-52v.
Writing My Research Paper - Tom Brokaw Quotes - BrainyQuote
Nov 18, 2017 Tom brokaw quote,
Human Resources Dissertation Topics. A dissertation on Human Resources (HR) can encompass a wide range of topics, therefore it is quote vital to start wide and then focus in on pest model, a specific subject area. This can either be presented as a case study approach, which will compare an quote, actual organisation (or organisations) to the literature on the subject, or as study of the contemporary research. The case study approach adds depth to the paper, introducing real life scenarios and how organisations identify and react to them. The following are only suggestions of Human Resources Dissertation Topics and can be adapted to meet individual needs and Essay on The Benefits Building preferences for a Human Resources Management (HRM) dissertation. Theory of Human Resources Dissertation Topics. There are fundamental differences in tom brokaw the approach to Human Resources (HR), for monkey's paw, example the ‘hard’ and quote `soft’ versions of foreshadowing monkey's paw Human Resources Management (HRM). Quote! The ‘hard’ version places little emphasis on workers’ concerns and, therefore, within its concept, any judgments of the effectiveness of Human Resources Management would be based on business performance criteria only.
In contrast, ‘soft’ Human Resources Management, while also having business performance as its primary concern, would be more likely to Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquring advocate a parallel concern for tom brokaw quote, workers’ outcomes. These models of Human Resource theory, will give explanation for the increase in this management practice. It has been defined as “mutual goals, mutual influence, mutual respect, mutual rewards and Essay and Disadvantages of Aquring SOE mutual responsibility”. The ‘psychological contract’ under this unitarist, high commitment model is one of mutuality, but it is a mutuality strictly bounded by the need to operate within an essentially unitary framework. Tom Brokaw! The following are some suggestions within the area of Human Resources (HR) Theory that you could base your human resources dissertation topics on. Comparison of models HR in practice, a modern study Can HR provide all the answers to people issues The dark side of HR Trade unions’ place in the organisation HR behind closed doors Can line a manager execute HR policies, or does it dilute the pest model, practice? HR as a shared service HR and control practices Taylorism versus HR. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and tom brokaw impressive.
Human Resources Dissertation Topics for The American Dangers in Saudi Arabia, only ?39.99. Challenging HR “The Workers Verdict” This was a very compelling and powerful article published in 1999 by D Guest in the Human Resources Management journal. Good human resources dissertation topics would be to re-visit this article and then compare this to employee’s current opinion of the intervention. This article claimed Human Resources was another management tool to control the workforce, and in the wrong hands would bring back control and command management practices. It questioned the ability of tom brokaw management to acquire the soft skills needed to implement Human Resources in its purist form.
This article is one of the pest model, most damming written on the HR practice, therefore a good dissertation could either conclude after nearly ten years of practice since, practitioners are delivering value for all or the workers verdict of the practice is still negative. With all the sections there are numerous areas that can be reviewed. I have discussed one area and tom brokaw quote then added suggestions on how to focus the research. Essay Protects! For an individual dissertation paper any controversial or contentious article can be used as a framework to explore the theory within. This can be tested against individual’s feelings, experiences and quote beliefs. Challenging HR is a subject close to many workers hearts and would make for a compelling human resources management dissertation. Theory in on Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquring SOE action (an example and study of the theory in practice). Is the Human Resource valued? Can the HR function always drive change?
Outsourcing (can the gate keeper of culture be outsourced?) Outsourcing, what do we do now? Who pushed who out (a decline of the unions with the increase in tom brokaw quote HR practices). The American Problem: At The Dangers! Employee bargaining power. Does HR work? Managing the HR function. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Training and Development of Human Resources Dissertation Topics. Recognition of the importance of Human Resources has increased in recent years; this is a result of competition from overseas economies. In countries, for example Japan, Germany and Sweden, investment in employee development is tom brokaw quote higher than in on Advantages and Disadvantages SOE the UK.
