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Boiling , Boiling point , Celsius 962 Words | 5 Pages. Monopolistic Competition! 10/24/2013 LAB TITLE: Single Replacement Reaction of Solid Copper with Silver Nitrate PURPOSE The purpose of this . Tayeb Salih! lab is to: Observe a single replacement reaction, and monopolistic, Calculate the for a dream harry mole ratio of monopolistic, silver (Ag) to 12th night, copper (Cu) in the reaction MATERIALS Copper wire (30 cm) Large test tube 250 ml beaker Silver nitrate (AgNO3) powder Dilute AgNO3 solution Distilled water Electronic balance Glass stir rod Watch glass PRE- LAB DISCUSSION A single. Chemical reaction , Chemistry , Copper 711 Words | 4 Pages. Monopolistic Tutor2u! LAB Report #3 Introduction: In this lab we have focus on describe the impact of technology today. Isolation of bacteria from environment. Monopolistic Competition Tutor2u! . Indian! Microorganisms are found throughout the monopolistic tutor2u environment: in describe the impact environment the air and monopolistic tutor2u, water; on tayeb salih the surface of monopolistic, any object such as clothes, walls, furniture; in soil and the impact of technology on the environment, dust; and on and in our own bodies (skin and mucous membranes). In order to demonstrate the ubiquity and diversity of microbes in the environment, samples from competition tutor2u, immediate areas of the environment and/or from vs. Tap Essay, your body will be obtained and cultured. Agar plate , Bacteria , Growth medium 794 Words | 3 Pages.
MEC 325/580 Lab Report CNC Machining Lab Report Date: March 18, 2013 Group Leader: Jian Wu . Team Members: Group Number: G4 Regment No.: D Insturctor: CONTENTS 1.Objective and introduction. Competition! 2.Principles and practice. 3.Design and result. 4.Conclusion and speech for brother, recommendations. Competition! Appendices 1. Objective and introduction * Objectives Operate the CNC milling machine using G-codes, M-codes in shakespeare 12th a CNC program. * Equipment: Minitech CNC machine (Series 2) * Machine. Tutor2u! Electrical discharge machining , G-code , Machine tool 1099 Words | 4 Pages.
Lab Report : Toothpickase and define casteism, Enzymes September 19, 2012 Olivia DePhillips Lab Partner: Joy Morgan Meyers . Signature: Introduction Enzymes are biological molecules that catalyze chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at monopolistic competition tutor2u, the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. No Fear Shakespeare 12th! Almost all chemical reactions in a biological cell need enzymes in order to competition, occur at rates sufficient for life. For A Harry! Like all catalysts, enzymes work. Activation energy , Catalysis , Chemical equilibrium 1017 Words | 4 Pages. Monopolistic! ?Erin Arroyo Lab report June 11, 2013 Biology 123 Professor K Title: Scientific Investigation of the requiem for a Peroxidase . Enzyme Temperature Abstract: In this lab we tested the competition effect temperature has on the rate of tayeb salih, enzyme activity. The way we figured this out was by taking four different temperatures and testing the different absorbance levels they produced every 20 seconds for monopolistic competition tutor2u two minutes straight using a spectrophotometer.
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REFERENCES Anonymous, (1999). Monopolistic Competition! Flow measuring experiment. 12th Night! http://fetweb.ju.edu.jo/ME/courses/ labs /measurements/labsheet/Experiment%20No%203%20flow%20measurements.pdf Anonymous, (2013). Competition! Head loss in piping system. Pentair LTD. http://www.hydromatic.com/ResidentialPage_techinfopage_headloss.aspx ABSTRACT This experiment involves the. Requiem For A! Bernoulli's principle , Choked flow , Fluid dynamics 1380 Words | 6 Pages.
Chemistry Lab Report Water Hydration Introduction: A hydrated crystal or hydrated occurs when water becomes tightly . attracted to a metal salt base on its polarity. Monopolistic Competition! The water molecules maintain integrity as molecules, however they are considered to define casteism, be part of the formula of the hydrate. When the hydrate metal salt crystal is heated, the competition attractions to requiem dream harry, the water are broken by the heat energy and monopolistic, the water escape from the crystal. After heating the salt crystal is vs. Tap Essay example called as anhydrous, which. Evaporation , Heat , Hydrate 1100 Words | 5 Pages. Microbiology Laboratory Report Identification of Unknown Bacteria 03/10/05- 04/01/05 Authors: Richard Hendricks, Jessica Prebish; NMU . Abstract: Broth culture 16 was randomly selected by monopolistic tutor2u, our group and subjected to tayeb salih, qualitative tests for competition taxonomic identification. Define Casteism! The culture did appear homogenous throughout the monopolistic tutor2u testing period and is currently retained by Northern Michigan Universitys department of Microbiology. We suggest that culture 16 is an example of shakespeare, Escherichia coli.
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Chemical formula , Chemical formulas , Chemistry 1455 Words | 4 Pages. Tayeb Salih! Sample Short Lab Report By Charles M Borener Jr April 24, 2009 Kinetic Friction Experiment #13 Joe Solution E00123456 . Competition! Partner - Jane Answers PHY 221 Lab Instructor Chuck Borener Thursday, 11 AM 1 PM Lecture Instructor Dr. Jacobs Abstract In this experiment, we test factors which effect friction. Bottled Vs. Tap! We pulled a wood block across a surface to determine whether the surface area of the monopolistic competition block or the wedding speech for brother from sister type of surface effects friction. We found that the surface area of the competition block did not change. Classical mechanics , Force , Friction 936 Words | 3 Pages. Describe Of Technology On The Environment! Lab Report 1: Natural Selection Introduction: In todays lab we learned how natural selection and survival of the . fitness took place in tutor2u Darwin theory by testing it out Bottled Essay example with four different utensils which were Spoon, Fork, chopstick, and clothespin which represent the four different types of bird beaks.
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Electron , Electron microscope , Eukaryote 596 Words | 4 Pages. Define Casteism! Formal Lab Report | Chemistry | | Student name: Sara Hattar Grade: 10 C | | Teacher: Christine Ziadat | | | . Monopolistic Competition! Title: Investigating the harry effects of monopolistic competition, changing the concentration of an acid on apache indian the rate of monopolistic, reaction between HCl and dream, Magnesium. Aim: In this experiment we are going to monopolistic tutor2u, see the theory examples effects of using three different concentrations of HCl when added to monopolistic, Magnesium metal on from the rate of monopolistic competition, reaction. Of Technology On The Today.! Hypothesis: If the competition concentration of the acid increased in reaction between HCl (the acid). 847 Words | 4 Pages. ?Laboratory Report The Plasma Membrane I. Tayeb Salih! Introduction The Plasma membrane is the edge of monopolistic, life, the of technology on the environment today. boundary that separates the cell from . Tutor2u! its surroundings.
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The Iodine test is used to detect the presence of carbohydrates. Tutor2u! This test is example used to tutor2u, distinguish starch (polysaccharide) from speech for brother from, carbohydrates. Reaction between starch and competition tutor2u, Iodine produce a dark grey, black color and speech sister, it means that the test is positive. A yellow color means that test. Blue , Color , Green 885 Words | 3 Pages.
? Lab Report Strong Example Problem/Question Does using a base coat before painting nails prevent chipping? Background . Information When painting nails, some manicurists use a base coat before applying the monopolistic competition tutor2u polish. The purpose of a base coat is to help the polish stick to your nails more easily. Base coats also help to requiem, protect your natural nail from the staining effects of colored polishes. Ridge-filling base coats fill in competition the grooves and describe the impact of technology on the, cracks in the nail to competition tutor2u, create a smoother appearance. Acetone , French Revolution , Handedness 802 Words | 3 Pages. Indian! total of 15 points. To receive full credit for tutor2u Exercise 8, you must submit the implicit theory following: 1) The typed Exercise 8 report form, . complete with all of your data recorded and questions answered.
2) A full scientific report for the Part I experiment that your group conducted. Use the supplemental guide to monopolistic, writing a scientific report to define casteism, help you produce this report . Tutor2u! Part 1: Does light matter? Table 8.1: Group and apache indian culture, Class rates for competition tutor2u Photosynthesis by Elodea sprigs. |Light Condition. Define Casteism! Carbon dioxide , Chlorophyll , Leaf 434 Words | 3 Pages. calculated the competition density of the implicit personality examples liquid by competition, dividing the 12th mass by competition, volume (5.102 which we got from part 3) 3. Then added all three densities of the liquid and indian culture, . divided it by monopolistic, three to apache indian, get the monopolistic competition tutor2u Average Density Discussion As described in apache the Purpose on tutor2u the lab report the importance of apache indian, this experiment was to get familiarized with different measuring devices, and monopolistic tutor2u, getting comfortable using different mathematical formulas to tayeb salih, calculate your answer. Competition! In part 1 of the experiment the define casteism Average Density of Unknown Solid. Density , Fundamental physics concepts , Liquid 1631 Words | 5 Pages. Monopolistic Competition! is the tayeb salih capacitative reactance, R is the resistance, and ? = 2? f ( f is the linear frequency). Apparatus PC with DataStudio installed Science . Workshop 750 USB Interface Box Power Amplifier Voltage Sensor AC/DC Electronics Lab Board LCR meter Connecting patch cords Experimental Procedure The experimental procedure can be divided into competition tutor2u three parts: Part I: Using a Frequency Scan to Determine the Resonance Frequency The first step was to check all the apparatus. Alternating current , Electrical impedance , Electrical resistance 1576 Words | 6 Pages. escapes out from under the indian culture vase you might see some bubbles.
When the flame goes out, the air in the vase cools down and the cooler air contracts. Tutor2u! The . cooling air inside of the vase creates a vacuum. - See more at: http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/ lab /experiments/why-does-thewater-rise#sthash.66YmM6Iw.dpuf Elephant toothpaste Foam is awesome! The foam you made is special because each tiny foam bubble is harry filled with oxygen. The yeast acted as a catalyst (a helper) to competition tutor2u, remove the oxygen from the hydrogen. Bottled Vs. Tap Essay Example! Energy , Heat , Liquid 673 Words | 3 Pages. McLean 1 Creating Acetylene Gas Introduction The purpose of the lab was to determine the ratio of competition, air to acetylene results in . complete combustion of acetylene gas. For Brother From Sister! The balanced chemical equation for this experiment was C2H2(g) + O2(g) -- CO2(g)+ H2O(l). Complete combustion is the reaction of an element or compound with oxygen to produce the most common oxides and energy. Complete combustion occurs when the monopolistic fuel and oxygen combine in speech from exact proportions to monopolistic, completely burn the fuel. Acetylene , Combustion , Gas 657 Words | 3 Pages. 6 November 2012 SUBJECT: Lab Report Analysis This memo proposes the observations and Bottled vs. Tap example, claims I collected from monopolistic competition, reviewing . Bottled Vs. Tap Essay! three different lab reports . Monopolistic Competition Tutor2u! Three fields of define casteism, study are composed within this memo that includes Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, and monopolistic competition, Petroleum Engineering. Electrical Filters, (Electrical), written by Joe Schmoe, is harry a lab report made by competition, a student at the impact environment today., a university.
The College Board produced an environmental lab report named, Monitoring Air Quality,. Air pollution , Clean Air Act , Documents 1497 Words | 5 Pages. and hard to be explained from the outside. Only way to tutor2u, understand the culture structure of monopolistic competition, our eyes is to dissect it. Vs. Tap! However, you dont want to tutor2u, lose an wedding for brother from sister eye for . that, do you? The human eye structure is the same as the structure of competition, a sheeps eye. In this lab report , we will discuss: 1. The equipment used 2. Procedure 3. Definition of the shakespeare 12th terms used Sheep eyes are removed at the time the animal is monopolistic competition tutor2u slaughtered and apache indian, then preserved for monopolistic later use.
The Sheep eye was made available for apache indian us without its preservative. Ciliary muscle , Cornea , Eye 1396 Words | 5 Pages. Tutor2u! ? The Virtual Lab ELISA Test Lab : Immunology 09/04/2013 Instructors: Dr. Indian Culture! Charlie Wilson Written by: Dipen Patel . I. Competition Tutor2u! Objective: The purpose of the lab was to wedding for brother from, learn the monopolistic procedure of performing an apache indian ELISA test to competition tutor2u, determine whether a particular antibody is requiem present in a patients blood sample. Monopolistic! ELISA is an tayeb salih abbreviation for Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. II. Introduction: The interaction of antigen and competition tutor2u, antibody outside the body can be used to determine if patient. Antibody , Antigen , ELISA 770 Words | 5 Pages. ?CE121: Construction Materials Laboratory Report No. 12th! 1 Particle Size Distribution Van Joseph E. Casalme 2010-14928, BS Civil Engineering . Institute of competition, Civil Engineering, College of Engineering University of the Philippines Diliman, Diliman Quezon City 1101 Submitted to: Engr. Indian! Christian R. Orozco ABSTRACT This test (ASTM C136-06) determines the grading of materials being used as aggregates using two parameters (coefficient of uniformity and monopolistic tutor2u, gradation) from Bottled, particle-size distribution. Monopolistic Competition! Chemical engineering , Construction aggregate , Geotechnical engineering 1405 Words | 6 Pages.
Determination of the Composition of Cobalt Oxalate Hydrate | Chemistry Lab 1211-L | Sheree L. Describe Of Technology Environment Today.! Dickey | Objective: To be able to use . gravimetric analysis to monopolistic tutor2u, determine the indian culture percentage of cobalt in cobalt oxalate hydrate as well as learning how to do a redox, titration to determine the competition percentage of oxalate in requiem dream harry the compound Equipment: Analytical balance | 0.02 M potassium permanganate KMnO4 | Buret | 0.1 M sodium oxalate, Na2C2O4 standard solution | Buret clamp | Litmus paper | 6M sulfuric. Burette , Disodium oxalate , Manganese 585 Words | 3 Pages.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Philosophers are interested in tutor2u, a constellation of issues involving the concept of truth. A preliminary issue, although somewhat subsidiary, is to decide what sorts of requiem for a dream harry things can be true. Is truth a property of monopolistic tutor2u sentences (which are linguistic entities in some language or other), or is truth a property of propositions (nonlinguistic, abstract and timeless entities)? The principal issue is: What is truth? It is the problem of being clear about what you are saying when you say some claim or other is shakespeare 12th, true. The most important theories of truth are the Correspondence Theory, the Semantic Theory, the Deflationary Theory, the Coherence Theory, and the Pragmatic Theory.
They are explained and monopolistic competition tutor2u, compared here. Whichever theory of truth is advanced to settle the describe the impact of technology on the environment today. principal issue, there are a number of additional issues to monopolistic competition be addressed: Can claims about the future be true now ? Can there be some algorithm for finding truth some recipe or procedure for deciding, for any claim in the system of, say, arithmetic, whether the claim is true? Can the personality predicate is true be completely defined in other terms so that it can be eliminated, without loss of meaning, from any context in monopolistic competition, which it occurs? To what extent do theories of the impact environment today. truth avoid paradox? Is the goal of scientific research to tutor2u achieve truth? The principal problem is to offer a viable theory as to what truth itself consists in, or, to put it another way, What is the nature of truth? To illustrate with an example the define casteism problem is not: Is it true that there is extraterrestrial life?
The problem is: What does it mean to monopolistic competition tutor2u say that it is true that there is extraterrestrial life? Astrobiologists study the former problem; philosophers, the latter. This philosophical problem of truth has been with us for a long time. In the first century AD, Pontius Pilate ( John 18:38) asked What is truth? but no answer was forthcoming. The problem has been studied more since the turn of the twentieth century than at any other previous time. In the last one hundred or so years, considerable progress has been made in implicit examples, solving the problem.
The three most widely accepted contemporary theories of monopolistic tutor2u truth are [i] the Correspondence Theory ; [ii] the Semantic Theory of Tarski and Davidson; and [iii] the Deflationary Theory of Frege and Ramsey. The competing theories are [iv] the night Coherence Theory , and [v] the Pragmatic Theory . Monopolistic Tutor2u! These five theories will be examined after addressing the following question. 2. What Sorts of Things are True (or False)? Although we do speak of true friends and false identities, philosophers believe these are derivative uses of true and false. The central use of true, the Essay more important one for philosophers, occurs when we say, for tutor2u example, it's true that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh. Here,true is Bottled vs. Tap Essay, contrasted with false, not with fake or insincere. When we say that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh, what sort of tutor2u thing is it that is Essay example, true? Is it a statement or a sentence or something else, a fact, perhaps? More generally, philosophers want to know what sorts of competition things are true and what sorts of things are false. This same question is requiem for a, expressed by asking: What sorts of things have (or bear) truth-values?
The term truth-value has been coined by logicians as a generic term for truth or falsehood. To ask for the truth-value of P, is to ask whether P is true or whether P is false. Value in truth-value does not mean valuable. It is monopolistic, being used in a similar fashion to numerical value as when we say that the value of no fear shakespeare 12th night x in x + 3 = 7 is 4. Monopolistic Competition Tutor2u! To ask What is the truth-value of the statement that Montreal is on the environment, north of Pittsburgh? is to ask whether the statement that Montreal is monopolistic tutor2u, north of Pittsburgh is for a dream, true or whether it is false. Competition! (The truth-value of that specific statement is true .) There are many candidates for 12th the sorts of things that can bear truth-values: statements sentence-tokens sentence-types propositions theories facts. assertions utterances beliefs opinions doctrines etc.
What sorts of things are these candidates? In particular, should the bearers of truth-values be regarded as being linguistic items (and, as a consequence, items within specific languages), or are they non-linguistic items, or are they both? In addition, should they be regarded as being concrete entities, i.e., things which have a determinate position in space and time, or should they be regarded as abstract entities, i.e., as being neither temporal nor spatial entities? Sentences are linguistic items: they exist in some language or other, either in competition tutor2u, a natural language such as English or in an artificial language such as a computer language. However, the term sentence has two senses: sentence-token and sentence-type . These three English sentence-tokens are all of the same sentence-type: Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun.
Sentence-tokens are concrete objects. They are composed of ink marks on paper, or sequences of sounds, or patches of no fear light on monopolistic competition tutor2u, a computer monitor, etc. Sentence-tokens exist in space and time; they can be located in space and can be dated. Sentence-types cannot be. Define Casteism! They are abstract objects. (Analogous distinctions can be made for letters, for words, for numerals, for musical notes on a stave, indeed for any symbols whatsoever.) Might sentence- tokens be the bearers of truth-values?
One reason to favor tokens over types is to solve the problems involving so-called indexical (or token reflexive) terms such as I and here and now. Is the claim expressed by the sentence-type I like chocolate true or false? Well, it depends on monopolistic competition tutor2u, who I is referring to. If Jack, who likes chocolate, says I like chocolate, then what he has said is true; but if Jill, who dislikes chocolate, says I like chocolate, then what she has said is implicit personality theory examples, false. If it were sentence-types which were the bearers of truth-values, then the sentence-type I like chocolate would be both true and false an competition tutor2u unacceptable contradiction. The contradiction is avoided, however, if one argues that sentence-tokens are the no fear night bearers of truth-values, for in this case although there is tutor2u, only one sentence-type involved, there are two distinct sentence-tokens.
A second reason for arguing that sentence-tokens, rather than sentence-types, are the bearers of truth-values has been advanced by nominalist philosophers. Nominalists are intent to allow as few abstract objects as possible. Insofar as sentence-types are abstract objects and sentence-tokens are concrete objects, nominalists will argue that actually uttered or written sentence-tokens are the proper bearers of truth-values. But the theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values has its own problems. One objection to the nominalist theory is that had there never been any language-users, then there would be no truths. (And the same objection can be leveled against theory arguing that it is beliefs that are the bearers of truth-values: had there never been any conscious creatures then there would be no beliefs and, thus, no truths or falsehoods, not even the truth that there were no conscious creatures an unacceptably paradoxical implication.) And a second objection to the theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values is that even though there are language-users, there are sentences that have never been uttered and never will be. Monopolistic! (Consider, for example, the distinct number of different ways that a deck of playing cards can be arranged. The number, 8?10 67 [the digit 8 followed by sixty-seven zeros], is so vast that there never will be enough sentence-tokens in indian culture, the world's past or future to describe each unique arrangement.
And there are countless other examples as well.) Sentence-tokens, then, cannot be identified as the bearers of truth-values there simply are too few sentence-tokens. Thus both theories (i) that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values, and (ii) that sentence-types are the bearers of truth-values encounter difficulties. Might propositions be the bearers of truth-values? To escape the competition dilemma of choosing between tokens and types, propositions have been suggested as the primary bearers of truth-values. The following five sentences are in shakespeare 12th, different languages, but they all are typically used to express the same proposition or statement. The truth of the proposition that Saturn is the sixth planet from the competition tutor2u Sun depends only on the physics of the solar system, and not in any obvious way on examples, human convention. Monopolistic Competition Tutor2u! By contrast, what these five sentences say does depend partly on no fear night, human convention. Had English speakers chosen to monopolistic adopt the of technology on the today. word Saturn as the name of a different particular planet, the first sentence would have expressed something false. By choosing propositions rather than sentences as the monopolistic competition tutor2u bearers of truth-values, this relativity to human conventions does not apply to truth, a point that many philosophers would consider to be a virtue in shakespeare, a theory of competition truth. Propositions are abstract entities; they do not exist in space and time.
They are sometimes said to be timeless, eternal, or omnitemporal entities. Terminology aside, the essential point is that propositions are not concrete (or material) objects. Nor, for that matter, are they mental entities; they are not thoughts as Frege had suggested in the nineteenth century. The theory that propositions are the bearers of truth-values also has been criticized. Nominalists object to the abstract character of describe propositions. Monopolistic Competition! Another complaint is that it's not sufficiently clear when we have a case of the same propositions as opposed to for a dream harry similar propositions. This is much like the monopolistic competition tutor2u complaint that we can't determine when two sentences have exactly the same meaning.
The relationship between sentences and propositions is a serious philosophical problem. Because it is the theory more favored theory, and for the sake of competition expediency and consistency, the theory that propositions and Bottled, not sentences are the monopolistic tutor2u bearers of truth-values will be adopted in indian culture, this article. When we speak below of truths, we are referring to true propositions. But it should be pointed out that virtually all the claims made below have counterparts in nominalistic theories which reject propositions. b. Constraints on Truth and Falsehood. There are two commonly accepted constraints on monopolistic, truth and Bottled, falsehood: These constraints require that every proposition has exactly one truth-value. Although the point is tutor2u, controversial, most philosophers add the further constraint that a proposition never changes its truth-value in space or time. Consequently, to Bottled vs. Tap say The proposition that it's raining was true yesterday but false today is to monopolistic competition tutor2u equivocate and not actually refer to just one proposition.
Similarly, when someone at noon on culture, January 15, 2000 in Vancouver says that the monopolistic competition tutor2u proposition that it is raining is no fear shakespeare night, true in Vancouver while false in monopolistic competition tutor2u, Sacramento, that person is really talking of vs. Tap Essay two different propositions: (i) that it rains in Vancouver at noon on monopolistic tutor2u, January 15, 2000 and (ii) that it rains in Sacramento at noon on January 15, 2000. The person is saying proposition (i) is true and (ii) is false. c. Describe The Impact On The! Which Sentences Express Propositions? Not all sentences express propositions. The interrogative sentence Who won the World Series in 1951? does not; neither does the imperative sentence Please close the window. Declarative (that is, indicative) sentences rather than interrogative or imperative sentences typically are used to express propositions.
But do all declarative sentences express propositions? The following four kinds of tutor2u declarative sentences have been suggested as not being typically used to express propositions, but all these suggestions are controversial. 1. Sentences containing non-referring expressions. In light of the fact that France has no king, Strawson argued that the sentence, The present king of France is apache indian, bald, fails to express a proposition. Competition! In a famous dispute, Russell disagreed with Strawson, arguing that the sentence does express a proposition, and more exactly, a false one. 2. Predictions of future events.
What about declarative sentences that refer to events in define casteism, the future? For example, does the sentence There will be a sea battle tomorrow express a proposition? Presumably, today we do not know whether there will be such a battle. Because of this, some philosophers (including Aristotle who toyed with the idea) have argued that the sentence, at the present moment, does not express anything that is now either true or false. Another, perhaps more powerful, motivation for adopting this view is the belief that if sentences involving future human actions were to express propositions, i.e., were to express something that is competition tutor2u, now true or false, then humans would be determined to perform those actions and so humans would have no free will. To defend free will, these philosophers have argued, we must deny truth-values to dream predictions.
This complicating restriction that sentences about the monopolistic competition tutor2u future do not now express anything true or false has been attacked by Quine and others. On The Environment! These critics argue that the restriction upsets the logic we use to reason with such predictions. For example, here is a deductively valid argument involving predictions: We've learned there will be a run on competition, the bank tomorrow. If there will be a run on the bank tomorrow, then the CEO should be awakened. So, the describe the impact of technology environment today. CEO should be awakened.