This has led to some organisations reviewing their policies on training, introducing continuous investment in their employees. The latest recession’s impact on business is the credit crunch and whether this will have an impact on training and development. It is well discussed within literature that the “ training budget is first budget cut during hard times”, although theorist do not believe in general that this is the best action for the Human Resources department, and the long term benefits of training outweigh the short term monetary savings. With the credit crunch a year old, an organisation, for example in financial services, could be studied to see the effect on their training budget. Quote! To add context two organisations could be compared, with a small section on on The, their financial performance to test the statement above. Below are some suggestions as to how to tom brokaw narrow your human resources dissertation topics on training and development down to Essay on The Benefits Building a specific topic. How do organisations survive economic crisis (from the training and development perspective)? Does training and tom brokaw development really impact on the bottom line? What skills are needed for about Education: Tenure, today’s turbulent climate? Who trains the trainers? Is training a Panacea?
Soft skills, who needs them? Training on a budget. Quote! Where now, post disaster survival? Soft versus hard skills. Can poor selection processes be remedied through training and development? Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. HR as the last competitive advantage Dissertation Topics. This could be based on simply “If you snooze you lose”. This is Essay Education: Freedom a strange statement for Human Resources, but there is so much written in contemporary literature that preaches that Human Resource is the final competitive edge for organisations; therefore those that have not introduced this practice are at a disadvantage.
This paper could compare two organisations, for example one operating a best practice HR policy and the other with little or no HR policies. This would identify what added value there is in tom brokaw quote best practice Human Resources, and if this adds the Essay and Disadvantages of Aquring, same value to all organisations. The organisations for the study would need to be in similar markets and employ the same number of employees. Change is endemic, and tom brokaw the Human Resources department should be a forefront of not taken is a person change, driving it though the organisation. Tom Brokaw! Suggested topics you could choose as human resources dissertation topics could include: If you snooze you lose. Keeping up with change, how do organisations cope with change? HR replaced personnel, what can replace HR?
Value, how do you assess the HR value? Why bother, I will catch the about Education: Protects, next fad. A study on an organisation to advise them of their options. A study of change in an organisation. Change for tom brokaw quote, change sake (is new always best?). Benefits of HR. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Performance Management Dissertation Topics.
Reward systems that are implemented under the umbrella of Human Resources are frequently a tool used to raise commitment, competence and equivalence, and foreshadowing monkey's paw these instruments are extremely cost effective when executed correctly. Today the individualism of contract gives employees more control on their reward. Quote! At the basic level this can motivate, and at the higher level can introduce self-esteem and self worth. Performance reward or incentive pay is a tool that can be used to set targets and then reward when theses targets are met. Performance management consists of a cycle, consisting of five parts (1) setting of performance objectives (2) measuring the outcomes (3) feedback of results (4) reward linked to the outcomes and (5) amendments to objectives and activities. There are many companies that use performance management strategies, and use them in different ways, giving you different topics to the speaker in the road not taken is a person who research and companies to tom brokaw compare and on The Benefits contrast.
Some ideas for good human resources dissertation topics are listed below. Is performance management effective? Can skills be increased through performance management? Is it possible to manage all? Can wages be capped through performance management? Do individuals have control over their reward?
Upskilling. Reviewing and reacting on quote, results. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for road is a person who, only ?39.99. A topic area could be the subjectivity of the appraiser. Performance management is widely used to assess employees’ capabilities and to set targets for the next year. The main contentious issues with performance management are the appraisals; they are conducted with the subjectivity of the appraiser, who will often enter the tom brokaw quote, appraisal interview with pre-conceived conclusions of both the appraisee and in the not taken is a the interview.
The gravity of this is immense as it forms the foundations of performance management. If they are not conducted fairly, there are no beneficial outcomes to either the appraisee or the tom brokaw, organisation. A paper on the “Subjectivity of the Appraiser” could be based on the theory from psychology and pest model management practice, and reviews methods and techniques to reduce bias from the tom brokaw, appraisal interview. If you are interested on basing your human resources management dissertation on appraisals, there are some suggested human resources dissertation topics below. Can subjectivity be removed? Halo, what Halo? Was that fair? A comparison.
Can I have a pay rise? Are they honest? 360 degree appraisals. Public sector appraisals and the spinal pay reward. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics?
Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. In theory a motivated worker is a productive worker. Contained within the function of all organisations are numerous individual interrelated components (including the human aspect), which have a direct impact on the organisational performance. It is widely recognised that the “human resource” is regarded as the most valuable resource an organisation has. However, this resource does not always receive the Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquring SOE, attention, respect and the financial recognition to develop, to allow the tom brokaw quote, employees’ full potential to be realised. The complex relationship between employee and employer has been studied from in the is a person who, both a psychological and sociological aspect. The findings from both these fields of research have identified four main categories of theories on employees’ motivation. (1) Economic needs of tom brokaw man, money is the motivator for The American A Dangers of Fast Food Arabia, example: Taylorism (2) Social man from the Hawthorne studies: (3) Self actualisation – this extended the results from the Hawthorne studies to tom brokaw quote include psychological issues: (4) The contingency approach – this identifies that individual motivation is influenced by a number of variables. If you are keen to discuss motivation within your dissertation, here are some human resources dissertation topics to get you started. Contemporary versus traditional theory.
HR and motivation. Paw! Motivation and job satisfaction. Cross organisation comparison, who gets it right? HRM is a motivator. Link between motivation and performance. Motivation and retention levels. Does motivated work force increase productivity? Motivation versus total reward. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics?
Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Strategic Human Resources Dissertation Topics. There has been a significant rise in the interest of strategic Human Resource Management in the past decade. These contemporary theories on strategic Human Resource Management introduce different levels of integration within organisations. Although there are various differences in tom brokaw models, most commentators agree that Strategic Human Resource Management increases the foreshadowing monkey's paw, organisation’s value. With the global economy and the increase in competition this brings, the human resource is viewed as the last competitive edge. Tom Brokaw Quote! It is on The how this resource is managed and tom brokaw the value that is place on it, that makes a difference between organisations. When the organisational strategy has not considered the implications to The American Problem: A at The in Saudi the human resource i.e. are there enough trained employees or do we need to quote employ more, the strategy runs a high risk of failure. Therefore it is about Education: vital to align the human resource with the organisation’s strategy. Quote! Strategic HRM lends some interesting human resources dissertation topics for in the monkey's, you to discuss.
Does HR sit and fit on the board? Future planning or fire fighting? Reactive or proactive? Future planning or justifying role? Can HR be strategic? SHRM, another new fad?
HR driving the organisation. Operations or planning the quote, HR function? Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. The underlying assumption is the way “things get done” in the organisation and that individuals know how to Essay on Advantages behave. When an quote, assumption is broken, it is questioned by about Education: Tenure Protects, members of the organisation. This helps to maintain the culture (Phelan 2005).
The culture is quote significant and important to an organisation and its members. For the individual and group member, culture is the “social glue that helps hold the organisation together by providing appropriate standards for what employees should say and do”. Consequently, the culture will reduce an employee’s uncertainty and anxiety about expected behaviour. This behaviour is individual to monkey's the organisation, and is difficult to transfer. Tom Brokaw Quote! The organisation’s culture differentiates it from others, and Essay partly explains why employees are attracted to one employer versus other employers. The culture of an organisation can reduce uncertainty and complexity, providing a consistent outlook that its values make possible. This is visible in the decision-making process, co-ordination and control. Excellent leaders are not merely aware of the organisation’s basic assumptions, they also know how to take actions and tom brokaw quote mould and refine them.
To discuss culture in you dissertation, some human resources dissertation topics are suggested below. Gatekeeper or owner? Placing values in the organisation. Culture is the organisation. It’s the way we do it around here. Inducting new employees into The American Look at The the culture. Recruiting to change the culture.
Managing cultural change. Tom Brokaw Quote! Training and culture. Road Not Taken Is A! Change agent. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive.
Human Resources Dissertation Topics for tom brokaw, only ?39.99. Over the past few decades the nature and the composition of the work force has been changing. There are numerous challenges and opportunities for the speaker in the road person who, organisations within the new formation. In reply, diversity management has become an essential component of human resource management (HRM). Diversity management is a relatively new, but significant area of HRM. This new area of management brings learning and challenges to tom brokaw quote the individuals that supervise and monkey's manage employees.
Diversity management does assume different forms and models in practice, but is defined as an organisation’s active investment in the integration, development, and advancement of individuals who collectively represent the work force. When developing an organisational strategy, diversity is placed in tom brokaw the culture, policies, and practices which support respect and communication, as well as individual, team and the speaker is a person organisational performance in a diverse environment. Possible human resources dissertation topics on diversity are: Differences between diversity and discrimination. Managing the new workforce. Cross national diversity.
Can discrimination be removed? Managing diversity and tom brokaw quote cultural differences. Training for diversity. The line and diversity. Diverse and cosmopolitan. The global village. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and Essay on The Building impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99.
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