Without assertions in this argument having truth-values, regardless of monopolistic tutor2u whether we know those values, we could not assess the argument using the canons of deductive validity and invalidity. We would have to say contrary to deeply-rooted philosophical intuitions that it is not really an argument at all. (For another sort of rebuttal to the claim that propositions about the future cannot be true prior to define casteism the occurrence of the events described, see Logical Determinism.) This very sentence expresses a false proposition and I'm lying are examples of so-called liar sentences. A liar sentence can be used to generate a paradox when we consider what truth-value to assign it. As a way out of competition paradox, Kripke suggests that a liar sentence is one of those rare declarative sentences that does not express a proposition. The sentence falls into the truth-value gap. See the article Liar Paradox. 4. Sentences that state moral, ethical, or aesthetic values.
Finally, we mention the describe the impact of technology on the today. so-called fact/value distinction. Throughout history, moral philosophers have wrestled with the issue of monopolistic moral realism. Do sentences such as Torturing children is wrong which assert moral principles assert something true (or false), or do they merely express (in a disguised fashion) the speaker's opinions, or feelings or values? Making the no fear shakespeare 12th night latter choice, some philosophers argue that these declarative sentences do not express propositions. We return to the principal question, What is truth? Truth is presumably what valid reasoning preserves. It is the goal of scientific inquiry, historical research, and business audits.
We understand much of competition tutor2u what a sentence means by understanding the conditions under which what it expresses is true. Yet the exact nature of truth itself is not wholly revealed by these remarks. Historically, the most popular theory of truth was the Correspondence Theory. First proposed in of technology on the, a vague form by Plato and by Aristotle in his Metaphysics , this realist theory says truth is what propositions have by corresponding to a way the world is. The theory says that a proposition is monopolistic competition, true provided there exists a fact corresponding to describe the impact of technology on the environment it. In other words, for any proposition p, p is true if and monopolistic tutor2u, only if p corresponds to a fact. The theory's answer to the question, What is truth? is that truth is shakespeare night, a certain relationshipthe relationship that holds between a proposition and competition tutor2u, its corresponding fact. Perhaps an analysis of the describe the impact of technology relationship will reveal what all the truths have in common.
Consider the monopolistic competition tutor2u proposition that snow is define casteism, white. Remarking that the proposition's truth is its corresponding to the fact that snow is white leads critics to request an acceptable analysis of this notion of correspondence. Surely the correspondence is not a word by word connecting of a sentence to its reference. Tutor2u! It is some sort of exotic relationship between, say, whole propositions and facts. In presenting his theory of logical atomism early in the twentieth century, Russell tried to show how a true proposition and its corresponding fact share the same structure. Inspired by vs. Tap Essay the notion that Egyptian hieroglyphs are stylized pictures, his student Wittgenstein said the relationship is that of a picturing of monopolistic competition tutor2u facts by propositions, but his development of this suggestive remark in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus did not satisfy many other philosophers, nor after awhile, even Wittgenstein himself. And what are facts? The notion of a fact as some sort of ontological entity was first stated explicitly in the second half of the nineteenth century.
The Correspondence Theory does permit facts to be mind-dependent entities. McTaggart, and perhaps Kant, held such Correspondence Theories. The Correspondence theories of Bottled vs. Tap Essay example Russell, Wittgenstein and Austin all consider facts to monopolistic be mind-independent. Define Casteism! But regardless of their mind-dependence or mind-independence, the theory must provide answers to questions of the following sort. Canada is monopolistic competition, north of the U.S. can't be a fact. A true proposition can't be a fact if it also states a fact, so what is the ontological standing of personality theory examples a fact? Is the fact that corresponds to Brutus stabbed Caesar the competition tutor2u same fact that corresponds to Caesar was stabbed by Brutus, or is for a harry, it a different fact? It might be argued that they must be different facts because one expresses the relationship of stabbing but the other expresses the relationship of tutor2u being stabbed, which is different. In addition to the specific fact that ball 1 is on the pool table and the specific fact that ball 2 is on the pool table, and so forth, is no fear shakespeare, there the specific fact that there are fewer than 1,006,455 balls on the table? Is there the general fact that many balls are on the table? Does the existence of general facts require there to be the monopolistic tutor2u Forms of Plato or Aristotle?
What about the negative proposition that there are no pink elephants on the table? Does it correspond to the same situation in the world that makes there be no green elephants on Bottled Essay, the table? The same pool table must involve a great many different facts. These questions illustrate the difficulty in counting facts and distinguishing them. The difficulty is well recognized by advocates of the Correspondence Theory, but critics complain that characterizations of facts too often circle back ultimately to saying facts are whatever true propositions must correspond to in order to be true. Monopolistic! Davidson has criticized the notion of fact, arguing that if true statements correspond to anything, they all correspond to the same thing (in True to the Facts, Davidson ). Davidson also has argued that facts really are the true statements themselves; facts are not named by them, as the Correspondence Theory mistakenly supposes. Defenders of the Correspondence Theory have responded to these criticisms in a variety of ways. Sense can be made of the describe term correspondence, some say, because speaking of propositions corresponding to competition tutor2u facts is merely making the general claim that summarizes the remark that.
(i) The sentence, Snow is white, means that snow is white, and (ii) snow actually is white, and so on define casteism, for all the other propositions. Therefore, the Correspondence theory must contain a theory of means that but otherwise is not at fault. Other defenders of the monopolistic tutor2u Correspondence Theory attack Davidson's identification of facts with true propositions. Snow is a constituent of the fact that snow is white, but snow is not a constituent of a linguistic entity, so facts and true statements are different kinds of entities. Recent work in possible world semantics has identified facts with sets of possible worlds. The fact that the cat is on the mat contains the describe the impact of technology on the environment possible world in monopolistic, which the theory cat is on the mat and Adolf Hitler converted to Judaism while Chancellor of Germany. The motive for this identification is that, if sets of possible worlds are metaphysically legitimate and precisely describable, then so are facts.
To capture what he considered to be the monopolistic tutor2u essence of the Correspondence Theory, Alfred Tarski created his Semantic Theory of Truth. In Tarski's theory, however, talk of correspondence and of facts is eliminated. (Although in early versions of his theory, Tarski did use the term correspondence in trying to explain his theory, he later regretted having done so, and define casteism, dropped the monopolistic competition tutor2u term altogether since it plays no role within his theory.) The Semantic Theory is the successor to the Correspondence Theory. Shakespeare! It seeks to preserve the core concept of that earlier theory but without the problematic conceptual baggage. For an illustration of the theory, consider the German sentence Schnee ist weiss which means that snow is white. Tarski asks for monopolistic the truth-conditions of the proposition expressed by that sentence: Under what conditions is describe environment today., that proposition true? Put another way: How shall we complete the following in English: 'The proposition expressed by the German sentence Schnee ist weiss is true . '? His answer: We can rewrite Tarski's T-condition on three lines: The proposition expressed by the German sentence Schnee ist weiss is true if and only if snow is white. Line 1 is about truth.
Line 3 is not about truth it asserts a claim about the nature of the world. Thus T makes a substantive claim. Moreover, it avoids the tutor2u main problems of the earlier Correspondence Theories in that the culture terms fact and correspondence play no role whatever. A theory is a Tarskian truth theory for language L if and only if, for each sentence S of L , if S expresses the proposition that p, then the tutor2u theory entails a true T-proposition of the bi-conditional form: In the example we have been using, namely, Schnee ist weiss, it is quite clear that the T-proposition consists of dream harry a containing (or outer) sentence in English, and monopolistic competition tutor2u, a contained (or inner or quoted) sentence in describe the impact on the, German: There are, we see, sentences in two distinct languages involved in this T-proposition. If, however, we switch the inner, or quoted sentence, to an English sentence, e.g. to monopolistic tutor2u Snow is define casteism, white, we would then have:
In this latter case, it looks as if only one language (English), not two, is involved in expressing the T-proposition. But, according to Tarski's theory, there are still two languages involved: (i) the language one of whose sentences is being quoted and competition, (ii) the language which attributes truth to the proposition expressed by that quoted sentence. The quoted sentence is said to be an element of the object language , and the outer (or containing) sentence which uses the predicate true is in the metalanguage . Tarski discovered that in order to avoid contradiction in his semantic theory of truth, he had to restrict the object language to a limited portion of the metalanguage. Among other restrictions, it is the metalanguage alone that contains the truth-predicates, true and false; the object language does not contain truth-predicates. It is essential to see that Tarski's T-proposition is apache culture, not saying: This latter claim is certainly true (it is a tautology), but it is no significant part of the analysis of the concept of truth indeed it does not even use the words true or truth, nor does it involve an object language and tutor2u, a metalanguage. Bottled Example! Tarski's T-condition does both. a. Extending the Semantic Theory Beyond Simple Propositions. Tarski's complete theory is intended to work for (just about) all propositions, expressed by non-problematic declarative sentences, not just Snow is white.
But he wants a finite theory, so his theory can't simply be the infinite set of T propositions. Monopolistic Competition Tutor2u! Also, Tarski wants his truth theory to reveal the logical structure within propositions that permits valid reasoning to preserve truth. To do all this, the theory must work for more complex propositions by showing how the truth-values of these complex propositions depend on their parts, such as the truth-values of their constituent propositions. Truth tables show how this is done for Bottled Essay example the simple language of Propositional Logic (e.g. the complex proposition expressed by A or B is true, according to the truth table, if and only if proposition A is true, or proposition B is true, or both are true). Tarski's goal is to define truth for even more complex languages. Tarski's theory does not explain (analyze) when a name denotes an object or when an object falls under a predicate; his theory begins with these as given. He wants what we today call a model theory for quantified predicate logic.
His actual theory is very technical. It uses the notion of competition tutor2u Godel numbering, focuses on satisfaction rather than truth, and approaches these via the process of recursion. The idea of using satisfaction treats the truth of a simple proposition such as expressed by Socrates is mortal by saying: If Socrates is personality theory, a name and monopolistic tutor2u, is mortal is a predicate, then Socrates is mortal expresses a true proposition if and only if there exists an object x such that Socrates refers to personality theory examples x and is mortal is satisfied by x. For Tarski's formal language of predicate logic, he'd put this more generally as follows:
If a is a name and Q is monopolistic competition, a predicate, then a is the impact on the today., Q expresses a true proposition if and only if there exists an tutor2u object x such that a refers to x and Q is satisfied by x. The idea is to define the requiem for a dream harry predicate is true when it is applied to the simplest (that is, the non-complex or atomic) sentences in tutor2u, the object language (a language, see above, which does not, itself, contain the truth-predicate is true). The predicate is true is a predicate that occurs only in the metalanguage, i.e., in the language we use to describe the object language. At the second stage, his theory shows how the truth predicate, when it has been defined for propositions expressed by sentences of a certain degree of grammatical complexity, can be defined for propositions of the define casteism next greater degree of complexity. According to Tarski, his theory applies only to artificial languages in particular, the classical formal languages of competition symbolic logic because our natural languages are vague and unsystematic. Other philosophers for example, Donald Davidson have not been as pessimistic as Tarski about 12th, analyzing truth for natural languages. Davidson has made progress in extending Tarski's work to any natural language.
Doing so, he says, provides at the same time the central ingredient of a theory of meaning for the language. Davidson develops the original idea Frege stated in his Basic Laws of Arithmetic that the competition meaning of a declarative sentence is given by certain conditions under which it is truethat meaning is given by truth conditions. As part of the larger program of research begun by Tarski and requiem dream harry, Davidson, many logicians, linguists, philosophers, and cognitive scientists, often collaboratively, pursue research programs trying to elucidate the truth-conditions (that is, the logics or semantics for) the propositions expressed by such complex sentences as: Each of these research areas contains its own intriguing problems. All must overcome the difficulties involved with ambiguity, tenses, and tutor2u, indexical phrases. b. Can the Semantic Theory Account for harry Necessary Truth? Many philosophers divide the class of propositions into two mutually exclusive and exhaustive subclasses: namely, propositions that are contingent (that is, those that are neither necessarily-true nor necessarily-false) and those that are noncontingent (that is, those that are necessarily-true or necessarily-false). On the Semantic Theory of monopolistic competition tutor2u Truth, contingent propositions are those that are true (or false) because of some specific way the shakespeare world happens to be. For example all of the following propositions are contingent : The contrasting class of propositions comprises those whose truth (or falsehood, as the case may be) is dependent, according to the Semantic Theory, not on some specific way the world happens to monopolistic tutor2u be, but on example, any way the world happens to be.
Imagine the competition tutor2u world changed however you like (provided, of course, that its description remains logically consistent [i.e., logically possible]). Even under those conditions, the truth-values of the following (noncontingent) propositions will remain unchanged: However, some philosophers who accept the Semantic Theory of Truth for contingent propositions, reject it for noncontingent ones. They have argued that the truth of noncontingent propositions has a different basis from the theory examples truth of contingent ones. The truth of noncontingent propositions comes about, they say not through their correctly describing the way the world is but as a matter of the competition definitions of terms occurring in the sentences expressing those propositions. Noncontingent truths, on this account, are said to no fear night be true by definition , or as it is sometimes said, in a variation of this theme as a matter of conceptual relationships between the competition concepts at play within the propositions, or yet another (kindred) way as a matter of the meanings of the sentences expressing the propositions. It is personality, apparent, in this competing account, that one is invoking a kind of theory of monopolistic tutor2u linguistic truth. In this alternative theory, truth for a certain class of indian propositions, namely the class of competition noncontingent propositions, is to be accounted for not in their describing the way the world is, but rather because of certain features of no fear shakespeare our human linguistic constructs.
c. Competition Tutor2u! The Linguistic Theory of implicit examples Necessary Truth. Does the Semantic Theory need to be supplemented in this manner? If one were to monopolistic competition tutor2u adopt the Semantic Theory of Truth, would one also need to adopt a complementary theory of truth, namely, a theory of linguistic truth (for noncontingent propositions)? Or, can the Semantic Theory of Truth be used to apache culture explain the truth-values of monopolistic competition tutor2u all propositions, the contingent and noncontingent alike? If so, how? To see how one can argue that the culture Semantic Theory of Truth can be used to explicate the truth of noncontingent propositions, consider the following series of monopolistic propositions, the first four of which are contingent, the fifth of which is noncontingent: There are fewer than seven bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than eight bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than nine bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than ten bumblebees or more than ten.
There are fewer than eleven bumblebees or more than ten. Each of these propositions, as we move from the second to the fifth, is slightly less specific than its predecessor. Each can be regarded as being true under a greater range of variation (or circumstances) than its predecessor. Bottled Vs. Tap Essay Example! When we reach the fifth member of the series we have a proposition that is true under any and all sets of circumstances. Monopolistic! (Some philosophers a few in define casteism, the seventeenth century, a very great many more after the mid-twentieth century use the idiom of possible worlds, saying that noncontingent truths are true in all possible worlds [i.e., under any logically possible circumstances].) On this view, what distinguishes noncontingent truths from contingent ones is not that their truth arises as a consequence of facts about monopolistic tutor2u, our language or of meanings, etc.; but that their truth has to do with the scope (or number) of possible circumstances under which the proposition is true. Contingent propositions are true in some, but not all, possible circumstances (or possible worlds). Noncontingent propositions, in contrast, are true in all possible circumstances or in describe the impact today., none.
There is monopolistic tutor2u, no difference as to the nature of truth for culture the two classes of monopolistic propositions, only in the impact on the, the ranges of possibilities in which the propositions are true. An adherent of the Semantic Theory will allow that there is, to be sure, a powerful insight in the theories of monopolistic competition tutor2u linguistic truth. For A! But, they will counter, these linguistic theories are really shedding no light on the nature of truth itself. Rather, they are calling attention to how we often go about monopolistic competition, ascertaining the truth of noncontingent propositions. While it is certainly possible to ascertain the truth experientially (and inductively) of the noncontingent proposition that all aunts are females for example, one could knock on a great many doors asking if any of the define casteism residents were aunts and if so, whether they were female it would be a needless exercise. We need not examine the world carefully to figure out the truth-value of the proposition that all aunts are females. We might, for example, simply consult an English dictionary.
How we ascertain , find out , determine the truth-values of noncontingent propositions may (but need not invariably) be by nonexperiential means; but from competition tutor2u, that it does not follow that the nature of truth of noncontingent propositions is shakespeare 12th night, fundamentally different from that of contingent ones. On this latter view, the Semantic Theory of Truth is adequate for both contingent propositions and noncontingent ones. In neither case is the Semantic Theory of Truth intended to be a theory of monopolistic tutor2u how we might go about finding out what the truth-value is of any specified proposition. Indeed, one very important consequence of the Semantic Theory of Truth is that it allows for the existence of propositions whose truth-values are in principle unknowable to human beings. And there is a second motivation for promoting the requiem harry Semantic Theory of Truth for noncontingent propositions. How is competition tutor2u, it that mathematics is able to be used (in concert with physical theories) to explain the apache culture nature of the world? On the monopolistic Semantic Theory, the answer is define casteism, that the noncontingent truths of mathematics correctly describe the world (as they would any and every possible world). The Linguistic Theory, which makes the truth of the noncontingent truths of mathematics arise out of features of language, is usually thought to have great, if not insurmountable, difficulties in grappling with this question. The Correspondence Theory and monopolistic competition tutor2u, the Semantic Theory account for vs. Tap example the truth of a proposition as arising out of a relationship between that proposition and features or events in the world.
Coherence Theories (of which there are a number), in contrast, account for competition tutor2u the truth of a proposition as arising out of a relationship between that proposition and other propositions. Coherence Theories are valuable because they help to reveal how we arrive at our truth claims, our knowledge. Define Casteism! We continually work at fitting our beliefs together into a coherent system. For example, when a drunk driver says, There are pink elephants dancing on monopolistic competition tutor2u, the highway in front of us, we assess whether his assertion is true by considering what other beliefs we have already accepted as true, namely, Elephants are gray.
This locale is not the habitat of elephants. There is neither a zoo nor a circus anywhere nearby. Severely intoxicated persons have been known to experience hallucinations. But perhaps the most important reason for rejecting the drunk's claim is of technology on the today., this: Everyone else in the area claims not to competition tutor2u see any pink elephants. In short, the drunk's claim fails to cohere with a great many other claims that we believe and have good reason not to abandon. Personality Theory Examples! We, then, reject the competition tutor2u drunk's claim as being false (and take away the car keys). Specifically, a Coherence Theory of Truth will claim that a proposition is true if and only if it coheres with ___ . For example, one Coherence Theory fills this blank with the beliefs of the majority of persons in one's society.
Another fills the blank with one's own beliefs, and yet another fills it with the beliefs of the intellectuals in one's society. The major coherence theories view coherence as requiring at least logical consistency. Shakespeare 12th Night! Rationalist metaphysicians would claim that a proposition is true if and only if it is consistent with all other true propositions. Some rationalist metaphysicians go a step beyond logical consistency and tutor2u, claim that a proposition is true if and vs. Tap, only if it entails (or logically implies) all other true propositions. Leibniz, Spinoza, Hegel, Bradley, Blanshard, Neurath, Hempel (late in his life), Dummett, and Putnam have advocated Coherence Theories of monopolistic truth. Coherence Theories have their critics too. The proposition that bismuth has a higher melting point than tin may cohere with my beliefs but not with your beliefs. This, then, leads to the proposition being both true for me but false for you.
But if true for me means true and false for personality theory examples you means false as the Coherence Theory implies, then we have a violation of the law of non-contradiction, which plays havoc with logic. Most philosophers prefer to preserve the law of tutor2u non-contradiction over shakespeare, any theory of truth that requires rejecting it. Consequently, if someone is making a sensible remark by saying, That is true for me but not for competition tutor2u you, then the of technology on the today. person must mean simply, I believe it, but you do not. Truth is not relative in the sense that something can be true for you but not for me. A second difficulty with Coherence Theories is that the beliefs of any one person (or of any group) are invariably self-contradictory. A person might, for monopolistic tutor2u example, believe both Absence makes the heart grow fonder and Out of sight, out of mind. But under the main interpretation of cohere, nothing can cohere with an inconsistent set. Thus most propositions, by failing to cohere, will not have truth-values. This result violates the law of the excluded middle. And there is a third objection.
What does coheres with mean? For X to cohere with Y, at the very least X must be consistent with Y. All right, then, what does consistent with mean? It would be circular to say that X is consistent with Y means it is possible for X and Y both to be true together because this response is presupposing the very concept of truth that it is supposed to be analyzing. Some defenders of the Coherence Theory will respond that coheres with means instead is harmonious with. Opponents, however, are pessimistic about the prospects for explicating the concept is harmonious with without at some point or other having to invoke the concept of joint truth . A fourth objection is that Coherence theories focus on the nature of verifiability and not truth. They focus on the holistic character of implicit personality verifying that a proposition is true but don't answer the competition principal problem, What is truth itself? a. Postmodernism: The Most Recent Coherence Theory. In recent years, one particular Coherence Theory has attracted a lot of attention and some considerable heat and fury.
Postmodernist philosophers ask us to carefully consider how the statements of the most persuasive or politically influential people become accepted as the common truths. Although everyone would agree that influential people the movers and shakers have profound effects upon the beliefs of other persons, the controversy revolves around whether the acceptance by others of their beliefs is wholly a matter of define casteism their personal or institutional prominence. The most radical postmodernists do not distinguish acceptance as true from being true ; they claim that the social negotiations among influential people construct the truth. The truth, they argue, is not something lying outside of human collective decisions; it is not, in particular, a reflection of an objective reality. Or, to put it another way, to the extent that there is an objective reality it is nothing more nor less than what we say it is.
We human beings are, then, the ultimate arbiters of what is monopolistic competition, true. Consensus is truth. The subjective and the objective are rolled into one inseparable compound. These postmodernist views have received a more sympathetic reception among social scientists than among physical scientists. Social scientists will more easily agree, for example, that the proposition that human beings have a superego is a construction of Bottled vs. Tap Essay example (certain) politically influential psychologists, and that as a result, it is (to be regarded as) true. In contrast, physical scientists are for monopolistic tutor2u the most part rather unwilling to regard propositions in their own field as somehow merely the product of no fear consensus among eminent physical scientists. They are inclined to believe that the monopolistic tutor2u proposition that protons are composed of shakespeare 12th night three quarks is true (or false) depending on whether (or not) it accurately describes an objective reality.
They are disinclined to believe that the truth of monopolistic such a proposition arises out of the pronouncements of eminent physical scientists. In short, physical scientists do not believe that prestige and social influence trump reality. A Pragmatic Theory of Truth holds (roughly) that a proposition is true if it is useful to believe. Peirce and the impact today., James were its principal advocates. Utility is the tutor2u essential mark of truth. Beliefs that lead to the best payoff, that are the best justification of no fear 12th our actions, that promote success, are truths, according to the pragmatists. The problems with Pragmatic accounts of truth are counterparts to the problems seen above with Coherence Theories of truth. First, it may be useful for someone to believe a proposition but also useful for someone else to disbelieve it. For example, Freud said that many people, in monopolistic competition tutor2u, order to avoid despair, need to believe there is a god who keeps a watchful eye on everyone. According to implicit one version of the Pragmatic Theory, that proposition is true . Monopolistic Tutor2u! However, it may not be useful for other persons to believe that same proposition. They would be crushed if they believed that there is requiem for a dream, a god who keeps a watchful eye on everyone.
Thus, by symmetry of argument, that proposition is false . In this way, the Pragmatic theory leads to a violation of the monopolistic competition tutor2u law of non-contradiction, say its critics. Second, certain beliefs are undeniably useful, even though on other criteria they are judged to be objectively false. For example, it can be useful for some persons to indian culture believe that they live in a world surrounded by monopolistic competition people who love or care for them. According to this criticism, the Pragmatic Theory of Truth overestimates the strength of the connection between truth and requiem, usefulness. Truth is what an ideally rational inquirer would in the long run come to believe, say some pragmatists. Truth is the ideal outcome of rational inquiry. The criticism that we don't now know what happens in the long run merely shows we have a problem with knowledge, but it doesn't show that the meaning of true doesn't now involve hindsight from the perspective of the future. Yet, as a theory of truth, does this reveal what true means? What all the theories of truth discussed so far have in common is the assumption that a proposition is competition tutor2u, true just in case the proposition has some property or other correspondence with the indian facts, satisfaction, coherence, utility, etc.
Deflationary theories deny this assumption. The principal deflationary theory is the Redundancy Theory advocated by Frege, Ramsey, and Horwich. Frege expressed the idea this way: It is worthy of notice that the sentence I smell the scent of violets has the same content as the sentence It is true that I smell the scent of violets. So it seems, then, that nothing is added to the thought by my ascribing to it the property of competition tutor2u truth. (Frege, 1918) When we assert a proposition explicitly, such as when we say I smell the scent of for a dream harry violets, then saying It's true that I smell the scent of violets would be redundant; it would add nothing because the two have the same meaning.
Today's more minimalist advocates of the Redundancy Theory retreat from monopolistic competition tutor2u, this remark about meaning and say merely that the two are necessarily equivalent. Where the concept of truth really pays off is when we do not, or can not, assert a proposition explicitly, but have to vs. Tap example deal with an indirect reference to it. Monopolistic Competition Tutor2u! For instance, if we wish to say, What he will say tomorrow is true, we need the truth predicate is true. Admittedly the proposition is an indirect way of saying, If he says tomorrow that it will snow, then it will snow; if he says tomorrow that it will rain, then it will rain; if he says tomorrow that 7 + 5 = 12, then 7 + 5 = 12; and so forth. But the phrase is implicit personality, true cannot be eliminated from What he will say tomorrow is monopolistic tutor2u, true without producing an define casteism unacceptable infinite conjunction. The truth predicate is true allows us to generalize and monopolistic tutor2u, say things more succinctly (indeed to make those claims with only a finite number of utterances). In short, the requiem harry Redundancy Theory may work for certain cases, say its critics, but it is not generalizable to all; there remain recalcitrant cases where is true is monopolistic competition tutor2u, not redundant.
Advocates of the define casteism Redundancy Theory respond that their theory recognizes the essential point about needing the concept of truth for indirect reference. The theory says that this is all that the concept of truth is needed for, and that otherwise its use is redundant. The Performative Theory is tutor2u, a deflationary theory that is not a redundancy theory. It was advocated by Strawson who believed Tarski's Semantic Theory of implicit theory Truth was basically mistaken. The Performative Theory of Truth argues that ascribing truth to a proposition is not really characterizing the proposition itself, nor is tutor2u, it saying something redundant. Rather, it is telling us something about the speaker's intentions . The speaker through his or her agreeing with it, endorsing it, praising it, accepting it, or perhaps conceding it is licensing our adoption of (the belief in) the proposition. Instead of indian culture saying, It is true that snow is white, one could substitute I embrace the claim that snow is white. The key idea is tutor2u, that saying of some proposition, P, that it is describe of technology, true is to say in a disguised fashion I commend P to monopolistic you, or I endorse P, or something of the dream harry sort.
The case may be likened somewhat to that of promising . When you promise to pay your sister five dollars, you are not making a claim about the proposition expressed by tutor2u I will pay you five dollars; rather you are performing the action of promising her something. Similarly, according to the Performative Theory of Truth, when you say It is shakespeare 12th, true that Vancouver is north of Sacramento, you are performing the act of giving your listener license to competition tutor2u believe (and to act upon the belief) that Vancouver is north of Sacramento. Critics of the Performative Theory charge that it requires too radical a revision in define casteism, our logic. Arguments have premises that are true or false, but we don't consider premises to be actions, says Geach. Other critics complain that, if all the ascription of is true is doing is gesturing consent, as Strawson believes, then, when we say. Please shut the door is true, we would be consenting to the door's being shut. Because that is absurd, says Huw Price, something is wrong with Strawson's Performative Theory. The Prosentential Theory of Truth suggests that the monopolistic tutor2u grammatical predicate is true does not function semantically or logically as a predicate.
All uses of is true are prosentential uses. When someone asserts It's true that it is snowing, the person is asking the hearer to consider the sentence It is snowing and is saying That is true where the remark That is true is dream, taken holistically as a prosentence, in analogy to a pronoun. A pronoun such as she is a substitute for the name of the person being referred to. Similarly, That is true is a substitute for the proposition being considered. Likewise, for the expression It is true. According to the Prosentential Theory, all uses of true can be reduced to uses either of That is true or It is tutor2u, true or variants of these with other tenses. Because these latter prosentential uses of the word true cannot be eliminated from our language during analysis, the on the today. Prosentential Theory is not a redundancy theory. Critics of the theory remark that it can give no account of what is common to all our uses of the word true, such as those in the unanalyzed operators it-will-be-true-that and it-is-true-that and it-was-true-that. For generations, discussions of truth have been bedeviled by the question, How could a proposition be true unless we know it to monopolistic competition tutor2u be true? Aristotle's famous worry was that contingent propositions about the future, such as There will be a sea battle tomorrow, couldn't be true now, for culture fear that this would deny free will to the sailors involved. Advocates of the Correspondence Theory and the Semantic Theory have argued that a proposition need not be known in order to be true.
Truth, they say, arises out of a relationship between a proposition and the way the world is. No one need know that that relationship holds, nor for that matter need there even be any conscious or language-using creatures for that relationship to obtain. In short, truth is an objective feature of competition tutor2u a proposition, not a subjective one. For a true proposition to be known, it must (at the very least) be a justified belief. Justification, unlike truth itself, requires a special relationship among propositions. For a proposition to be justified it must, at the very least, cohere with other propositions that one has adopted. On this account, coherence among propositions plays a critical role in the theory of knowledge. Nevertheless it plays no role in a theory of truth, according to advocates of the Correspondence and define casteism, Semantic Theories of Truth. Finally, should coherence which plays such a central role in theories of knowledge be regarded as an objective relationship or as a subjective one?
Not surprisingly, theorists have answered this latter question in divergent ways. Competition! But the implicit theory pursuit of that issue takes one beyond the theories of truth. An account of what true means does not have to tell us what is true, nor tell us how we could find out monopolistic competition tutor2u, what is true. Apache Culture! Similarly, an monopolistic competition tutor2u account of what bachelor means should not have to tell us who is Bottled vs. Tap Essay, a bachelor, nor should it have to tell us how we could find out who is. However, it would be fascinating if we could discover a way to monopolistic competition tell, for any proposition, whether it is define casteism, true. Perhaps some machine could do this, philosophers have speculated. Tutor2u! For any formal language, we know in principle how to generate all the no fear shakespeare 12th sentences of that language. If we were to build a machine that produces one by one all the many sentences, then eventually all those that express truths would be produced. Unfortunately, along with them, we would also generate all those that express false propositions. We also know how to build a machine that will generate only competition, sentences that express truths. For example, we might program a computer to generate 1 + 1 is not 3, then 1 + 1 is not 4, then 1 + 1 is not 5, and so forth.
However, to generate all and only those sentences that express truths is harry, quite another matter. Leibniz (1646-1716) dreamed of achieving this goal. Monopolistic! By mechanizing deductive reasoning he hoped to build a machine that would generate all and only truths. As he put it, How much better will it be to bring under mathematical laws human reasoning which is the the impact of technology on the environment today. most excellent and monopolistic competition tutor2u, useful thing we have. This would enable one's mind to be freed from having to think directly of things themselves, and yet everything will turn out correct. His actual achievements were disappointing in this regard, but his dream inspired many later investigators. Some progress on the general problem of capturing all and only those sentences which express true propositions can be made by vs. Tap Essay limiting the focus to a specific domain. For instance, perhaps we can find some procedure that will produce all and only the truths of arithmetic, or of chemistry, or of Egyptian political history. Here, the key to progress is to competition tutor2u appreciate that universal and probabilistic truths capture or contain many more specific truths. No Fear Shakespeare 12th Night! If we know the universal and probabilistic laws of quantum mechanics, then (some philosophers have argued) we thereby indirectly (are in a position to) know the more specific scientific laws about chemical bonding.
Similarly, if we can axiomatize an area of mathematics, then we indirectly have captured the infinitely many specific theorems that could be derived from those axioms, and monopolistic competition tutor2u, we can hope to no fear find a decision procedure for the truths, a procedure that will guarantee a correct answer to the question, Is that true? Significant progress was made in the early twentieth century on the problem of axiomatizing arithmetic and other areas of mathematics. Monopolistic Competition Tutor2u! Let's consider arithmetic. In the 1920s, David Hilbert hoped to implicit theory represent the sentences of arithmetic very precisely in a formal language, then to generate all and only the theorems of monopolistic competition arithmetic from uncontroversial axioms, and thereby to show that all true propositions of arithmetic can in principle be proved as theorems. This would put the concept of requiem for a dream harry truth in monopolistic competition, arithmetic on a very solid basis. The axioms would capture all and only the truths. However, Hilbert's hopes would soon be dashed. Describe On The Environment Today.! In 1931, Kurt Godel (1906-1978), in monopolistic, his First Incompleteness Theorem, proved that any classical self-consistent formal language capable of expressing arithmetic must also contain sentences of apache indian culture arithmetic that cannot be derived within that system, and hence that the propositions expressed by those sentences could not be proven true (or false) within that system.
Thus the concept of truth transcends the concept of proof in classical formal languages. This is monopolistic competition tutor2u, a remarkable, precise insight into the nature of truth. Can is true be defined so that it can be replaced by requiem harry its definition? Unfortunately for tutor2u the clarity of this question, there is no one concept of definition. Culture! A very great many linguistic devices count as definitions. These devices include providing a synonym, offering examples, pointing at objects that satisfy the term being defined, using the term in sentences, contrasting it with opposites, and contrasting it with terms with which it is often confused. Competition! (For further reading, see Definitions, Dictionaries, and the impact of technology on the today., Meanings.) However, modern theories about definition have not been especially recognized, let alone adopted, outside of competition tutor2u certain academic and dream harry, specialist circles. Tutor2u! Many persons persist with the earlier, naive, view that the role of vs. Tap Essay a definition is only to offer a synonym for the term to be defined. These persons have in mind such examples as: 'hypostatize' means (or, is a synonym for) 'reify' . If one were to adopt this older view of definition, one might be inclined to monopolistic competition tutor2u demand of a theory of truth that it provide a definition of is culture, true which permitted its elimination in all contexts in the language. Tarski was the first person to show clearly that there could never be such a strict definition for is true in monopolistic tutor2u, its own language.
The definition would allow for a line of reasoning that produced the Liar Paradox (recall above) and thus would lead us into implicit, self contradiction. (See the discussion, in monopolistic competition tutor2u, the article The Liar Paradox, of Tarski's Udefinability Theorem of 1936.) Kripke has attempted to avoid this theorem by implicit examples using only a partial truth-predicate so that not every sentence has a truth-value. In effect, Kripke's repair permits a definition of the truth-predicate within its own language but at competition the expense of allowing certain violations of the law of define casteism excluded middle. d. Can a Theory of Truth Avoid Paradox? The brief answer is, Not if it contains its own concept of truth. If the language is made precise by being formalized, and if it contains its own so-called global truth predicate, then Tarski has shown that the language will enable us to reason our way to a contradiction. Monopolistic Competition Tutor2u! That result shows that we do not have a coherent concept of truth (for a language within that language). Bottled! Some of our beliefs about competition tutor2u, truth, and about related concepts that are used in the argument to define casteism the contradiction, must be rejected, even though they might seem to be intuitively acceptable.
There is no reason to believe that paradox is to be avoided by rejecting formal languages in favor of monopolistic competition tutor2u natural languages. Describe The Impact Of Technology Environment Today.! The Liar Paradox first appeared in monopolistic competition, natural languages. And there are other paradoxes of truth, such as Lob's Paradox, which follow from principles that are acceptable in either formal or natural languages, namely the principles of modus ponens and conditional proof. The best solutions to define casteism the paradoxes use a similar methodology, the systematic approach. That is, they try to remove vagueness and be precise about the ramifications of their solutions, usually by showing how they work in a formal language that has the essential features of our natural language. The Liar Paradox and Lob's Paradox represent a serious challenge to competition tutor2u understanding the logic of our natural language. The principal solutions agree that to implicit examples resolve a paradox we must go back and competition, systematically reform or clarify some of our original beliefs.
For example, the solution may require us to revise the meaning of is true. However, to be acceptable, the solution must be presented systematically and be backed up by for a an argument about the general character of our language. In short, there must be both systematic evasion and systematic explanation. Also, when it comes to developing this systematic approach, the goal of establishing a coherent basis for a consistent semantics of natural language is much more important than the goal of monopolistic explaining the naive way most speakers use the terms true and not true. 12th! The later Wittgenstein did not agree. He rejected the systematic approach and elevated the need to preserve ordinary language, and our intuitions about it, over the need to create a coherent and consistent semantical theory. e. Is The Goal of Scientific Research to Achieve Truth?
Except in special cases, most scientific researchers would agree that their results are only approximately true. Nevertheless, to make sense of this, philosophers need adopt no special concept such as approximate truth. Instead, it suffices to monopolistic say that the researchers' goal is to achieve truth, but they achieve this goal only approximately, or only to some approximation. Other philosophers believe it's a mistake to say the define casteism researchers' goal is to achieve truth. These scientific anti-realists recommend saying that research in, for example, physics, economics, and monopolistic competition tutor2u, meteorology, aims only for usefulness. When they aren't overtly identifying truth with usefulness, the instrumentalists Peirce, James and Schlick take this anti-realist route, as does Kuhn. They would say atomic theory isn't true or false but rather is useful for predicting outcomes of experiments and for explaining current data. Giere recommends saying science aims for the best available representation, in the same sense that maps are representations of the landscape. Maps aren't true; rather, they fit to Essay example a better or worse degree. Competition Tutor2u! Similarly, scientific theories are designed to requiem fit the world.
Scientists should not aim to create true theories; they should aim to construct theories whose models are representations of the world.
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Nov 18, 2017 Monopolistic competition tutor2u,
10 mistakes that could ruin your resume. The goal of monopolistic competition tutor2u a resume is to let a potential employer know why you're the best person for the job. Here are 10 practices that impede that goal. There is culture one goal for your resume: To show a potential employer why you are the best person for the job. However, there are so many things that can get in the way of what should be a clear message.
Here are ten of the most common mistakes made in competition resumes. This may be one of the most difficult concepts for job hunters to grasp, but your resume is 12th night not something you create for yourself . You create it, format it, and organize it so that it's easy for monopolistic tutor2u, a hiring manager to gauge your fit with the job he or she is offering. It's important to tailor your resume to each job you apply to. I promise you, no hiring manager is going to apache indian, study your resume for specifics that would apply to the job at hand. Your resume has to make them obvious. For example, if you're applying for a project manager position, highlight any experience and accomplishments that show your expertise in project management, even if you have to switch to a functional resume format to do it. While the bulk of your work experience may be in tech support, it's really not applicable to monopolistic, the job at hand, so don't concentrate on the day-to-day minutiae. Concentrate instead on those instances where you demonstrated leadership, ingenuity, and organizational skills. Hiring executives have a low threshold for vs. Tap, resume bloopers. A study on working.com claims that one out of four executives will toss a resume into competition, the wastebasket if they spot a typo.
But sometimes even the most careful people can miss a typo or two. Here are some tips for making sure you're sending out vs. Tap Essay example, pristine copies of competition your resume: Enlist detail-oriented family members, friends, or mentors to proofread your resume and provide honest feedback. Harry! Take a timeout. Before submitting your resume, take a break and come back to it with a fresh set of eyes. You might catch something you missed the first time. Competition! Print a copy. Implicit Personality Examples! It's easy to overlook typos or formatting mistakes when reading a resume on monopolistic competition tutor2u, a monitor, so print it out for review. Try a new perspective. Sometimes readers inadvertently skip over parts they have read previously. Review your resume backward to for a dream, help avoid this problem.
You can read it from bottom to top, or from the competition right side of a line to the left. This takes away the mental expectation that sometimes tricks us into thinking a word is spelled correctly, etc. Read it out loud. This can also help you find phrases that don't make sense. There are all kinds of opinions as to how long a resume should be. Indian Culture! Most people say to keep it to one page, but many people say that two pages are OK, particularly if you have 10 or more years of experience related to your goal or you need space to list and prove your technical knowledge. Competition! Either way, the goal is to keep your resume lean yet meaningful. List only 12th, your selling points that are relevant to the job at hand and let go of monopolistic tutor2u some details that have no bearing on the impact of technology on the environment today., your current goal. You may have become proficient in Windows NT in a previous job, but it's not something that would have a bearing on a job today.
4. Your resume is not very readable. Never underestimate resume formatting. Consider that some hiring managers have to look through hundreds of resumes for each job opening. Also consider that those employers will usually take, at most, only thirty-five seconds to look at a one-page resume before deciding whether to keep or discard it. You should design your resume so that employers can read the document easily and process information quickly. To judge the formatting of monopolistic your resume, ask yourself these questions: Am I using too many fonts? It's best to example, stick to one or two fonts. You can vary the size and add bold if necessary to make headings stand out competition, but don't go overboard.
You don't want your resume to look like a ransom note built out of newspaper clippings. Am I overdoing the emphasis thing? As I said in culture the previous point, you can create emphasis by using bold , italics, underlining, etc. However, you don't want to mix methods or overuse them. You would not, for example, want to CAPITALIZE, ITALICIZE, AND UNDERLINE pieces of text. It's overkill and hard on the eyes. Is there too much text on the page? There's nothing more intimidating to competition tutor2u, a reviewer than blocks of dense text on a resume.
Here are some things to keep in mind: Set your margins at about 1-inch all around, use bulleted points to Essay, break up paragraphs of competition text that list your accomplishments, and make sure your sections are distinct. Don't be afraid of white space! If you have to choose between crammed-in text and an extra resume page, go with the latter. You can see in Figure A how much more readable the list of accomplishments are when put into theory, bullets separated by white space. Monopolistic Tutor2u! 5. Define Casteism! Your name appears in the Word header . Your name should appear prominently at competition tutor2u, the top of Bottled Essay your resume, but even though it looks kind of cool, avoid using Word's header feature for this information. (Using Word's header feature will make your name appear automatically at the top of every page of your resume.) The problem is a lot of scanning software used by HR departments won't work on monopolistic tutor2u, headers and footers so your resume could get lost in indian the shuffle. 6. Monopolistic! Your resume doesn't include keywords. No Fear 12th! It's an unfortunate fact of life that many organizations use scanning software (mentioned above) when vetting resumes. This is often done as the competition preliminary step in example weeding out any people whose qualifications and experience don't match the monopolistic tutor2u job being filled.
So be very sure that you pepper your resume with relevant keywords. That is to say, don't use one in apache indian culture every sentence and don't use keywords that you don't have experience with just for the sake of sneaking in under the radar. Sooner or later you'll have to monopolistic competition, own up. The actual job description is the best starting place for finding relevant keywords. 7. You list your experience instead of your accomplishments. Requiem For A! First of all, never use expressions such as Duties included or Responsibilities included.
These lists outline only what was in your job description; they don't say whether you did them well or not. Tutor2u! And they don't show how you stood out from the other people in your company who were doing the same things. To help rewrite your responsibilities to accomplishments, try asking yourself: What special things did I do to set myself apart? How did I do the define casteism job better or differently than anyone else? What did I do to make it my own? What were some problems or challenges that I faced? How did I solve or overcome those problems? What were the results of my efforts?
How did the company benefit from my performance? For example, did it make or save money or save time? It might help to use an accomplishment tracker template like this one available from TechRepublic. 8. You use vague verbs and subjective adjectives. Avoid, at all costs, those abstract verb phrases like Assisted with. or Handled. or Managed. Those phrases can mean almost anything. Monopolistic! Every time you're tempted with one of describe the impact on the today. those phrases, ask yourself How ? How did you assist with something? What exactly did you do? Also, try using more dynamic words like constructed, coordinated, determined, established, executed, etc.
On the competition same ticket, it is very easy to say you skillfully completed some task or that you have extraordinary people skills. But unless you can back those statements up with concrete evidence, it's just you saying something good about yourself. So explain why your task completion was skillful. Did it come in under budget and within time restraints? What evidence do you have of your great people skills?
Did you get recognized for this in define casteism some way? Were you assigned more end users than other staffers? Any detail that you can offer in tutor2u explanation will help. 9. Your resume is like all the others. We're not saying that you should make yourself stand out by formatting your entire resume in a cursive font. We're saying that, since you're a tech pro, a prospective employer is probably going to expect something a little more advanced. Toward this goal consider: Including a link to your online portfolio. Online portfolios can be anything from a blog or a website, to a dedicated solution (something that's just a portfolio, without any of the extra stuff). Make it something that loads fast, is visually professional, and showcases your accomplishments, mission statement, career progression, and leadership aptitude.
Before you put the describe of technology on the today. link in monopolistic competition your resume, ask yourself how well the for a dream site answers questions any potential employers might have about competition tutor2u you. No Fear Shakespeare 12th Night! Adding a QR code. A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional, barcode-like image that, once scanned, directs potential employers to carefully selected, customized web pages for more information about a job seeker. It's a tech-savvy way to illustrate your strengths. 10. You lie/exaggerate on your resume. Decision makers routinely conduct background checks and online research to verify a resume.
And sometimes what they find out monopolistic competition tutor2u, can embarrass you down the line; a lesson learned the hard way by Bottled former CEO Scott Thompson. At the very least, don't claim education that you don't have. But you should also be careful about exaggerating any experience you have. It could take only a few targeted questions in tutor2u an interview to reveal your deception. Toni Bowers is define casteism Managing Editor of competition TechRepublic and is the award-winning blogger of the define casteism Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and IT management issues.
Toni Bowers is monopolistic competition tutor2u Managing Editor of TechRepublic and is the award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and apache culture IT management issues. We deliver the monopolistic tutor2u top business tech news stories about the shakespeare night companies, the people, and the products revolutionizing the planet. Our editors highlight the tutor2u TechRepublic articles, galleries, and videos that you absolutely cannot miss to stay current on the latest IT news, innovations, and tips.
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Nov 18, 2017 Monopolistic competition tutor2u,
college paper set up Journal-Style Scientific Paper. The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid structure which is so different from writing in competition, the humanities. Bottled Vs. Tap Example? One reason for using this format is that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner. Another reason, perhaps more important than the first, is that this format allows the paper to be read at several different levels. For example, many people skim Titles to monopolistic competition, find out what information is available on a subject. Others may read only titles and Abstracts . Those wanting to go deeper may look at the Tables and Figures in the Results , and so on. The take home point here is personality examples, that the scientific format helps to monopolistic, insure that at whatever level a person reads your paper (beyond title skimming), they will likely get the harry key results and conclusions. Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections: Title, Authors and Affiliation, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited, which parallel the experimental process. This is the system we will use. This website describes the style, content, and format associated with each section.
The sections appear in a journal style paper in monopolistic competition tutor2u, the following prescribed order: Section of Paper. What did I do in a nutshell? What is the problem? How did I solve the problem? What did I find out? What does it mean?
Who helped me out? Whose work did I refer to? Main Section Headings: Each main section of the the impact of technology on the paper begins with a heading which should be capitalized , centered at the beginning of the tutor2u section, and double spaced from the lines above and below. Do not underline the section heading OR put a colon at indian, the end. Example of a main section heading: Subheadings: When your paper reports on monopolistic tutor2u, more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize the presentation. Subheadings should be capitalized (first letter in each word), left justified, and apache, either bold italics OR underlined . Example of a subheading: Effects of Light Intensity on monopolistic competition, the Rate of Electron Transport. Title, Authors' Names, and Institutional Affiliations.
1. Function : Your paper should begin with a Title that succinctly describes the contents of the paper. Use descriptive words that you would associate strongly with the content of your paper: the molecule studied, the organism used or studied, the treatment, the location of a field site, the response measured, etc. A majority of vs. Tap Essay, readers will find your paper via electronic database searches and those search engines key on words found in the title. The title should be centered at the top of page 1 (DO NOT use a title page - it is a waste of paper for our purposes); the title is NOT underlined or italicized . the authors' names (PI or primary author first) and institutional affiliation are double-spaced from and competition tutor2u, centered below the requiem for a harry title. When more then two authors, the names are separated by commas except for the last which is separated from the previous name by the word and. Ducks Over-Winter in monopolistic competition tutor2u, Colorado Barley Fields in Response to. Increased Daily Mean Temperature. Ima Mallard, Ura Drake, and Woodruff Ducque.
Department of Wildlife Biology, University of culture, Colorado - Boulder. The title is not a section, but it is necessary and important. The title should be short and unambiguous, yet be an adequate description of the work. Competition Tutor2u? A general rule-of-thumb is that the title should contain the key words describing the work presented. Remember that the title becomes the basis for most on-line computer searches - if your title is insufficient, few people will find or read your paper. For example, in a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the implicit sex hormone estrogen and watching for a certain kind of competition tutor2u, courtship behavior, a poor title would be: Why? It is very general, and could be referring to any of a number of the impact of technology environment today., mouse behaviors. A better title would be : The Effects of Estrogen on the Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. Why?
Because the key words identify a specific behavior, a modifying agent, and the experimental organism. Monopolistic Tutor2u? If possible, give the describe key result of the tutor2u study in the title, as seen in the first example. Similarly, the above title could be restated as: Estrogen Stimulates Intensity of Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. 1. Function : An abstract summarizes, in one paragraph (usually), the major aspects of the shakespeare night entire paper in the following prescribed sequence: the question(s) you investigated (or purpose), ( from Introduction ) state the purpose very clearly in the first or second sentence. the experimental design and methods used, ( from Methods ) clearly express the basic design of the study. Name or briefly describe the basic methodology used without going into excessive detail-be sure to indicate the key techniques used. the major findings including key quantitative results , or trends ( from Results ) report those results which answer the questions you were asking identify trends, relative change or differences, etc. a brief summary of your interpetations and conclusions . (from Discussion ) clearly state the implications of the answers your results gave you. Whereas the Title can only make the simplest statement about the content of your article, the Abstract allows you to elaborate more on each major aspect of the paper. The length of your Abstract should be kept to about 200-300 words maximum (a typical standard length for journals.) Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i.e. purpose, methods, results, etc.) to two or three sentences, if possible. The Abstract helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper, or it may be the only part they can obtain via electronic literature searches or in published abstracts.
Therefore, enough key information (e.g., summary results, observations, trends, etc.) must be included to make the Abstract useful to someone who may to reference your work. How do you know when you have enough information in your Abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting. If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? 2. Tutor2u? Style : The Abstract is ONLY text. Requiem Harry? Use the active voice when possible, but much of monopolistic, it may require passive constructions. Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Use past tense . Maximum length should be 200-300 words, usually in a single paragraph. The Abstract SHOULD NOT contain: lengthy background information, references to other literature, elliptical (i.e., ending with . ) or incomplete sentences, abbreviations or terms that may be confusing to readers, any sort of illustration, figure, or table, or references to them. 3. Strategy : Although it is the first section of your paper, the Abstract, by define casteism definition, must be written last since it will summarize the paper.
To begin composing your Abstract, take whole sentences or key phrases from each section and put them in a sequence which summarizes the tutor2u paper. Then set about revising or adding words to make it all cohesive and clear. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the Abstract from scratch. 4. Requiem Dream Harry? Check your work : Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in the paper. Confirm that all the information appearing the tutor2u abstract actually appears in the body of the personality theory paper. 1. Function : The function of the Introduction is to: Establish the monopolistic competition context of the no fear shakespeare 12th work being reported.
This is accomplished by discussing the relevant primary research literature (with citations) and monopolistic competition, summarizing our current understanding of the problem you are investigating; State the purpose of the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem you investigated; and, Briefly explain your rationale and approach and, whenever possible, the possible outcomes your study can reveal. Quite literally, the Introduction must answer the questions, What was I studying ? Why was it an Bottled Essay, important question? What did we know about it before I did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? 2. Style : Use the active voice as much as possible. Some use of first person is okay, but do not overdo it. 3. Structure : The structure of the monopolistic Introduction can be thought of as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the the impact today. most general information and focusing down to the specific problem you studied. Monopolistic Tutor2u? Organize the information to requiem, present the more general aspects of the topic early in the Introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at competition, your statement of purpose and Bottled Essay, rationale. A good way to get on track is to sketch out the Introduction backwards ; start with the specific purpose and tutor2u, then decide what is the scientific context in which you are asking the question(s) your study addresses. Once the for a harry scientific context is decided, then you'll have a good sense of what level and type of monopolistic competition, general information with which the Introduction should begin.
Here is the information should flow in Essay, your Introduction: Begin your Introduction by clearly identifying the subject area of interest. Do this by using key words from your Title in the first few sentences of the Introduction to competition, get it focused directly on requiem for a dream, topic at the appropriate level. This insures that you get to the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general. For example, in the mouse behavior paper, the words hormones and behavior would likely appear within the tutor2u first one or two sentences of the Introduction. Establish the context by providing a brief and balanced review of the pertinent published literature that is available on the subject. The key is to summarize (for the reader) what we knew about the specific problem before you did your experiments or studies. This is accomplished with a general review of the primary research literature (with citations) but should not include very specific, lengthy explanations that you will probably discuss in greater detail later in the Discussion. Indian Culture? The judgment of what is general or specific is difficult at first, but with practice and reading of the scientific literature you will develop e firmer sense of tutor2u, your audience.
In the mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the Introduction at the level of implicit examples, mating behavior in general, then quickly focus to monopolistic tutor2u, mouse mating behaviors and then hormonal regulation of behavior. Lead the reader to your statement of purpose/hypothesis by focusing your literature review from the the impact of technology today. more general context (the big picture e.g., hormonal modulation of behaviors) to the more specific topic of interest to you (e.g., role/effects of competition tutor2u, reproductive hormones, especially estrogen, in modulating specific sexual behaviors of apache indian culture, mice.) What literature should you look for in your review of what we know about the problem? Focus your efforts on the primary research journals - the monopolistic journals that publish original research articles. Bottled Essay? Although you may read some general background references (encyclopedias, textbooks, lab manuals, style manuals, etc.) to get yourself acquainted with the subject area, do not cite these, becasue they contain information that is considered fundamental or common knowledge wqithin the discipline. Cite, instead, articles that reported specific results relevant to your study. Learn, as soon as possible, how to find the primary literature (research journals) and review articles rather than depending on reference books. The articles listed in the Literature Cited of monopolistic tutor2u, relevant papers you find are a good starting point to move backwards in a line of inquiry. Most academic libraries support the Citation Index - an index which is useful for tracking a line of no fear, inquiry forward in time. Monopolistic? Some of the newer search engines will actually send you alerts of new papers that cite particular articles of interest to you. Review articles are particularly useful because they summarize all the research done on a narrow subject area over a brief period of time (a year to a few years in vs. Tap, most cases).
Be sure to clearly state the purpose and /or hypothesis that you investigated. When you are first learning to write in this format it is monopolistic tutor2u, okay, and actually preferable, to 12th night, use a pat statement like, The purpose of this study was to. or We investigated three possible mechanisms to competition tutor2u, explain the . (1) blah, blah..(2) etc. It is implicit examples, most usual to place the statement of purpose near the monopolistic end of the Introduction, often as the topic sentence of the final paragraph. It is not necessary (or even desirable) to use the words hypothesis or null hypothesis, since these are usually implicit if you clearly state your purpose and expectations. Provide a clear statement of the rationale for your approach to no fear shakespeare 12th night, the problem studied.
For example: State briefly how you approached the problem (e.g., you studied oxidative respiration pathways in monopolistic, isolated mitochondria of Bottled Essay, cauliflower). This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the Introduction. Why did you choose this kind of experiment or experimental design? What are the scientific merits of this particular model system? What advantages does it confer in answering the particular question(s) you are posing? Do not discuss here the actual techniques or protocols used in your study (this will be done in monopolistic, the Materials and Methods); your readers will be quite familiar with the requiem for a dream usual techniques and approaches used in your field. If you are using a novel (new, revolutionary, never used before) technique or methodology, the merits of the new technique/method versus the previously used methods should be presented in monopolistic competition, the Introduction. This section is variously called Methods or Methods and Materials . 1. Function : In this section you explain clearly how you carried out your study in the following general structure and organization (details follow below): the the organism(s) studied (plant, animal, human, etc.) and, when relevant, their pre-experiment handling and care, and when and describe the impact environment, where the study was carried out ( only competition tutor2u, if location and time are important factors); note that the on the term subject is used ONLY for monopolistic human studies. if you did a field study , provide a description of the study site , including the significant physical and biological features, and the precise location (latitude and longitude, map, etc); the shakespeare 12th night experimental OR sampling design (i.e., how the monopolistic competition experiment or study was structured. For example, controls, treatments, what variable(s) were measured, how many samples were collected, replication, the final form of the data, etc.); the protocol for collecting data , i.e., how the apache indian culture experimental procedures were carried out, and, how the data were analyzed (qualitative analyses and/or statistical procedures used to determine significance, data transformations used, what probability was used to decide significance, etc). Organize your presentation so your reader will understand the competition logical flow of the experiment(s); subheadings work well for this purpose. Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over time.
The experimental design and procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to split them up. In general, provide enough quantitative detail (how much, how long, when, etc.) about your experimental protocol such that other scientists could reproduce your experiments. Requiem For A? You should also indicate the monopolistic statistical procedures used to describe the impact on the environment, analyze your results, including the probability level at which you determined significance (usually at 0.05 probability). 2. Style : The style in this section should read as if you were verbally describing the monopolistic tutor2u conduct of the experiment. You may use the active voice to a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others. Avoid use of the first person in this section.
Remember to use the past tense throughout - the work being reported is done, and was performed in the past, not the describe the impact of technology environment today. future. The Methods section is not a step-by-step, directive, protocol as you might see in competition tutor2u, your lab manual. Describe the organism(s) used in the study. This includes giving the (1) source (supplier or where and how the orgranisms were collected), (2) typical size (weight, length, etc) , (3) how they were handled, fed, and housed before the culture experiment, (4) how they were handled, fed, and housed during the monopolistic competition experiment. In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used. For some studies, age may be an important factor. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants?
FOR FIELD STUDIES ONLY : Describe the site where your field study was conducted. Define Casteism? The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. Competition Tutor2u? Include the date(s) of the implicit personality theory examples study (e.g., 10-15 April 1994) and the exact location of the study area. Location data must be as precise as possible: Grover Nature Preserve, ½ mi SW Grover, Maine rather than Grover Nature Preserve or Grover. When possible, give the actual latitude and competition tutor2u, longitude position of the site: these can be obtained using handheld GPS units, OR, from web resources such as Google Earth( TM ) and MapQuest( TM ). It is often a good idea to include a map (labeled as a Figure) showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area. Someone else should be able to go to culture, the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. NOTE: For laboratory studies you need not report the monopolistic competition tutor2u date and location of the define casteism study UNLESS it is monopolistic competition tutor2u, necessary information for someone to have who might wish to repeat your work or use the define casteism same facility. Most often it is not . If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility. Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls , treatments , variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured , what form the monopolistic data take, etc. Always identify treatments by apache indian culture the variable or treatment name, NOT by competition tutor2u an ambiguous, generic name or number (e.g., use 2.5% NaCl rather than test 1.) When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment.
A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses. Describe the procedures for culture your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings. Foremost in your description should be the quantitative aspects of monopolistic, your study - the of technology today. masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc., that another scientist needs in order to duplicate your experiment. Monopolistic Tutor2u? When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures (e.g., serial dilution) or equipment used (e.g., autopipetter) since other scientists will likely be familiar with them already. You may want to identify certain types of define casteism, equipment by vendor name and brand or category (e.g., ultracentrifuge vs. prep centrifuge), particularly if they are not commonly found in most labs. Tutor2u? It is requiem for a harry, appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source (vendor) and catalog number for competition reagents used, e.g., . Night? poly-L-lysine (Sigma #1309) . When using a method described in another published source, you can save time and words by providing the relevant citation to competition, the source. Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method. NOTE : Very frequently the Bottled Essay experimental design and competition, data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and define casteism, must be integrated together. If you find yourself repeating lots of information about the experimental design when describing the data collection procedure(s), likely you can combine them and be more concise. NOTE : Although tempting, DO NOT say that you recorded the data , i.e., in your lab notebook, in the Methods description. Of course you did , because that is what all good scientists do, and it is a given that you recorded your measurements and observations.
Describe how the data were summarized and monopolistic, analyzed. Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses (usually hypothesis tests) were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance. The information should include: Statistical software used : Sometimes it is necessary to define casteism, report which statistical software you used; this would be at competition tutor2u, the discretion of your instructor or the journal; how the data were summarized (Means, percent, etc) and how you are reporting measures of variability (SD,SEM, 95% CI, etc) this lets you avoid having to repeatedly indicate you are using mean ± SD or SEM. which data transformations were used(e.g., to correct for normal distribution or equalize variances); statistical tests used with reference to the particular questions, or kinds of questions, they address. For example, A Paired t-test was used to compare mean flight duration before and after applying stablizers to the glider's wings. One way ANOVA was used to compare mean weight gain in weight-matched calves fed the three different rations.
Comparisons among the three pH treatment groups for theory each variable were done using one way ANOVA (with Tukey's post hoc test) or a Kruskal-Wallis Test (with Dunn's post hoc test). any other numerical (e.g., normalizing data) or graphical techniques used to analyze the tutor2u data what probability ( a priori ) was used to decide significance ; usually reported as the Greek symbol alpha. NOTE: You DO NOT need to say that you made graphs and culture, tables. Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. Problem : The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed. Avoid repeatedly using a single sentence to tutor2u, relate a single action ; this results in define casteism, very lengthy, wordy passages. A related sequence of actions can be combined into one sentence to improve clarity and readability: Problematic Example : This is a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure. It is characterized by single actions per sentence and lots of unnecessary details. The petri dish was placed on the turntable.
The lid was then raised slightly. Monopolistic Competition? An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. The loop was moved lightly back and forth over the agar to the impact on the, spread the monopolistic tutor2u culture. Apache Indian Culture? The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Improved Example : Same actions, but all the important information is given in competition, a single, concise sentence. Note that superfluous detail and otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added. Each plate was placed on apache indian culture, a turntable and streaked at opposing angles with fresh overnight E. coli culture using an monopolistic competition tutor2u, inoculating loop.
The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Best: Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information. The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions. Each plate was streaked with fresh overnight E. coli culture and define casteism, incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Problem : Avoid using ambiguous terms to identify controls or treatments, or other study parameters that require specific identifiers to be clearly understood.
Designators such as Tube 1, Tube 2, or Site 1 and Site 2 are completely meaningless out of context and monopolistic competition, difficult to follow in context. Problematic example : In this example the no fear reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods. A Spec 20 was used to measure A 600 of Tubes 1,2, and 3 immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and every 2 min. thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. Tube 4's A 600 was measured only at monopolistic tutor2u, Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. Improved example: Notice how the substitution ( in red ) of vs. Tap, treatment and competition tutor2u, control identifiers clarifies the passage both in implicit personality, the context of the paper, and if taken out of context. A Spec 20 was used to measure A 600 of the monopolistic reaction mixtures exposed to requiem for a harry, light intensities of 1500, 750, and 350 uE/m2/sec immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and every 2 min. Monopolistic Tutor2u? thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. The A 600 of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the shakespeare night experiment. 1. Function : The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key results, without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials (Tables and Figures). Competition Tutor2u? The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed. Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text (usually parenthetically) or in the relevant Tables or Figures (in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure).
The Results section should be organized around Tables and/or Figures that should be sequenced to shakespeare 12th, present your key findings in a logical order. The text of the Results section should be crafted to follow this sequence and highlight the evidence needed to answer the questions/hypotheses you investigated. Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. 2. Style : Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively. The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. Competition? Use the define casteism past tense . Monopolistic Tutor2u? Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Do not interpret the indian culture data here. Competition? The transition into Bottled vs. Tap, interpretive language can be a slippery slope. Consider the following two examples:
This example highlights the trend/difference that the author wants the reader to focus: The duration of monopolistic competition, exposure to Bottled Essay example, running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages (Fig. Monopolistic Competition Tutor2u? 2). Seeds exposed to the 2-day treatment had the highest cumulative germination (84%), 1.25 times that of the implicit 12-h or 5-day groups and 4 times that of controls. In contrast, this example strays subtly into interpretation by referring to optimality (a conceptual model) and tieing the observed result to monopolistic tutor2u, that idea: The results of the germination experiment (Fig. 2) suggest that the optimal time for running-water treatment is 2 days. This group showed the highest cumulative germination (84%), with longer (5 d) or shorter (12 h) exposures producing smaller gains in germination when compared to the control group.
Things to consider as you write your Results section: What are the results? : When you pose a testable hypothesis that can be answered experimentally, or ask a question that can be answered by collecting samples, you accumulate observations about those organisms or phenomena. Those observations are then analyzed to yield an apache indian, answer to the question. Monopolistic Tutor2u? In general, the answer is the key result. The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ.
So, in Essay, an introductory course your analysis may consist of visual inspection of figures and monopolistic competition tutor2u, simple calculations of means and standard deviations; in apache culture, a later course you may be expected to apply and interpret a variety of statistical tests. You instructor will tell you the level of monopolistic competition tutor2u, analysis that is expected. For example, suppose you asked the question, Is the average height of male students the same as female students in a pool of randomly selected Biology majors ? You would first collect height data from large random samples of male and female students. You would then calculate the descriptive statistics for those samples (mean, SD, n, range, etc) and plot these numbers. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. Bottled Vs. Tap Essay? Suppose you found that male Biology majors are, on average, 12.5 cm taller than female majors; this is the competition tutor2u answer to define casteism, the question. Notice that the outcome of a statistical analysis is monopolistic tutor2u, not a key result, but rather an analytical tool that helps us understand what is our key result. Differences, directionality, and examples, magnitude : Report your results so as to provide as much information as possible to the reader about the nature of differences or relationships. For eaxmple, if you testing for differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, it is not sufficient to simply report that groups A and B were significantly different. Monopolistic? How are they different? How much are they different?
It is much more informative to say something like, Group A individuals were 23% larger than those in Group B, or, Group B pups gained weight at twice the rate of apache indian culture, Group A pups. Report the direction of differences (greater, larger, smaller, etc) and tutor2u, the magnitude of differences (% difference, how many times, etc.) whenever possible. See also below about use of the word significant. Organize the results section based on the sequence of no fear shakespeare night, Table and Figures you'll include. Prepare the Tables and Figures as soon as all the monopolistic data are analyzed and arrange them in the sequence that best presents your findings in a logical way. A good strategy is to note, on apache culture, a draft of each Table or Figure, the one or two key results you want to addess in the text portion of the Results.
Simple rules to follow related to competition tutor2u, Tables and Figures: Tables and Figures are assigned numbers separately and in the sequence that you will refer to them from the text. Vs. Tap Example? The first Table you refer to is Table 1, the next Table 2 and so forth. Similarly, the tutor2u first Figure is Figure 1, the next Figure 2, etc. Each Table or Figure must include a brief description of the vs. Tap results being presented and other necessary information in a legend. Table legends go above the Table ; tables are read from top to competition, bottom. Figure legends go below the figure ; figures are usually viewed from bottom to top. Fig. No Fear? 1 . Table is never abbreviated, e.g., Table 1 . The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the monopolistic competition tutor2u key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures.
The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the key results which provide the harry answers to the question(s) investigated. Monopolistic? A major function of the text is to provide clarifying information. Requiem For A? You must refer to each Table and/or Figure individually and in sequence (see numbering sequence), and clearly indicate for the reader the key results that each conveys. Key results depend on your questions, they might include obvious trends, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc. Some problems to avoid : Do not reiterate each value from a Figure or Table - only the monopolistic competition key result or trends that each conveys. For A? Do not present the same data in both a Table and Figure - this is considered redundant and a waste of space and energy. Monopolistic Competition Tutor2u? Decide which format best shows the result and go with it.
Do not report raw data values when they can be summarized as means, percents, etc. Statistical test summaries (test name, p- value) are usually reported parenthetically in conjunction with the biological results they support. Define Casteism? Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding (if statistical tests are being used in competition tutor2u, your course). This parenthetical reference should include the statistical test used and the level of significance (test statistic and no fear night, DF are optional). Competition Tutor2u? For example, if you found that the mean height of male Biology majors was significantly larger than that of define casteism, female Biology majors, you might report this result (in blue) and your statistical conclusion (shown in red) as follows: Males (180.5 ± 5.1 cm; n=34) averaged 12.5 cm taller than females (168 ± 7.6 cm; n=34) in monopolistic competition, the AY 1995 pool of Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001) . If the Bottled example summary statistics are shown in a figure, the sentence above need not report them specifically, but must include a reference to the figure where they may be seen: Males averaged 12.5 cm taller than females in the AY 1995 pool of Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001; Fig. 1) . Note that the report of the competition tutor2u key result (shown in blue) would be identical in a paper written for a course in which statistical testing is Bottled vs. Tap, not employed - the competition section shown in red would simply not appear except reference to the figure. Avoid devoting whole sentences to Bottled example, report a statistical outcome alone. Use and tutor2u, over-use of the word significant : Your results will read much more cleanly if you avoid overuse of the word siginifcant in any of its forms.
In scientific studies, the use of this word implies that a statistical test was employed to make a decision about the data; in define casteism, this case the test indicated a larger difference in mean heights than you would expect to get by monopolistic competition chance alone. Limit the use of the Bottled Essay example word significant to this purpose only. If your parenthetical statistical information includes a p-value that indicates significance (usually when p 0.05), it is unncecssary (and redundant ) to monopolistic tutor2u, use the word significant in the body of the sentence (see example above) because we all interpret the p-value the requiem for a same way. Likewise, when you report that one group mean is somehow different from another (larger, smaller, increased, decreased, etc), it will be understood by your reader that you have tested this and found the difference to be statisticallysignificant, especially if you also report a p-value 0.05. Present the results of your experiment(s) in monopolistic competition tutor2u, a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the describe the impact on the environment today. hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. For example, in reporting a study of the effect of an experimental diet on the skeletal mass of the monopolistic competition tutor2u rat, consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the control diet and then give the data for the rats fed the experimental diet. Report negative results - they are important!
If you did not get the anticipated results, it may mean your hypothesis was incorrect and describe the impact environment, needs to be reformulated, or perhaps you have stumbled onto something unexpected that warrants further study. Moreover, the absence of an monopolistic, effect may be very telling in many situations. In any case, your results may be of importance to others even though they did not support your hypothesis. Do not fall into the trap of thinking that results contrary to what you expected are necessarily bad data. If you carried out the work well, they are simply your results and need interpretation. Many important discoveries can be traced to bad data. Always enter the examples appropriate units when reporting data or summary statistics.
for an individual value you would write, the mean length was 10 m , or, the maximum time was 140 min. When including a measure of variability, place the unit after the error value, e.g., . was 10 ± 2.3 m . Likewise place the competition unit after the personality theory last in a series of numbers all having the same unit. Monopolistic Competition Tutor2u? For example: lengths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m , or no differences were observed after 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. of define casteism, incubation . 1. Function : The function of the monopolistic competition Discussion is to apache culture, interpret your results in light of competition, what was already known about the subject of the investigation, and to explain our new understanding of the apache problem after taking your results into consideration. The Discussion will always connect to the Introduction by way of the question(s) or hypotheses you posed and the literature you cited, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the Introduction. Instead, it tells how your study has moved us forward from the place you left us at competition tutor2u, the end of the Introduction. Fundamental questions to describe the impact environment, answer here include: Do your results provide answers to tutor2u, your testable hypotheses? If so, how do you interpret your findings?
Do your findings agree with what others have shown? If not, do they suggest an alternative explanation or perhaps a unforseen design flaw in your experiment (or theirs?) Given your conclusions, what is our new understanding of the problem you investigated and outlined in the Introduction? If warranted, what would be the next step in your study, e.g., what experiments would you do next? 2. Style : Use the active voice whenever possible in apache indian culture, this section. Watch out for wordy phrases; be concise and monopolistic competition, make your points clearly. Use of the first person is okay, but too much use of the first person may actually distract the implicit theory examples reader from the competition main points. 3. Approach : Organize the Discussion to Bottled example, address each of the experiments or studies for which you presented results; discuss each in the same sequence as presented in the Results, providing your interpretation of what they mean in the larger context of the monopolistic problem. Do not waste entire sentences restating your results; if you need to remind the apache indian culture reader of the result to be discussed, use bridge sentences that relate the result to the interpretation: The slow response of the lead-exposed neurons relative to monopolistic tutor2u, controls suggests that. [ interpretation ]. You will necessarily make reference to the findings of others in order to support your interpretations.Use subheadings, if need be, to help organize your presentation.
Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a result for describe the impact on the an interpretation, and tutor2u, make sure that no new results are presented here that rightly belong in define casteism, the results. You must relate your work to monopolistic competition, the findings of other studies - including previous studies you may have done and those of describe on the today., other investigators. As stated previously, you may find crucial information in someone else's study that helps you interpret your own data, or perhaps you will be able to reinterpret others' findings in light of monopolistic, yours. Apache Culture? In either case you should discuss reasons for competition similarities and Essay, differences between yours and others' findings. Consider how the results of other studies may be combined with yours to derive a new or perhaps better substantiated understanding of the problem. Monopolistic Competition? Be sure to state the conclusions that can be drawn from your results in light of these considerations. You may also choose to briefly mention further studies you would do to clarify your working hypotheses. Make sure to implicit theory, reference any outside sources as shown in the Introduction section. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (include as needed) | FAQs | If, in your experiment, you received any significant help in monopolistic tutor2u, thinking up, designing, or carrying out the work, or received materials from someone who did you a favor by supplying them, you must acknowledge their assistance and requiem for a harry, the service or material provided. Authors always acknowledge outside reviewers of their drafts (in PI courses, this would be done only if an monopolistic, instructor or other individual critiqued the draft prior to evaluation) and any sources of funding that supported the research.
Although usual style requirements (e.g., 1st person, objectivity) are relaxed somewhat here, Acknowledgments are always brief and never flowery. Place the Acknowledgments between the Discussion and the Literature Cited. 1. Apache Culture? Function : The Literature Cited section gives an alphabetical listing (by first author's last name) of the references that you actually cited in the body of your paper. Competition Tutor2u? Instructions for writing full citations for various sources are given in on for a dream harry, separate page. A complete format list for virtually all types of publication may be found in Huth and others(1994) . NOTE : Do not label this section Bibliography . A bibliography contains references that you may have read but have not specifically cited in the text. Bibliography sections are found in books and other literary writing, but not scientific journal-style papers. Function : An Appendix contains information that is non-essential to monopolistic competition, understanding of the paper, but may present information that further clarifies a point without burdening the body of the presentation. An appendix is an optional part of the paper, and is only rarely found in published papers.
Headings : Each Appendix should be identified by implicit personality theory a Roman numeral in sequence, e.g., Appendix I, Appendix II, etc. Each appendix should contain different material. Some examples of material that might be put in an appendix (not an exhaustive list) : raw data maps (foldout type especially) extra photographs explanation of formulas, either already known ones, or especially if you have invented some statistical or other mathematical procedures for data analysis. specialized computer programs for a particular procedure full generic names of monopolistic competition tutor2u, chemicals or compounds that you have referred to in somewhat abbreviated fashion or by some common name in the text of your paper. diagrams of implicit theory, specialized apparati. Figures and Tables in Appendices. Figures and competition tutor2u, Tables are often found in shakespeare 12th night, an appendix. These should be formatted as discussed previously (see Tables and Figures), but are numbered in a separate sequence from those found in the body of the paper. So, the first Figure in the appendix would be Figure 1, the first Table would be Table 1, and monopolistic competition tutor2u, so forth. In situations when multiple appendices are used, the Table and requiem for a dream, Figure numbering must indicate the appendix number as well (see Huth and others, 1994).
Department of Biology, Bates College, Lewiston, ME 04240.